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# RELATIONS & FUNCTIONS

CONCEPTS:1. RELATION
2. TYPES OF RELATIONS
a) Empty Relation
b) Universal Relation
c) Reflexive Relation
d) Symmetric Relation
e) Transitive Relation
3. EQUIVALENCE RELATION
A Relation which is Reflexive, Symmetric and Transitive
4. FUNCTION
To recall - identity , constant, linear, polynomial, rational, Signum, modulus,
greatest integer functions
5. TYPES OF FUNCTIONS
a) One One ( Injective mapping)
b) Onto ( Surjective mapping)
c) One One and Onto ( Bijective mapping)
6. COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONS
To recall algebra of functions and to introduce composition of functions.
7. INVERSE OF A FUNCTION
Problems based on linear, quadratic and rational functions
8. BINARY OPERATIONS
Operation Table
9. PROPERTIES OF BINARY OPERATIONS
a) Commutative
b) Associative
c) Existence of Identity element
d) Existence of Inverse element
e) To check properties of binary operation using operation table

## INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

1. RECALL ALL THE TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

## 2. DOMAIN AND PRINCIPAL VALUE BRANCH OF ALL INVERSE TRIG. FUNCTION

The following table gives the inverse trigonometric function (principal
branches) along with their domains and ranges

sin-1
:
[-1, 1]

2 , 2
cos-1
:
[-1, 1]

[0, ]

-1
cosec :
R (-1, 1)

2 , 2 - {0}

sec-1
:
R (-1, 1)

[0, ] { }
2

tan-1
:
R

,
2 2
cot-1
:
R

(0, )
3. PROPERTIES OF INVERSE TRIG. FUNCTIONS
4. APPLICATION PROBLEMS
a) Evaluate the Inverse Trig. Functions
b) Evaluating the Problems by using Trig. Identities
i)
a2 + x2 Put x = a tan or x = a cot
ii)
a2 - x2 Put x = a sin or x = a cos
iii)
x2 a2 Put x = a sec or x = a cosec
c) To reduce into simplest form
d) To solve :- for the unknown variable x or

e) Problems involving cos -sin >0 if 0, &
4

## sin -cos >0 if , &

4 2
MATRICES
1.Definition
2.Order of a Matrix
3.Construction of a Matrix of given order &identifying entries(example :Find a11, a22, a23 etc)
(Construct a matrix of order 2 3Whoseentries are defined as aij

i2j
)
2

4.Types of matrices
i)column matrix, ii)row matrix,iii)square matrix, iv)diagonal matrix, v) scalar matrix
vi)identity matrix, vii)zero ornull matrix
5.Equality of matrices-Finding the unknown values x,y if given two matrices are equal
6.Matrix operations, i) addition , ii)subtraction , iii)scalar multiplication-(multiply all the
entries of the matrix with the scalar k.) , iv)multiplication of matrices-a)Matrix
multiplication need not be commutative b)Matrix multiplication is associative c)Product of
two non zero matrices can be a zero matrix.
7.Transpose ofa matrix&its properties
i) A / A
/

ii) AB B T AT
iii)(kA)T=kAT
T
iv ) A B AT B T
8.Symmetric&skew symmetric matrices
I)AT=A (Symmetric)
ii)AT=-A( skew symmetric)
9.Writing a given square matrix as a sum of a symmetric & a skew symmetric matrices.A A / is symmetric
T

A A is skew symmetric
1
1
10. A A A A A
2
2
/

## 11.Elementary row and column transformations.

a).If row transformation is used
i)Use A=IA
Ii)Use only the following three transformations
Ri R j

Ri kRi

## Ri Ri kRj , where k is any nonzero real number

b).If column transformation is used
i)Use A=AI
Ii)Use only the following three transformations
Ci C j
Ci kCi

## Ci Ci kC j , where k is any nonzero real number

12.Finding the inverse of a square matrix using elementary row or column transformations
AB 1 B 1 A 1
13.
AA 1 A 1 A I
14.Invertible matrix( Let A and B be two square matrices, if AB=BA =Ithen B is called the
inverse of the matrix Aand A is called an invertible matrix. Inverse of A is denoted by A -1)

CHAPTER DETERMINANTS.
1. Explain the difference between a matrix and a determinant. Determinant is a number
or a function we associate with a matrix.
2. Determinant of a matrix of order 1 and order 2.
3. Determinant of a matrix of order 3. It can be done by expanding about any row or
any column.
4. Properties of determinants.
i)
The value of the determinant remains unchanged if its rows and columns are
interchanged.

ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

vi)

If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are interchanged, then sign of
determinant changes.
If any tworows(or columns) of a determinant are identical then the value of the
determinant is zero.
If each element of a row(or a column of a determinant is multiplied by constant k,
then its value gets multiplied by k.
If some or all elements of a row or column of a determinant are expressed as sum
oftwo(or more) terms, then the determinant can be expressed a s sum of two (or
more) determinants.
If to each element of any row or column of a determinant, the equimultiples of
corresponding elements of other row(or column) are adds, the value of determinant
remains the same. Ie.RiRi+kRj orCiCi + kCj then value of determinant remains the
same.
5. Solving problems using properties of determinants ie.problems involving proving LHS
= RHS using properties.
6. Finding the area of a triangle using determinants.
7. Finding minors and co-factors.
8.
Aij=(-1)i+jMij
9. = a11A11+ a12A12 + a13A13.whereAij are cofactors of aij .
10. If elements of a row (or column) are multiplied with cofactors of any other row (or
column). Then their sum is zero.
11. Finding the adjoint and inverse of a matrix.
12. A is singular matrix implies || = 0.
13. || = | || |. But if IAI =IkBIwhere k is a constant then || =kn|| where n is the
order of
Matrix A.
14. | | = ||n-1 . where n is the order of the square matrix A
15. (1 )T = (AT)-1
17. |()| = ||(n-1)2
11 12
22 12
18. If = [

## 11 ] (Note: to find adjA interchange main

21
22
21
leading diagonal and change the sign of other diagonal. )
19. If A is a square matrix of order n then IkAI= k nIAI
1
21. (A-1)T=(AT)-1

## 22.Working rule for solving of linear equations in 3 variables.

Step 1: Express the system of linear equation as AX = B find||
Step 2: If || 0, then the system of equation is consistent and has a unique solution
given by X = A-1 B.
Step 3: If || = 0 and (adjA)B 0, then the system is inconsistent.
Step 4: If || = 0 and (adjA)B = 0, then the system may or may not be consistent. In
case it is consistent the system has infinite number of solutions.

Step 5: In order to find the solutions when system has infinitely many solution, take
any one variable equate it to t or k. Find the values of other variables in terms of t or
k.

Limits
1. lim = 1
0
2. lim
0
3. lim
0
4. lim
x a
5. lim
x 0
6. lim
x a

=1

=1

= 1

=1

log(1+)

=1

## 7. Algebra of Limits: lim

x a

()
()

lim ()
x a

lim ()
x a

(i)
(ii)

If lim
()=0 and lim
() 0 limit does not exist
x a
x a
If lim ()=0 and lim () 0 limit of the
x a
x a

function is zero
(iii) If lim ()=0 and lim ()=0 then f(x) , g(x) can be factorized or
x a
x a
rationalized or simplified using trigonometric identities
Continuity
Definition -1
A real function f(x) on a subset of real numbers and let a be a point in the domain of f then f
is continuous at a if lim f ( x) f (a)
x a

## Example: Find if lim ( 5)

x 0

Deinition-2
A real function f(x) is said to be continuous at a if lim f ( x) lim f ( x) f (a)
x a

x a

## Example: Verify that the following function f(x) is continuous at x = 2

2 + 3,
2
() = {
2 3,
>2
Theorem

Suppose f and g are real valued function such that fog is defined at c. If g is continuous at c
and if f is continuous at g(c) then fog is continuous at c
Differentiability

Y=f(x)
= ()

