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1.1.

1. z

=1

1
1
= ( z + ) 1 1 .
2
z

z =1
1
1
1
z*
1

(z + ) = (z +
)
(z + z*) = x
2
2
z
2
2
z

z = 1 1 x 1 1 1

2
3

(1 )

( 2 ) e 1+ i

5 1 cos

+ i sin , 0

(4)

a + ib

3 + i ) 3

i= e

=e

i(

2
i ( + k )
6 3

+ 2 k )
k

= cos(

= 0,1, 2

2
2
k ) + i sin( + k )
3
6 3

e 1+ i = ee i = e (co s1 + i sin 1) = 1

31 i

3=

1 + 3e

i arctg ( 3 ) + 2 k

= 2 (c o s
4

6 (

2i
1 + i

( 3 )1 i

a + ib =

a2 + b2 e

i(

i s in

a2 + b2e

1
b
arg + k )
2
a

= 2e

b
i (a rg + 2 k )
a

1
2

1
b
1
b

+ k ) + i s in ( a rg
+ k
a 2 + b 2 c o s( a rg
2
a
2
a

1 cos + i sin = 2sin e


5
2
6 (

3 + i)



= 2sin cos
+ i sin

2
2
2

( 3 i )3
1
1 i 2
1

=
=

i
=
e
=

sin
i
8
8
8
2
( 3 + i )3 ( 3 i )3

i
2i

4
=
=

)
2
e
2(cos
i
sin
7
1 + i
4
4
3 sin cos cos 4 sin 4

i k n!
cos n + i sin n = (cos + i sin ) =
sin k cos nk
k =0 k !( n k )!
n

4!
i 4!
i 2 4! 2
4
3
cos 4 + i sin 4 =
cos +
sin cos +
sin cos 2
0!4!
1!3!
2!2!
i 3 4! 3
i 4 4! 4
+
sin cos +
sin
3!1!
4!0!

= (cos 4 6sin 2 cos 2 + sin 4 ) + i 4cos sin (cos 2 sin 2 )

cos 4 = cos 4 6sin 2 cos 2 + sin 4

sin 4 = 4cos sin (cos 2 sin 2 )


4.

cos k
k =1

sin ( n +

) sin
2
2

2 sin

sin k =

cos( n +

k =1

2 sin

a1(1qn)
sn =
1q

k =1

e ik = c o s k + i s in k

) + cos
2
2

e ik

k =1

k =1

(cos k + i sin k ) = e
e

1
i
2

= i

i
e

1
i
2

i n

1
i
2

ik

i(n+

-1
ei (1 ein )

i
1 e

1
)
2

2 i s in

1
i
2

) cos
sin( n + ) sin
2
2 +
2
2

2 sin
2 sin
2
2

cos( n +

< ar cot

y
<
x 2

ar cot

y
argz
x

0 a rg z < 2 ,

6.

= a rg z =

y
x
y
a rc ta n
x
y
a rc ta n
x
y
a rc ta n
x
a rc ta n

b < 1, a = 1,

z I
+ , z II
+ z III
+ 2 z IV

a b
=1
1 ab

a = 1
.

ab
ab
ab
ab
=
=
=
=1
1 a b
ab
a 1 a b
a a a b

7. z1 , z2 , z3

z2 z1 z1 z3
=
z2 z1 = z3 z1 = z2 z3
z3 z1 z2 z3

z = z2 = z3 C 0

C. C=0 1

c = 1 z1 z3 2 =

z2 z1 z2 z3

z2 z3 = z1 z2 z3 z1
2

c = 1, c = 1
3

8. Re z

= x x2 + y 2 = z

z1 + z2 z1 + z2 , z1 z2 z1 z2

z1 + z 2
= z1

= z1

= ( z1 + z 2 ) ( z1 + z 2 ) = z1 z 1 + z 2 z 2 + z 1 z 2 + z1 z 2

+ 2 R e ( z1 z 2 ) + z 2
+ 2 z1 z 2 + z 2

z1

+ 2 z1 z 2 + z 2

= ( z1 + z 2 ) 2

9.
> 0N ( )p zn + p zn > , z
lim zn = z0 , > 0N ( ) > 0n>N
n

z n z0 <

z n + p z0 <

2
2
(13) zn + p zn = zn + p z0 + z0 zn zn + p z0 + zn z0 <
> 0N ( ) > 0n>Nzn + p z0 <
2
2
xn + p xn xn + p xn
y
n + p yn = zn + p z n <
2
2
y n + p yn xn + p xn
y
n + p yn = z n + p z n <

x0y0
lim xn = x0
n

lim yn = y0
n

n zn lim zn = limxn + iyn= x0 + y0 = z0


n

1+i n
10. -N
0

1+i n
1 n
>0
-0 <
<
2
2
ln
ln
.

n>N= n > N ( )
ln 2
ln 2
1+i n
lim
=0
n
2

11.
n
in1
3+4i n
1
n
n
n
n
1z =
2z =1
3z =
(4)zn =1
n
6
2n +1
2n +1
n
n
i
1
n
(5)zn =in1 (6)zn =n+( 1
(2n +1)i (7)zn =1+ sin
8zn =1+ cos
n
6
2n
6
n

(1) z n n 0 lim z n = 0
n

1
1

lim z n =
n
n
2
2
(3) (1), lim z n = 0;

2lim z n =

(4) (1), lim z n = 0;


n

(5) 1, i

( 6 ) { z n }
M , N , n > N , z n ,
z = 0 , lim z n =
n

(7)
0,
(8)

1
3

1 ( )
2
2

1
1
lim = 1lim = 1
n
n
2

1.1.2

1.

(1) R e( z 2 )

(3)

>

1
2

z + 3 + z 3 = 10 ;

1 Re z

y2 =

(2) 0

(4)

< arg( z 1) <

z 1
1.
z +1

= Re( x 2 y 2 + 2ixy ) = x 2 y 2

x2 y 2 >

1) = arg [ ( x 1) + iy ] = arctg

2 arg( z

0 < arctg
y>0

<
x 1 4
0

x>1

y
x 1

<

y
<1
x 1

y<x 1

(3)

00

z + 3 + z 3 = 10

( x + 3) 2 + y 2 + ( x 3) 2 + y 2 = 10

( x + 3) 2 + y 2 = 100 20 ( x 3) 2 + y 2 + ( x 3) 2 + y 2
12 x = 100 20 ( x 3) 2 + y 2 5 ( x 3) 2 + y 2 = 25 3 x

25( x 2 6 x + 9) + 25 y 2 = 625 150 x + 9 x 2

x
y
16 x 2 + 25 y 2 = (20) 2 ( ) 2 + ( ) 2 = 1
5
4
(4)

z 1
( x 1) 2 + y 2
=
1
z +1
( x + 1) 2 + y 2

x2 2 x + 1 + y 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 + y 2
4x 0

x0

3
4.

1
z

1
z

Re z = c

c = Re z = Re

1
1

= Re
= 2
+ i + 2
w

c ( 2 + 2 ) =
c ( 2

1
) + c
4c 2

1
4c

1 2
1
) + 2 = 2 ( 1 , 0 ) 1
2c
4c
2c
2c

x , eix 0

eix = cos x + i sin x = 0

x cos x = 0 sin x = 0

x = (k +

1
)
2

x = k k = 0, 1,........

6
1

cos(ix)

ln(i)

1 cos(ix)

(2)

ch(ix)

5 ln

(3)

sin( a + ib)

a,b

1
1
= (ei iix + ei iix ) = (e x + e x ) = chx
2
2

1 ix
(e + e ix ) = cos x
2

c h (ix ) =

sin(a + bi ) = sin a cos(ib) + cos a sin(ib)

1
1
= sin a (e b + e b ) + cos a (e b eb )
2
2i

= sin a c hb + i cos ashb


4

ln( i ) = ln( i eiArg ( i ) ) = ln i + iArg (i )


= i(

+ 2k ) k = 0, 1, 2,.......

5 ln

5 =

1
1
(ln 5 eiArg ( 5) ) = [ ln 5 + iArg ( 5) ]
2
2

ln 5 + i ( + k )
2
2

k = 0, 1, 2,......

7.z0
1 z z
1)f(z)=2x+iy , z0 = 2i
(2)f(z)= ( ), z0 = 0
2i z z

1 limf(z)=-4if(z0 )=-4i
2

zz0

2xy
y=kxk
x0 x + y2
y0

2limf(z)=lim
z0

8.f ( z )z = z0f ( z0 ) 0z0f ( z )0


> 0, > 0 z z0 <
1
f ( z0 ) f ( z )z0
2
1
> 0z z0 < f ( z ) f ( z0 ) < = f ( z0 )
2
1.114 f ( z ) f ( z0 ) f ( z0 ) f ( z )
f ( z ) f ( z0 ) <

f ( z0 ) 0 =

f ( z0 ) > 2 f ( z ) f ( z0 ) 2 f ( z0 ) 2 f ( z )
f ( z0 ) >

1
f ( z0 ) > 0,f ( z )z0 f ( z ) 0.
2

9.f ( z ) = z 2 z < 1
> 0 > 0 z ' z '' < ,
f ( z ') f ( z '') = z '2 z ''2 < z 'z ''
z < 1 z ' < 1, z '' < 1,

z '+ z '' z ' + z '' < 2

= z ' z '' <


2
z '2 z ''2 < 2 z ' z '' < f ( z ) = z 2 z < 1

z '2 z ''2 = z '+ z '' z ' z '' < 2 z ' z ''

1.1.3

1 lim
z 0

z*
z

z i
z 1+ i z + 1

1
z i 1 + z 2

3 lim

lim

1 z

k y = kx

z*
x ikx 1 ik k
lim = lim
=
z 0 z
z 0 x + ikx
1 + ik
2

z i 1+ i i
1
2 i
=
=
=
z 1+i z + 1
1+ i +1 2 + i 5 5
lim

1
=
z i 1 + z 2

3 lim

2.

= z 4 2 = z

5z 4
z 1

= z

= z 4

>0

>0

z z0 <

f ( z ) f ( z0 ) = z z0 z z0 < < z0 = z

z = 1 z = 1

3.f ( z ) = z n
1
n

z + nz n1z + n(n 1) z n2 (z )2 + + (z )n z n

( z + z ) z
2

f '( z ) = lim
= lim
x 0
x 0
z
z
n 1
= nz
n

x2 y
, x2 + y2 > 0
2
2
4. u ( x , y ) u ( x , y ) = x + y
0,
x= y=0

u ( x , y )0
0
u ( x , y ) u ( x , y ) = u x x + u y y +
= x2 + y2 0 =
u ( x , y ) ( x , y ) u x x + u y y u ( x , y ) ( x , y )
du= u x dx + u y dy

u ( x , y ) u ( x , y )

0 u (0, 0) = u x (0, 0) x + u y (0, 0) y + x2 + y2


0
x2 y
u (0, 0) = u ( x , y ) u (0, 0) =

x2 + y2
x2 y
u x (0, 0) = 0 u y (0, 0) = 0 x2 + y2 =
x2 + y2
1
x
x = y 2 x =
=
x 0 0
2
2 2
u ( x , y ) u ( x , y ) (0, 0).

5.zz
f
zxy0
C-R
1y=0, z = x.
f ( z + z ) f ( z )
[u ( x + x, y ) + iv( x + x, y)] [u ( x, y) + iv( x, y)]
f '( z ) = lim
= lim
z 0
x 0
z
x
u ( x + x, y) + u ( x, y)
v( x + x, y) v( x, y) u v
= lim
+ +i lim
=
+i
x 0
x 0
x
x
x x
(2)x=0, z = iy
f ( z + z ) f ( z )
[u ( x, y + y) + iv( x, y + y)] [u( x, y) + iv( x, y)]
f '( z ) = lim
= lim
z 0
y 0
z
x
u ( x, y + y) + u ( x, y)
v( x, y + y) v( x, y)
u v
= lim
+ +i lim
= i +
y 0
y 0
y
y
y y
C-R

1.1.4
C-R

1
2
z
2 = x 3 = z z 4 = e (5)w = z
z

x
1 z*
x iy

=
= = 2 = 2
x2 + y 2
z z
x + y2

x2 + y 2 2 x2
y 2 x2
= 2
x =
( x 2 + y 2 )2
( x + y 2 )2

2 xy
x = 2
( x + y 2 )2

y =

y
x2 + y2

2 xy
( x 2 + y 2 )2

( x 2 + y 2 ) + 2 y 2
y 2 x2
= 2
y =
( x 2 + y 2 )2
( x + y 2 )2

z = 0 x = y y = x C-R z = 0

= x, = x, = 0 x = 1, y = 0, x = 0, y = 0

C-R

= z z = ( x 2 + y 2 )( x + iy ) = x 3 + xy 2 = x 2 y + y 3
2

x = 3x 2 + y 2 , y = 2 xy, x = 2 xy, y = x 2 + 3 y 2
2
2
2
2
= 3 x + y = x + 3 y x = y.......
1
x
y
= 2 xy = 2 xy xy = 0........
2
y
x
12

x = y = 0 z = 0 C-R

= e z = e x +iy = e x (cos y + i sin y )


= e x cos y = e x sin y
x = e x cos y, y = e x sin y, x = e x sin y, y = e x cos y

C-R

u(x, 0) u(0, 0)
x 0
x

(5)00ux (0, 0) = lim


x
(x)2 0
= lim
= lim
,
x 0
x 0 x
x
2.
1

f ( z ) = ( z 2 4 z + 6) 2

f (z) =

2z
1 z

f ( z) = 2( z 2 4 z + 6)(2 z 4) = 4( z 2 4 z + 6)( z 2)
f ( z ) =

2(1 z ) 2 z (1)
2
=
(1 z ) 2
(1 z ) 2

( , ) C-R

1
=

x = cos , y = sin
x 2 + y 2 , = arctan
=
1

y
x

x y

=
+
=
cos +
sin
x y x
y

1 1 x y
= (
+
)
x y
=

[ ( sin ) +
cos )] =
cos
sin
y
y
x
x

1

=
=
=
,
x y y
x

C-R

(1)

x y

cos +
sin
=
+
=

x
y
x
y

= [ ( sin ) +
cos )]
y
x

cos +
sin
y
x

C-R

= ,
=
x
y y
x

1
=

z = ei , z = ei + i ei
f ( z ) = ( , ) + i ( , )
1 = 0
z = ei = + i

f ( z ) = lim

=0
f ( z ) = lim

+i

i
=
e
+
i
(
)
i
e

z = i ei
+i
i 1
i
=
e
(

+
)
i
ie

z 0

1
=

1
=

4. z z x , y
f ( z ) = u ( x , y ) + iv ( x , y ) = U ( z , z ) + iV ( z , z ) = F ( z , z )

F ( z , z ) = 0 C R
z
x
1
1
1
1 y
z=x+iy z =x-iy x= ( z + z ), y = ( z z ); = , =
z
2i
2
2
2 z
z z x , y f ( z ) = u ( x , y ) + iv ( x , y ) = U ( z , z ) + iV ( z , z ) = F ( z , z )
u ( x , y ) = u x ( z , z )y ( z , z ) = U ( z , z ),
v ( x , y ) = v x ( z , z )y ( z , z ) = V ( z , z )

F ( z , z ) z

f x f y
1 u
v
1 u
v
F ( z, z ) =
+
= (
+i ) (
+i )

z
x z
y z
2 x
x
2i y
y
i u v
1 u v
= (
)+ (
+ ) 0C-R
2 x y
2 y x

0 =

f ( z ) = F ( z , z ) z

1
2

=
(
,
)
0
( z + z ),

Rez=
F
z
z
z
zz

z
2

1.1.5

1.
1

z z * 2 = x 2 + iy 2 3 = xy + iy

= ( x + iy ) ( x iy ) = 2iy
= 0, = 2 y
x = 0, y = 0, x = 0, y = 2

C-R

= x 2 + iy 2
= x 2 , = y 2
x = 2 x, y = 0, x = 0, y = 2 y

z = 0 C-R
3 = xy + iy

= xy , = y

x = y, y = x, x = 0, y = 1

z = 0 C-R

2.

f ( z ) = u + iv

u = e x cos y 2 = 2 xy + 2 y 3 = cos xshy

(4)u = x 2 + y 2 xy, f (i ) = 1 + i; (5)v = x + x 2 + y 2 , f (0) = 0


1

u = e x cos y

2u 2u
x
x
cos
cos y = 0 u
+
=
e
y

e
2
2
x y
C-R 1

u
=
= e x cos y
x y

u
=
= e x sin y
x
y

1 y :

= e x cos ydy + g ( x) = e x sin y + g ( x)


2 g(x)

e x sin y + g ( x) = e x sin y
g ( x) = 0, g ( x) = c
f ( z ) = u + i = e x (cos y + i sin y ) + ic = e z + ic
(2) = 2 xy + 2 y
2 2
+
=0
2 x 2 y

C-R 1

u
=
= 2x + 2
x y

u
=
= 2 y
x
y

1 x :

u = (2 x + 2)dx + g ( y ) = x 2 + 2 x + g ( y )
2 g(y)

g ( y ) = 2 y, g ( y ) = y 2 + c
u = x2 + 2x y2 + c
f ( z ) = u + i = ( x 2 + 2 x y 2 + c) + i (2 xy + 2 y )
3 = cos xshy
2 2
+ 2 = cos xshy + cos xshy = 0
2
x y
C-R 1 u

1 x :

u
= cos xchy 2
=
= s in x s h y
y
x
y

u = cos xchydx + g ( y ) = sin xchy + g ( y )

2 g(y)

sin xshy + g ( y ) = sin xshy

g ( y ) = 0, g ( y ) = c

f ( z ) = u + i = sin x + c + i cos xshy

1
1
(4)C Rdv = vx dx + vy dy = ux dx + u y dy = d (2 xy x2 + y 2 )
2
2
1
1
v( x, y) = 2 xy x2 + y 2 + c
f(i)=-1+ix=0,y=1v=1
2
2
1
i
i
i
i
c= ,f ( z) = u( z,0) + iv( z,0) = z 2 z 2 + = z 2 (1 ) +
2
2
2
2 2

(5)v= cos + = i 2 sin C R


2
1
u
v

u 1 v
=
=
cos ,
=
=
sin

2

2
2
2
udu = u d + u d =

cos d
sin d = d ( 2 cos )
2
2
2
2
2

u = 2 cos + c
2

f ( z) = u + iv = 2 cos + c + 2 sin = 2 e 2 + c = 2 z + c
2
2
f (0) = 0c = 0f ( z) = 2 z

f ( z ) D f ( z ) D

= Re f ( z ) =

f ( z ) = + i =

( x0 , y0 )

= 0,
=0
y
x

dx +
dy ) + 0 = 0 ()
y
x

( x, y )

= Im f ( z ) =

3.

f ( z ) D

f ( z) = 2 + 2 = c
c = 0 2 + 2 = 0 = = 0, f ( z )
c0

2 + 2 = c2

x, y

+
=0
x
x

1 = 0

+
=0
y
x


x y

+
=0
y
y


= 2 + 2 = c 2 0

=
x y

=0

= 2 + 2 = c 2
f ( z ) =
1) f ( z ) 0 f ( z ) z 0
31 ( z ) = ln f ( z )

( z ) = ln( f ( z ) ei arg f ( z ) ) = ln f ( z ) + i arg f ( z )


( z ) 31 ( z )
ln f ( z ) = ( z ) f ( z )

(3)f ( z )D
f ( z ) = u + ivf ( z ) = u ivC R
u x = v y ,v x = u y ; u x = v y , -v x = u y ,u x = u y =v x = v y = 0
uvf ( z )
4

0 x > 0

1.

2.

= z
z

= c1
= c2

3.z

= z
( + i ) 2 = 2 = z = x + iy
2 2 + i 2 = x + iy
2 2 = x

2 = y

y 2 = 4 2 2 = 4( x + 2 ) 2 = 4 2 x + 4 4

y 2 = 4c12 x + 4c14

y 2 = 4 2 2 = 4( x + 2 ) 2 = 4 2 x + 4 4

y 2 = 4c2 2 x = 4c2 4

= ln z

4. f ( z ) D 2 f ( z ) = 4 f '( z )
2

f ( z)
u
v
f ( z ) = u + iv f ( z ) = u + v ,
= 2u
+ 2v
= 2uu x + 2vv x
x
x
x
2

2 f ( z)
2 f ( z)
2
2
=
u
+
v
+
uu
+
vv
= 2(u y 2 + v y 2 + uu yy + vv yy )
2(
),

x
x
xx
xx
2
2
x
y
2

f ( z ) D f '( z ) = u x + iv x = v y iu y
f '( z ) = u x 2 + v x 2 = u y 2 + v y 2
2

u v.

2 u = u xx + u yy = 0, 2 v = v xx + v yy = 0

2
2
2
+
f ( z ) = 2[u x 2 + v x 2 + u y 2 + v y 2 + u (u xx + u yy ) + v (v xx + v yy )]
2
2
x y

= 2[u x 2 + v x 2 + u y 2 + v y 2 ] = 4 f '( z )

5.
:(1)sin 2 z + cos 2 z=1;(2)sin( z1 z 2 ) = sin z1 cos z2 sin z 2 cos z1;
(3)cos( z1 z 2 ) = cos z1 cos z2 sin z1 sin z 2;(4)ch 2z-sh 2z=1;
(5)sh(z1 z2 )=shz1chz2 shz2chz1;(6)ch(z1 z2 )=chz1chz2 shz1shz2
e iz + e iz 2 e iz e iz 2
(1)
sin z + cos z=(
) +(
)
2
2i
1
= ( e i 2 z + e i 2 z + 2 e i 2 z e i 2 z + 2) = 1
4
2

6. (24)
shz=-isin(iz)
e i iz e i iz e z e z
-isin(iz)=-i
=
= shz
2i
2
7.
(1)(sin z ) ' = cos z;(2)(cos z) ' = sin z;(3)( shz) ' = chz;(4)(chz) ' = shz
e z e z
e z + e z
=
(3)( shz ) ' =

= chz
2
2

8. sin z, cos z, shz, chz(0)


eiz e iz
= 0ei 2 z = 1ei 2 k = 1
sin z =
2i
sin zz=k(k=0, 1, 2, ).


()
1

= ( x, y )

= ( x, y ) = x ( x, y ) x + y ( x, y ) + 0( ( x)2 + ( y )2 )

= ( x, y )

( x, y )
x ( x, y )
y

x y ( x, y ) x y

f (2)

x , y , x , y

C-R

f (2)

x y ( x, y )
x2 y

( x, y ) = x 2 + y 2
0

x 0, y 0
x = 0, y = 0

( x, y ) 00

0,0= x (0,0) x + y (0,0) y + 1 ( x)2 + ( y )2

lim 1 = 0 x (0,0) = lim


x 0

x 0

y 0

(0 + x,0) (0,0)
x

(0 + x) 2 0
i0
(0 + x) 2 + 0
= lim
=0
x 0
x
(0,0 + x) (0,0)
y (0,0) = lim
y 0
y
(0 + y ) 2 i0
0
(0 + y ) 2 + 0
= lim
=0
y 0
y

(0,0) = 0 + 0 + 1 ( x) 2 + ( y ) 2

(0,0)
(0,0) = (0 + x,0 + y ) (0,0)

(0 + x) 2 (0 + y )
( x) 2 y
0 =
(0 + x) 2 + (0 + y ) 2
( x) 2 + ( y ) 2

x y x = y 0

2 3)

1 =

( x)2 x
( x) + ( y ) =
( x)2 + ( x) 2

1
2 2

( x, y )

1.

1.2.1

z dz l 1-1 1 2

-1 1(3)
1y=0, z = x ,dz=dx,

1 2 0 1 21 1 1
z
dz
=

xdx
+
xdx
=

+ x = + =1
x
1
1
0
2 1 2 0 2 2
1

2 z = e

z dz = 1iie d =e
i

= 1 ei = 2

i
3 z= e I3 =

2+ 4i

1+ i

e i i d = 2

z 2 dz l

1 x = t , y

= t 2 1 t 2

21 + i 2 + 4i
31 + i 2 + i 2 + 4i

= x + iy = t + it 2 , z 2 = t 2 (1 + it ) 2 = t 2 + 2it 3 t 4
dz = (1 + 2it )dt

1 z

I =

2+ 4i

1+ i

z 2 dz = (t 2 + 2it 3 t ) 4 (1 + 2it )dt


1

= (t 2 + 2it 3 + 2it 3 4t 4 t 4 2it 5 )dt


1

2
t3
2 2 1
= + it 4 t 5 t 6 = (t 3 + i3t 4 3t 5 it 6 )
1
6 1 3
3

1
86
= [(8 + i 48 96 i 64) (1 + 3i 3 i )] =
6i
3
3
21 + i 2 + 4i
y 1 = x 1 y = 3x 2
4 1 2 1

I =

2+ 4 i

1+i

z dz =
2

2+ 4 i

1+i

[( x 2 y 2 ) + 2ixy ](dx + idy )

= [ x 2 (3 x 2) 2 + 2ix(3 x 2)](1 + 3i ) dx =
1

86
6i
3

31 + i 2 + i 2 + 4i

I =

2+ 4 i

1+i

[( x 2 y 2 ) + 2ixy ](dx + idy )

= [( x 2 1) + 2ix]dx + i [(4 y 2 ) 4iy ]dy =


1

3.I =

(2.4)

(0.3)

86
6i
3

[(2 y + x 2 )dx + (3x y )dy ],

(1)(0,3)(2,4)(2)(0,3)(2,3)(2,3)(2,4)
(3)x=2t,y=t2 + 3, 0 t 1.
(1)(0,3)(2,4)2y-x-6=0,x=2y-6
97
3
3
6
(2)(0,3)(2,3)y=3,dy=0;(2,3)(2,4)x=2,
2
4
103
dx=0,I2 = (2 3 + x 2 )dx + (3 2 y )dy =
0
3
6
(3)(0,3)(2,4)t=0t=1
4

I1 = {[2 y + (2y-6) 2 ]2dy + [3(2y-6) y ]dy} = (8 y 2 39 y + 54)dy =

I3 = {[2(t2 + 3) + (2t)2 ]2dt + [3(2t)-(t2 + 3)]2tdt} = (24t 2 + 12 2t 3 6t )dt =

33
2

dz
, (1) i i
l z
(2) i i
(3) 11
4.

(4) 11
(1) z = e i ,
(2) z = e i ,

, I1 =

3
, I2 =
2

CR

CR

dz
=
z

dz
=
z

id
2
3
2

de i
=
e i

id = i
2

= i

2
dz
=
C R z id = i
0
dz
(4) z = e i , 0, I 4 =
= id = i

CR z

(3) z = e i , 2 , I 3 =

5. f ( ) D
lim

z 0

f ( )
d =
L ( z )( z z )

f ( )
d , L D z D
L ( z ) 2

>0, ( )>0 z <


I =

f ( )
d
L ( z )( z z )

f ( )
d < ,
L ( z ) 2

L l z min z = d
f ( ) D f ( ) f ( ) M (
5
I =
z

f ( )[

1
1
]d =

( z )( z z ) ( z ) 2
f ( )

z ( z z )
2

f ( ) z
L ( z ) 2 ( z z ) d

d ( ) z <

z 0 z <
min z = d I

M
L

d 2 (d

d
)
2

2 Ml
d3

2 Ml
d
I I
3
2
d
3
d d
< min(
, ), z I
2 Ml 2

d
,
2

1.2.2

1.
1

dz
l z 2 + 4 ;

dz
l ( z 2 + 4) ;

l a z i = 2
b z + i = 2

c z = 8

1 1 = 1 ( 1 1 )
4 + z 2 4i z 2i z + 2i

dz
1

2
i
=
i

=
4i z i =2 z 2i 4i
2

a I = 1
(b) I = 1
4i

z +i = 2

dz
= i 2 i =
z + 2i
4i
2

1
1
1
(
)dz = (2 i 2 i ) = 0

4i
4i z =8 z 2i z + 2i

(c) I = 1

(2)

1
( z 2 + 4) ( z 2 4)
1
z2 4
=
=

( z 2 + 4)2
8( z 2 + 4)2
8( z 2 + 4) 8( z 2 + 4)2
1
1
1
1
1
1
)
(
) (
=

+
2
32i z 2i z + 2i 16 ( z 2i) ( z + 2i)2

n
(
z

a
)
dz = 2 i n ,1

dz
1
dz
1

=
=

=
2
i
z i = 2 ( z 2 + 4)2 32i z i = 2 z 2i 32i
16
dz
1
dz
1

b
2
i
=

z + i = 2 ( z 2 + 4)2 32i z + i = 2 z + 2i 32i


16

(c)

dz
1
=
z =8 ( z 2 + 4)2 32i

z =8

dz
dz
1
) dz =
(2 i 2 i ) = 0

z 2i z + 2i
32i

a1 + b1i a2 + b2i c1 + d1i c2 + d 2i


1
=
+
+
+
( z 2 + 4) 2 ( z + 2i ) 2 ( z + 2i ) ( z 2i ) 2 ( z 2i )

a1 = c1 =

1
1
, b2 = d 2 = ,
16
32

2.

dz l z i = 2
l z i

z i = 1
1 D
z i

3 2 z + 1dz , l
l z 2 + z
1 z =

1
;
4

2 z 1 = 1 ;

