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Module 14 Propulsion

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Module 14

Gas Turbine Engine


15.1

Fundamentals
Principles and Working Cycles of Gas Turbine Engines

15.1.2.1

Introduction
During the last 40 years, the development of gas turbine engines as propulsion
systems for aircraft has been very fast. It is difficult to appreciate that before the
1950s very few people knew about this method of aircraft propulsion. Aircraft
designers had been interested in the possibility of using a reaction turbine for a long
time. But initially, the low speeds of early aircraft and the unsuitability of a piston
engine for producing the large high-velocity airflow necessary for the 'jet' caused
many problems.
Refer to Figure 1.
A French engineer, Rene Lorin, patented a jet propulsion engine in 1913. But this
was an athodyd and, at that time, it could not be manufactured or used since suitable
heat resisting materials had not been developed.
An athodyd (or: pulse jet engine) is an open tube which is shaped to produce
thrust when fuel is ignited inside it. Fuel is added to the incoming air as the
athodyd moves through the air at high speed. This burning causes air expansion
that speeds up the air and produces thrust (Figure 1, detail a)).

Note:

Secondly, jet propulsion would have been extremely inefficient at the low speeds of
early aircraft. However, today's modern ram jet is very similar to Lorin's conception.
In 1930, Frank Whittle was granted his first patent for using a gas turbine to produce a
propulsive jet (Figure 1, detail b)). But it took 11 years before his engine completed its
first flight. The Whittle engine formed the basis of the modern gas turbine engine. The
ROLLS-ROYCE, DERWENT, NENE or DART engines were derived directly from the
Whittle engine.
The DERWENT and the NENE jet engines were mainly installed in military aircraft.
The DART turboprop engine became well known as the power plant for the
VICKERS Viscount aircraft. Although other aircraft may be fitted with later engines
termed 'twin-spool', 'triple-spool', 'by-pass', 'ducted fan', 'unducted fan' or 'propfan',
they are developments of Whittle's early engine.
Refer to Figure 2.
Although the jet engine appears to be very different from a piston engine with a
propeller, it applies the same basic principle to produce propulsion. Both propel the
aircraft solely by moving a large volume of air rearwards.
Although today's jet propulsion is popularly linked with the gas turbine engine, there
are other types of jet-propelled engines, such as the ram jet, the pulse jet, the
rocket, the turbo-ram jet and the turbo-rocket.

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Principles of Jet Propulsion


Jet propulsion is a practical application of Sir Isaac Newton's third law of motion
which states that
'for every force acting on 2 body there is an opposite and equal reaction'.

For aircraft propulsion, the 'body' is atmospheric air that is caused to accelerate as it
passes through the engine. The force required to cause this acceleration has an
equal effect in the opposite direction, i.e. it acts on the components producing the
acceleration.

A jet engine produces thrust in a way similar to the piston enginelpropeller combination.
Both propel the aircraft by moving a large volume of air backwards: one in the form of a
large air slipstream at comparatively low speed and the other in the form of a jet of gas
at very high speed.
Refer to Figure 3
This same principle of reaction occurs in all forms of movement and has been usefully
applied in many ways. The earliest known example of jet reaction is that of Hero's
engine (Figure 3, detail a)) produced as a toy more than 2,000 years ago. This toy
showed how the momentum of steam exiting a number of jets could impart an equal
and opposite reaction to the jets themselves, causing the engine to rotate.
The whirling garden sprinkler (Figure 3, detail b)) is a more practical example of this
principle: its mechanism rotates due to the reaction to the water jets. The high-pressure
jets of modern fire-fighting equipment are another example of 'jet reaction': due to the
reaction of the water jet, the hose cannot be held or controlled by one single fireman.
Perhaps the simplest illustration of this principle is a toy balloon which, when the air or
gas is released, rushes rapidly away in the direction opposite to the jet.
Jet reaction is definitely an internal phenomenon and does not result from the pressure
of the jet on the atmosphere. In fact, the jet propulsion engine, whether rocket, athodyd
or turbojet, is a piece of equipment designed to accelerate a stream of air or gas and to
expel it at high velocity.
There are, of course, a number of ways of doing this. But in all instances, the
resultant reaction (or: thrust) exerted on the engine is proportional to the mass or
weight of air expelled by the engine and to the velocity change imparted to it.
Refer to Figure 2 again.
In other words, the same thrust can be provided
either by giving a large mass of air a little velocity increase
or by giving a small mass of air a large velocity increase.
In practice, the former is preferred, since by lowering the jet velocity relative to the
atmosphere a higher propulsive efficiency is obtained.

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Types of Jet Engine according to Jet Propulsion Methods


The types of jet engine, whether ram jet, pulse jet, rocket, gas turbine, turbo-ram jet
or turbo-rocket, differ only in the way in which the 'thrust provider' (or: engine)
supplies and converts the energy into power for flight.

Ram Jet Engine

Refer to Figure 4.
The ram jet engine (Figure 4, detail a)) is an athodyd (or: aero-thermodynamic duct). It
has no major rotating parts and consists of a duct with a divergent entry and a
convergent or convergentidivergent exit.
When forward motion is imparted to it by an external source, air is forced into the air
intake. Here, it loses velocity (or: kinet~cenergy) and increases its pressure (or:
potential energy) as it passes through the diverging duct. Then, the total energy is
increased by the combustion of fuel. F~nally,the expanding gases are expelled to the
atmosphere through the outlet duct.
A ram jet is often used as a power plant for missiles and target vehicles. But it is
unsuitable as an aircraft power plant because it requires forward motion before any
thrust can be produced.
Pulse Jet Engine
The pulse jet engine (Figure 4, detail b)) uses the principle of intermittent combustion. Unlike the ram jet, it can be run at a static condition. The engine is formed by an
aerodynamic duct similar to the ram jet. But, due to the higher pressures involved, it
is of more robust construction. The duct inlet has a series of inlet 'valves' that
are spring-loaded in the 'open' position.
Air drawn in through the open valves passes into the combustion chamber and is
heated by the burning of fuel injected into the chamber.
The resulting expansion causes a rise in pressure, forcing the valves to close and the
expanding gases are then ejected rearwards. A depression created by the exhausting gases allows the valves to open again and the cycle is repeated.
The pulse jet is unsuitable as an aircraft power plant because it has a high fuel
consumption and is unable to reach the performance level of the modern gas turbine
engine.
Rocket Engine
Although a rocket engine (Figure 4, detail c)) is a jet engine, there is one major
difference: it does not use atmospheric air as the propulsive stream. Instead, it
produces its own propelling medium by the combustion of liquid or chemically
decomposed fuel with oxygen. It is able to operate outside the earth's atmosphere.

Gas Turbine Engine


The application of the gas turbine to jet propulsion has overcome the inherent
weakness of the rocket and the athodyd: a means of producing thrust at low speeds
was provided by the introduction of a turbine-driven compressor.

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The turbojet engine draws air from the atmosphere. After compressing and heating it
(a process that occurs in all heat engines) the energy and momentum given to the air
forces it out of the propelling nozzle at a velocity of up to 2,000 feet per second
(approx. 610 m/s or 2,200 kmlh). On its way through the engine, the air gives up some
of its energy and momentum to drive the turbine that powers the compressor.
The mechanical arrangement of the gas turbine engine is simple. It consists of only 2
main rotating parts (a compressor and a turbine) and one or a number of combustion
chambers.
Note:

The mechanical arrangements of various types of gas turbine engine are shown
in Figures 5 to 7.
This simplicity, however, does not apply to all aspects of the engine: the thermodynamic and aerodynamic aspects are quite complex. They result from:
the high operating temperatures of the combustion chamber and the turbine
the effects of varying flows across the compressor and the turbine blades
the design of the exhaust system through which the gases are ejected to
form the propulsive jet.
Refer to Figure 8.
At aircraft speeds below approx. 450 knots (knots = nautical miles (nm) per hour), the
pure jet engine is less efficient than a propeller-type engine, since its propulsive
efficiency largely depends on its forward speed. The pure turbojet engine is most
suitable for high forward speeds. The propeller efficiency does, however, decrease
rapidly above 350 knots due to the disturbance of the airflow caused by the high
blade-tip speeds of the propeller.
The advantages of the turbinelpropeller combination have to some extent been offset
by the introduction of the by-pass, ducted fan and propfan engines.
These engines provide larger airflows and lower jet velocities than the pure jet
engine. They give a propulsive efficiency which is comparable to that of the turboprop
engine and exceeds that of the pure jet engine.

Turboshaft Engine
A gas turbine engine that delivers power through a shaft to operate something other
than a propeller is referred to as a turboshaft engine. These are widely used in such
industrial applications as electric power generating plants and surface transportation
systems, while in aviation, turboshaft engines are used to power many modern
helicopters.
Refer to Figure 9.
The turboshaft power take-off may be coupled to and driven directly by the turbine
that drives the compressor, but it is more likely to be driven by a turbine of its own.
Engines using a separate turbine for the power take-off are called 'free turbine
engines' or 'free-power turbine-type turboshaft engines'.
A free turbine turboshaft engine has two major sections, the gas generator and the free
turbine section. The function of the gas generator is to produce the required energy to
drive the free turbine system and it extracts about two third of the energy available from
the combustion process leaving the other one third to drive the free-power turbine.

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Turbo -ram Engine


Refer to Figure 10
The turbo-ram jet engine (Figure 10, detail a)) combines the turbojet engine (which
can be used for speeds up to Mach 3) with the ram jet engine, which shows good
performance at high Mach numbers.
The engine is surrounded by a duct that has a variable intake at the front and an
afterburner jet pipe with a variable nozzle at the rear.
During take-off and acceleration, the engine works like a conventional turbojet with
afterburner. At other flight conditions up to Mach 3, the afterburner is inoperative. As
the aircraft accelerates beyond Mach 3, the turbojet is shut down and the intake air is
diverted by guide vanes from the compressor. It is ducted straight into the afterburning jet pipe, which now works as a ram-jet combustion chamber.
This engine is suitable for an aircraft which requires high-speed and sustainedhigh-Mach-number cruise conditions.
Turbo-rocket Engine
The turbo-rocket engine (Figure 10, detail b)) is an alternative to the turbo-ram jet.
However, there is one major difference: it carries its own oxygen to provide combustion.
The engine has a low-pressure compressor driven by a multi-stage turbine. The
power required to drive the turbine is derived from combustion of kerosine and liquid
oxygen in a rocket-type combustion chamber. Since the gas temperature is approx.
3,500 "C, additional fuel is sprayed into the combustion chamber for cooling
purposes before the gas enters the turbine. This fuel-rich mixture (gas) is then
diluted with air from the compressor. The surplus fuel is burnt in a conventional
afterburning system.
Although the engine is smaller and lighter than the turbo-ram jet, it has a higher fuel
consumption. This makes it more suitable for being used in an interceptor or
space-launcher type of aircraft that requires high speed, high altitude performance
and (normally) has a flight profile which is entirely accelerative and of short duration.

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a) Lorin's jet engine


Combustion chamber

Air intake

Propelling nozzle
Fuel supply

b) Whittle-type turbojet engine


Combustion chamber
Compressor
/
Turbine

\
Fuel burner
Air intake

Figure 1

~ epipe
t and
propelling nozzle

Principle of Jet Engines


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Turbojet engine

mass

0
Acceleration

Turboprop engine

ff =

Figure 2

Acceleration

mass

Comparison of Propulsion Systems

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a) Hero's engine (probably the earliest form of jet reaction)

b) Rotation effect by the reaction of water jets

Figure 3

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Forms of Jet Reaction

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a) Ram jet engine


Fuel burners

Combustion chamber

Air intake

Propelling nozzle

b) Pulse jet engine

Charging

shutter valve-

Firina

..

Air intake

Fuel
\
supply Combustion chamber

c) Rocket engine
Liauid fuel

Oxygen

Figure 4

Combustion
chamber

Propelling
nozzle

Fuel injectors

Basic Methods of Jet Propulsion

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a) Double-entry single-stage centrifugal turbojet engine

b) Single-entry 2-stage centrifugal turboprop engine

c) Twin-spool axial flow turboprop engine

Figure 5

Arrangement of Gas Turbine Engines (I)

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a) Single-spool axial flow turbojet engine

b) Twin-spool turboshaft engine (with free-power turbine)

Figure 6

Arrangement of Gas Turbine Engines (11)

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a) Twin-spool by-pass turbojet engine (low by-pass ratio)

b) Triple-spool front fan turbojet engine (high by-pass ratio)

c) Propfan concept

d) Contra-rotating fan concept (high by-pass ratio)

Figure 7

Arrangement of Gas Turbine Engines (Ill)


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Low by-pass ratio

High by-pass ratio,

Figure 8

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200

400
600
Airspeed (knots)

800

1,000

200

400
600
Airspeed (knots)

800

1,000

Comparative Efficiencies

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a) Power conversion free turbine

Fuel

Gas generator
b) An example of a free turbine engine that has been adapted
for both turboprop and turboshaft applications
Exhaust outlet

Air

l ~ r e e - ~ o w turbine
er

Figure 9

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r- Compressor

~ o m ~ r e s sturbine
or

Free Turbine Engine

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a) Turbo-ram jet engine


Variable intake
(large area)

Intake guide vanes


(open)

Variable nozzle
(large area)

Low Mach number

Variable intake
(small area)

Intake guide vanes


(shut)

Variable nozzle
(small area)

High Mach number

b) Turbo-rocket engine
Variable intake

Afterburning
fuel burns

Combustion chamber

Oxygen and
fuel supply

Variable nozzle

Figure 10 Schematic Cross-section of a


Turbo-ram and a Rocket Engine

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15.2

Engine Performance

15.2.1

Working Cycle and Airflow of a Gas Turbine

General
The gas turbine engine is essentially a heat engine using air as a working fluid to
provide thrust. To achieve this, the air passing through the engine has to be
accelerated. This means, that the velocity (or: kinetic energy) of the air is increased.
To obtain this increase, first of all the air pressure (potential energy) is increased,
followed by the addition of heat energy. Finally, the potential energy is reconverted
into kinetic energy in the form of a high-velocity jet efflux.

15.2.1.1

Working Cycle
The working cycle of the gas turbine engine is similar to that of the 4-stroke piston
engine. However, in the gas turbine engine, combustion occurs at a constant
pressure, whereas in the piston engine it occurs at a constant volume. Both engine
cycles consist of induction, compression, combustion and exhaust.
These processes are intermittent in the case of the piston engine whilst they occur
continuously in the gas turbine engine. In the piston engine, only one stroke is used
in the production of power, the others being involved in the charging, compression
and exhaust of the working fluid. In contrast, the gas turbine engine eliminates the
3 'idle' strokes, enabling more fuel to be burnt in a shorter time. Thus it produces
a greater power output for a given size of engine.
Due to the continuous action of the gas turbine engine, and due to the fact that the
combustion chamber is not an enclosed space, the pressure of the air does not rise
during combustion (like that of the piston engine). But its volume increases. This
process is known as 'heating at constant pressure'. Under these conditions there are
no peak or fluctuating pressures to be withstood (as is the case with the piston
engine with its peak pressures in excess of 1,000 psi).
These peak pressures require the use of cylinders of heavy construction in the piston
engine and the use of high-octane fuels, in contrast to the low-octane fuels and the
light fabrication of combustion chambers used in gas turbine engines.
The working cycle of the gas turbine engine can be, in its simplest form, represented
by the cycle shown on the pressurelvolume diagram in Figure 1:
point A represents air at atmospheric pressure that is compressed until reaching point 6
from B to C, heat is added to the air by injecting and burning fuel at a constant pressure; the volume of the air pressure is increased considerably
pressure losses in the combustion chambers are indicated by the drop between B and C
from C to D, the gases resulting from combustion expand through the turbine
and jet pipe back to the atmosphere; during this part of the cycle, some of the
energy of the expanding gases is transferred into mechanical power by the
turbine; the remainder provides the propulsive jet on its discharge to the
atmosphere.

