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8.

7 Modeling with
Exponential & Power
Functions
p. 509

Just like 2 points determine a


line, 2 points determine an
exponential curve.

Write an Exponential function,


y=abx whose graph goes thru
(1,6) & (3,24)
Substitute the coordinates into y=ab x to
get 2 equations.
1. 6=ab1
2. 24=ab3
Then solve the system:

Write an Exponential function,


y=abx whose graph goes thru
(1,6) & (3,24) (continued)

1. 6=ab1 a=6/b
2. 24=(6/b) b3

24=6b2
4=b2
2=b

a= 6/b = 6/2 = 3

So the function is
Y=32x

Write an Exponential function,


y=abx whose graph goes thru
(-1,.0625) & (2,32)
.0625=ab-1
32=ab2

(.0625)=a/b
b(.0625)=a

32=[b(.0625)]b2
32=.0625b3
512=b3

y=1/2 8x

When you are given more than 2


points, you can decide whether
an exponential model fits the
points by plotting the natural
logarithms of the y values
against the x values. If the
new points (x, lny) fit a linear
pattern, then the original points
(x,y) fit an exponential pattern.

(-2, ) (-1, ) (0, 1) (1, 2)

(x, lny)
(-2, -1.38) (-1, -.69) (0,0) (1, .69)

Finding a model.
Cell phone subscribers 1988-1997
t= # years since 1987

1.6

2.7

4.4

6.4

lny

10

8.9 13.1 19.3 28.2 38.2 48.7

0.47 0.99 1.48 1.86 2.19 2.59 2.96 3.34 3.64 3.89

Now plot (x,lny)

Since the points lie close to a line, an exponential model should


be a good fit.

Use 2 points to write the linear equation.


(2, .99) & (9, 3.64)
m= 3.64 - .99 = 2.65 = .379
92
7
(y - .99) = .379 (x 2)
y - .99 = .379x - .758
y = .379x + .233 LINEAR MODEL FOR (t,lny)
The y values were lns & xs were t so:
lny = .379t + .233 now solve for y
elny = e.379t + .233
exponentiate both sides
y = (e.379t)(e.233)
properties of exponents
y = (e.233)(e.379t)
Exponential model

y = (e.233)(e.379t)

y = 1.26 1.46t

You can use a graphing


calculator that performs
exponential regression to do
this also. It uses all the
original data.
Input into L1 and L2
and push exponential
regression

L1 & L2 here
Then edit & enter
the data. 2nd quit to
get out.

Exp regression is 10
So the calculators exponential
equation is
y = 1.3 1.46t
which is close to what we found!

Modeling with POWER functions

y = axb
Only 2 points are
needed
(2,5) & (6,9)
5 = a 2b
9 = a 6b

a = 5/2b
9 = (5/2b)6b
9 = 53b
1.8 = 3b
log31.8 = log33b
.535 b
a = 3.45
y = 3.45x.535

You can decide if a power model fits


data points if:
(lnx,lny) fit a linear pattern
Then (x,y) will fit a power pattern
See Example #5, p. 512

You can also use power regression on


the calculator to write a model for data.

Assignment