3 z + 1 = 1
4

4 z = 2

f ( z ) =

l1

2z + 1 1
1
f ( z ) z = 0 z = 1
=
+
2
z + z z z +1

dz
l1 z = 2 i

f ( z )dz =

l1

f ( z )dz = 0 ( l2 )

dz
l3
l3 z + 1 = 2 i l f ( z )dz = l dzz + l zdz+ 1 =2 i + 2 i = 4 i
4 f ( z ) D z0 D
f ( z )dz =

F ( z ) = f ( )d D F ( z ) = f ( z )
z

z0

f ( z ) F ( z + z )

F ( z ) 4

F ( z + z) F ( z) =

z+ z

z0

z z +

z+ z

z0

f ( )d f ( )d =

f ( )d

f ( z ) z > 0 > 0 z <

f ( ) f ( z ) < z < z <

z+ z
F ( z + z ) F ( z ) f ( z ) = 1
f ( ) d f ( z )

z
z
z
z+ z
1
1 z+ z
1 z+ z
[
(
)
(
)]
(
)
(
)
=
f

f
z
d

f
z
d

<

d =

z
z
z
z
z
z

F ( z + z) F ( z)
= f ( z)
z 0
z
3z 1
dz
;(2)
(3)
5.(1)
sin
;
zdz
z =1
z =4 (z +1)(z 3)dz;
z =1 z 2 + 2z + 4
cos z
(4)
dz
z+3i =1 z + i

F ( z ) = lim

(1)z1,2 = 1 i 3, z1,2 = 1 i 3 = 2,
z = 1I1 =0.
(2)sinz()I2 =0.
(3)

3z 1
2
1
=
+

( z +1)(z 3) z 3 z +1

z1 = 3z2 = 1 z = 4 (z a)n dz = 2 in,1


l

2
1
+
)dz = 2 2 i + 2 i = 6 i
z =4 z 3
z +1
(4)z=-i z+3i = 1I4 =0
I3 =

6. ( x)C R ( z = Rei ,
R ,1 2 ) lim z ( z ) = K lim ( z )dz = iK ( 2 1 )
R

R CR

> 0, arg zM ( ) > 0 z = R > M


dz
= i ( 2 1 ), 5
CR z a
dz
dz
lim ( z )dz iK ( 2 1 ) = [ z ( z ) K ]
max z ( z ) K
< ( 2 1 )
CR
CR z
R CR
z

z ( z ) K <

( 2 1 )

lim ( z )dz = iK ( 2 1 )

R CR

1.2.3

1.

1
1

(
)dz = 2 i 2 i = 0
z =5 z
1
z+
3
f ( z ) = 1

dz
z =5 z (1 + 3z ) =

sin z
z 1 =5 z dz = 2 i sin z

z =0

=0

f ( z ) = sin z

= 0

dz
1 1
1
1 1
1
=

[
(
)
(
z =2 z 4 1 z =2 4 z 1 z + 1 4i z i z + i )]dz
1
1
= (2 i 2 i ) (2 i 2 i ) = 0
4
4i

f ( Z ) = 1

z
zdz
z
2( z 2)
=
=
2

dz
i
z =1 (2 z 1)( z 2) z =1 1
2( z 2)
z+
2

1
z =
2

i
5

2.
1

2sin z
z =2

(z )
2

dz =
2

2 i d
(2sin z )
1! dz

z=

= 4 i cos z

z=

=0

( z a ) n dz = 2 i n ,1

2cos z z =
2
z
2
e
2

i
d
z
2
=
dz
e
z =1 z 3
2! dz 2

3 1
2 i

e z

= i

e z

z n l n
l n+1 d = n!

f ( n ) (a ) =

1
2 i

z =0

n!
2 i

1 d z
d

e
=
n
l n+1
n ! d

f ( )
l ( a)n+1 d

z n z
e
=0 =
n!

=0

zn
=
n!

f ( z ) l

z , f ( z )

f ( z) =

1
2 i

f ( z)
dz z l z l
z z

cR l z
f ( z ) = 1
2 i

cR

f ( z )
1
dz +
z z
2 i

f ( z ) l cR
l

f ( z )
dz

zz

R
cR

R 5
M
cR

cR

f ( z )
dz
z z

z = R z z z z = R z

cR

f ( z)
M
dz
z z
R z

cR

dz =

f ( z ) 0 M 0

cR

cR

f ( z ) cR f ( z ) M

f ( z )
dz
z z

f ( z)
1
dz = 0 f ( z ) =
z z
2 i

M i2
z
R
R

f ( z)
dz
z z

5.I= e a cos cos(a sin n )da>0.


0

z=aei , dz = iaei d , d =
2

I=Re e a cos +i ( a sin n )d = a n Re

dz

iz
i

e ae
ez
n
d = a Re
dz
z =1 iz n +1
(aei ) n

2 d n e z
2 a n
= a Re(
) z =0 =
n
n! dz
n!
n

6.f ( z ) lim
r 0

f (rei )d = 2 f (0)

f (re ) > 0,
i

r < [ f (rei ) f (0)] < 5


0

[ f (rei ) f (0)]d [ f (rei ) f (0)]d < d = 2


2

0 lim [ f (rei ) f (0)]d = 0


r 0

lim
r 0

f (rei )d =

f (0)d = 2 f (0)

7.f(z)g(z)DlDlf(z)=g(z)
lf(z)=g(z)
H(z)=f(z)-g(z)H(z)l
H(z)=

2 i

H( )
d = 0
l -z

l H( )=f( )-g( )=0

lzH(z)=f(z)-g(z)=0, f(z)=g(z)
8.
1 2
f ( z + rei )d
f(z)=

2 0
lzrl = rei , d = rei id
f( )
1 2 f ( z + rei ) i
1
f(z)=
d =
re id =

2 i l -z
2 i 0
2
re
1

f ( z + rei ) d

9. f ( z ) z f ( z )
CRzRCR f ( z ) M R
(n = 1) f '( z ) =

f( )
CR

-z

M
= 0f '( z ) = 0f ( z )
R R

lim f '( z ) = lim


R

f( )
1
d
2

2 i CR ( -z)
2
1

M 2 R M
=
2 R
R

8.1.1

( x ) = lim

( x ) = lim

e n

2 2

(x +
2

( x ) = lim

(1 + n 2 x 2 )

x 0
x = 0,

lim

lim

(x +2 )
2

( x2 + 2 )

= 0,
= lim

x
v= ,
lim

(x +
2

dv
1
= arctan | = 1
2
1 + v

dx =

8.1.2

( 2 ) e x ( x 2 1)dx

(1) cos x ( x )dx

( 3 ) sin 2 x ' ( x

( 9 ) ( 22 ) ( 29 )

(1) cos x ( x )dx = cos 0 = 1


1
( 2 ) e x ( x 2 1)dx = e x [ ( x 1) + ( x + 1)]dx = ch1

( 3) sin 2 x ' ( x )dx =

d
sin 2 |x =
dx

= 2sin x cos x |x =

= sin 2 .

)dx

10.1.1

(1)utt a 2u xx = 0,

u ( x, 0) = sin x,

(2)utt a 2u xx = 0,

u ( x, 0) = x3 ,

ut ( x, 0) = x 2
ut ( x, 0) = x

1
1 x + at
(1)u ( x, t ) = [ ( x + at ) + ( x at )] +
( s )ds
2
2a x at
1
1 x + at 2
= [sin( x + at ) + sin( x at )] +
s ds
2
2a x at
1 1 3 x + at
= sin x cos at +
s
2a 3 x at
1
2(3 x 2 at + a 3t 3 )
6a
1
= sin x cos at + x 2t + a 2t 3
3
= sin x cos at +

1
1 x + at
(2)u ( x, t ) = [( x + at )3 + ( x at )3 ] +
sds
2
2a x at
1
1 1 2 x + at
= 2( x 3 + 3 xa 2t 2 ) +
s
2
2a 2 x at
1
2 2at
4a
= x 3 + 3 xa 2t 2 + xt
= x 3 + 3 xa 2t 2 +

2
u x ) = 0 ,
x
w( x, t )
w( x, t ) = xu ( x, t ) u ( x, t ) =
x

10.1.2 utt a 2 (u xx +

2 w
w
w
0 = a 2 [ + ]
x t0
x xx x x x
w w
1
2a 2 wx w
wtt a 2 ( x 2 ) x +
( 2 )
x
x
x
x
3
w x ( wx x w)2 x
w xw
= wtt a 2 x
2a 2 x 3
4
x
x
2w 2w 2w 2w
1
= [ wtt a 2 ( wxx x + 2 + x 2 )]
x
x
x
x
x
1
= ( wtt a 2 wxx )
x

x wtt a 2 wxx = 0

w( x, t ) = f1 ( x + at ) + f 2 ( x at )
u ( x, t ) =

1
1
w( x, t ) = [ f1 ( x + at ) + f 2 ( x at )]
x
x

10.1.3

utt + 2 ut + 2u a 2u xx = 0

u ( x, 0) = ( x), ut ( x, 0) = ( x),

< x <
< x <

(1) w( x, t ) = e u ( x, t ) u ( x, t ) = e

w( x, t )

0 = (e t w)tt + 2 (e t w)t + 2 (e t w) a 2 (e t w) xx
= ( e t w + e t wt )t + 2 ( e t w + e t wt ) +

2 e t w a 2 e t wxx
= 2 e t w 2e t wt + e t wtt 2 2 e t w + 2 e t wt
+ 2 e t w a 2 e t wxx
= e t ( wtt a 2 wxx )
e t 0,

wtt a 2 wxx = 0

(2) w

w( x, 0) = e t u ( x, t )

t =0

wt ( x, 0) = [e t u ( x, t )]t

= u ( x, 0) = ( x)
t =0

= [ e t u ( x, t ) + e t ut ( x, t )]

t =0

= u ( x, 0) + ut ( x, 0) = ( x) + ( x)
1
u ( x, t ) = e t w( x, t ) = e t [ ( x + at ) + ( x at )]
2
x + at
1
+ e t
[ ( ) + ( )]d
2a x at
10.1.4

utt a 2u xx = 0

u ( x, 0 ) = 0,
u (0, t ) = h(t )
x

0< x<
ut ( x, 0) = 0

u ( x, t ) = f1 ( x + at ) + f 2 ( x at )

0 = u ( x, 0) = f1 ( x) + f 2 ( x)""" (1)

0 = ut ( x, 0) = af1( x) af 2( x)"" (2)


2 f1 ( x) f 2 ( x) = c1 """ (3)

c1
2

(1) + (3) :

f1 ( x) =

(1) (3) :

f 2 ( x) =

( x 0)""" (4)
c1
2

( x 0) """ (5)

x + at 0 x at f 2 ( x at ) = ?

f1(at ) + f 2(at ) = h(t )

f1( ) + f 2( ) = h( )
a

= at > 0

s
f1 ( ) f 2 ( ) = h( )ds + f1 (0) f 2 (0)
0
a
=

s
a

= a a h( )d + c1
0

f 2 ( ) = f1 ( ) a a h( )d c1
0

c1
a a h( )d c1
0
2

c
= a a h( )d 1
0
2
c1
0" (5)
2
f 2 ( ) =

a a h( )d c1
< 0" (6)
0
2
x
c1
t " (7)
2
a
f 2 ( x at ) =
x
x
a t a h( )d c1
t > " (8)

a
2
=

4 f1 ( x + at ) =

c1
2

u ( x, t ) = f1 ( x + at ) + f 2 ( x at )

0
=
x
a t a h( )d
0

x
a
x
t>
a
t

10.2.1
.

:
1

utt a 2 2 = 0

u0

u |t =0 =
0

ut |t =0 = 0

R < R0

R R0

2
2
2 u 2 u 1 ( Ru )
u= 2 +
=
R
R R R R 2
2

v = Ru ,

vtt a 2 v RR = 0
3

v ( R, t ) = f1 ( R + at ) + f 2 ( R at )

u ( R, t ) =

1
[ f1 ( R + at ) + f 2 ( R at )]
R

4 f1f , ,

ut =0 ( R, t ) =
ut |t =0 =

u0
1
[ f1 ( R ) + f 2 ( R ) ] =
R
0

R < R0

R > R0

1
[af1' ( R ) + f 2' ( R )] = 0
R

R / a

f1 ( R ) f 2 ( R ) = 2C

1
R < R0
Ru + C ,
f1 ( R ) = 2 0
C ,
R > R0

1
Ru C ,
f2 ( R ) = 2 0
C ,

R < R0

R > R0

R at ,
(5) M , R + at > R0 , f1 ( R + at ) = C

f 2 ( R at )

u ( R, t ) =

1
[ f1 ( R + at ) + f 2 ( R at )]
R

-at
u0 ,

= 2R
0,

R < R0 ,

R at < R0

R > R0 ,

R at > R0

(6) M , R at R0 ,

u ( R, t ) =

1
[ f1 ( R + at ) + f 2 ( R at )]
R

u0
R at

=
u0
2R
0

R at < R + at < R0
R at < R0 < R + at
R0 < R at < R + at

10.2.2 .

utt a 2 2 = 0

sin ( R / 2 R0 )

u |t =0 =
R > R0
0

u | = 0
t t =0
: u ( R, t ) =

R < R0

1
R
[ f1 ( R + at ) + f 2 ( R at )] u0 sin
.
R
2 R0


11.1.1

2
n
=
, n , kn , a
n 2l / n
l
n = kn a , (14). .