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The higher the temperature of combustion, the greater the expansion of the gases.
The combustion temperature, however, must not exceed a certain value to provide a
turbine gas entry temperature which is suitable for the design and materials of the
turbine assembly.
The use of air-cooled blades in the turbine assembly permits a higher gas temperature and, consequently, a higher thermal efficiency.

Relation between Pressure, Volume and Temperature


During the working cycle of the gas turbine engine, the airflow receives and gives up
heat. This results in changes of its pressure, volume and temperature. These
changes are closely related to each other, because they follow a common principle
that is a combination of the laws of Boyle and Charles.
This principle states, that the product of the pressure and the volume of the air at the
various stages in the working cycle is proportional to the absolute temperature of the
air at those stages. This relationship applies to any means used to change the state
of the air. For example, whether energy is added by combustion or by compression
(or is extracted by the turbine), the heat change is directly proportional to the work
added to (or taken from) the gas.
There are 3 main conditions in the engine working cycle during which these changes
occur:
R during compression, when work is done to increase the pressure and to decrease the volume of the air, there is a rise in the temperature
during combustion, when fuel is added to the air and burnt to increase the
temperature, there is an increase in volume whilst the pressure remains almost constant
during expansion, when energy is taken from the airflow by the turbine assembly, there is a decrease in temperature and in pressure with an increase
in volume.
Changes in the temperature and the pressure of the air can be traced through an
engine by using the airflow diagram in Figure 2. Because the airflow is continuous,
volume changes are shown as changes in velocity.
The efficiency, with which these changes are made, will determine how far the
desired relations between pressure, volume and temperature can be obtained. The
more efficient the compressor is, the higher will be the pressure generated for a
given work input, i.e. for a given temperature rise of the air. Conversely, the more
efficiently the turbine uses the expanding gas, the greater will be the output of work
for a given pressure drop of the gas.
The efficiency of the process of converting energy during expansion or compression
is called 'adiabatic'. An 'adiabatic efficiency of 100 %' means, that no energy is lost
during the process, neither by friction, conduction, nor by turbulence. Such a perfect
process cannot be achieved in practice. However, an adiabatic efficiency of 90 % is
still a good value for the compressor and the turbine.

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Changes in Velocity and Pressure

During the passage of the air through the engine, aerodynamic and energy requirements demand changes in its velocity and pressure.
For example, during compression, a rise in the pressure of the air is required and not an
increase in its velocity.
After the air has been heated and its internal energy increased by combustion, an
increase in the velocity of the gases is necessary to force the turbine to rotate.
At the propelling nozzle, a high exit velocity is required to provide the thrust on the
aircraft. Local decelerations of the airflow are also required, e.g. in the combustion
chambers to provide a low-velocity zone for the flame to burn.
Refer to Figure 1 again.
These various changes are effected by means of the size and shape of the ducts
through which the air passes on its way through the engine.
Where a conversion from velocity (kinetic energy) into pressure (potential energy) is
required, the passages are divergent in shape. Conversely, where it is required to
convert the energy stored in the combustion gases into velocity energy, a convergent
passage (or: nozzle) is used. These shapes apply to gas turbine engines where the air
velocity is subsonic or sonic, i.e. below or at the local speed of sound.
Refer to Figure 3.
Where supersonic speeds are encountered, such as in the propelling nozzle of a
rocket, athodyd and some jet engines, a convergentldivergent nozzle (or: Venturi) is
used to obtain the maximum conversion of the energy of the combustion gases into
kinetic energy.
The efficiency, with which the energy changes are effected, depends on the proper
design of the passages and nozzles. Any interference with the smooth airflow creates
a loss in efficiency and may result in component failure due to vibration caused by
eddies or turbulences of the airflow.
Airflow

Refer to Figures 4 and 5.


The path of the air through a gas turbine engine varies according to the design of the
engine. A 'straight-through flow' system is the basic design, as it represents an
engine with a relatively small frontal area. It is also suitable for application of the
by-pass principle.
In contrast, the 'reverse flow' system represents an engine with greater frontal area,
but with a reduced overall length.
The operation, however, of all engines is similar. The differences in the different
designs are described in the following paragraphs.
Refer to Figure 6.
The by-pass principle effects a division of the airflow. All the air, which is taken in, is
given an initial low compression. A percentage is then ducted to a by-pass, the
remainder being delivered to the combustion system in the usual manner. This
principle provides improved propulsive efficiency and lower fuel consumption.

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An important design feature of the by-pass engine is the by-pass ratio. This is the
ratio of the amount of cool air, which is by-passed through the duct, to that of the air
passed through the high-pressure system. With low by-pass ratios, i.e. in the order of
1 : I , the 2 streams are usually mixed before being exhausted from the engine.
The requirement for high by-pass ratios of up to 5 : 1 is largely met by using the front
fan in a twin- or triple-spool configuration (on which the fan is, in fact, the low-pressure compressor). The fan engine may be regarded as an extension of the by-pass
principle.
Very high by-pass ratios, in the order of 15 : 1 , are achieved by using propfans.
These are a variation of the turboprop engine but with advanced-technology
propellers capable of operating with high efficiency at high aircraft speeds.
On some front-fan engines, the by-pass airstream is ducted overboard either
directly behind the fan through short ducts or at the rear of the engine through longer
ducts (hence the term 'ducted fan'). Another variation, though seldom used, is that of
the aft (rear) fan.

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a) Working cycle

Compression
(continuous)

Air intake

Combustion
(continuous)

Exhaust

b) Pressure/volume diagram

Volume
Legend:

Figure 1

Ambient air
Expansion (through turbine and nozzle)
Compression (pressure energy added)
Combustion (heat energy added)

Working Cycle of a Gas Turbine Engine

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a) Divergent duct
Velocity:
decreasing
Pressure:
increasing
Temperature: increasing

Example: Typical axial flow


compressor outlet casing

Principle

b) Convergent duct
Velocity:
increasing
Pressure:
decreasing
Temperature: decreasing

Example: Flow through turbine


nozzle guide vanes

Principle

Figure 2

Subsonic Airflow through Divergent


and Convergent Ducts

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Flow increases to

Velocity
increasing
Pressure
decreasing

Figure 3

Velocity further increasing


Pressure further decreasing

Supersonic Airflow Through a Convergent/Divergent Nozzle (Venturi)

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Air
intake

Propelling nozzle

Compression

"C

Combustion

Expansion

Exhaust

Feetis psi

Figure 4

Typical Airflow in a Single-spool


Turbojet Engine

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a) 2-stage centrifugal flow (turboprop engine)


Low-pressure compressor

High-pressure compressor

b) Twin-spool axial flow (turboprop engine)


Low-pressure
compressor

High-pressure
compressor

--

c) Twin-spool turboshaft engine with free-power turbine


Low-pressure compressor

Reverse flow
<

zz

Figure 5

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Airflow in Engines without By-pass

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a) Twin-spool axial flow (by-pass turbojet engine with low by-pass ratio)

Low-pressure
compressor

By- pass
High-pressure
flow
compressor

By-pass air mixing


with t b n x h a m t
gas stream

b) Triple-spool axial flow (front-fan turbojet engine with high by-pass ratio)

