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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

THE ENGLISH SOUND SYSTEM

20
VOWELS

24
CONSONANTS

PHONEMES

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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Short Vowel Sounds


// (ship)

/e/ (pen)

bin

pen

pin

ten

sit

bell

/ / (cup)

// (man)

cup

pan

hut

man

bun

bag
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Short Vowel Sounds


// (clock)

// (a camera)

hot

a camera

cot

a glass

top

a book
// (book)
book

cook
look
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Consonants

/b/ (baby)

/p/ (pen)

bin

pen

box

pencil

bear
voiced

paper
voiceless

/t/ (tin)

/d/ (door)
door

tin

duck

tail

doll
voiced

ten
voiceless

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Consonants

/g/ (girl)
goat

/k/ (key)
car

girl

cup

glass
voiced

cat

/v/ (van)

voiceless

/f/ (fin)

fin
five

four
voiceless

van
vase
veil

voiced

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Consonants

// (than)

// (thin)

they

thin

there

thumb

those
voiced

thick

/z/ (zoo)

voiceless

/s/ (sun)

zoo

sun

zip

sit

zebra

sand
voiceless

voiced
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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Consonants

/m/ (mouth)

/h/ (hat)

me

hill

met

heel

moon
voiced

hand
voiceless

/n/ (nose)
nose
nine
noise
voiced

/l/ (letter)
low
light
line
voiced
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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Consonants

/j/ (yellow)

/r/ (wrong)

yolk

right

yam

red

yes
voiced

rose

// (television)

voiced

/w/ (window)

we
wheel

wet
voiced

television

treasure
garage
voiced
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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

/t/ (cherry)

Consonants
// (shoe)

chips

she

chin

shoe

cherry
voiceless

ship

// (ring)

voiceless

/d/ (jam)

jam

jeep
jar
10

voiced

wing

thing
wrong
voiced
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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Long Monophthongs
/:/ (girl)
/i:/ (sheep)

bird

heel

turn

peel

burn

leek
/u :/ (boot)
pool
root
tooth

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Long Monophthongs
/a:/ (heart)
march
/:/ (ball)
port

card
barn

fork
tall

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Diphthongs

/a/ (fine)

/e/ (tail)
tail

buy

tie

pain

kite

wait
// (boy)

oil
coin

/a/ (house)
cow
bow
brow

toy
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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Diphthongs
// (phone)

// (beer)
ear

float

tear

coat

dear

boat

/ / (sure)
/e/ (chair)

sure

air

pure

pear

cure

hair
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Phonics
an approach to teaching reading
aims at building foundational skills
in beginning readers
use of phonics depends on the
practitioners beliefs about reading

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Good Phonics Instruction should:


a. develop the alphabetic principle the notion that
letters in words stand for specific sounds
b. develop phonological awareness recognition of
sounds in spoken words (phoneme awareness)
c. provide a sound grounding in the letters learning the
shapes and names of letters
d. provide sufficient practice in reading words in
isolation or in context
e. lead automatic word recognition phonics instruction
is not the end but the means to help children read
words automatically

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Phoneme : /s/
Grapheme :
s
ss
c
1. Form a cobra head with your hand.
2. Trace the letter s in the air and, say s

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Phoneme : //
Grapheme :

Imagine a spider crawling up your arm


and say eh
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Phoneme : /t/
Grapheme :
t

Tap two fingers on the desk and say t

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Phoneme : /p/
Grapheme :
p

Place four fingers in front of your mouth and


say p

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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Phoneme : //

Grapheme :
i

Show your teeth and say e.

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Phoneme : /n/
Grapheme :
n

Touch the tip of your nose and say n

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Phoneme : /m/
Grapheme :
m

Lick an ice-cream and say m

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Phoneme : /d/
Grapheme :
d

Drumming action and say d

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Phoneme : /g/
Grapheme :
g

1. You are cold, clutch your hands and


shiver
2. Say ggg
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Phoneme : //
Grapheme :
o

Draw a small circle (anti clockwise) in the


air and say o

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Phoneme : /k/
Grapheme :
c
k
ck

Action of flying a kite and say k

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Phoneme : /e/
Grapheme :
e

Walk like an elephant and say eh

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Phoneme : //
Grapheme :

uh

Look up and say uh

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Phoneme : /r/
Grapheme :
r

Be a lion and say rrr

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Phoneme : /h/
Grapheme :

1. Place your palm in front of your mouth.


2. Laugh haha
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Phoneme : /b/
Grapheme :
b

Action of balloon bursting and say b

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Phoneme : /f/
Grapheme :
f
ff

Action of bird flying and say f

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Phoneme : /l/
Grapheme :
l
ll

Raise both arms upright and say ll..

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Phoneme : /d/
Grapheme :
g
j

Jump and say j.


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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Phoneme : /v/
Grapheme :
v

Show the peace sign and say v.

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Phoneme : /w/
Grapheme :
w

Join two peace signs and say w.

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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Phoneme : /ks/
/gz/
Cross your hands
and say ks..

Grapheme :
x
Slash x and say
gz..
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Phoneme : /j/
Grapheme :
y

Nod and say yeh

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Phoneme : /z/
Grapheme :
z
zz
Trace z in the air and say z..

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Phoneme : /kw/
Grapheme :
qu

Action of a duck flapping its wings once


and say qua
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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

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Phoneme : / t /
Grapheme :
ch

1. Action of a moving train with both arms


2. Say ch.
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Phoneme : / /
Grapheme :

sh

Finger on the lips and say sh..

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Grapheme :
th

Phoneme : / /
voiceless
Show the thumb
and say th.

Phoneme : / /
voiced
Point with the thumb
and say th.
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Phoneme : / /
Grapheme :
ng

Action of mosquito buzzing around ears


and say ng.

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High Frequency Words

Decodable

Not
Decodable

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Decodable Words :

Phonetically decodable words


should be taught according to
the principle of saying sounds in
a word in the order in which they
occur.

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Not Decodable Words :

Some words are not decodable


using the grapheme-phoneme
correspondence. They are also
called tricky words.

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Tricky Words :

the
to
I
no
go
into

you
they
all
are
my
her
he
she

we
me
be
was

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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Tricky Words :

said
have
like
so
do
some
come

were
there
little
one
when
out
what
oh

their
people
Mr
Mrs
looked
called
asked
could
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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

Regina Joseph Cyril


English Language Unit
cyril0711@yahoo.com
03-8884 2088
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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM