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E-journal GEO

Vol. 9(1) 102-1192014

Current Situation and Issues of Transhumant Animal Herding in Sagsai County,


Bayan Ulgii Province, Western Mongolia

SOMA Takuya
2014 1 28 2014 4 26

(BWP)

BWP 6

The traditional transhumant animal-herding economy has continued to be a core subsistence activity in a community of Altaic Kazakhs in Bayan Ulgii province in western Mongolia. To achieve husbandry improvements and regional development as a
central principle, basic social research based on long-term eldwork was carried out from July 2011October 2012 among 44
households living at the Buten Winter Pasture in Sagsai county. The primary focuses of this research were: 1) total livestock
procession and proportion of each household; 2) local methods of livestock husbandry, herding, and management; and 3) recent
modes of seasonal transhumance mobility. Through concentrated eldwork, the current situation of and issues facing a contemporary Altaic Kazakh community are explained with some negative social factors such as a 60% poverty rate, lower living status of the poor, lack of traditional husbandry skills, and stagnation of herding productivity.

Key words: Altai Mountains, Altaic Kazakhs, animal-herding society, livestock husbandry, postsocialism
I
1991

1991 1993

(Upton 2008: 178)

( / Bayan
lgii) 1

102

1
Figure 1Map of Bayan Ulgii Prefecture

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

II

1.

(transhumance)

2 4

2.

(BWP) 5-R bag

44 60

2 2011

8 4 2012 10 24 270

KS

44

(n=44HHs)

(Ulgii Statistics Ofce: USD) 2012

2012 5

2010 11

1)

UNESCO

1 2

(n=1
2) (Bos
grunniens)

103

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

2
Figure 2Winter Pastures Neighboring the Sagsai Sum-Centre
()

= 1

2)


(aimag)
(sum)
(bag)3

III

()

1.

45,705 km2 (- 2012)

()

(Altai Alpine Meadow and Tundra)

(Altai Montane Forest and Forest

Steppe) 2 (Heiner et al. 2011:

4)

104

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

(National Statistical Office of Mongolia (NSO) 2009)



( ) (
)
(glacial our)
100,800
32,000 78,000

3
Figure 3Sagsai Sum Center (from the West)

78.0%
(NSO 2012) 90%

2.

30 km

220 2,000

1860

2011

1 1

1840

2 16

(Diener 2009; Barcus and Werner 2010: 212)

1 1

1940

3 2012a

1942 13

9 (The

90

Golden Eagle Festival) (Soma 2012a,

2012d, 2013a; Soma and Sukhee 2014)

5 6

2007; Diener 2009: 162

5 (Buteu)

(Ortatau)
(Kaglugat) (Ujum)

(Dubuisson and Genina 2011: 477)

(Bukun) 2

1860

1924

105

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

4
Figure 4The Winter House in Winter Pasture

4-a

(Fernandez-Gimenez

2000: 1319)

4-b

BWP

KS KE

4-c

2003 2

4-d

60

5-a b

106

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

1
Table 1A Number of Total Livestock in BWP (at Each HHs)

5-c d

3.9 km 7.9 km

2013a 3.3 km

28.5 km

Caragana leucophloeaManibazar and Sanchir 2008:

64

(KGN)

151,000,000MNT
60,000 ODA
2004

107

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

5 (BWP)
Figure 5Buteu Winter Pasture (BWP)
IV

(Lg) 3

Lg 6HHs (12.5%)Mg 15HHs (27.6%)Sg


26HHs (59.9%) 2 6

1.

Sg 100

44

3,819 1,542

BWP 1 BB 3

5,361 1

1,000

78.9 110.2

ER 350 KJ 300

2.5 (3.6%) 6.3 (7.8%) 30.2

Lg

(37.3%) 40.7 (51.3%) BWP-01

BWP

7,000

3 4 (0.1%)

1 4,000 m2

71.2%/28.8%

1 2

4 ha 2006: 24

BWP-22

60

101 (HHs)

100 (Sg)101

10 5

200 (Mg)201

V-1.

108

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

23
Table 2A Number, Average, and Proportion of Total Livestock in BWP (with 3 Groups)

2.

50

81 100

Lg 11

2008 6

BWP

4 5

78.9 30% 100

10 2

110

80 90

3.

