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LI GII BI S 6 TRONG THI


CHN I TUYN IMO 2015
V Quc B Cn (H Ni)

Trong cc bi ton ca thi chn i tuyn Vit Nam d thi


IMO nm 2015 th bi s 6 c xem l bi kh nht vi s th
sinh lm c rt t i. Di y l li gii ca chng ti cho
bi ton th v ny.
Bi ton 1. Tm s nguyn dng n nh nht sao cho tn ti n
s thc a1 , a2 , . . . , an tha mn ng thi cc iu kin:
a) a1 + a2 + + an > 0.
b) a31 + a32 + + a3n < 0.
c) a51 + a52 + + a5n > 0.
Li gii. Ta s chng minh s n nh nht l 5. Tht vy, d thy
vi n = 1 v n = 2, cc iu kin a) v b) khng th no cng
tha mn. Xt trng hp n = 3, gi s tn ti b s (a1 , a2 , a3 )
tha mn cc yu cu bi.
Do tnh i xng nn ta c th gi s a1 > a2 > a3 . Khi t
cc iu kin a) v b), ta suy ra a1 > 0 > a3 . Nu a2 6 0 th t a),
ta c a1 > (a2 + a3 ) > 0. T suy ra
a31 + a32 + a33 > (a1 + a2 )3 + a32 + a33 = 3a1 a2 (a1 + a2 ) > 0,
mu thun vi iu kin b). Do vy, ta phi c a2 > 0. Lc ny t
iu kin b), ta c a31 + a32 < a33 , t suy ra 0 < a2 < a1 < a3 .
V nh th, ta thu c nh gi:
a51 + a52 + a53 < a31 (a3 )2 + a32 (a3 )2 + a53 = a23 (a31 + a32 + a33 ) < 0,
mu thun vi iu kin c) ca bi ton. iu ny chng t
n = 3 cng khng tha mn yu cu.
1

Tip theo, ta xt trng hp n = 4. Gi s tn ti cc s thc


(a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 ) tha mn ng thi cc iu kin a), b), c). Gi
s a1 > a2 > a3 > a4 , ta c a1 > 0 > a4 . Xt ba trng hp sau:

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Trng hp 1: a3 6 a2 6 0. T a), ta c a1 > (a2 + a3 + a4 ) > 0.


Do , ta thu c nh gi:
a31 + a32 + a33 + a34 > (a2 + a3 + a4 )3 + a32 + a33 + a34
= 3(a2 + a3 )(a3 + a4 )(a4 + a5 ) > 0,
mu thun vi iu kin b) ca bi ton.
Trng hp 2: a2 > a3 > 0. T b), ta c a31 + a32 + a33 < a34 , suy ra
0 6 a3 6 a2 6 a1 < a4 . V nh th, ta thu c nh gi:
a51 + a52 + a53 + a54 < a31 (a4 )2 + a32 (a4 )2 + a33 (a4 )2 + a54
= a24 (a31 + a32 + a33 + a34 ) < 0,
mu thun vi iu kin c) ca bi ton.
Trng hp 3: a1 > a2 > 0 > a3 > a4 . tin cho vic trnh bi
cc nh gi, ta s t n mi a1 = a, a2 = b, a3 = d, a4 = c.
Khi , cc iu kin ca bi ton s c vit li thnh:

a + b > c + d
a3 + b3 < c3 + d3

5
a + b5 > c5 + d5

(1)
(2)
(3)

T (1), ta c a > c + d b. S dng nh gi ny vo (2), ta c


(c + d b)3 + b3 < c3 + d3 3(c + d)(b c)(b d) < 0,
t suy ra d < b < c. Mt khc, do a > b nn t iu kin (2),
3
3 1
1
3
v a < (c3 + d3 b3 ) 3 . S dng nh gi
ta cng c b < c +d
2
ny vo (3), ta thu c
5

(c3 + d3 b3 ) 3 + b5 > c5 + d5 .
5

(4)
3

By gi, xt hm s f(x) = x5 + (c3 + d3 x3 ) 3 vi d < x < c +d


2
ta c f(x) l hm lin tc trn min ny v:
h
i
0
4
2 3
3
3 23
2
2
3
3
3 23
f (x) = 5x 5x (c + d x ) = 5x x (c + d x ) < 0
2

 13

do x3 <

c3 +d3
.
2

Do f(x) l hm nghch bin v ta suy ra


5

d < x <

f(x) < f(d) = c + d ,

 c3 + d3  31
2

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Kt qu ny chng t (4) khng th xy ra.


Tm li, ta chng minh c n > 5. V trong trng hp
n = 5, ta ch ra c mt b s tha mn ng thi cc iu
kin l (a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 ) = (7, 7, 2, 5, 8). Vy nmin = 5.
Nhn xt. B s c ch ra trong trng hp n = 5 trn l
chng ti vay mn ca bn L Phc L. Li gii ca chng
ti s dng mt cch khc ch ra s tn ti ca cc b s
ch khng phi dng php on trc tip. Do thi gian c hn
(cng vic bn rn) nn nh vay mn, chng ta s cng tr
li bi ton ny vi bnh lun chi tit hn v cch gii v cch
ch ra s tn ti b s trong s 2 ca tp ch Epsilon.