Low-pressure
comDressor

Intermediate pressure
compressor

c) Axial flow (contra-rotating propfan with free-power turbine)


Contra-rotating propfan,

Compressor

d) Twin-spool axial flow (contra-rotating rear fan with free-power turbine)

Low-pressure

Figure 6

Contra-rotating fan
A

Airflow in Engines with By-pass

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15.11.4

Full-authority Digital Engine Control

15.11.4.1

Introduction

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History
In the years since World War II, jet engine controls have evolved significantly,
providing ever-increasing functionality and exploiting successive advances in
technology. Simple but bulky hydro-mechanical controls have given way to hydromechanical computers, analogue electronics and today's digital electronic controls,
including full-authority digital engine controls commonly referred to as 'FADEC
system'.
Note:

Some manfacturers name their FADEC system 'fully automated digital electronic
control' system

Future
Refer to Figure 1
As shown in Figure 1, future FADECs are expected to have additional functions, such
as performance seeking control, redundant control and condition monitoring, as well
as advanced schedule control and multivariable robust control, achieving higher
engine efficiency, safety, reliability, maintainability and longer life. It is further
considered that the future engine control will be integrated with flight control to make
an integrated aircraft control system.
Engines with their many control variables have certain degrees of freedom in
generating the necessary thrust. This freedom enables the engines to prepare
appropriate control modes for various missions. For example, selecting control
variables that make fuel consumption minimum is appropriate from an economical
point of view, while selecting control variables making the turbine inlet temperature
lowest is appropriate from the viewpoint of extending engine life. By selecting control
variables that make a certain parameter maximum or minimum, multivariable control
achieves the most advantageous engine operation in terms of economy, safety, life
and environment.
Optimizing Engine Performance
Refer to Figure 2.
The advent of FADEC established new standards in safety, functionality and engine
handling across the flight envelope. The engine electronic control (EEC), the heart of
the FADEC, is capable of total powerplant management from engine start to
maximum power. It provides a powerful airframe interface for engine control,
parameter display, health monitoring and maintenance functions.
The EEC has allowed a very significant reduction in aircraft wiring between the
engine and airframe system. Gone are the heavy conventional harnesses and
dedicated cockpit instrumentation. In their place, serial digital links (or: data busses)
carry electronic signals. Simplified, weight-reduced interfaces replace complex
hydro-mechanical and pneumatic controls and their heavy mechanical links to the
cockpit.

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The workload of the flight crew has also been reduced. The crew no longer has to
make constant adjustments to the engines during the start cycle or through take off,
climb and descent. Instead they can take advantage of the EEC's 'set and forget'
power management. This aid to carefree handling lets crew members concentrate on
other in-flight priorities. Crews no longer need to respond in the traditional way to
faults and failures. The fault-tolerant FADEC identifies problems with unprecedented
precision for immediate in-flight correction or for post-flight diagnosis.
In addition to engine components, the EEC's diagnostics monitor the other engine
accessories.
An engine- or accessory-related fault gets announced immediately to the aircraft
central maintenance system by the EEC. Only those failures which require crew
intervention are annunciated in the cockpit.
Maintenance crews can access and decode faults on the ground after the flight. The
EEC also records faults and stores them in its memory, frequently providing more
diagnostic detail than is available from the central aircraft system. Consequently,
remembering specific problems no longer depends on the ability of personnel to keep
them in mind or write them down. The EEC also contains self-diagnostics to monitor
the regulating system's own performance. These features all contribute to rapid fault
diagnosis and repair.
Furthermore, FADEC systems provide improved specific fuel consumption by
regulating the engine with greater precision and flexibility. Close control of turbine
temperature, tip clearance, over- and under-fuelling and optimized idling speeds all
contribute to this achievement.
The powerful FADEC computing system has allowed the full potential of the jet
engine to be exploited. It maximizes engine efficiency, enabling faster automatic
starting sequences and optimizing engine thrust in the cruise mode. Engine life is
maximized by maintaining the powerplant within red -ine and transient-operating
limits at all times.

15.11.4.2

FADEC Application for Turbines

Airbus A 320 FADEC System

Refer to Figure 3.
The A320 FADEC system eliminates the problems experienced with hydromechanical engine control systems. It is fully integrated with the electronic flight control
system (EFCS) and the automatic flight system (AFS). The duplicated FADEC
systems control the engines, replacing the now redundant fuel control units (FCU).
The thrust levers, located on the centre pedestal, have 5 detents, informing the
FADEC of the current phase of the flight. The FADEC accordingly controls engine
thrust, providing automatically the optimum output and therefore, minimum fuel burn.
The FADEC performs the following functions:
full engine fuel control
Thrust setting compulation
engine limit protection
automatic start sequencing/monitoring
thrust reverser controllfeed back

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flight deck indication


17 parameters for engine health monitoring

capacity to accept additional sensors.


Refer to Figure 4.
Each engine is controlled by 2 FADEC systems which are called FADEC A and
FADEC 9. All signals between the FADEC systems and the engine and between the
FADEC systems and the aircraft are completely redundant. The FADEC systems are
interconnected by cross-channel data link (CCDL). These buses are used to transmit
engine data and FADEC status between the 2 FADEC systems.
Each FADEC receives command signals from the control pedestal and from the
powerptant control panel and sends a command signal to the fuel pump metering
unit (FPMU) torque motor which meters the fuel flow to the engine in order to reach
the fan spool speed calculated by the FADEC thrust management section (N1
request),
The air data computer (ADC) system provide the ambient and airspeed data which
are used by the FADEC system to calculate the maximum available thrust (N1 target)
for each selected thrust rating mode. The thrust lever modulates linearly between
'IDLE' and 'THRUST SET' position.
In addition. the FADEC systems command the compressor variable geometry (CVG)
actuators in order to optimize the compressor efficiency and compressor stall
margins.
Both FADEC systems alternate in the powerplant control. While one FADEC controls
the powerplant, the other remains in 'standby' mode. The standby FADEC monitors
all inputs, performs all computations and performs built-in-test and fault detection,
but the output drivers (fuel flow and CVG control), which command the engine, are
powered off.
The active FADEC is alternated on each engine ground start in order to minimize the
probability of latent failure within the powerplant control systemlaircraft interface. The
selection logic resides within the FADEC systems.
Transfer from active FADEC to standby FADEC may be accomplished either
automatically, in response to a detected fault, or manually through the FADEC
selector knob located on the overhead panel. The manual selection overrides the
automatic selection of the controlling FADEC unless the manually selected FADEC is
not capable of controlling the engine.
Each FADEC is connected to one of the 2 FADEC systems on the opposite engine
via an internacelle data bus. Through this bus, the FADEC systems communicate the
information necessary to implement thrust reverse interlock and automatic take-off
thrust control system (AlTCS) functions.
All measured powerplant control parameters, control system faults and status
information are presented on the displays of the engine indicating and crew alerting
system (EICAS).

15.1 1.4.3

Global Online Engine Diagnostics


In the past, if an operator was having problems with the engine or FADEC units, he
had to either send them to the factory, or at times, a technical representative was
dispatched to the customer in the field to diagnose and fix the problems.

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Utilizing the latest online technology and the capabilities of the FADEC system, the
engine and FADEC can now be diagnosed and adjusted directly from the factory to
anywhere in the world.