C (constant)
0

n 1
Sinx
Cosx
Cosx
-sinx
Tanx
Sec2x
Secx
secxtanx
Cosecx
-cosecxcotx
Cotx
-cosec2x
ex
ex
Logx
1/x
1
sin1
1 2
1

cos 1

sec 1

1 2
1
1 + 2
1
1 + 2
1

cosec 1

2 1
1

(u+v)
u-v
Uv

2 1
u+v
u-v
uv+vu

2
1

tan

cot 1

2
1
1

loga
Result: Every differentiable function is continuous but the converse need not be true
Chain Rule

Let y=vou, t = u(x) and if both ,
exist then = .

## Derivatives of Implicit and explicit functions

Example: = + 2x (Explicit function)
+ = 0 (implicit function)
Differentiation of one function with respect to another function
Differentiate sin2x with respect to cosx

log = log + log
log / = log log
log =nlog
log

## loge = 1, log1 = 0, log () = ()

Example: If = + , find

Parametric Form

Let y=f(x) ,

= () = y1 then
2

= f(x) = y2

## If x=f(t), y = g(t) then 2 = ( )

Rolles Theorem
If a real-valued function is continuous on a closed interval [a, b], differentiable on
the open interval (a, b), and(a) = (b), then there exists a c in the open interval
(a, b) such that

## Mean Value Theorem

Let
be differentiable on the open interval
and continuous on the closed
interval
. Then there is at least one point in
such that

## CONCEPT MAPPING INTEGRATION

1.Integration- as an inverse process of differentiation

(sinx) = cosx, ( ) = 2 , ( ) =
3

We observe that the function cosx is the derivative function of sinx.we say that sinx is

## an antiderivative ( or an integral)of cosx.similarly and are the antiderivatives (or

3
integrals) of 2 and .we note that for any real number c,treated as constant
function,its derivative is0and hence we can write

2 , (

## (sinx +c) = cosx,

+ ) =

+ ) =
Thus antiderivative or integrals of the above functions are not unique.Actually there
exists infinitely many antiderivatives of each of these functions which can be obtained
by choosing C arbitrarily from the set of real numbers( also called constant of
integration).for this reason C is customarily referred to as arbitrary constant.

## More generally (F(x) +c)= f(x),x belongs to I

2.Symbol
() -- Meaning
3.Comparison between differentiation and integration
a. Both are operations on function
b. All functions are not differentiable
c.All functions are not integrable
d .Derivative of a function when it exists it is unique function but the integral of
of a function is not so. However they are unique upto an additive constant
ie.any two integrals of a function differ by a constant.
e. When a polynomial function P(x) is differentiated the result is a polynomial
whose degree is one less than the degree of p(x)

eg. ( 2 ) = 2x
When a polynomial function is integrated the result is a polynomial whose
Degree is one more than that of p(x)
4

Eg. 3 dx = + c
4
f. The derivative of a function has a geometrical meaning- the slope of the
tangent to the corresponding curve at a point
g.Integration- family of curves placed parallel to each other having parallel
tangents at the point of intersection of the curves of the family ,with the lines
perpendicular to the axis representing the variable of integration.
4.Methods of integration

Integration by
Substitution

Application of

Trigonometric

## Methods of integration 1. Integration by direct method

Integration using
Integration by
Partial fraction
parts

Function
Partial fraction
+
function()()

()

()

=uv-

In integrals

(+)

()
() ()
++

+
+
()()() () () ()
++

Integration of some() ()
++

Particular function()( ++ - () +

+
++

, ++

++

(+)

(+)

,
,
++

++

## SOME SPECIAL INTEGRALS

1. dx
2. dx
3. + + dx
4.( + ) + + dx
Definite Integrals

()

- Area of the region bounded by the curve y=f(x) and the ordinates
x=a,x=b and x-axis

Calculating ()

## Find the indefinite integral () .Let this be F(x), () = F(b) F(a)

Definite integrals

## Definite integrals based on

Definite integrals
Properties of integration
types of indefinite integrals as a limit of sum definite integral of modulus fn

## Some important results.

+

1. =
+c
+
2. = x+c
3. = -cosx +c
4. = sinx +c
5. x dx = tanx + c
6. x dx = -cotx +c
7. = secx + c
8. = - cosecx + c

9.
dx = - +c OR +c

10.
dx = +c OR - +c
+
11.

