CONCEPTS:1. RELATION
2. TYPES OF RELATIONS
a) Empty Relation
b) Universal Relation
c) Reflexive Relation
d) Symmetric Relation
e) Transitive Relation
3. EQUIVALENCE RELATION
A Relation which is Reflexive, Symmetric and Transitive
4. FUNCTION
To recall  identity , constant, linear, polynomial, rational, Signum, modulus,
greatest integer functions
5. TYPES OF FUNCTIONS
a) One One ( Injective mapping)
b) Onto ( Surjective mapping)
c) One One and Onto ( Bijective mapping)
6. COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONS
To recall algebra of functions and to introduce composition of functions.
7. INVERSE OF A FUNCTION
Problems based on linear, quadratic and rational functions
8. BINARY OPERATIONS
Operation Table
9. PROPERTIES OF BINARY OPERATIONS
a) Commutative
b) Associative
c) Existence of Identity element
d) Existence of Inverse element
e) To check properties of binary operation using operation table
2 , 2
cos1
:
[1, 1]
[0, ]
1
cosec :
R (1, 1)
2 , 2  {0}
sec1
:
R (1, 1)
[0, ] { }
2
tan1
:
R
,
2 2
cot1
:
R
(0, )
3. PROPERTIES OF INVERSE TRIG. FUNCTIONS
4. APPLICATION PROBLEMS
a) Evaluate the Inverse Trig. Functions
b) Evaluating the Problems by using Trig. Identities
i)
a2 + x2 Put x = a tan or x = a cot
ii)
a2  x2 Put x = a sin or x = a cos
iii)
x2 a2 Put x = a sec or x = a cosec
c) To reduce into simplest form
d) To solve : for the unknown variable x or
e) Problems involving cos sin >0 if 0, &
4
i2j
)
2
4.Types of matrices
i)column matrix, ii)row matrix,iii)square matrix, iv)diagonal matrix, v) scalar matrix
vi)identity matrix, vii)zero ornull matrix
5.Equality of matricesFinding the unknown values x,y if given two matrices are equal
6.Matrix operations, i) addition , ii)subtraction , iii)scalar multiplication(multiply all the
entries of the matrix with the scalar k.) , iv)multiplication of matricesa)Matrix
multiplication need not be commutative b)Matrix multiplication is associative c)Product of
two non zero matrices can be a zero matrix.
7.Transpose ofa matrix&its properties
i) A / A
/
ii) AB B T AT
iii)(kA)T=kAT
T
iv ) A B AT B T
8.Symmetric&skew symmetric matrices
I)AT=A (Symmetric)
ii)AT=A( skew symmetric)
9.Writing a given square matrix as a sum of a symmetric & a skew symmetric matrices.A A / is symmetric
T
A A is skew symmetric
1
1
10. A A A A A
2
2
/
Ri kRi
CHAPTER DETERMINANTS.
1. Explain the difference between a matrix and a determinant. Determinant is a number
or a function we associate with a matrix.
2. Determinant of a matrix of order 1 and order 2.
3. Determinant of a matrix of order 3. It can be done by expanding about any row or
any column.
4. Properties of determinants.
i)
The value of the determinant remains unchanged if its rows and columns are
interchanged.
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are interchanged, then sign of
determinant changes.
If any tworows(or columns) of a determinant are identical then the value of the
determinant is zero.
If each element of a row(or a column of a determinant is multiplied by constant k,
then its value gets multiplied by k.
If some or all elements of a row or column of a determinant are expressed as sum
oftwo(or more) terms, then the determinant can be expressed a s sum of two (or
more) determinants.
If to each element of any row or column of a determinant, the equimultiples of
corresponding elements of other row(or column) are adds, the value of determinant
remains the same. Ie.RiRi+kRj orCiCi + kCj then value of determinant remains the
same.
5. Solving problems using properties of determinants ie.problems involving proving LHS
= RHS using properties.
6. Finding the area of a triangle using determinants.
7. Finding minors and cofactors.
8.
Aij=(1)i+jMij
9. = a11A11+ a12A12 + a13A13.whereAij are cofactors of aij .
10. If elements of a row (or column) are multiplied with cofactors of any other row (or
column). Then their sum is zero.
11. Finding the adjoint and inverse of a matrix.
12. A is singular matrix implies  = 0.
13.  =   . But if IAI =IkBIwhere k is a constant then  =kn where n is the
order of
Matrix A.
14.   = n1 . where n is the order of the square matrix A
15. (1 )T = (AT)1
16. adj(AT) = (adjA)T
17. () = (n1)2
11 12
22 12
18. If = [
] then adj A =[
Step 5: In order to find the solutions when system has infinitely many solution, take
any one variable equate it to t or k. Find the values of other variables in terms of t or
k.
=1
=1
= 1
=1
log(1+)
=1
()
()
lim ()
x a
lim ()
x a
(i)
(ii)
If lim
()=0 and lim
() 0 limit does not exist
x a
x a
If lim ()=0 and lim () 0 limit of the
x a
x a
function is zero
(iii) If lim ()=0 and lim ()=0 then f(x) , g(x) can be factorized or
x a
x a
rationalized or simplified using trigonometric identities
Continuity
Definition 1
A real function f(x) on a subset of real numbers and let a be a point in the domain of f then f
is continuous at a if lim f ( x) f (a)
x a
Deinition2
A real function f(x) is said to be continuous at a if lim f ( x) lim f ( x) f (a)
x a
x a
Suppose f and g are real valued function such that fog is defined at c. If g is continuous at c