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Control signals

/ I

HMU

Tfuel

--

flow

tStarter air

Monitoring signals (optional)

Legend: VSV = variable stator vane


VBV = variable bleed valve

Figure 2

HPT = HP turbine
CC = combustion chamber

FADEC System for Gas Turbine Engines

Figure 3

A 320 FADEC System

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To other engine

ECAS

ADC

Data bus

Data bus

Data bus

From other engine

Cross-channel
C

Trust

Thrust lever angle

lever
FADEC I3

Max. take-off
Max. continuous
Max. climb
Max. cruise
Engine start
Engine stop

Cockpit
discretes
Take-off data store
Take-off data increase
Take-off data decrease
Anti-ice
FADEC reset
Alternate FADEC select

Engine
sensors
A

3
0
2

metering
unit

Aircraft
discretes
Ignition
exiter
A

Ignition relay

~ircraft
I

relays
FADEC
ID
jumpers

Starter shut-off
ECS off

Parity

1-1
Interface with
the aircraft

Figure 4

For training use only

30

(Main)

I permanent I
magnet
alternator

Interface with the engine


and other FADEC systems

FADEC Block Diagram

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15.14.1

Typical Engine Monitoring instruments

15.14.1.1

Pressure Measurement

Manifold Pressure Gauge

Refer to Figure 1.
The mechanism of a manifold pressure gauge contains a Bourdon-type measuring
element.
This element is essentially a length of metal tube, specially shaped to give it an
elliptical cross-section, and formed like the letter C. One end of the tube is sealed,
while the other end is left open and fixed into a boss so that it may be connected to
a source of pressure and form a closed system.
When pressure is applied to the interior of the tube, there is a tendency for the tube
to change from an elliptical cross-section to a circular one, and also to straighten
out.
Refer to Figure 2
The manifold pressure is indicated by a pointer on a scale at the front of the
instrument.

Oil Pressure Measurement

Refer to Figure 3.
The engine oil supply system provides lubrication and cooling for various engine
parts. Failure of the oil supply system will result in an engine failure.
To provide a warning of imminent engine failure, the oil supply to critical areas must
be monitored by means of an oil pressure measuring system.
Oil pressure measurement may be done by the direct method (with or without a
transmitter). Alternatively an electrical transmission method (via pressure switches)
may be used in conjunction with an indicator.
Refer to Figure 4.
Oil pressure indicators are usually calibrated in pounds per square inch (psi), bar or
kg/cm2.
A direct-reading oil pressure indicator of the Bourdon type consists of the following
main components:
case with pressure inlet connection
Bourdon tube
gear and pinion devices
dial scale (calibrated in psi, bar or kg/cm2).

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Functional Principle of a Direct-reading Oil Pressure Indicator

Refer to Figure 5.
Engine oil enters the transmitter casing and surrounds the capsule which is filled with
a special fluid.
When the oil pressure increases the capsule is compressed. This increases the
pressure of the special fluid which, in turn, is transmitted via a capillary tube to the
Bourdon tube.
With increased pressure of the special fluid the Bourdon tube tends to straighten out.
Thereby the pointer moves, via a coupling element, over the indicator scale.
Pressure Switches

Refer to Figures 6 and 7


A pressure switch unit consists of the following main parts:
case with pressure and electrical connection
open metal capsule
electrical contact assembly
actuating arm
external warning light system.
The pressure switch consists of a housing, which is divided into 2 chambers by a
diaphragm. One of the chambers is connected to the oil tube behind the filter, the
second line is connected to the breather pressure.
If the pressure drops under an adjustable limit, the diaphragm actuates the switch.
Then the warning light, usually located at the instrument panel, illuminates.

15.14.1.2

Temperature Measurement

Oil Temperature
The oil temperature indicating system is fitted to measure the temperature of the engine
lubrication oil of all types of engine (piston and gas turbine engine).
The engine oil supply is important to the operation of the engine. A rise in oil
temperature does not only cause a decrease of the cooling of engine parts but a
decrease in the lubricating properties of the oil.
Refer to Figure 8.
The oil temperature measurement system in its most simple form, consists of a
temperature sensing element (oil temperature bulb of the resistance type) and the
oil temperature indicator (moving-coil indicator).
The temperature bulb is located at the delivery side of the oil pressure pump.
The bulb is electrically connected to the indicator and to the aircraft's DC supply.
A temperature switch may also be installed to operate a warning light.
Very often the oil temperature indication is integrated in a double- or triple-indication
instrument:
oil pressureloil temperature
oil pressure/oil temperature and cylinder head temperature.

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Principle of Operation

Refer to Figure 9,
The resistance-bulb method makes use of the fact that the electrical resistance
of most metals increases as their temperature rises.
A temperature resistance bulb contains a resistance element. The materials
generally used for such elements are platinum, nickel or alloys such as nickel
manganese (NiMg).
A wire made of one of these metals is wound around a coil former made of an
insulating material. This assembly is covered by a metal sheath, called the bulb,
that conducts heat quickly.

Refer to Figure 10.


The indicator is a moving coil or a ratiometer instrument suitably calibrated in
degrees Celsius ("C).
Exhaust Gas Temperature

Refer to Figure 11.


The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is a good indication of an engine's operating
performance.
Power developed by a gas turbine engine is dependent on the air mass flowing
through it as well as on the temperature drop. 'Temperature drop' is the difference
between the temperature immediately in front of and behind the turbine. It is a
measure of the energy extracted from the airstream by the turbine.
Maximum power can be obtained by establishing optimum temperatures. Therefore
operating conditions need to be controlled carefully.
Various types of thermocouples are used to sense the exhaust gas temperature,
depending on the engine type and systems which require these temperature
measurements.
Refer to Figure 12.
The EGT measurement system of an aircraft monitors the exhaust gas temperature
of each engine separately.
EGT indicators are normally calibrated in degrees Celsius although some indicators
may still be found calibrated in degrees Fahrenheit.
Dual EGT Indication System of a Piston Engine

The instrument (Figure 11, detail a)) indicates the exhaust gas temperature of
each engine separately. The 2 scales represent a relative EGT measurement, i.e.
all mixture settings are determined in relation to peak temperatures (indicated by
adjustable pointers or by asterisks).
The instrument contains 2 independent moving-coil millivoltmeters and indicates the
thermocouple voltage (in mV) of the EGT elements. This is a function of the engine's
intake fuellair mixture, as a change in mixture causes a change of the exhaust gas
temperature.

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Exhaust Gas Thermoelement


Refer to Figure 13.
A chromel alumel element is contained in the metal casing of the EGT thermocouple,
the ends of which are brazed or welded together ('hot junction').
Refer to Figure 14.
Variation in exhaust gas temperature produces a millivolt current in the thermoelement,
which is proportional to the temperature differential between the hot and the cold
junction of the thermocouple.
EGT Indication System of a Gas Turbine Engine

The EGT indicator (Figure 11, detail b)) measures the temperature of the exhaust
gas when it leaves the turbine exhaust section. The round panel-mounted instrument
is a millivoltmeter which is supplied with voltage from the engine's thermocouple ring.
In simple exhaust gas temperature measuring systems, a group of probes are
connected via extension leads to the moving-coil millivolt-meter in the indicator.
The moving-coil indicators are calibrated in degrees Celsius. They are usually
calibrated with a specified external resistance value.
Exhaust Gas Thermoelement
Refer to Figure 15.
The EGT sensing element of a gas turbine engine is usually a thermocouple ring. The
thermocouple ring is fitted to the rear flange of the outer casing of the turbine exhaust
section and consists of an annular tube with (usually) 9 probes (thermocouples).
Each probe contains a chromel alumel thermocouple. The thermocouples are
connected in parallel. When exhaust gases flow through openings in the probes,
a voltage is generated and applied to the EGT-indicator(s).

lnterturbine Temperature
The interturbine temperature ( I T ) indication system (Figure 11, details c) and d))
provides the pilot with an indication of the engine temperature in the zone between
the compressor turbine and the power turbine stator. The indicator is equipped with
a pointer scale which indicates the IlT in "C.
Refer to Figure 16.
A typical sensing system consists of a wiring harness (twin leads) incorporating a
terminal block, 2 busbars and 9 (sometimes 8) individual chromel alumel thermocouple
probes connected in parallel by the busbar arrangement.
The probes stick out from individual, threaded bosses in the power turbine discharge
airstream. The hot exhaust gases of the engine generate a voltage in the thermocouples
which is proportional to the exhaust gas temperature. This voltage is applied to the
IlT indicators via the wiring harness and the aircraft wiring.
The IlT indicator is a millivoltmeter which is supplied with voltage from the thermocouple
wiring harness via a compensating resistor.