= +c OR - +c

12. dx = + c

13. dx =log x +c

14. dx = + c

## 15. ( f(x) +f (x) ) dx = f(x) +c

Some Properties of Definite Integrals

: () = ()

: () = ()

: ()= () + ()

: () = ( + )

() = ( )

: () = ()+ ( )

## : () = (),If f(2a-x)=f(x) =0 if f(2a-x)=-f(x)

:() ()= (),

If f is an even function

(ii) () =

Limit as a sum

## 3. ()dx = ( f(a) + f(a+h)+f (a+2h)++f(a+(n-1)h)

= + + + + = n (n+1)/2
= + + + + + = n (n+1) (2n+1)/6
= + + + + + = [ ( + )/]
+ + + + + = a( )/( )

r 1

## INTEGRATION(TIPS TO REMEMBER THE POINTS)

2.Prepare a pocket formula dictionary (Writing all the formulae in a note book).
3.Insist the children daily to bring in the class and whenever they get time they should
memories the formulae.
4.They have to put those formulae in practice.
5.Daily formula test to be conducted.
6.Students should be practiced so that they can identify the method of integration.

APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION

Review
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Standard equations of straight lines

Equation of circles with Centre at the origin, andcenter at (h,k)
Equation of parabolas
Equation of ellipse

## 5. First fundamental theorem of integral calculus

6. Second fundamental theorem of integral calculus
1.Area under the curve y=f(x)and the x-axis and the ordinates at x=a and

at x=b is .

2.Area under the curve x=f(y)and the x-axis and the ordinates at y=c and

at y= d is
3.The area bounded by the curve y=f(x) and x-axis and the ordinates
x=a and x=b is given by A1 +A2=A

## 4.Area under two curves

If y=f(x) , y= g(x) where f(x) g(x) in the [a,b] such that the point
of intersection of these two curves are given by x=a and x=b
obtained by taking common values of y from given equation of two

## curves then the area between the curves is given by A= [()

()]
5.If f(x) g(x) [a,c] and f(x) g(x) in [c,b] where a < c<b , then area
of the region bounded by the curves can be given by

## 6.Area of a triangle when the coordinates of the vertices or equations

of sides are given.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
CONCEPT MAPPING:
Definition of differential equation.
Order of a differential equation
Without radical sign: Order is the order of the highest order derivative appearing in
the equation
2

Example:

With radical sign : like , , .remove the radical sign by squaring, cubing etc.
then Order is the order of the highest order derivative appearing in the equation.

+ 5 = 0.
3

2 3

Example: 1 ( ) = (

## Degree of a differential equation

The degree of a differential equation is the degree of the highest order derivative
occurring in the equation, when the differential coefficients are made free from
radicals if each term involving derivatives of differential equation is polynomial(can be
expressed as a polynomial).
2

Example: () + = 0
Verifying the given function as a solution of the given differential equation.
General solution and particular solution(Finding values of the constants by using the
given condition)
Formation of differential equation
Steps involved
Write down the given equation of family of curves
Differentiate the given equation as many times as the number of arbitrary constants.
Eliminate the arbitrary constants from the given equation and the equation obtained
by differentiation.
Solving a differential equation:
Variable separable

()

()

Type-1:

## Type-2: (). () + (). () = , then divide by (). () and

integrate.

Type-3: = ( + + ), + + = .

()

()

## Homogeneous : If the question is asked to prove homogeneous find

(, ) = (, )then f is homogeneous of degree n.

## Step 2: The equation reduce to variable separable and solve.

Some homogeneous equation can be solved by substituting = .

## Linear Differential equation of type : + = , where P and Q are functions of

x alone or constants.
Step 1: Identify P and Q.
Step 2: Find and find (Note: If = (()), then =
()).
Step 3: Solution . = . + .