11.1.1 nkn =

,(14)

u ( x, t ) = ( Cn cos kn at + Dn sin kn at ) sin kn


n =1

1
= Cn sin kn ( x + at ) + sin kn ( x at ) + cos kn ( x at ) cos kn ( x + at )
2 n =1
x + at
1
1
sin kn sds
= Cn sin kn ( x + at ) + sin kn ( x at ) + Dn kn
x at
2 n =1
2 n =1
(15)(16)
1
1 x + at
u ( x, t ) = ( x + at ) + ( x at ) +
( s )ds
2
2a x at
,, ( x ) ( x )

[0,l], t , x at .
, ( x ) ( x ) , 2l
.
11.1.2

u tt a 2 u xx = 0

u ( 0,t ) = 0, u x ( l ,t ) = 0.
(1) . u( x , t ) = X ( x )T (t )

X ( x ) + X ( x ) = 0

2
T ( t ) + a T ( t ) = 0

u(0,t)=0 X(0)=0 , u (l,t)=0 X(l )=0

X( x ) + X ( x ) = 0
X(0)=0 X(l)=0
1
(n+ ) x
2
X (x )=sin
n
l
(2n+1)
(x )=
n
2l
3 T (t )

2 n +1 2 2
) a Tn (t ) = 0
n
2l
2 n +1
2 n +1
T (t ) = A cos(
at ) + B sin(

at )
n
n
n
2l
2l

T (t ) T ( t )

+(

u ( x , t ) = u ( x )T (t )
n
n
n

2n+1
2n+1
2n+1
= [ A cos(
at ) + B sin(
at )]sin(

x)
n
n
2l
2l
2l

n = 0,1,2
11.1.3 X(0)=0 X=l 0
(

l
,h)
2

utt a 2 uxx = 0

u(0, t ) = 0, u(l , t ) = 0

4h
u( x, 0) = 2 (l x ) x, ut ( x, 0) = 0
l

x2
u =
2 p
1
4h
l 2
l
( ,h) (u h)=(x ) + h =
(l x ) x
2
2p
2
2
l

=(

n 2
) ,
l

n x
X (x)=sin(
)
n
l

n = 1,2,

Tn ( t ) = An cos

n at
n at
+ Bn sin
l
l

n at
n at
n x
u ( x , t ) = [A cos(
) + B sin(
)]sin(
)
n
n
l
l
l
n =1
An ,

4h
n x
(l x ) x =u ( x ,0) = An sin

l
l2
n =1

Bn

2 l 4h
n x
16 h[1 ( 1)n ]
dx =
An = c (l x ) x sin
l l2
l
3 h3

n a
n x
)sin(
)B =0
0 = u ( x , 0) = Bn (
t
n
l
l
n =1
16 h [1 ( 1)n ]
n at
n x

cos(
)sin(
)
u ( s, t ) =
3
3
l
l
n =1
n
11.1.4

F0 F0
S Y

(1)

utt a 2u xx = 0

u(0, t ) = 0,

Fx
u( x,0) = 0 ,
YS

u x (l , t ) = 0
ut ( x,0) = 0

F x
= 0 (0, x )
YS
u( x ,0) u(0,0)

x
F0
u( x ,0) u(0,0)
u( x ,0)
= P =Y
=Y
x
S
x
F x
u( x , 0) = 0
YS
u( x , 0)

( X =0)

(2)

1
(n+ ) x
2
X (x )=sin
n
l
(3)

(x )=(

(2n+1) 2
)
2l

2 n +1
2 n +1
2 n +1
u ( x , t ) = [A cos(
at ) + B sin(
at )]sin(

x)
n
n
2
l
2
l
2
l
n =0
(4) u ( x , 0) = 0 B = 0
t
n

F0 x
2 n +1
x )
= u( x , 0) = An sin(
YS
l
2
n =0

( 1) n 8lF0
2 l F0 x
(2 n +1) x
1
A = c
sin
dx =
n
l
2l
YS
2YS (2 n +1)2

8 F0l
( 1)n
(2 n +1) at
(2 n +1) x
u ( x, t ) =
cos
sin
=
2
2l
2l
2YS
n = 0 (2 n +1)

11.1.5 l (1 2 ) ,

u a 2u = 0
tt
xx

u (0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = 0

x
(1)

u ( x, 0) = 2 ( l x), u ( x, 0) = 0

t
2
u( x , 0) .,
,

u( x ,0) l
=
u( x,0)
l
l
x
2
2

l
= 2
-x
2

-u( x ,0) l
l
=
u ( x , 0 ) = 2

- x
l
l
2
x
2
2
(2) 11-2

n (x )=

n 2

(x )=cos

n x
l

(3)

n at
n at
n x
u ( x , t ) = [A cos
+ B sin
] cos(
)
n
n
l
l
l
n =0

(4),.
u

( x , 0) = 0 B = 0
n

l
n x
2
-x=u( x,0) = An cos

l
2
n =0

1
l
2 l
A = 0l 2 ( x ) dx = 0l dx
xdx = 0
0 l
2
l 0

2
l
n x
4 l
n
A = 0l 2 ( x ) cos
dx =
[1 ( 1) ]
n l
2
2
n 2 2
8 l
(2 m +1) at
( 2 m +1) x
1

cos
cos
u ( x, t ) =
l
l
2 m = 0 (2 m +1)2
11.1.6 l ,
v0 .,.

(1)

u a 2u = 0
tt
xx

u (0, t ) = 0, u x (l , t ) = 0

u ( x, 0) = 0, ut ( x, 0) = v0
(2) 11-2

1
(n+ ) x
2
X (x )=sin
n
l

(x )=(

(3)

u ( x,t ) =

[ A cos
n

( 2n +1) at
2l

(2n+1) 2
) ,
2l

+ Bn sin

n=0
(4),.
0 = u ( x,0 ) =

A sin
n

( 2n + 1) at A

n = 0,1, 2,

( 2n + 1) at
2l

]sin

( 2n + 1) x

=0,

2l

( 2n + 1) a ( 2n + 1) x
v0 = ut ( x, 0) = Bn
sin
2l
2l
n =0
n =0

Bn =

8lv0
2
(2 n +1) x
l
dx =
0 v0 sin
(2 n +1) a
2l
(2 n +1)2 2 a

u ( x ,t ) =

8lv0
1
(2 n +1) at
(2 n +1) x
sin
sin

2l
2l
2 a n = 0 (2 n +1)2

11.1.7 l
( x) = x(l x) t > 0

2l

u a 2u = 0
t
xx

u (0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = 0
1
u ( x, 0) = x(l x)

2 11-2

n (x )=(

n 2
n x
) X n (x )=sin
l
l

n 2 2 a 2t

nx
u ( x , t ) = Cn e
sin
l2
l
n =1
4.
x (l

l
nx
x ) = u ( x , 0) = Cn sin
l
n =1

nx
2 l
4l 2
n
C = 0 x (l x ) sin
dx =
[1 ( 1) ]
n
l
l
n3 3
(2 n +1)2 2a 2
2

8l
( 2 n +1) x
1
2

u ( x, t ) =
e
sin
l
l
3 n =0 (2 n +1)3
11.1.8 l u ( x, 0) = x

u a 2u = 0
t
xx

u (0, t ) = 0, u x (l , t ) = 0
(1) x

u ( x, 0) = x

(2)
2
2n + 1) 2
(
,
n =
2

4l

n x
X (x )=cos
,
n
l

(3)

2 2 2
nx
u ( x , t ) = Cn e n a t cos
l
n =0

(4)

nx
x = u ( x , 0) = Cn cos
l
n =0

n = 0,1, 2

1
l
n = 0 : C = dx =
0 l
2
2
nx
2 l l
nx
C = 0l x cos
dx =
xd
sin

n
l
l
l
l n 0
2
nx l
=
|0 0l sin nx dx ]
[ x sin
n
l
l
2l
nx l
2l
n
=
|
=

1]
cos
[(
1)
0
2
2
2
2
l
n
n
(2 k +1)2 2 a 2t

4l
( 2 k +1) x
l
1

cos
u ( x, t ) =
e
l2
2 2 k =0 (2 k +1)2
l
11.1.9

u a 2u = 0
t
xx

u (0, t ) = 0, u x (l , t ) = 0
(1)

u ( x, 0) = u0

(2)
2
2n + 1) 2
(
,
n =
2

4l

X (x )=sin
n

(2n+1) x
, n = 0,1, 2
2l

(3)

(2 n +1)2 2 a 2t

(2 n +1) x
u ( x , t ) = Cn e
sin
4l 2
2l
n =0
(4),

(2 n +1) x
= u ( x , 0) = Cn sin
0
2l
n =0
4u0
2
(2 n +1) x
dx =
C = 0l u0 sin
n l
2l
(2 n +1)

4u0
(2 n +1) x
1

u ( x, t ) =
sin
n = 0 (2 n +1)
2l

(2 n +1)2 2 a 2t
4l 2

11.1.10
u

u ( x, t ) ,

u a 2u = u
t
xx
1. u ( 0 , t ) = 0 , u ( l , t ) = 0
2. X

3.

(x )=sin

n x
, n = 0,1, 2
l

nx
u ( x , t ) = Tn ( t ) sin
l
n =1

n 2 2 a 2
Tn(t ) (
)Tn (t ) = 0
2
l

Tn (t ) = Cn e

n2 2 a 2
l2

)t

n 2 2 a 2
(
)t

nx
2
u ( x , t ) = Cn e
sin
l
l
n =1
n = 1 , (

2a 2
l2

2a 2
l2

)t < 0 u1 n > 1

)t < 0 u n u1 ( x, t ) t

>

2a2
l2

l >

u1 ( x, t ) t
2

<

2a2
l2

l <

u1 ( x, t ) t
3

2a2
l2

l =

u1 ( x, t ) t u1 ( x, t ) t
11.1.11

u a 2u = Ae x
xx
t

u (0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = 0
u ( x, 0) = T ()
0

u ( x , t )

= v ( x , t ) + w( x , t )

w a 2 w = Ae x
xx
t

w(0, t ) = 0

w( x , t )

w(l , t ) = 0

w( x, t ) = w( x) wt = 0

xx

A x
e
a2

w =

A x
+ C1
e
a2

w=

A x
+ C1 x + C2
e
2a2

A
A
+ C2 , C2 =
2
2
2
a
a2
A l
A
0=w(l,t) =
e
,
+ C1l +
2a 2
2a 2
0=w(0,t) =

C1 =

A
(1 e l )
2
2
a

w(x) =

A
A
(1 e l )
(1 e l ) x
2a 2
2 a 2l

2. v ( x, t )

u a 2u = 0
xx
t

u (0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = 0
u ( x,0) = T w( x)
0

n 2 2 a 2t

1 v( x, t ) sin

v ( x , t ) = An e
n =1

l2

nx

l

sin

nx
l

nx
w( x ) = v ( x , 0) = An sin
0
l
n =1
n x
2
dx
A = 0l [T0 w( x )]sin
n l
2
2T0
2 Al 2 [ e l ( 1)n ]
n
[1 ( 1) ] +
=
n
a 2 n ( a 2l 2 + n 2 2 )
u ( x , t ) = v ( x , t ) + w( x )
2T0
2 Al 2 [ e l ( 1)n ]
n
u ( x, t ) = {
[1 ( 1) ]+
}
2
2
2
2
2
n
a n ( a l + n )
T

a 2 n 2 2

t
n x
A
l
l x
l
+
ie
[(1

e
)

(1

e
) ]
sin
2
2
l
l
a

1.

2.

n x
, n = 1, 2
n
l
n x
- x
,T {sin
}
u(x,t),Ae
0
l
X

(x )=sin

n x
u(x,t)=
T
(
t
)sin

l
n=1

n x
=
T
C
sin
0 n
l
n=1

- x
n x
= f n (t )sin
Ae
l
n=1

2 A l - x n x
sin
dx
0 e
l
l
2 A - x
n x l n l - x n x
[e sin
|0
=
dx ]
cos
0 e
l
l
l
l
2 An
= 2 2 0l cos n x de- x
l
l
2 An - x
2 An 2 2 l
n
= 2 2 [e ( 1) 1]
fn
i
2 2
2A
l
l
2 2
n
2 An
f n (1 +
)
[1 e- l (1) n ]
=
2 2
2 2
l
l
2 An
[1 e- l (1) n ]
fn = 2 2
2 2
l +n
2T
2
l
n x l 2T0
| =
[1 (1) n ]
Cn = 0l T0 sin n x dx = 0 ( )cos
l
2
l
l
l 0 n
fn =

3. u(x,t),Ae

- x

n 2 2 a 2
n x
n x
[Tn (t ) +
T
(
t
)]sin
f
sin
=

n
n
l
l
l2
n=1
n=1

{sin

n x
} n
l

n a

Tn(t ) + n2Tn (t ) = f n
d [Tn (t )

fn

2
n

dt

= n2 [Tn (t )

fn

2
n

:
fn
n2t
Tn (t ) 2 = Bn e

Tn (t ) =

fn

2
n

+ Bn e

n2t

u ( x, t ) = Tn (t )sin
n=1

n x
l

fn
n x
rn2t
= [ 2 Bn e ]sin
l
n=1 rn
4. Bn

u ( x,0) = T0

f
n x
[ 2n Bn ]sin
l
n=1 rn
{sin

n x
} :
l

C
n=1

fn
fn
C
,

=
=
Cn
B
B
n
n
n
2
2
rn
rn
4. u(x,t)

n (t )sin

n x
l

u(x,t)= [
n=1

= [
n=1

fn
fn
n x
rn2t
C
e

)
]sin
n
l
rn2
rn2

fn
n x
rn2t
rn2t
e
C
e
(1

)
+
]sin
n
l
rn2

(
2 Al 2 [1 (1) n e l ]
= {
[1 e
2
2 2
2 2
n=1 n a ( n + l )

n a 2
) t
l

n a 2
(
) t
2T0
n x
n
+
[1 (1) ]e l }sin
l
n
11.1.12.

2 u = A cos x sin t ,0 < x < l , t > 0

a
u
tt
xx
l

u x (0, t ) = 0, u x (l , t ) = 0

u ( x,0) = 0, ut ( x,0) = 0

{cos

(1)

(2)

n x
}
l

u ( x, t ), f ( x, t ){cos

u ( x, t) = Tn (t ) cos
n=1

f ( x, t ) = f n (t ) cos
n=0

(3)

n x
}
l

n x
l

x
n x
= A sin t cos
l
l

n 2 2 a 2
n x
x

+
=
[T
(
t
)
T
(
t
)]cos
A
sin
wt
cos

n
n
l
l
l2
n=0
n a
n x
{cos
}, =
n
l
l

(1) n = 0, T (t ) = 0
0
2
(2) n = 1, T (t ) + r T (t ) = A sin wt
1
1 1
2
(3) n > 1, T (t ) + r T (t ) = 0
n
n n
1 T (t ) = a t + b
0
0
0
at
at
2 T ( t ) = a cos
+ b sin
+ c sin wt
1
1
1
l
l
c

2
2
cw sin wt + r c sin wt = A sin wt
1
A
c =
w2 r12

A sin wt
w2 12
3 Tn (t ) = an cos n t + bn sin n t ( n > 1)
(1),(2),(3)u(x,t):
T1 (t ) = a1 cos 1t + b1 sin 1t

u(x,t)=a t + b
0
0

l + (a cos t + b sin t )
n
n
n
n
w2 2
n =1
1

A sin wt cos

u(x,t)=a t
0

l + b sin t cos n x
n
n
l
w2 2
n =1
1

A sin wt cos

n x
l
0=u t (x,0)=a
+ b cos
n n
0
l
w2 2 n = 1
1
Aw cos

{cos

n x
}
l

a0 = 0

Aw
1 ( w2 2 )
w2 2
1
1
bn rn = 0,( n 1) bn = 0( n 1)

b1r1 =

Aw

, b1 =

A sin wt cos

Aw
x
sin r1t cos
l
1 ( w2 2 )
w2 2
1
1
at a
x
Al
1
=

[ w sin
sin wt ]cos
a w2 ( a ) 2
l
l
l
l

u ( x, t ) =

l +

11.1.13.