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Speed Measurement

Engine Speed Indication


Refer to Figure 17.
The measurement of the engine speed (in revolutions per minute (rprn)) enables the
pilot to control the accurate performance of the engine (in conjunction with other
engine parameters, e.g. inlet manifold pressure, EGT).

A typical engine indicating system consists of the following main components:


rprn indicator
rprn transmitter
rpm wiring
(independent of aircraft power supply).
Engine speed indicating systems are used in all types of powered aircraft.
Refer to Figure 18.
The engine speed indicating system of a piston engine measures and displays the
speed of the engine's crankshaft.
Refer to Figure 19.
The engine speed indicating system of a gas turbine engine (and of turboprop
engines) measures and displays the speed at which the power turbine shaft rotates.
The engine speed indicating system of a helicopter measures and displays the speed
of the engine's crankshaft or of the power turbine shaft, and also the speed of the
main rotor.
The indicating instruments are normally called 'tachometers'. The method most
commonly used for measuring the engine speed and transmitting the value to the
indicator is by electrical means. However, in several types of general aviation aircraft,
mechanically operated tachometers (with a flexible drive) are used.
There are 2 main types of electrically operating speed measurement system:
one using a generator as the transmitter
the other using a tacho probe.
The engine speed may either be shown in actual revolutions per minute or as a
percentage (whereby 100 % may only be exceeded during take-off and landing).
Speed Measurement System with a Generator
Refer to Figure 20.

A speed measuring system incorporating a generator consists of


a 3-phase AC generator acting as the rpm transmitter
a 3-phase AC synchronous motor inside the rpm indicator
the necessary wiring.
The generator contains a permanent magnet rotor which rotates inside the stator.
It is driven by the engine gearbox.

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Principle of Operation
As the rotor rotates past the stator windings, 3 phases of alternating electromotive
force (EMF) are induced into the windings. These 3 phases are 120" apart from each
other.
The frequency of the induced EMF is directly proportional to the rotor's speed. The
magnitude of the EMF depends on the strength of the magnet and the number of
turns on the phase coils.
Since the rotor speed is determined by the engine speed at a fixed ratio, the
frequency of the induced EMF is a measure of engine speed.
The output voltage of the generator is supplied to the 3-phase coils of the indicator
to produce a resultant magnetic field. This resultant field rotates at a speed
corresponding to the generator output frequency.
As the stator field in the indicator rotates it causes a torque to rotate the rotor into
the same direction and at the same speed.
Refer to Figure 21.
When the engine is running, the 3-phase AC voltage produced by the rpm transmitter is
applied to the rotor of the synchro in the indicator. The rotor shaft rotating inside the bell
of the metering system carries a magnetic disc. This disc induces eddy currents which,
in turn, produce torque. The torque turns the pointer of the indicator, which indicates the
speed of the corresponding engine.

Speed Measurement System with a Tacho Probe


Refer to Figure 22.
A speed measuring system incorporating a tacho probe consists of the following
main components:
tacho probe (electromagnetic pick-up) acting as the rpm transmitter
torque synchro inside the rpm indicator
the necessary wiring.
This type of system is used to measure and indicate compressor speeds of an
engine. In some turbo fan engines, the speed of the fan can also be measured.
One advantage of a probe is its ability to provide separate electrical output signals to
other systems (if required). Another advantage is that a probe has no moving parts.
A tacho probe is made of stainless steel and hermetically sealed (airtight seal) to
prevent any foreign matter (dirt, dust) from entering. It consists of a permanent
magnet, a pole piece and a number of coils wound around a central ferromagnetic
core. A flange on the probe allows it to be mounted at that position inside the engine
where the speed measurement is to be made, i.e. where the probe's pole pieces
are close to the teeth of a certain gear wheel. This gear wheel is known as a
'phonic wheel'. It is driven at the same speed as the compressor shaft or fan shaft.

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The indicator contains a signal-processing module (servo-amplifier), a motor


(torque synchro) and a feedback circuit consisting of a potentiometer and a
buffer amplifier.
Normally, there are 2 spring-loaded pointers which indicate the rpm. A power supply
module provides the necessary AC and DC supplies for the indicator.

Principle of Operation
Refer to Figure 22 again.
The probe and gear wheel act as a magnetic flux switch that induces electromotive
forces into the sensing coils. These forces are directly proportional to the compressor's
(or: fan's) speed.
The probe's permanent magnet produces a magnetic field around the sensing coils.
As the teeth of the gear wheel pass the pole pieces of the probe, the flux intensity
through each pole piece varies, according to the varying width of the air gap between
the pole pieces and the gear wheel teeth.
As long as the intensity of the flux changes, an EMF is induced into the sensing coils.
Its amplitude depends on the rate of change of flux intensity.
The top of each gear tooth and the bottom of each tooth space are flat. At these
points, the intensity of the flux does not change and, as a result, the induced EMF
will be zero. However, because the sides of each gear tooth are angled, there is a
change in flux intensity as long as the angled sides of the teeth pass the pole pieces.
The induced EMF reaches its maximum when the maximum rate of change of flux
occurs.
The frequency of the changes of the EMF depends on the number of teeth in the
gear wheel (or fan blades).
The signals from the probe, which are to be used for speed indication, are supplied
to the indicator's signal processing module. In the module, the signals are added to
the outputs of the servo-potentiometer and the buffer amplifier. After summation,
the signals are amplified by the servo-amplifier in order to cause the torque synchro
to rotate the pointers.
At the same time, the wiper of the servo-potentiometer is moved in order to control
the summation of signals to the servo-amplifier.
In the case of a power supply or signal failure the main pointer is returned to an
off-scale position by a preloaded spring.

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Quantity Measurement

Fuel Flow Indicating Systems


Refer to Figure 23.
A fuel flow indicating system measures the rate of the fuel flow from the fuel tanks
to the engine. Fuel flowmeter systems are used in large piston-engined aircraft and
in all gas-turbine-engined aircraft. An accurate knowledge of the fuel mass left in
the fuel tanks and of the rate at which the fuel flows to the engine enables the pilots
to calculate the remaining travelling range of the aircraft during flight.
Basically all fuel flow measuring systems consist of a transmitter and an indicator
although some systems also use an amplifier. The transmitter measures and
transmits an electrical signal proportional to the rate of flow of the fuel.
Refer to Figure 24.
A fuel flow indicator is electrically operated and may be a synchro, a moving coil or
may be servo-operated.
Indicators may be used in groups (one for each engine), or a single indicator may
be used with a selector switch. It is also possible that several transmitters can be
connected to one indicator in order to display the total flow for all engines.
Fuel flowmeters are usually calibrated in literslmin, pounds per hour or kilograms per
hour. They may have totalisers showing the total weight of the remaining fuel or the
fuel used since the flight started.
There are many fuel flow measurement systems in use on different aircraft, however
all of them fall in one out of the 2 following categories:
independent fuel flowmeter
integrated flowmeter.
Independent Fuel Flowmeter

Refer to Figure 25.


The independent fuel flowmeter system has a rotating vane transmitter, an indicator
and requires 28 V DC for operation.
The transmitter is constructed of a cast metal body with inlet and outlet connections,
joined together via a spiral-shaped metering chamber. Inside the metering chamber
there is a metering vane pivoted in such a way that it can be rotated by the fuel
passing through the chamber.
There is a small gap between the edge of the vane and the chamber wall. Because of
the shape of the chamber the area of this gap increases as the vane is moved from its
'zero' position.
The vane is mounted on a shaft, one end of which is attached to a calibrated spring.
Therefore, the greater the fuel flow, the further the vane is rotated. The other end of
the metering vane shaft sticks out through its bearing. It carries a ring-type magnetic
coupling between the vane and the electrical transmitting unit.