= + .

## + = , where P and Q are functions of

y alone or constants.
Step 1: Identify P and Q.
Step 2: Find and find (Note: If = (()), then =
()).
Step 3: Solution . = . + .

=
=
=

()+()
()
()
()+()
()+()
()

""
"".
""

The equation representing the parabola having vertex at the origin and axis along the
positive direction of X-axis- 2 = 4.
The family of circles touching y-axis at the orgin-( )2 + 2 = 2 .
The family of circles touching the x-axis: 2 + ( )2 = 2
VECTOR ALGEBRA
CONCEPT MAPPING
DEFINITION OF Vectors
Definition of Scalars
Position Vector
Dcs and Drs
Types of vectors
Zero Vector
Unit Vector
or
+
+
+

## Unit vector in the direction of

Collinear Vectors
Equal Vectors
Negative of a Vector
Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
Unit Vectors along the coordinate axes.
Vector joining two points
Section formula
Dot product of vectors
Projection of vectors on a line
Perpendicular vectors
Finding the angle between the two vectors
I, I
+
I
+
+
I, I
-
Finding I
Squaring of a vector
Angle between two vectors.
Expressing dot product in rectangular coordinates.
Cross product of vectors
Cross product of unit vectors.
Expressing cross product in rectangular coordinates.
Unit vector perpendicular to two given vectors.
Angle between two vectors.
Area of parallelogram when adjacent sides are given.
Area of parallelogram when diagonals are given.
Area of a triangle
Area of a rectangle when position vectors of A,B,C,D are given.
Scalar Triple product of vectors.

## Expressing the STP in rectangular coordinates.

Geometrical meaning of STP.
Vector Triple Product.
Properties of dot, cross and STP
Dot product
Cross product

= |
|
|
|.
. = ||

|. |
where
is

, .
perpendicular to both
=
=
.

If
If parallel

=
|
|

.
=

)
. ) = (
) + (
(

.
+

= + +
= + +
If
If
= + +

= + +

Then

|
Then

. = +

|

+
Geometrical meaning

=
projection of
|
|

Geometrical meaning
=

,

## Scalar triple product

, ,
]
Notation is [
, ,
]=
If coplanar [
[
, ,
] = if any two
vectors are equal.

= + +
If
= + +

= + +

, ,
]=
Then [

| |

Geometrical meaning
Volume of a parallelepiped
,
with ,

Concept Mapping
Topic: 3-Dimensional Geometry.

## 1. Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line.( = = =k )

2. Relation between the direction cosines of a line. ( +. + = )
3. Direction Cosines of a line passing through two points P(x 1,y1,z1) and Q(x2,y2,z2)
4. Equation of a line in a space
5. Equation of a line through a given point and parallel to a given Vector
6. Derivation of Cartesian form from vector form.
7. Equation of a line passing through two given points.
8. Derivation of Cartesian form from Vector form.
9. Whenever the Equation of a line or a plane is given it is to see that whether
the Equation is in standard form.
10. Angle between Two Lines.
11. Shortest Distance between Two Lines
12. Distance between two skew Lines.
13. Distance between two parallel lines
14. Equation of a plane in normal form& Cartesian form.
15. Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through agiven
point
16. Equation of a plane passing through three non collinear points.
17. Intercept form of the equation of a plane.

## 18.Plane passing through the intersection of two given planes.

19.Coplanarity of Two Lines.
20.Angle between Two Planes.
21. Distance of a Point from a Plane.
22.Angle between a Line and a Plane
23. Image of a point w.r.t line and plane.
24. Geometrical interpretation to be given wherever possible.
25. condition for perpendicularity an d parallality of two lines and two planes.
Summary of the chapter:

Probability
Introduction

Concepts in probability

CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY

PROPERTIES OF
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY

MULLTIPLICATION
THEOREM ON
PROBABILITY
INDEPENDENT EVENTS

Probability

## THEOREM OF TOTAL PROBABILITY

BAYES THEOREM
and
ITS APPLICATIONS
MEAN OF A RANDOM VARIABLE
BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION
(BERNOULLI TRIALS)