1dQ = k

u
Sdt
n

u
u
u
|x + dx Sdt k
|x Sdt = k ( )dxSdt
x
x
x x
= ku xx dvdt
(2)
k

dQ = h(u |s u1 ) sdt

h(u1 u |s ) Ldxdt = hnLdxdt


3 sdx dt

0.24 I 2 Rdt = 0.24 I 2 rdxdt (


I 2 Rdt = I 2 rdxdt (
10.24
dvdu , dQ = c dvdu.
c dvdu = ku xx dvdt + I 2 rdxdt huLdxdt
c dvdt
k
I 2 r hL
4 u =

u xx +
u
t
c
c s c s
ut au xx + fu = b
u(0,t)=0,u(l ,t)=0
u(x,0)=0

1.u ( x, t )b{sin

u(x,t)= Tn (t ) sin
n=1

b = bn (t ) sin
n=1

n x
}
l

n x
l

n x
l

2 l
2b
n x
l
[
bn = b sin
dx =
n
l
l 0
l
=

n x l
]|
cos
l
0

2b
n
[1 ( 1) ]
n

1. u ( x , t ) b {sin

u(x,t)= Tn ( t ) sin
n=1

b=

bn (t ) sin
n=1

n x
l

n x
l

2 l
bn = b sin
l 0
=

n x
}
l

n x
dx =
l

2b
[
l

l
l
n x
]|
cos
n
l
0

2b
n
[1 ( 1) ]
n

2.

n=1

{sin

n x 2
{Tn (t ) +
[
+
l
n x
}
l

f ]Tn (t )}sin

n x
l

= bn (t )sin
n=1

n x
l

n x
l

T n ( t ) +
[

bn

d [Tn (t )

2 + f ] T n ( t ) = b n ( t )
]

= [T n (t )

dt
T n (t ) =

bn

+ Ane

u (x,t) =

n =1

bn

bn

+ Ane

) s in

n x
l

(2)A n

0=u(x,0)= (
n =1

bn

n x
l

+ An )sin

n x
}
l
2b
[1 ( 1) n ]
b
A n = n = n
na 2

(
) +f
l
4b
(2 k +1) 2 a 2 2

+ f ]t
(2k + 1) x
(2k + 1)
l2
e
u ( x, t ) =

{1
}isin
2 2 2
l
k = 0 (2 k + 1) a
f
+
l2

{sin

4I 2r
=

c k =0

(2 k +1) 2 a 2 2

hL
]t
c s

l
(2k + 1) x
1 e
sin
(2k + 1) 2 a 2 2 hL
l
]
(2k + 1)[
+
2
l
c s

11.1.14.

u a 2 u = A,0 < x < l , t > 0


xx
tt

u (0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = B

u ( x,0) = 0, ut ( x,0) = 0

:1.u ( x, t ) = w( x, t ) + v( x, t )
w( x, t ) = bx 2 + cs + d ,
A
2a 2
0 = w(0, t ) = d w = bx 2 + cx

2ba 2 = A, b =


Al B
2
B
w
l
t
bl
cl
c

(
,
)
=
=
+
=
+

2
l
2a
A
Al B
w( x , t ) = 2 x 2 + ( 2 + ) x
l
2a
2a
2.v(x,t):

u a 2u = 0

tt
xx

v(0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = 0

A
Al B
v( x,0) = 2 x 2 ( 2 + ) x, vt ( x,0) = 0
2a
2a
l

(1) :

n at
n at
n x
]sin(
)
u ( x , t ) = [A cos
+ B sin
n
n
l
l
l
n =1

(2)0 = vt ( x,0)Bn = 0
v ( x, t ) =

n x
n at
An cos
sin
l
l
n =1

Ax 2
Al
B
n x
(3)
(
+ ) x = v ( x , 0) = An sin
l
l
2a2
2a2
n =1
n x
2 l Ax 2
Al B
A = 0 [
(
+ ) x ] sin
dx
n
2
2
l
l
l
2a
2a

Al B
Ax 2
u ( x, t ) = 2 + ( 2 + ) x + An cos n at sin n x
l
l
2a
2a
l
n =1
11.1.15.

u 2u = 0

t
xx

u (0, t ) = 10, u (3, t ) = 40

u ( x,0) = 25

:1.u ( x, t ) = w( x, t ) + v( x, t )
w( x, t ) = w( x) = ax + b
10=w(0,t)=bb=10
40-b
= 10
40=w(3,t)=3a+ba=
3
w( x) = 10( x + 1)

2.v( x, t )
v 2v = 0

t
xx

v(0, t ) = 10, v(3, t ) = 0

v( x,0) = 25 10( x + 1) = 15 10 x

(1) :

v( x, t ) = An e
n =1

2
( n )2 t
9

sin

n x
3

(2)15 10x = v( x,0) = An sin


n =1

n x
3

n x
2 3
An = (15 10 x)sin
dx
3 0
3
n x 3 20 3 3
n x
2
3
= 15 cos
xd cos
| +
3 n
3 0 3 n 0
3
n x 3 3
n x
30
20
n
=
dx ]
[1 (1) ] +
[ x cos
| cos
0
n
n
3 0
3
20
30
3(1) n
=
[1 (1) n ] +
n
n
30
=
[1 + (1) n ]
n
0, n = 2k + 1

= 60
n , n = 2k

60

1
u ( x, t ) =
e

n =1 2n

8 n 2 2t

2n x
+ 10 ( x + 1)
sin
3

11.1.16.

u u u = 0,0 < x < a,0 < y < b, t > 0


xx
yy
tt
u (0, y, t ) = u (a, y, t ) = u ( x, o, t ) = u ( x, b, t ) = 0
u ( x, y,0) = ( x, y ), u ( x, y,0) = ( x, y )

: (1) .u ( x, y , t ) = v ( x, y )T (t )
v + v yy + v = 0
: xx
T + T = 0
:
v(0,y)=v(a,y)=v(x,0)=v(x,b)=0

( 2) .v(x,y)=X(x)y(y)
X + X=0
:
y+ y=0
X(0) = X ( a ) = 0

y (0) = y (b) = 0
( 3) .
n2 m2
nm = ( 2 + 2 ), m, n = 1, 2,
a
b
n x
m y
vnm = sin
sin
a
b

( 4 )i T ( t )
n2 m2
+ 2 + B nm sin t
T nm ( t ) = Anm cos( t
2
a
b
(5 ) .

u(x,y,t)=

u nm ( x , y , t ) =

n ,m =1

n ,m =1

[ Anm cos( t

n2 m2
+ 2 )
2
a
b

n ,m =1

v nm ( x , y , t )T nm ( t )

n2 m2
+ 2 + B nm sin t
a2
b

n2
m2
+ 2 )]
a2
b

n x
m y
sin
a
b
( 6 ) .
i sin

( x, y ) = u( x, y ,0) =

nm sin

n ,m =1

Anm =

n x
m y
sin
a
b

n x
m y
4 a b

x
y
dxdy
(
,
)sin
sin
ab 0 0
a
b

n2 m2
n x
m y
( x, y ) = ut ( x, y ,0) = Bnm 2 + 2 sin
sin
a
b
a
b
n ,m =1

Bnm =

a 2 m 2 + b2 n 2

( x, y )sin

n x
m y
sin
dxdy
a
b

n 2 m2
n 2 m 2 n x
m y
sin
u ( x, y, t ) = An ,m cos t 2 + 2 + Bn ,m sin t 2 + 2 sin

a
b
a
b
a
b
n , m =1

11.1.17.

u +u =0

xx
yy

u (0, y ) = u1 , u (a, y ) = u1
u ( x,0) = u , u ( x, b) = u
1
2

(2)x
u ( x, y ) = v ( x, y ) + u1
v xx + v yy = 0

v (0, y ) = 0, v ( a , y )

v ( x,0) = 0, v ( x , b) = u u
2
1

(3).x
n y
a

n y
a

n x
)sin
v ( x, y ) = ( An e + Bn e
a
n =1
(4).

0=v(x,0)= ( An + Bn )sin
n =1

{sin

n x
}An = Bn
a

v ( x, y ) = An ( e

n y
a

n =1

= 2 An s h
n =1

n x
a

n x
n y
sin
a
a

n y
a

)sin

n x
a

n b
n x
sin
a
a
n =1
n x 2 a
n x
2 An s h
= (u2 u1 )sin
dx
0
a
a
a
u2 u1 a
n x
An =
sin
dx
n x 0
a
ash
a
u2 u1 a
n x a
[ cos
]|
=
n x n
0
a
ash
a
u2 u1
[1 ( 1) n ]
=
n x
n sin
a
u2 u1

=
n x n ,2 k +1
n s h
a
u ( x, y ) = u1 + v( x, y )

u2 u1 = v ( x, b) = 2 An s h

(2k + 1) y
(u2 u1 ) 1
(2k + 1) x
a
= u1 +
sin

(2k + 1) b

a
k =0 2k + 1
sh
a
sh

11.1.18. a
u tt v 2 ( u xx + u yy ) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < a

(1)
utt v 2 (u xx + u yy ) = 0

u (0, y, t ) = 0, u (a, y, t ) = 0
u ( x,0, t ) = 0, u ( x, a, t ) = 0

2u ( x, y, t ) = u ( x, y )T (t )
T u xx + u yy
=
=
vT
u
T + v 2 T = 0

u xx + u yy + u = 0

3
.U ( x, y ) = X ( x)Y (t )
X
Y
= ( + ) =
X
Y
X + X = 0

Y + ( )Y = 0
4
.

X + X = 0

X (0) = 0, X (a) = 0
n
n x
n = ( ) 2 , X n ( x) = sin
, n = 1, 2
a
a

Y + vY = 0

Y (0) = 0, Y (a ) = 0
m 2
m y
, m = 1, 2,
v=(
) , ym ( y ) = sin
a
a
n
m 2
mn = n + vm = ( ) 2 + (
)
a
a
5
.T (t )

m2 + n2 2
T (t ) + v (
) T (t ) = 0
2
a
2

Tnm (t ) = Anm cos

v m2 + n2 t
a

+ Bnm sin

v m2 + n2 t
a

f nm

wnm v m 2 + n 2
=
=
2
2a
11.2

11.2.1

I=

un(0 )
b4
j0
d = (0)
un
b
3

1 4

u0(0 )

( )

j u (0)
2
1 n

b
b
u (0)

0
I = 3 j0 n d = b 4 j un( ) d
0

(u ) d =

(0)

( ) 4 J (u( ) )
u( )
(u( ) )

J 1 un(0)
0
n

0
n

0
n

( )

11.2.2

0 < < 0

1
u
1 2u
2
(1) u = ( ) + 2 2 = 0( 0 < < a )

(2)u ( 0 , ) = f ( )

(3)u ( ,0) = u ( , a) = 0

(4)u (0, )

u( , ) = R( ) ( )
1. u( ,0) u(0, )
2
+ = 0 R + R R = 0

=
=

(0)

(
a
)
0
R(0)

un ( , ) = Rn ( )n ( ) = Cn
Cn = 0

n
a

n
a

n
sin
a

n
2 a
f

d
(
)sin

0
a
a

u ( , )

11.2.3 b u0

u ( , t )
1.
ut a 2 2 u = 0

u (b, t ) = 0
u ( ,0) = u
0

2.

uzu

3.
u ( , t ) = R ( )T (t )
T d
dR
(
)=0
d d
1
1 d
T
dR
2
: 2 =
(
) = 2
a RT
a T R d
d
:RT-a 2

T + a 2 2T = 0, t > 0

: 1 d
dR
2

(
)
+
R = 0,0 b
d
d

4.R ( ), =0
R ( ) = J 0 ( )

5.
0 = u (b, t ) = R (b)T (t )R(b)=0
R(b)=0=J0 ( b)
:
a 2 n2t

un ( , t ) = e
J 0 (n ), n = 1, 2
6. n(0)n

n =

n(0)
b

7.

u ( , t ) = Cn e a n t J 0 (n )
n =0

2 2

8.

u0 = u ( ,0) = Cn J 0 (n )
n=0

Cn =

2u0 J 0 (n ) d
0

b 2 J12 (n )

J 0 (n ) d =

2
n

nb

J 0 ( x) xdx

nb b
1
d
[
(
)]
(
)
xJ
x
dx
=
xJ
x
= J1 (nb)
1
1
2 0
2
0 n
dx
n
n
b
2u0 J1 (n b)
n
2u0
2u0
Cn =
=
=
nbJ1 (nb) n(0) J1 ( n(0) )
b 2 J12 (n b)
=

nb

u ( , t ) = 2u0 e

a n( 0 ) 2
) t
(
b

J 0 ( n(0)

J ( )

(0)
(0)
n =1
n
n
1
11.2.4. b h f ( )

1.

2u = 0, < b,0 < z < h;

u ( ,0) = 0, u ( , h) = f( );
u (a, z ) = 0, u (0, z )

2.

Z( z )

2 R + R + 2 2 R = 0

R(b) = 0, R (0)
Z ( z ) 2 Z ( z ) = 0

3.

Rn ( ) = J 0 (

n(0)

), n =

n(0)
b

, n = 0,1, 2

Z ( z )
Z 0 ( z ) = A0 + B0 z

4.

Z n ( z ) = An e

n( 0 )
b

+ B0 e

n( 0 )
b

, n = 1, 2,

5.

u( , z) = A0 + B0 z + ( Ane

n(0)
b

n=1

+ B0e

n(0)
b

), n = 1,2,6.

n(0)
0 = u(,0) = A0 + (An + Bn )J0 ( )

b
n=1

n(0)
n(0)
(0)

f () = u(, h) = A + B h + (Ae b + B e b h )J ( n )

0
0
0
n
n

b
n=1
A 0 = 0, An + Bn = 0

2
A0 + B0 h = 2
b

f ( )J 0 (

n(0)
b

)d =

J 0 ( x) = J1 ( x), J 0 ( x) = 0J 0 (

2
b2

n(0)
b

f ( ) d

)J1 ( x) = 0

J1 ( x) = 00
J0 (
(0)
0

n(0)
b

) = J0 (0) = 1

n( 0 )

An e

+ Bn e

n( 0 )
b

b
n(0)
2
= 2 2 (0) f ( )J 0 (
)d
b J 0 (n ) 0
b

n(0)
2 b
A0 = 0B0 = 2 f ( )J 0 (
)d
bh 0
b
b
n(0)
1
2
An = Bn =

f ( )J 0 (
)d
n(0) b 2 J 0 2 ( n(0) ) 0
b
2 sh
h
b
7.

u( , z) =
2
+ 2
b n =1

2z
hb 2

sh(

n(0)

sh(

n(0)

f ( ) d

) J0 (
h)

n(0)
b

J 0 ( n(0) )

f ( )J 0 (

n(0)
b

)d

11.2.5. b h q F
, ,.
u = u ( , z )

1.:

2u = 0, < b,0 < z < h

q , u ( , h) = q
u
(
,0)
=

z
k z
k

u (b, z ) = 0, u (0, z )
2.: Z(z)

2 R + R + 2 2 R 2 = 0

R(b)=0,R(0)

Z
(z)
Z ( z) = 0

3.