and if f is continuous at g(c) then fog is continuous at c
Differentiability
Y=f(x)
= ()
C (constant)
0
n 1
Sinx
Cosx
Cosx
sinx
Tanx
Sec2x
Secx
secxtanx
Cosecx
cosecxcotx
Cotx
cosec2x
ex
ex
Logx
1/x
1
sin1
1 2
1
cos 1
sec 1
1 2
1
1 + 2
1
1 + 2
1
cosec 1
2 1
1
(u+v)
uv
Uv
2 1
u+v
uv
uv+vu
2
1
tan
cot 1
2
1
1
loga
Result: Every differentiable function is continuous but the converse need not be true
Chain Rule
Let y=vou, t = u(x) and if both ,
exist then = .
Example: If = + , find
Parametric Form
= () = y1 then
2
= f(x) = y2
Rolles Theorem
If a realvalued function is continuous on a closed interval [a, b], differentiable on
the open interval (a, b), and(a) = (b), then there exists a c in the open interval
(a, b) such that
(sinx) = cosx, ( ) = 2 , ( ) =
3
We observe that the function cosx is the derivative function of sinx.we say that sinx is
2 , (
+ ) =
+ ) =
Thus antiderivative or integrals of the above functions are not unique.Actually there
exists infinitely many antiderivatives of each of these functions which can be obtained
by choosing C arbitrarily from the set of real numbers( also called constant of
integration).for this reason C is customarily referred to as arbitrary constant.
2.Symbol
()  Meaning
3.Comparison between differentiation and integration
a. Both are operations on function
b. All functions are not differentiable
c.All functions are not integrable
d .Derivative of a function when it exists it is unique function but the integral of
of a function is not so. However they are unique upto an additive constant
ie.any two integrals of a function differ by a constant.
e. When a polynomial function P(x) is differentiated the result is a polynomial
whose degree is one less than the degree of p(x)
eg. ( 2 ) = 2x
When a polynomial function is integrated the result is a polynomial whose
Degree is one more than that of p(x)
4
Eg. 3 dx = + c
4
f. The derivative of a function has a geometrical meaning the slope of the
tangent to the corresponding curve at a point
g.Integration family of curves placed parallel to each other having parallel
tangents at the point of intersection of the curves of the family ,with the lines
perpendicular to the axis representing the variable of integration.
4.Methods of integration
Integration by
Substitution
Application of
Trigonometric
Integration using
Integration by
Partial fraction
parts
Function
Partial fraction
+
function()()
()
()
=uv
In integrals
(+)
()
() ()
++
+
+
()()() () () ()
++
Integration of some() ()
++
Particular function()( ++  () +
+
++
, ++
++
(+)
(+)
,
,
++
++
()
 Area of the region bounded by the curve y=f(x) and the ordinates
x=a,x=b and xaxis
Calculating ()
1. =
+c
+
2. = x+c
3. = cosx +c
4. = sinx +c
5. x dx = tanx + c
6. x dx = cotx +c
7. = secx + c
8. =  cosecx + c
9.
dx =  +c OR +c
10.
dx = +c OR  +c
+
11.
= +c OR  +c
12. dx = + c
13. dx =log x +c
14. dx = + c
: () = ()
: () = ()
: ()= () + ()
: () = ( + )
() = ( )
: () = ()+ ( )
If f is an even function
(ii) () =
Limit as a sum
r 1
APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION
Review
1.
2.
3.
4.
at x=b is .
2.Area under the curve x=f(y)and the xaxis and the ordinates at y=c and
at y= d is
3.The area bounded by the curve y=f(x) and xaxis and the ordinates
x=a and x=b is given by A1 +A2=A
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
CONCEPT MAPPING:
Definition of differential equation.
Order of a differential equation
Without radical sign: Order is the order of the highest order derivative appearing in
the equation
2
Example:
With radical sign : like , , .remove the radical sign by squaring, cubing etc.
then Order is the order of the highest order derivative appearing in the equation.
+ 5 = 0.
3
2 3
Example: 1 ( ) = (
Example: () + = 0
Verifying the given function as a solution of the given differential equation.
General solution and particular solution(Finding values of the constants by using the
given condition)
Formation of differential equation
Steps involved
Write down the given equation of family of curves
Differentiate the given equation as many times as the number of arbitrary constants.
Eliminate the arbitrary constants from the given equation and the equation obtained
by differentiation.
Solving a differential equation:
Variable separable
()
()
Type1:
Type3: = ( + + ), + + = .
()
()
x alone or constants.
Step 1: Identify P and Q.
Step 2: Find and find (Note: If = (()), then =
()).
Step 3: Solution . = . + .
= + .
y alone or constants.
Step 1: Identify P and Q.
Step 2: Find and find (Note: If = (()), then =
()).
Step 3: Solution . = . + .
=
=
=
()+()
()
()
()+()
()+()
()
""
"".
""
The equation representing the parabola having vertex at the origin and axis along the
positive direction of Xaxis 2 = 4.
The family of circles touching yaxis at the orgin( )2 + 2 = 2 .
The family of circles touching the xaxis: 2 + ( )2 = 2
VECTOR ALGEBRA
CONCEPT MAPPING
DEFINITION OF Vectors
Definition of Scalars
Position Vector
Dcs and Drs
Types of vectors
Zero Vector
Unit Vector
or
+
+
+
= 