3 4%

3%

51.5%

37.3%

3 10

10

42.1% : 57.9%

15.8%

5 6

3 5

15

11

109

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

33
Table 3A Number, Average, and Proportion of Total Livestock in the Sagsai Region (with 3 Groups)

5 2

6 2

Sg

1.3 3.1 13.1

15.8

2000

Mg

Sg

Sg KS

4 20 17 10

21 2011 4 2012 3

3 4 10 11

Lg

1 1

3 4

Sg

USD

125

10 12 20 25

Lg (n=15HHs) 57.8% : 31.9%

Mg (n=39HHs) 43.3% : 46.0%

Sg (n=71HHs) 37.1% : 46.8%

3 90 100

2002

(NSO 2012)

110

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

()

3,500

3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500

()
0
2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

6 10
Figure 6A Number of Total Livestock in Mongolia (over a Past 10-year Period)
KS

2009 10

()

Lg

BWP

25 100 m2

4.

NSO (2012) Database of Users

6 10

BWP

2001

2007


3)

1.

1 1.5

KS

111

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

b
7
Figure 7Breeding Male Goat and Sheep

()

1,200

()

5:00 7:00

BWP

Sg

18:00 19:00

KJ BB 2

2 300 400

7-a 7-b

20:30 21:00

1988: 179181

50 kg 20,000MNT

112

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

GPS

2.

7 9

90

2012 5

3 2011 4

(Traditional Ecological Knowl-

edge: TEK)

(CSP)

(Fernan-

dez-Gimenez 2000)

BWP

1992

(Fernandez-Gimenez &

Batbuyan 2004)

Fernandez-Gimenez

15 20 1

2000; 2004: 9; 2008

20 25 1 20 25

1950 90

(Sangiin Aj Ahui)

100 1

40

KS

100

90

Sg

3 4

BWP

113

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

8 (KSP & DSP)


Figure 8Map of Detached Summer Pastures (KSP & DSP)

6 5 15

6 20

2 3

100

10 15

VI

2/3

1.

(CSP) (KSP)

(DSP) 3 8

CSP 20

KSP 18

DSP 20 25 9 1

80 90 9 120 130

9 1 7

BWP

KSP 2,600 2,900 m

114

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

9 (KSP)
Figure 9Kakkha Summer Pasture (KSP) at the foothill of Mt. Tsengel Hairkhan

10 (CSP)
Figure 10Chiy Summer Pasture (CSP)
9-a bBWP

10-b

48.1 km 3.5 4.0

4 BWP

60

6 20

Mg Lg KSP

DSP

CSP

BWP

2.

3 km BWP 2009

1.5 km

10-a

7.1 km 2.8 km

BWP

38 6

CSP

Sg

115

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)


3 km 4.5 km 13.5 km2

(Iris lactea)(Manibazar & Sanchir 2008: 246)


CSP

3.

11
Figure 11Russian Truck for Seasonal Mobility

5 Y EC UL YB

SG

EC

UL YB 3

UL 8 28 9 2

111

EC 9

40,000 50,000MNT 2,400

20 2

3,500

10 20

50 km

EC UL

30,000 40,000MNT 1,800

5 10

2,400 1

7 4

3 4

4.

(Laurie et al.

2010: 326)

2000 (Fernandez-

Gimenez & Batbuyan 2004)

9 10 15

116

E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

BWP

VII

24

Lg 7HHsMg

316

15HHs 22HHs Sg

1,000 2

BWP 7,000

1)

(Soma 2012a, 2012b, 2012c,

Sg Mg 90

2012d, 2012e, 2012f, 2013a, 2013b; Soma and Sukhee

2014; 2012a, 2012b, 2013a, 2013d)

2)

2012 6 (: MNT)

BWP 44

1,000MNT 60

(28HHs)

GMT7

(2HHs) (12HHs)3

Flowers of Hustai National Park (2nd edition)

(Manibazar and Sanchir 2008) Virtual Guide

2HHsCSP 4HHs

to the Flora of Mongolia (Computer Centre of Uni-

versity of Greifswald.http://greif.uni-greifswald.de/

oragreif/)

3) 1

Sg

(MNT) 2012

10 1 100,000 MNT 6,000

1 150,000 200,000 MNT 9,000 12,000

1 800,000 1,000,000 MNT 48,000

60,000 1 1,000,000 1,200,000 MNT

60,000 72,000 1 1,500,000 MNT

90,000

2004

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E-journal GEO2014 Vol. 9(1)

http://
www.tufs.ac.jp/ts/personal/kamimura/docs/pastureland_
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8: 109133.
2012a

32: 3847.
2012b

23 364371

2013a =

35:
5866.
2013b

24 327334,

2008

170: 238243.
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Watercope Project

(HAI)
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