Rn ( ) = J 0 (

n(0)

), n =

n(0)

, n = 1, 2,

b
b
(0)
J
0

0
0J
(
x
)

0
0
n n = 1,2,
4.

u ( , z ) = ( An e

n( 0 )
b

n =1

+ Bn e

n( 0 )

)J 0 (

n(0)
b

5.

q
n(0)
n(0)
k = u z ( ,0) = b ( An Bn )J 0 ( b )
n =1

n( 0 )
n( 0 )
(0)

q = u ( , k ) = ( A e b z B e b z )J ( n )

z
n
n
0
k
b
n =1
{J 0 ( x)}
b

n(0)
2q
2qb
A
B
J
(
)
d

=
=
n n 2k(0) J 2 ((0) ) 0 0 b
(0)
(0)
k
J
(

1
1
n
n
n
n )

n(0)
n(0)

h
h
2qb

b
b

=
A
e
B
e
n
n

kn(0) J1(n(0) )

:An =

Bn =

qb(1 e
k

J (

(0)2
n
1

qb(1 e
k

J (

(0)2
n
1

(0)
n

bq
u( , z) =

k n =1
i[(1 e

n( 0 )
b

n( 0 )

)e

n( 0 )
b

) sh(

(0)
n

n( 0 )

) sh(

n(0)
b

h)

n(0)
b

h)
1

J (

(0)2
n
1

+ (1 e

(0)
n

n( 0 )
b

) sh(

)e

11.3

n(0)

n( 0 )
b

b
z

h)

] J1 (

n(0)
b

11.3.1.

2 R( ) + 2rR(r ) l (l + 1) R( ) = 0

R(r ) = Ar l + Br l 1

1. = ln r. R ( r ) = ( )
dR dR d 1 dR
=

=
d d d d
d 2 R d 1 dR
1 d dR
d 1 dR
=
=
+
(
)
(
)
( )
2
d d d d
d
d d
1 d 2 R 1 dR
= 2

d 2 2 d

( ) ( ) + 2( ) l (l + 1)( ) = 0
( ) + ( ) l (l + 1)( ) = 0
2.( ) = e :
k 2 + k l (l + 1) = 0

1 1 + 4l (l + 1) 1 (2l + 1) l
=
=
2
2
(l + 1)
l ( ) = Ael + Be ( l +1)
k =

Rl (r ) = Ar l + Br ( l +1)
11.3.2 19

2
0

d Y * ( , ) sin d = Cl 'm' Clm e im eim d Pl |'m | ( x )Pl |m| ( x ) dx


= Cl 'm' Clm 2 mn'
= ll ' mm'

'

'

1
1

|m ' |

Pl '

( x )Pl|m| ( x ) dx

11.3.3

(1) f ( , ) = sin cos


1
1
: f ( , ) = sin ei + sin e i
2
2
2
3
2
3
=

sin ei +

sin e i
3
8
3
8
2
2
=
Y11 +
Y1,1
3
3
(2) f ( , ) = cos ei 2
: (1)e2i Ylmm = 2, cos {PL2(x)}
m

m lpl ( x), pl2 ( x)l = 2

x = cl pl2 ( x)
l =2

pl2 ( x) pk2 ( x)dx =


1

(l + 2)! 2
lk
(l 2)! 2l + 1

2l + 1 (l 2)! 1 2
cl =
xpl ( x)dx
2 (l + 2)! 1
2l + 1 (l 2)! 1 (1 x 2 ) d l +2 2
l
=
x
(
x

1)
dx
l
l +2

2 (l + 2)!
2 l ! dx
2l + 1 (l 2)! 1
d l +1 2
3
l
= l +1
(
x

x
)
d
[
(
x

1)
]
l +1

2 l ! (l + 2)!
dx
l +1
1
d l +1 2
l 1
2 d
(1 3x ) l +1 ( x 2 1)l dx]
= A[( x x ) l +1 ( x 1)
1 1
dx
dx
3

1
dl 2
dl 2
l 1
= A[(1 3x ) l ( x 1)
6 x l ( x 1)l dx]
1 1
dx
dx
2

dl 2
dl
l 1
l
l 1
= l [( x + 1) ( x 1) ]
( x 1)
l
1 dx
1
dx
= {c ( x + 1) [( x 1) ] +
0
l

l (l )

+ c [( x + 1) ] ( x 1) }
l
l

l (l )

1
1

= cl0 (1 + 1)l l !+ cll (1 1)l l !()


= 2l l ![1 + (1)l ]
1
dl 2
A(1 3x ) l ( x 1)l
= A(2)2l l ![1 + (1)l ]
1
dx
2

A2l +2 l !,l = 2k
=
0,l = 2k + 1

d l 1 2
A 6 x l 1 ( x 1)l
1
dx

d l 1 2
= A[6 x l 1 ( x 1)l
dx

d l 1 2
l
x
dx] = 0
(
1)
6

1 dxl 1
1
1

2l + 1 (l 2)! l + 2
2 l !,l = 2k
l +1
cl = 2 l ! (l + 2)!

0,l = 2k + 1

x = cl p ( x) = (4k + 1)
l =2

2
l

= (4k + 1)
k 1

k =1

(2k 2)! 2
2 p2 k ( x)
(2k + 2)!

1
2 p22k ( x)
(2k + 2)(2k + 1)2k (2k 1)

(4k + 1)
p22k ( x)
k =1 (2k + 2)(2k + 1)2k (2k 1)
f ( , ) = cos ei 2

(4k + 1)
p22k (cos )ei 2
k =1 2(2 k + 1)(2 k 1)( k + 1) k

(l m )! 2l + 1 m
Ylm ( , ) =
pl (cos )eim
(l + m )! 4
p22k (cos )ei 2 =
=

(2k + 2)! 4
Y2 k ,2
(2k 2)! 4 + 1

4(2k + 1)(2k 1)(k + 1)k


4 Y2 k ,2
(4k + 1)

(4k + 1)
Y2 k ,2
(2k + 1)(2k 1)(k + 1)k
k =1
1 + cos 2
1
(3) f ( , ) = sin 2 cos 2 1 = sin 2
2
1
1
= (1 cos 2 ) + sin 2 (ei 2 + e i 2 ) 1
2
4

f ( , ) = 2

2 1
1
1
= (3cos 2 1) + sin 2 ei 2 + sin 2 e i 2
3 6
4
4
=

2
1 16
1 32
1 32
4 Y00
Y20 +
Y22 +
Y2,2
3
6 5
4 15
4 15

=
11.3.4

16
4
2
2
Y00
Y20 +
Y22 +
Y2,2
9
45
15
15
2
u (1, ) = cos

1.

: 2 u1 = 0, r < 1, 2 u 2 = 0, r > 1

: u1 (0, )

u 2 (, ),0

:
,
)=cos
u(1

2.

Bl

:
u
(r,

)
(
) Pl (cos )
A
r
=
+

1
l
l +1

l =0

: u (r,0) = (c r l + Dl ) P (cos )

2
l
l
l +1

r
l =0
3.

(1)(1)Bl = 0, u1 (r , ) = Al r l pl (cos )
l =0

(2)(3):cos = Al pl (cos )
2

l =0

1
3
1
pl (cos ) = (3cos2 1) = cos2 p0 (cos )
2
2
2
2
1
cos2 = p2 (cos ) + p0 (cos )
3
3

2
1
A l pl (cos ) = p2 (cos ) + p0 (cos )
3
3
l =0
{ pl (cos )}:
1
2
A 0 = , A 2 = , Al = 0(l 0, 2)
3
3
1 2
1
1
u1 = + r 2 p2 (cos ) = + (cos 2 )r 2
3 3
3
3

pl
(3)Cl = 0, u2 = l +1 pl (cos )
l =0 r
(4)(3):

Dl pl (cos ) = cos2 =
l =0

2
1
pl (cos ) + p0 (cos )
3
3

{ pl (cos )} :
1
2
D0 = , D2 = , Dl = 0(l 0, 2)
3
3
1
2
u2 = + 3 p2 (cos )
3r 3r
1
2 3
1
= + 3 ( cos 2 )
3r 3r 2
2
1 1 3cos 2 1
= ( +
)
3
r
3

11.3.5

u0

1. :

2
u
r
r
0
,
,
0

=
<

u ( r0 , ) = u 0

u (r,
) = 0
2

2.
3.

=
<

0,
,
0

u
r
r
0

u
,
0
;
0

2
u ( r0 , ) =

u , <
0 2

u (0, ) = 0

4.

u (r , ) = ( Al r l +
l =0

5.

Bl
) pl (cos )
l +1
r

(1)u (0, )Bl = 0

u (r , ) = Al r l pl (cos )
l =0

(2)(1) :

u (r0 , ) = Al r0l pl (cos )


l =0

2l + 1
Al =
u (r0 , ) pl (cos )sin d
l 0
2r0

2l +1 2
Al = l [ u0 pl (cos )sin d + u0 pl (cos )sin d ]
2r0 0
2
1
(2l +1)u0 0
=
[ pl (x)dx + pl (x)dx]
l
1
0
2r0
1 dl 2 l
l

x
x
pl (x) = l
(
x

1)
=
(
1)
pl (x)
l
2 l! dx

pl ( x)dx = pl ( x)dx = (1)l pl ( x)dx

Al =

1
(2l + 1)u0
l

[1
(
1)
]
pl ( x) dx
l

0
2r0

l = 0A L = 0
3u0

,l = 1

2r0

A2 n +1 =
(4n + 3)u0 (1) n (2n 1)!! , l = 2n + 1
r0 2 n+1
(2n + 2)!!

3u0
2r0
(4n + 3)u0
n (2n 1)!!

A2 n +1 =
(
1)
r0 2 n+1
(2n + 2)!!

A1 =

( 1) n (4 n + 3) u 0 (2 n 1)!!(2 n )!!
=
r0 2 n +1
(2 n + 2)!!(2 n )!!
( 1) n (4 n + 3) u 0
(2 n )!
=
r0 2 n +1
2 n+1 ( n + 1)!2 n n !
( 1) n (4 n + 3)(2 n )! u 0
=
2 n+1 ( n + 1)( n !) 2 r0 2 n +1

( 1) n (4n + 3)(2n)!
r 2 n +1 (cos )
u (r1 ) = n+1
u
(
) p2 n +1
0
2
2 ( n + 1)(n!)
r0
n =0
11.3.6.
:

1.:

2
0,
,0

=
<

u
r
r
0

u (r0 , ) = u0

u (r , ) = 0
2

2. F

3.

2u = 0, r < r0

u (r0 ) = u0
u (0)

4.

u (r ) = A +
5.

B
r

(1)u (0)B = 0
u (r ) = A
(2)u (r0 ) = u0
u0 = u (r0 ) = A

u (r , , ) u0r , ,
11.3.7 R u ( R0 , , ) = sin cos
0

1.

2u = 0

u ( R0 , , ) = sin cos

u (0, , )

2.

u(R, ,) = ( Am cos m + Bm sin m)(cl Rl +


l =0 m=0

Dl m
) pl (cos )
l +1
R

3.

(1)u(0, ,)Dl = 0, Amcl = Elm , Bmcl = Flm

u(R0 , ,) = (Elm cos m + Flm sin m)R0l pl (cos )


m

l =0 m=0

U ( R, , ) =

R
R0

sin cos


u1 (, , ) u u1 (, )

11.3.8 R0 u0 sin
(1)

2 u1 = 0
R < R0

2
u1 ( R0 , ) = u1 sin = u0 P0 ( cos ) P2 ( cos )
3

u1 ( 0, )

(1)
(2)
(3)

(2)

u1 ( R, ) = Al R l pl ( cos )

(4)

l =0

(3), u1 ( R0 , )

(5)

Al = 0 ( l 0, 2 )

(6)

2
Al R0l pl ( x )
u0 P0 ( x ) P2 ( x ) =
3
l =0

Pl ( x )

A0 =

2
u0 ,
3

A2 =

2u0
,
3R02

(4),

u1 ( r, ) =

2 R2
u0 1 2 u0 P2 ( cos )
3 R0

R < R0

() u2 (, , ) u u2 (, ) .
(1)

2 u2 = 0
R > R0

2
u2 ( R0 , ) = u0 sin = u0 P0 ( cos ) P2 ( cos )
3

u2 ( , ) = 0
(2)

u2 ( R, ) = Bl
l =0

(8)
(9)
(10)

Pl ( cos )
R l +1

(11)

(3), u2 ( R0 , ) ,

2
P ( x)
u0 P0 ( x ) P2 ( x ) = Bl l l +1
3
R0
l =0

(12)

Pl ( x )

B0 =

2
R0 u0 ,
3

2
B2 = u0 R02 ,
3

Bl = 0 ( l 0,2 )

(11),

2 R0 R03
u2 ( R, ) = u0 3 P2 ( cos )
3 R R

R > R0

11.3.9 a, b,,

u0 cos , u1 + u2 cos2 , u0 , u1 , u2, .


: (1)


2 u = 0
a<R<b

u ( a, ) = u0 cos = u0 P1 ( cos )

u 2u
u ( b, ) = u1 + u2 cos2 = u1 + 2 + 2 P2 ( cos )
3
3

(2)

u ( R, ) = Al R l + l +l 1 Pl ( cos )
R
l
(3).

u0 P1 ( cos ) = u ( a, ) = Al R l + l +l 1 Pl ( cos ) ,
R
l

B
B
B
A0 + 0 = 0
Aa1 + 21 = u0,
Al R l + l +l 1 = 0 ( l 2 )
a
a
R
B
u2 2u2

+
P2 ( cos ) = Al R l + l +l 1 Pl ( cos ) ,
u1 +
R
3
3
l
B
B
u
B
B
2u
A0 + 0 = u1 + 2 , A1b + 21 = 0, 2 = A2 b 2 + 32 , Al bl + l +l1 = 0
( l 3)
b
b
b
b
3
3

A0 =

u
b
u1 + 2 ,

3
a b

B0 =

u
ab
u1 + 2

3
ab

a2
a 2 b3
=

,
u
B
u0
0
1
a 3 b3
a 3 b3
2b3
2a 5 b3
=
u2
A2 =
u
B
2
2
3( a 5 b5 )
3( a 5 b5 )
Al = Bl = 0(l 3)
Al Bl
A1 =

1
al
=0
1
l
b
bl +1
Al = Bl = 0 u ( R, ) , .
al

11.4.1
a ( x ) y " ( x ) + b ( x ) y ' ( x ) + c ( x ) y ( x ) + y ( x ) = 0,
-
y ( x )

k ( x )
Q ( x ) y ( x ) + ( x ) y ( x ) = 0,
dx
dx
:

a<x<b

(1)

a<x<b

(2)

(2)

k ( x ) y " ( x ) + k ' ( x ) y ' ( x ) + Q ( x ) y ( x ) + ( x ) y ( x ) = 0

k ( x)

( x)

y ( x) +
"

k' ( x)

( x)

y' ( x )

Q ( x)

( x)

y ( x) + y ( x) = 0

(1),

k ( x)

( x)

k' ( x)

= a ( x),

= b ( x) ,

( x)

Q ( x)

( x)

= c ( x)

k' ( x) b ( x)
.
=
, x ,
k ( x) a ( x)

k ( x) = e
.