.
. = 
. 
where
is
, .
perpendicular to both
=
=
.
If
If parallel
=


.
=
)
. ) = (
) + (
(
.
+
= + +
= + +
If
If
= + +
= + +
Then

Then
. = +

+
Geometrical meaning
=
projection of


Geometrical meaning
=
,
Adjacent sides
= + +
If
= + +
= + +
, ,
]=
Then [
 
Geometrical meaning
Volume of a parallelepiped
,
with ,
as adjacent sides.
Concept Mapping
Topic: 3Dimensional Geometry.
Probability
Introduction
Concepts in probability
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY
PROPERTIES OF
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY
MULLTIPLICATION
THEOREM ON
PROBABILITY
INDEPENDENT EVENTS
Probability
Enumerating outcomes
PARTITION OF SAMPLE SPACE
RANDOM VARIABLE
AND
ITS PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
FORMULA TO FIND THE VARIANCE OF A RANDOM
VARIABLE
PROBLEM SOLVING BASED ON
BAYES THEOREM& BERNOULLI TRIALS
CONCEPT MAPPING:
PROBABILITY
Experiments Sample Space(S) Events(A,B,C,E,F,G,.)
Conditional Probability
If E and F are two events associated with the same sample space of a
random experiment, the conditional probability of the event E given that F has
occurred,
i.e. P (EF) is given by P(EF) =P(E F)/P(F) provided P(F) 0
Properties of conditional probability:
Let E and F be events of a sample space S of an experiment, then we have
Property 1:P(SF) = P(FF) = 1
Property 2: If A and B are any two events of a sample space S and F is an event
of S such that P(F) 0, then
P((A B)F) = P(AF) + P(BF) P((A B)F)
Property 3:P(EF) = 1 P(EF)
Multiplication Theorem on Probability
P(E F) = P(E) P(FE) = P(F) P(EF), provided P(E) 0 and P(F) 0
Multiplication rule of probability for more than two events:If E, F and G are
three events of sample space, we have
P(E F G) = P(E) P(FE) P(G(E F)) = P(E) P(FE) P(GEF)
Independent Events:
Two events E and F are said to be independent, ifP(FE) = P (F)
provided P (E) 0 and P (EF) = P (E) provided P (F) 0
Let E and F be two events associated with the same random experiment,
then E and F are said to be independent ifP(E F) = P(E) . P (F)
Partition of a sample space
Let {E1, E2,...,En} be a partition of the sample space S, and suppose that
each of the events E1, E2,..., En has nonzero probability of occurrence. Let A be
any event associated with S, then
P(A) = P(E1) P(AE1) + P(E2) P(AE2) + ... + P(En) P(AEn)
( ) ( )
for
= ( ) ( )
any j =1,2,3,..,n
0
0
1
K
2
2K
3
2K
4
3K
7
7k2 +k