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The transmitting unit may be either an AC synchro or a precision potentiometer.


The shaft of the potentiometer carries a 2-pole bar magnet which is located inside
the ring magnet. Interaction of the magnetic fields provide a magnetic lock (or
coupling) so that the wiper arm (or: synchro rotor) can follow the movement of the
metering vane without friction.
A spring-loaded by-pass valve located on the top of the transmitter, provides an
alternative path for the fuel if the fuel pressure rises above a preset limit. This may
happen if the vane becomes jammed in a 'low-flow' position.
A damping chamber (not shown in Figure 25) is mounted to one side of the
transmitter and connected to the metering chamber by a small bleed hole. Inside
the damping chamber there is a counterweight and a circular vane secured to
the same end of the metering vane shaft as the control spring.
Fuel is allowed to fill the damping chamber through the bleed hole and completely
immerse the counteweight assembly. Any oscillation of the metering assembly and
transmission element is therefore compensated for by liquid damping (by the fuel) and
is unaffected by the fuel flow.
The indicator is a moving-coil milli-ammeter which carries one or more pointer(s).
Additionally, there is an amplifier in the indicator case which amplifies the signals
from the fuel flow transmitter.
Where an indicator makes use of synchronous transmission, the pointer is operated
by the rotor of a receiver synchro.

Integrated Flowmeter System


Refer to Figure 26.
The integrated flowmeter system of the true-mass-flow type consists of 3 principal
units:
flow transmitter
electronic relay (or computer, not shown in the Figure)
indicator.
Its operation depends on the following principle:

'The torque required to accelerate a fluid to a given angular velocity, is a measure


of the flow rate of the fluid's mass. '
When fuel is flowing the construction of the system causes relative angular displacements between a constant-speed impeller and a sensing rotor (drum) located behind
the impeller. Inductive-type pick-offs sense the angular displacements in terms of
signal pulses proportional to the flow rate. These pulses are supplied to the indicator
via an amplifier or a computer.

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Fuel Flow Transmitter


The transmitter consists of an alloy body which contains an AC electric motor driving
an impeller assembly at a constant speed. Channels through the impeller allow the
fuel to flow through at an angular velocity which is equal to that of the impeller.
A 'drum' called reaction turbine (or: torque sensing rotor) is mounted behind the
impeller, separated by a stationary disc. The drum is rotated by the fuel flowing through
the turbine channels. The drum is restrained by a calibrated spring which is attached to
the end of the turbine shaft. On the same end of the turbine shaft a synchro transmitter
is mounted, which measures the amount of the turbine deflection against the spring
tension.
Fuel Flow Indicator
The indicator contains a transformer, an amplifier, a servo-motor, a tachogenerator
and a pointer mechanism, which operates via a magnetic drum cap assembly. A
digital counter mechanism is mechanically connected to the servo-motor.

Fuel Quantity Indicating Systems


Fuel quantity indicating systems measure the amount of fuel left in the aircraft's
fuel tanks. The scales of fuel quantity indicators may be calibrated in gallons,
pounds, liters or kilograms. Some may even have 'full' and 'empty' indications only.
Refer to Figure 27.
Fuel quantity indicating systems vary in construction and operating principles
depending on the type of aircraft and the type of fuel system fitted. The 2 main
methods use the principle of electrically transmitting the signals from the tank to an
indicator. They are the:
float-type system
capacitance-type system.
Float-type Fuel Quantity Indicating System
Refer to Figure 28.
This system is mainly used in light aircraft and helicopters. The system comprises
2 units:
a transmitter (called 'tank unit' or 'sender unit'), which is located in the
fuel tank
an indicator located in the cockpit.
Refer to Figure 29.
A tank unit consists of a mechanical float assembly which controls an electrical
transmitting device. The float may be made of cork (specially treated to prevent
fuel absorption), or it may be in the form of a lightweight metal cylinder suitably
sealed.
The float is attached to an arm pivoted so as to permit angular movement. This
movement is transmitted to an electrical element consisting of either a wiper arm
and a potentiometer or a Desynn type of transmitter (synchro).

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Principle of Operation
As the fuel level changes, the arm with the float moves through certain angles and
re-positions the wiper arm (or the brushes) in order to vary the resistance. Thereby
the flow of current to the indicator is varied as well. These variations in current flow
cause the deflection of a moving coil (or: rotor) within the indicator, which, in turn,
positions a pointer over a suitably calibrated scale.
Indicators depend on the type of transmitter used. Where the transmitter is of the
Desynn type, the indicator must be a Desynn synchro as well. If the transmitter is a
potentiometer, the indicator may be a ratiometer or an ammeter.
Capacitance-type Fuel Quantity Indicating System

Refer to Figure 30.


A system indicating the fuel quantity by measuring capacitance is usually installed in
high-performance aircraft. In its basic form a capacitance-type fuel-gauge system
consists of a variable capacitor located in the fuel tank, an amplifier and an indicator.
The complete circuit forms an electrical bridge, which is continuously being re-balanced
as a result of the differences between the capacitances of the tank capacitor and a
reference capacitor. The signal produced is amplified and operates a motor, which
positions a pointer to indicate the capacitance change of the tank capacitor (and so
the change in fuel quantity).
Refer to Figure 31.
A basic capacitance fuel quantity indicating system consists of 3 units:
tank unit
amplifier
E indicator.
The tank unit is a variable capacitor and consists of a pair of closely spaced metal
cylinders mounted one inside the other. The unit extends from the top to the bottom
of the tank; its actual construction depends on the shape of the fuel tank.
Principle of Operation
The 2 parallel cylinders, partly immersed in the fuel, form a capacitor. The capacitance
depends on how much fuel is in the tank. A mixture of fuel and air, which varies
according to the fuel consumption, acts as the di-electric constant. This causes the
capacity of the capacitor to vary as well.
The amplifier amplifies the signal changes produced by the tank unit, in order to
operate a motor in the indicator.
The indicator contains a motor which drives a pointer (or a digital mechanism). At the
same time the motor moves a wiper arm over a potentiometer used for balancing the
bridge (as feedback).
The individual components and units are interconnected by means of coaxial cables.
These cables are normally supplied in ready-made lengths. They are of a known,
constant capacitance value because capacitance-type systems are sensitive to any
changes in the capacitance of the tank unit circuits.

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15.14.1.5

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M o d u l e 14

Engine Vibration M o n i t o r i n g a n d Indicating System


Engine vibrations are unwanted but unfortunately they cannot be eliminated entirely
(even in turbine engines, which do not have any reciprocating parts). Vibrations can
only be kept at the lowest possible level.
During operation, vibrations above acceptable levels may always occur as a result of
mechanical faults. E.g. a turbine blade may crack or creep, or an uneven temperature
distribution around the turbine blades and rotor discs may occur. Either of these
failures will cause an unbalanced condition of the main rotating assembly.
Refer to Figure 32.
An engine vibration monitoring and indicating system consists of the following main
components:
vibration pick-up (linear-velocity detector)
auxiliary monitor (amplifier)
indicator (moving-coil micro-ammeter).
The vibration pick-up unit is mounted at a right angle to the engine's axis. Some
systems may use 2 pick-up units: one monitoring the vibration level around the
turbine section and the other around the diffuser section.
Refer to Figure 33.
The vibration indicator is an instrument that continuously monitors and displays the
amplitude of turbine engine vibration. The instrument is calibrated in such a way that,
if the amplitude reaches the critical level of vibration, the pointer will register
half-scale deflection. This 'critical level of vibration amplitude' depends on the type
of turbine engine that is being monitored.