Q ( x)
k ( x)

c( x)

a ( x)

b( x )

a( x ) dx

Q ( x ) = k ( x )

c ( x)
a ( x)

(2)(1)-.
11.4.2
k ( b ) yn* ( b ) yn' ( b ) + k ( a ) yn* ( a ) yn' ( a ) 0
(1) yn ( a ) = 0, yn ( b ) = 0, yn ( a ) = 0, yn ( b ) = 0
*

(36).

(2) yn ( a ) = 0, yn ( b ) = 0, (36).
'

'

(3) yn ( a ) = hyn ( a ) , yn ( b ) = hyn ( b ) , (36)


'

'

2
2
k ( a ) yn* ( a ) hyn ( a ) k ( b ) yn* ( b ) hyn ( b ) = h k ( a ) yn ( a ) + k ( b ) yn ( b )

k ( x ) > 0, h > 0, yn ( a ) 0, yn ( b ) 0, (36).


2

(4) k ( a ) = k ( b ) = 0, (36).

[ a , b] ,,.

11.4.3 ,..

, F
*

F x dx

x
F

x
dx

x
=
(
)
(
)
(
)
( )

F . ( x ) ( x ) ,
x .
-.

: F

F ( x ) = ( x )

F , ( x ) F .
, -,
-


1
d Q ( x )
+
k
x
(
)

y ( x) = y ( x)

dx ( x )
( x ) dx

L=

d Q ( x)
1
+
k
x
(
)
( x ) dx
dx ( x )

L y ( x) = y ( x)

b
a

* ( x ) L ( x ) dx = ( x ) L ( x ) dx

L ,,.

cos 2 0t
0

12.1.1 f (t ) =

1
2

f (t ) =

c( ) =

t <T
t T

c ( ) .

c( )ei t d

f (t )e i t dt

+T

= cos 2 0t (cos t i sin t ) dt


T

= 2 [cos(2 0 + )t + cos(2 0 )t ]dt


0

sin(2 0 + )T sin(2 0 )T
+
2 0 +
2 0

12.1.2.

e t sin 2 0t
f (t ) =
0
f (t ) =

1
2

f ( ) =

t >0
t<0

c( )ei t d

e it f (t )dt = e t sin 2 0 te it dt

i ( 2 0 ) + t
1
i ( 2 0 ) t

e
dt
2i 0
2 0

=
=

( 2 0 )

+ ( + i )

12.1.3 f ( x ) =
c( k ) =

f ( )

1
a>0
a + x2
2

e ikx
dx
a 2 + x 2

f ( x)e ikx dx =

k<0 k>0

(1)k < 0
c(k ) =

a2 + x2

= 2 i

ik x

ik z

dx = 2 i Re sF (ia)
e
k a
= 2 i
= e
2ia a
i k ia

a2 + z 2

z = ia

(2)k > 0
x x
e ikx
eikx
c(k ) = 2
dx = 2
d ( x)
a + x 2
a + x 2

eikx
ka k a
d
x
e = e
(
)
= 2
=
a + x 2
a
a

c ( k )

e k a

sin ax
a
x

sin ax
f ( k ) = f ( x )e ikx dx =
e ikx dx

12.1.4. f ( x ) =

sin ax cos kx
sin ax
(cos kx i sin kx )dx = 2
dx

0
x
x
sin( a + k ) x
sin( a k ) x
=
dx +
dx
0
0
x
x

2 ,b > 0
sin bx

0 x dx = 0, b = 0

, b < 0(b = b
2
a>k>0k<0a> k

f ( k ) = a=k>0
2
0, k>a>0k<0a< k
12.1.5. f ( x) = cos x
2

F [e

i x2

] = F [cos x 2 + i sin x 2 ] = F [cos x 2 ] + iF [sin x 2 ]

c( k ) = F [cos x 2 ] = Re F ( ei x )
2

F [ei x ] = ei x e ikx dx = e
2

=e

k2
4

i x

k 2 k2
) i
2
4

dx

k2

1 i 4 i 4
e d = e 2e 2

i 2

k2

i ( 4 4 )
=
e

k2

i ( 4 4 )

k2
f ( k ) = Re[
e
]=
cos(
)

4 4

f ( k ) = cos x 2 e ikx dx

k2

k2

1 i x 2 ikx
1 i x 2 ikx
1 i ( x 2 ) 2 i 4
1 i ( x + 2 )2 +i 4
= e
dx + e
dx = e
dx + e
dx
2
2
2
2
k2

k2

k2

k2

2
2

1 i
1 i
1 i 4 i 2
1 i 4 i 2

= e 4 ei d
+ e 4 e i d
=
e
e
d
+
e e d
0

2
2

k2
4

e4

k2
4

(e 4

k2

k2

1 i ( 4 4 ) i ( 4 4 )
+e
) =
[e
]
2
2
*

k2
=
)
cos(

4 4

ei d = e 4
2

6.

c (k ) = f ( x) sin kxdx
0
s

2
f ( x) = cs (k ) sin kxdk
0

c (k ) = f ( x) cos kxdx
0
c

2
f ( x) = cc (k ) cos kxdk
0

f ( x ) = {[
0

f ( ) cos k d ]cos kx + [

f ( ) cos k d ]sin kx}dk

1 f(x)

A(k ) = 0
2

B(k)= cs (k )

B(k ) = 0 f ( ) sin k ( )d

c (k ) = f ( x) sin kxdx
0
s

2
f ( x) = cs (k ) sin kxdk
0

2 f(x)

2
A(k ) = 0 f ( ) cos k d
A(k)= cc (k )

cs (k ) = 0

c (k ) = f ( x) cos kxdx
0
c

2
f ( x) = cc (k ) cos kxdk
0

7 f ( x ) = e
f ( x ) =

ax

a>0

[cc ( k )cokx + cs ( k ) sin kx]dk

f ( x)cc cs

cs (k ) = e ax sin kxdx
0

1 ( ik a ) x (ik + a ) x
[e
e
]dx
2i 0

1
1 e(ik a ) x e ( ik + a ) x
1 1
]
= [

] = [

2i ik a (ik + a ) 0 2i ik a ik + a
=

k
(ik ) a
2

k
k + a2
2

cc (k ) = e ax cos kxdx
0

1 (ik a ) x ( ik + a ) x
[e
e
]dx
2 0

1 1
1
1 e(ik a ) x e (ik + a ) x

]
] = [
= [

2 ik a (ik + a ) 0 2 ik a ik + a
=

a
k + a2
2

12.1.6

cos kxdx = e k ,k > 0.


2
1+ x
2

1 + x2

2
f C ( k ) = f c ( x ) cos kxdx

fC ( x ) =

f C ( k ) = e , e k
k

.
12.1.7.

f1 ( x ) f 2 ( x ) dx =

f1 ( x ) f 2 ( x ) dx =

2
2

f1s ( k ) f 2 s ( k ) dk

f1c ( k ) f 2 c ( k ) dk

f1s ( k ) f1c ( k ) f1 ( x ) ,f2s ( k ) f2c ( k )

f1 ( x ) f 2 ( x ) dx =

f 2 ( x ) f1 s ( k ) sin kxdk dk
0

f1 s ( k ) f 2 s ( k ) dk

1, k < a
f(x)
0, k > a

12.1.8 f ( k ) =
f ( x ) =

1
=
2
12.1.9
:

1
2

f ( k )eikx dk

1 eikx
=
e
dk

2 ix

ikx

F e

ik0 x

1 eiax eiax
sin ax
(

=
2 ix
x
ix

f ( x ) = f ( k k0 ) .

F eik0 x f ( x ) = eik0 x f ( x ) e ikx dx =

12.1.10 f
1 x ) * f 2 ( x ) = f 2 ( x ) * f1 ( x )

f1 x) f 2 ( x) =

*

f1 ( ) f 2 ( x )d

i ( k +k ) x
f ( x ) e 0 dx = f (k k0 )

f 2 ( x)* f 2 ( x) =

f 2 ( ) f1 ( x )d

y = x

f1 ( x)* f 2 ( x) =
=

f1 ( x y ) f 2 ( y )( dy )

f 2 ( y ) f1 ( x y )dy = f 2 ( x)* f1 ( x)

12.1.11

y ( )d
1
= 2
, 0 < a < 1
2
( x ) + a
x + b2

y ( x )
x ) =

x + a2
2

1
y ( )d
=
]
F
[
] = F [ y ( x ) * ( x )]
2
2

x +b
( x ) + a2
1
= F [ y ( x )]F [ ( x )] = F [ y ( x )]F [ 2
]
x + a2
1

] = e k b
F [ 2
2
x +b
b
ka
1
F[ 2
]= e
x + a2
a
a k ( ba ) a b a
1
=
F [ y ( x )] = e
F[ 2
]
b
b
x + (b a)2
1
y( x) =
2
b [ x + (b a)2 ]

F[

12.1.12.

sin k
y ( x ) sin kxdx =
0

0 k
k >

(
)
f
k
f ( x ) sin kxdx
=
s

f ( x ) = f ( k ) sin kxdk
0 s

sin k
0

f s ( k ) =

0 k

k >

y ( x ) = f s ( k ) sin kxdk = sin k sin kxdk

1
1 sin k ( x 1) sin k ( x + 1)
= [cos k ( x 1) cos k ( x + 1)]dk = [

]
0
2
2
x 1
x +1
k =0
1 sin ( x 1) sin ( x + 1)
1 sin x sin x
[

]= [

]
2
x 1
x +1
2 x 1
x +1
sin x
=
1 x2
=

12.2

12.2.1

utt + a 2u xxxx = 0

u ( x, 0) = ( x)

< x < , t > 0


ut ( x, 0) = a ( x)

u ( x, t ) = ?
1.

d 2u ( k , t )
+ a 2 k 4u (k , t ) = 0

2
dt

u (k , 0) = (k ), u (k , 0) = ak 2 (k )
t

u (k , t ) = (k ) cos ak 2t (k ) sin ak 2t
3.

u ( x, t ) = F 1[ (k ) cos ak 2t ] F 1[ (k ) sin ak 2t ]
= F 1[ (k )]* F 1[cos ak 2t ] F 1[ (k )]* F 1[sin ak 2t ]
1

F [cos ak t ] F [sin ak t ]

1
x2
x2
+ sin
[cos ak t ] =
(cos
)
4 at
4 at
2 2 at
2

1
x2
x2
F [sin ak t ]=
(cos
)
sin
4 at
4 at
2 2 at
1

1
1
x2
x2
x2
x2
(cos
) ( x )*
(cos
)
+sin
u ( x ,t )= ( x )*
+sin
4 at
4 at
4 at
4 at
2 2 at
2 2 at
1
=
2 2 at
1

2 2 at

1
( x ) 2
( x )2
( )
[cos
]
+sin

4 at
4 at
2 2 at

1
( x )2
( x ) 2
( )
[cos
+sin
]

4 at
4 at
2 2 at

[cos ak t ] = Re F

1
= Re
2
=

1
Re
2
1
Re
2

dk

1
Re e
2

i ( atk +

x2
4 at

Re e

2 at

ikx

[e

iak 2t

ei ( ak t + xk )dk

eiak t e

x2
4 at

2 at

eiu

)2 i

x2
4 at

dk

du
at

2*

e dx = e 4
ix 2

eiu du

F [cos ak t ]=
2

Re e

x2
4 at

2 at
x2
1
=
cos(
)
4 4 at
2 at
x2 1
x2
1
1
=
+
(
cos
sin
)
4 at
4 at
2 at 2
2
x2
x2
1
=
+sin
(cos
)
4 at
4 at
2 2 at
1
x2
x2
2
1
F [sin ak t ]=
sin
(cos
)
4 at
4 at
2 2 at
12.2.2

< x , y , z <
t >0

ut a 2 ( u xx +u yy +u zz )=0

u ( x , y , z ,0)= ( x , y , z )

du( k , t )
+ a 2 k 2 u(k , t ) = 0

dt
u( k ,0) = ( k )

u ( k , t ) = ( k )e a k

2 2

u ( x , t ) = F 1[u ( k , t )] = F 1[ ( k , t )e a k t ]
2 2

= F 1[ ( k , t )]* F 1[e a k t ]
2 2

= ( x) *
=

1
(2a t )

1
(2a t )3

x2 + y 2 + z 2
4 a 2t

( )e

( x ) 2
4 a 2t

d 3

2 2
F 1[ e a k t ]=

(2 )3 =1
3

e
(2 )3
1

e a 2k 2t eikx d 3k

(2 )3
1

a 2 k 2j t ik j x j

dk j =

x j2
4 a 2t

=1

(2 a t )

( a tk j

2 x j 2 x j2
)
4 t
4 a 2t

(2 )3 =1

dk j

x2 + y 2 + z 2
4 a 2t

12.2.3

u xx +u yy =0
u y ( x ,0)= y ( x ),u y ( x , y ) y

ux(x,y) x =0
u ( x , y ) x =0
1 w ( x , y ) =uy ( x , y )

u ( x , y ) =

a w( x , ) d ,a

+
=
w
w
(u xx + u yy ) = 0
yy
xx
y

w( x,0) = u y ( x,0) = g ( x)

w( x, y ) y = u y ( x, y )

w( x, y ) x = 0, wx ( x, y ) x = 0

x , u ( x, y ) = 0y
u y ( x, y )

w(x,y)
2. x

d 2 w(k , y )
2
(
ik
)
w(k , y ) = 0
+
dy 2
w(k ,0) = g (k ), w(k , y ) y
(3)

w(k , y )

=0

w(k , y ) = Ae

+ Be

k2 y

= Ae

k2 y

ky

+ Be

k y

u (k , y ) y A = 0w(k , y ) = Be
g (k ) = w(k ,0) = B, w(k , y ) = g (k )e

k y

k y

(4).,

1
2

w (x, y) =
1
2
1
=
2
1
=
2

g ( )d

k y

g ( )e

k y ik ( x )

w ( k , y )e ik x d k

g ( k , y )e

e ik x d k

ik

dx =

k y + ik x

k y ik ( x )