Enumerating outcomes
PARTITION OF SAMPLE SPACE
RANDOM VARIABLE
AND
ITS PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
FORMULA TO FIND THE VARIANCE OF A RANDOM
VARIABLE
PROBLEM SOLVING BASED ON
BAYES THEOREM& BERNOULLI TRIALS

## Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Complex Script Fon

12 pt

CONCEPT MAPPING:

PROBABILITY
Experiments Sample Space(S) Events(A,B,C,E,F,G,.)
Conditional Probability
If E and F are two events associated with the same sample space of a
random experiment, the conditional probability of the event E given that F has
occurred,
i.e. P (E|F) is given by P(E|F) =P(E F)/P(F) provided P(F) 0
Properties of conditional probability:
Let E and F be events of a sample space S of an experiment, then we have
Property 1:P(S|F) = P(F|F) = 1
Property 2: If A and B are any two events of a sample space S and F is an event
of S such that P(F) 0, then
P((A B)|F) = P(A|F) + P(B|F) P((A B)|F)
Property 3:P(E|F) = 1 P(E|F)
Multiplication Theorem on Probability
P(E F) = P(E) P(F|E) = P(F) P(E|F), provided P(E) 0 and P(F) 0
Multiplication rule of probability for more than two events:If E, F and G are
three events of sample space, we have
P(E F G) = P(E) P(F|E) P(G|(E F)) = P(E) P(F|E) P(G|EF)
Independent Events:
Two events E and F are said to be independent, ifP(F|E) = P (F)
provided P (E) 0 and P (E|F) = P (E) provided P (F) 0
Let E and F be two events associated with the same random experiment,
then E and F are said to be independent ifP(E F) = P(E) . P (F)
Partition of a sample space
Let {E1, E2,...,En} be a partition of the sample space S, and suppose that
each of the events E1, E2,..., En has nonzero probability of occurrence. Let A be
any event associated with S, then
P(A) = P(E1) P(A|E1) + P(E2) P(A|E2) + ... + P(En) P(A|En)

## Theorem of total probability

P(A) = P(E1) P(A|E1) + P(E2) P(A|E2) + ... + P(En) P(A|En)
Bayes Theorem If E1, E2 ,..., En are n non empty events which constitute a
partition of sample space S, i.e. E1, E2 ,..., En are pairwise disjoint and E1 E2 ... En
= S andA is any event of nonzero probability, then
P(/) =

( ) (| )
for

= ( ) (| )

any j =1,2,3,..,n

## Random Variables and its Probability Distributions

o Probability distribution of a random variable

## The probability distribution of a random variable X is the system of numbers

X :x1
x2 ..
. xn
P(X) :p1
p2 . ..
pn
where,x1,x2, .xnare the possible values of the random variable X
and pi (i = 1,2,..., n) is the probability of the random variable X taking the value xi
pi = 1, i = 1, 2,..., n
i.e. P(X = xi) = pi
A random variable X has the following probability distribution:
X
P(X)

0
0

1
K

2
2K

3
2K

4
3K

7
7k2 +k

## o Mean of a random variableE (x)= ==1 pi

o Variance of a random variableE (x2)= =1 2
Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution
o Bernoulli trials
Trials of a random experiment are called Bernoulli trials, if they satisfy
the following conditions :
(i) There should be a finite number of trials.
(ii) The trials should be independent.
(iii) Each trial has exactly two outcomes : success or failure.
(iv) The probability of success remains the same in each trial.
o Binomial distribution
The probability of r successes P(X = r) is denoted by P(x) and is given by
P(X =r) =nCrqnrpr,r = 0, 1,..., n. (q = 1 p)
This P(x) is called the probability function of the binomial distribution.
A binomial distribution with n-Bernoulli trials and probability of success in
each
trial as p, is denoted by B(n, p).
P(at least r successes),
P(at most r successes),
P(exactly r successes)
P(r>3), P(r<3), P(r=3) cases.