Principle of Operation
Refer to Figure 34.
The pick-up unit is a linear-velocity detector that converts mechanical energy of
vibration into an electrical signal. The magnitude of this signal is proportional to
the energy of vibration. The conversion is done by means of a spring-supported
permanent magnet, which is suspended in a coil attached to the interior of the case.
As the engine vibrates, the pick-up unit and the coil move with it. The magnet,
however, tends to remain fixed in space because of the influence of inertia. The
motion of the coil causes its windings to cut the field of the magnet inducing a voltage
in the coil. This voltage (or: the signal) is amplified and transmitted via an electrical
filter network and a rectifier to the indicator.
Auxiliary Monitor

The filter and amplifier networks produce a highly stable highpass response for
frequencies from 14 Hz to 1,000 Hz. They provide a signal whose amplitude is
proportional to the vibration amplitude. This signal is then rectified by a diode
pump circuit and applied as follows:
for display in the indicator as a measure of low vibration amplitude
to supply the vibration level information to a warning circuit.
The warning circuit is designed to trip at a preset level (normally at the critical level
of vibration amplitude) on the indicator scale. When reaching this preset level the
warning circuit causes the indicator and other remote warning lamps to light up.

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lndica tor
The indicator is a micro-ammeter, which is vertically mounted. It continuously
displays the vibration level as a relative reading (typically from '0' to '5'). The indicator
is calibrated so that the critical level of vibration amplitude corresponds to a pointer's
position at approx. half-scale of the indicator.
Furthermore, the indicator incorporates a reference datum pointer that is actuated
by a lever arm mechanism. This pointer can manually be set by means of a slotted
adjusting control to indicate the normal level of vibration amplitude. This provides a
visual reference to the pilot for checking any changes of the vibration amplitude
during flight.

Power Supply
The AC power enters the auxiliary monitor at the plug connector. Power is supplied
directly to the indicator through the auxiliary monitor socket connector and the
indicator connector.
Power supply boards inside the units convert the 115 V ACl400 Hz power supply to a
stabilised 24 V DC for amplifier supply and to 0.5 V ACl400 Hz for test purposes.

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connections

B
m
Springs

Figure 1

Functional Principle of a Bourdon Tube

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Figure 2

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Manifold Pressure Indicator (Example)

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For training use only

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LOW OIL PRESSURE


(OR FILTER BYPASS)

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Oil
Fuel

Figure 3

Oil System Monitoring

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Capsule with
transmitting fluid

Module 14

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System fluid
pressure inlet

Figure 5

For training use only

Oil Pressure Indicating System


(Example)

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH

EASA Part-66 Training Handbook

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Module 14

Bus

a) Warning system

+28 V DC

---

Control box
warninglcaution

--------Engine

Switch low
press oil

Power
supply

ru

Pressure connection

b) Presssure switch

Oil tube behind filter

Breather pressure

Figure 6

Diaphragm

Oil Pressure Warning System and


Pressure Switch

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH

For training use only

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Electrical connector

Pre
adj~

Figure 7

Oil Pressure Switch

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Temperature bulb
(resistance type)

Figure 8

Oil Temperature Indicating System

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a) Oil temperature indicator (moving-coil type)

,
Pointer

n11

Hairsorina
8

Bridqe
.piece
Coil and former

Adjusting
device

Balance
arm

Core
Shunt

b) Oil temperature transmitter (resistance-bulb type)

Plug
receptacle

Union nut

Former

/
2-pin socket

Figure 9

Calibrating
(or: balancing) coil

Contacting
strips

Bulb

Resistance
element

Oil Temperature Transmitter and


Indicator

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Temperature bulb

Figure 10 Electrical Oil Temperature Measuring


Circuit

For training use only

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EASA Part-66 Training Handbook

a) Dual EGT indicator


(piston engine)

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b) Servo-operated EGT indicator


(gas turbine engine)

d) ITT indicator
(gas turbine engine)

c) ITT indicator
(turboprop engine)

Figure 11 EGT and ITT Indicators (Examples)

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH

For training use only


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EGT probe

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Figure 12 Tapping Points of EGT Probes

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Front adjusting
screws

Chromel l e d +, LH engine
Alumel lead -, LH engine

Connection

Connection

Probe
Clamp

Figure 13 EGT Indication System (Piston Engine)

For training use only

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH


58178

D
cn
D
p-Thermoelement
(probe)

*I

nl

Balance wire

-+-

Lead wire

?'

-4

Q)
Q)

-I

ru.

I
I

2.

s
ca

Indicator
Hot junction

connector

Reference line

Cold junction

Figure 14 EGT Indication System (Functional Diagram)

EASA Part-66 Training Handbook

Chramel alurnel
wiring harness

Module 14

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Figure 15 Thermocouple Carrier of a Gas Turbine


Engine

For training use only

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH


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block

Chromel terniinal

Threaded coupling

Probe assembly
Jasher

Figure 16 ITT Indication (Schematic Diagram)

EASA Part-66 Training Handbook

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Module 14

rpm indicator

Figure 17 Typical rpm Indicating System


(Schematic Diagram)

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RPM generator

Figure 18 Tapping Point for rpm (Piston Engine)

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NI (LP compressor)

-,

N2 (HP compressor)

Figure 19 Tapping Points for RPM


(Gas Turbine Engine)

For training use only

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH

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Laminated
squirrel-cage rotor

Figure 20 Functional Principle of an rpm


Indicating System

For training use only

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Spot-welded connection

Electrical connector

Core

permanent
magnet
Sensing coils

ar wheel

------//

Reference
voltage
Buffer

Signal
processing
module

Tacho probe signal

115VAC
400 Hz

--

Power
supply
module

cu

2
m

1 4 V DC

Figure 22 Tacho Probe and Torque Tachometer


(Schematic Diagram)

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH

For training use only


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+I-

transmitter

Power setting

r - It - i

From fuel tank


REVERSE

FEATHER

Figure 23 Fuel Flow Indicating System


(Schematic Diagram)

For training use only

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH

EASA Part-66 Training Handbook

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Figure 24 Fuel Flowmeters (Examples)

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By- pass valve


\

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Fuel outlet

Fuel inlet

0
Metering unit

Calibrated
spring

~ e t e r i n gvane

Remote indicator

Figure 25 Independent Fuel Flowmeter

For training use only

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Restraining spring

Annular space

Constant-speed impeller

EA

D l
115 vac

-/ E A B C D

mi
To 3-phase
power supply

Indicator

Figure 26 Integrated Fuel Flowmeter System

For training use only

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EASA Part-66 Training Handbook

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Figure 27 Fuel Quantity Indicators (Examples)

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Potentiometer
winding
\

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Electrical connector

Figure 28 Fuel Quantity Indicating System


(Float Type)

For training use only

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH

EASA Part-66 Training Handbook

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Transmitter

Wiper arm

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Indicator

Toroidal resistor

Fuel tank

Indicator

Figure 29 Float-type Fuel Quantity Indicating


System

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Indicator

+- -

Reference capacity
(varies with fuel
permittivity)

- - -- -I

Fixed trim
capacitor
\

Isolating
transformer

Representing capacity
of tank units

Legend:

------ Mechanical connections


Electrical connections

Figure 30 Fuel Quantity Indicating System


(Capacitance Type)

For training use only

(c) by Link & Learn Aviation Training GmbH

EASA Part-66 Training Handbook

Bus

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+28VDC

Tank control
circuit breaker

Indicator

Figure 31 Capacitance-type Fuel Quantity


Indicating System

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Indicator

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Amplifier

Figure 32 Engine Vibration Monitoring and


Indicating System

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Reference
pointer

19-way connector

Reference pointer

Figure 33 Engine Vibration Indicator (Example)

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