]e

2 y
+ ( x )

w( x, y ) =

g ( )
d ]d
- + ( x ) 2

d [ 2 + ( x ) 2 ]
2 + ( x ) 2

1
=
2

1
=
2

d [ y 2 + ( x ) 2 ]
g ( ) ln a 2 + ( x ) 2 d

d g ( )

12.2.4

dk +

k y ik ( x )

g ( )
d
2
2
y + ( x)

u(x,y)= wx, )d
y

dk

k y ik ( x )

(5).w(x,y)u(x,y)

dk

utt a 2u xx = 0

u (0, t ) = 0
u ( x,0) = ( x)

0 < x < , t > 0


u ( x, t ) x = 0
ut ( x,0= x

cs ( k ) = f ( x)sin kxdx = f s ( k )

2
f ( x) = f s ( k )sin kxdx
0

(1)

d 2us ( k , t )
+ a 2 k 2u s ( k , t ) = 0
dt 2

us (k ,0) = s (k ), dus (k , t ) = s (k )

dt
t =0
( 2 ) u s ( k t )
1
s ( k ) s in k a t
u s ( k t ) = s( k ) c o s k a t +
ka

( 3 ) .
u ( x , t ) = F s 1 [ u s ( k t ) ]
= F s 1 [ s ( k ) c o s k a t ] + F s 1 [
=

s ( k ) c o s k a t s in k x d k

1
( k ) s in k a t s in k x d k
0 k a s
1
=
k x + a t ) + s in k ( x a t ) ] d k
s ( k )[ s in
+

1
s ( k ) s in k a t ]
ka

1 2
2
[ s ( k ) [s in
k x + at )dk +
k x at )dk ]
( k ) s in
2 0
0 s

1
[ x + a t ) + ( x a t ) ]
2
1
2
k at x )dk ]
( k ) s in
[ x + a t )
2
0 s
1
= [ x + a t ) ( a t x )] , x < a t , x > 0
2
=

x )
x<at
0
1 x + at
1
d

=
( ) d +
(
)
[
2 a x at
2 a x at

x+ at
0

( ) d

x + at
1 0
d

+
(
)
(
)
0 ( ) d
2 a a t x
0
x + at
1
=
( ) d ]
[ ( ) d ( ) +
0
2 a at x
1 x + at
=
( ) d ( )
2 a a t x

12.2.5

,, ( x = 0 ) q ( t ) ,

.
(1)_

ut a 2u xx = 0

u x ( 0, t ) = q ( t ) ,

u ( x,0 ) = 0

0 < x < , t > 0


u x ( , t ) = 0

(2),

Fc ut ( x, t ) =

d uc ( k , t )
dt

Fc u xx ( x, t ) = k 2 uc ( k , t ) u x ( 0, t ) = k 2 uc ( k , t ) q ( t )

d uc ( k , t )
+ a 2 k 2 uc ( k , t ) = a 2 q ( t )

dt

uc ( k , 0 ) = 0

(3) uc ( k , t ) ,

uc ( k , t ) = a 2 q ( ) e
t

a 2 k 2 ( t )

(4),

u ( x, t ) = a 2 dk q ( )e a k
= a 2 q ( )d e
=

q ( )

12.3

12.3.2

cos kxd

a 2 k 2 ( t )

cos kxd

e x

/ a 2 k 2 ( t )

12.3.1 L[f(t) e t ]
L e t f ( t ) =

( t )

2 2

= f ( p ), Re( p ) > 0

e t f ( t )e pt dt = f ( t )e ( p )t dt = f ( p )

L[t n e t ] = ?

L[f(t)]=F(p)
L[f(t)e t ] = F ( p )
n!
L[tn ]= n+1
p
n!
L[t n e t ] =
(p- )n+1
12.3.3

L[t sin t ] = ?

L[sint]=

1
= F ( p)
p +1
2

dn
n F ( p ) = L[(t ) n f (t )]
dp
d 1
2 p
L[t sin t ] =
=
dp p 2 + 1 ( p 2 + 1) 2
12.3.4

1
L[ (e t e t )] = ?
t

L[e t e t ] =

1
1

= F ( p)
p
p

f (t )
p F ( p ) d p = L [ t ]

e t e t
1
1
L[

]= (
)dp
p
t
p
p
p
= ln
p

= lim

p
p
+ ln
p
p

p
p
ln 1 = 0
= ln

12.3.5

L[

t
0

s in u
du ] = ?
u


1 . L [ s i n t ] =

+ 1

F ( p )

2 .

f (t)
] =
L [
F ( p ) d p
p
t

s in u
1
1

] =
a
r
c
t
a
n
L [
d
p
=
p
u
p 2 + 1
p

a rc ta n p = a rc c ta n p = a rc ta n

3 . L [
L [

s in u
d u ] =
u

t
0

1
p

1
L [ f (t)]
p
1
1
a rc ta n
p
p

f (t)d t] =

1
s in u
] =
L [
p
u

12.3.6 y (t ) ty (t ) +

y (t ) = 1

y (0) = 1, y(0) = 2

( 1 )

[ y ( t ) ] =
=

y ( p )

L [ t y ( t ) ] =

[ p

d
d p

y ( p )

L [1 ] =

1
p

y ( p )

p y ( 0 )

y ( 0 )

L [ ( t ) y ( t ) ]

y ( p )
p

y ( 0 ) ]

y ( p )
d p

d L [ y ( t ) ]
d p


p2 y( p) p 2 + y( p)
d y( p)
1
+ y( p) =
dp
p

+ p

2
2
1
d y( p)
+ (p +
+
y ( p ) = 1 +
dp
p
p
p2

(2). y( p)

y ( p ) = ce
= cp

(p+

2
)dp
p

= ce

1 2
p 2 ln p
2

p2
2

1
2
+
p
p2
y ( p ) = c p

p2
2

1
2
+
p
p2

)+

1
2
+
p
p2

( 3 ) .
e

y ( p ) = cp
=

p2
2
2


p2
p4
(1
+

2
8

p2
1
2
1
+ (c + ) 2 + c(
+

p
p
2
8

(1 ) k = 0 , 1 , 2 ,
L1 [

L1 [ p k ] = 0 ( t > 0 )

dk
p k ] = k L - 1[ 1 ] = k ( t
k
dp

L[(t ]=

( t e -ptd t = e -pt

t=0

= 1)


k ! ( t = L1 [

dk
dk
1
k
p
L
]
[
=
F ( p )] = ( t )k f (t )
k
k
dp
dp

L1 [ p k ] = L1 [ F ( p )] = f ( t ) =

k(t
= 0 ( t > 0 )
(-t)k

L1[ 1 ] = 1

p
1
L1[ 2 ] = t
p

1
1

y t= L1[ y ( p )] = L1[ + (c + 2) 2 ]
p
p
1
1
L1[ + (c + 2) 2 ] = 1 + (c + 2)t
p
p

12.3.7.
q
dI(t) 1 t
+ I(t)dt = 0
L
c 0
c
dt
I(0) = 0

1.

1 I(p) q 0 1
=
c p
c p
q 1
1
1
: I(p)(L + 2 ) = 0 2
p
cp
c p
q0 1
q
1
c p2
I(p) =
= 0
1
1
c + 2 Lc p 2 +
cp
Lc
L{pI(p)-I(0)}+

2.
q 0 1
1
L [
]
1
Lc
2
p +
Lc
1
q
q
t
Lc
] = 0 sin
= 0 LcL1[
1 2
Lc
Lc
Lc
p2 + (
)
Lc

L-1[I(p)] =

12.3.7 f ( p ) =

( p2 2 )

, f ( t )

p f ( p ) , pb1,2 = ,

e pt
e pt

, + Re s
,
f ( t ) = 2 i Re s
2
2 2
2
2 2

( p )

( p )
1
=
(tcht sht )
2 3

12.4
12.4.1

u tt a 2 u xx = cos wt

u(0, t) = 0, u(x,t) x

t x,0)=0
u(x,0) = 0u
1.
t

d 2 u(x,p)
p
p u(x,p)=pu(x,0)-u t (x,0)-a
=
dx 2
p2 + w 2
2

d 2 u(x,p) p2 u(x,p)
1
p

= 2 2

2
2
a
a p + w2
dx
u(0,p) = 0, u(x,p)

x
2. u( x , p)
+

u( x , p) = c1e
(1) u( x , p)

p
x
a

+ c2e a +

1
p(p + w 2 )
2

c2 = 0

p
x
a

1
p(p + w 2 )
1
0 = u( 0 , p ) = c 1 +
2
p(p + w 2 )
1
c1 = 2
p(p + w 2 )
u( x , p ) = c 1 e

u( x , p ) =

p
x
1
1
a
e

p (p 2 + w 2 ) p(p 2 + w 2 )

3.
p
x
a

1
e
]-L-1 [
]
2
p(p + w )
p(p 2 + w 2 )
1
1
1
p
]= 2 L-1 [ 2
]
1 L-1 [
2
2
p(p + w )
w
p p + w2
1
wt

= 2 (1 cos wt) = 2 sin 2


w
w
2
(2)
u x,t)=L-1 [u(x,p)]=L-1 [

L[f (t )] = e p L[f (t)] = e p F(p)


f (t ), t
L 1 [e p F(p)] = f (t ) =
0 t<
x

w (t )
p
2
x
2
a
e a
x
2 sin
1
L [
]= w
,t
2
2
2
p(p + w )
a

x
0, t <
a

w(t- )
2
wt
2
a ,t x
sin 2
2 [sin
u (x, t) = w
2
2
a
2
x
2 wt
,t <
2 sin
2
a
w
12.4.2.

u tt -a 2 u xx =0

u(0,t)=0, u x (x,t) x = 0

u(x,0)=0,u t (x,0)=b
1.
t

2
2
2 d
p
u(x,p)-pu(x,0)-u
(x,0)-a
u(x,p)=0
t

2
dx

u(0,p)=0, u (x,p)
=0
x
x

2.u(x,p)
u(x,p)=c1e
(1) u x (x,p)

p
- x
a

p
- x

u(x,p)=c1e a +

+ c2e

b
p2

= 0c 2 =0

b
p2

20 = u(0,p)=c1 +
u(x,p)=-

p
x
a

b
b
, c1 =- 2
2
p
p

b - pa x b
e + 2
p2
p

3.
b - pa x b
u(x,t)=L [u(x,p)]=L [- 2 e + 2 ]
p
p
-1

-1

b - pa x
b
e ] + L-1[ 2 ]
2
p
p
b
(1)L-1[ 2 ] = bt
p
= L-1[-

f (t ), t
L-1[e p F(p)] = f (t ) =
0,t<
x
x

b(t ), t
p

b - x
a
a
L1[- 2 e a ] =
p
0,t < x

a
x
x

b(t a ) + bt, t a
u(x, t) =
bt,t < x

a
x
x
= b(t )H(t ) + bt
a
a

12.4.3.
u t -a 2 u xx +hu=0,0<x<,t>0

u(0,t)=0, u x (x,t) x = 0
u(x,0) = u
0

1.
t

d2
pu(x, p) u(x, 0) a
u(x, p) + hu(x, p) = 0
dx 2
d2
u0
p+h
2 u(x, p) 2 u(x, p) = 2
a
a
dx
u(0, p) = 0
u x (x, p)
=0

x
2

2.u(x, p)
u(x, p) = c1e
(1) u x (x, p)

p+ h
x
a

+ c2e

p+ h
x
a

u0
p+h

= 0c 2 =0

p+ h
x
a

u0
p+h
u
u
(2)0 = u(0, p) = c1 + 0 , c1 = 0
p+h
p+h
u(x, p) = c1e

u(x, p) =

p+ h
x
a

u0
u
0 e
p+h p+h

3.
u
u
u(x, t) = L [ 0 ] L1 [ 0 e
p+h
p+h
u
L1 [ 0 ] = u 0e ht
p+h
1

2u
u 0 ap x
L [ e
]= 0
p

u
L [ 0 e
p+h
1

p+ h
x
a

p+ h
x
a

e- d
2

x
2a t

F [ p ]= L[ e f ( t )]
L1 [ F ( p )]= e t f ( t )

u( x, t ) = u 0 e ht (1

x
2a t

e- d
2

e ht

2u 0

x
2a t

e- d
2

12.4.4

d 2
dt

e y dy =
2

x / 2a t

d 2
dt

2a t

3
2

e x

/ 4 a2t

x
,
2a t

e y dy ( x ) =
2

x / 2a t

d 2
dt

( )
x

e y dy =
2

lim (

lim e

e y dy
2

( t + t )

t 0

( t +t )

t 0

2a t

3
2

e x

( x)

/ 4 a2t

lim ( t + t ) ( x ) / t
t 0

e y dy ) / t

2.5.1
1.F

(1) cos x ( x)dx = cos x

x =0

=1

( x 1) + ( x + 1)

(2) e x ( x 2 1)dx = e x
1
= (e x
2

+ ex

x =1

x =1

dx

1
) = (e1 + e 1 ) = cosh1
2

(3) sin 2 x ( x + ) dx

f ( x ) ( x ) dx = f (0)

= sin 2 x
= 2 sin x cos x

x =

x =

2 = sin 2
= 2 sin

226,(27),(28)

1 x ) = l i m

e nx

( a ) x = 0
n

lim

e nx

= lim

x=0

( b ) x 0
n

lim

e nx = l i m
2

e nx

1
1
= 0
2
2
n
n 2 x e nx
(c )
=

lim

- n

lim

e nx

dx =

= 1

(x) = lim
n

e nx

1
e nx

( 2 ) ( x ) = lim

(x2 + 2)

( a ) x = 0
lim

(x2 + 2)

= lim
x=0

( b ) x 0
lim

(x2 + 2)

= lim

=0

( c )

(x + )

v=

x
2

>0
2

dx

1
dv
=
a rctg v
2
tv

= [ ( )] = 1
2
2

( x ) = lim
0 (x2 + 2 )
=

n
n 1 + n x 2
1
2 =

n
(3) ( x ) =

lim

d
x

[( ) 2 + 1]

3. 2 ( p ) =

1 2 1
ln
2

1 c
1 2 1
1 2
ln =
ln
2
2
1 1 d
d
(
ln ) = 0
=
2 d
d

(2) 0

1 2 1
ln
2

(3)
0
2
d
1
1
2
d
l
n

0 0
d
2

z

1
2

1
2
1
=
2
=

2
0

v
s

1
0
2

(ln

ln

(ln
1

)dv

G
d

G 1 G G
= e +
e + e

z z
1
ln

) d d d z

ln

ln
=

e =

1 G
e

z
G G
G G
n e e n = 0
G G
e n = 1
I =
=

1
2

v
s

1 1
2
2

1 G
G
e d