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UWRT 1102-026

SOURCE
Rinkresh
Kukreja; 51
Facts About
Deforestation
Conserve Energy
Future; January
28, 2015
(website)

Tree of Healing
USA, and God of
Kenya;
Alternative Fuel
to Wood
Charcoal
Africa Adapt;
January 28, 2015
(website)

Anthony B.
Anderson;
Alternatives to
Deforestation:
Steps Toward
Sustainable Use
of the Amazon
Rain Forest;
February 8, 2015
(book)

ANNOTATION
Concerned with the usage of wood, Rinkresh Kukreja created
the nonprofit website Conserve Energy Future in hopes of
raising awareness to viewers of the ecological detriments of
deforestation. He introduces his blog 51 Facts About
Deforestation by explaining what deforestation is, and how
advanced its progress has become in the modern world.
Accordingly, he follows with 51 facts concerning forest
sizes, gas emissions, land usage, and so forth. Notably, the
first 40 facts that Kukreja listed were documented statistics,
whereas the remaining 11 facts were from his own personal
view. The statistics from the first 40 facts, for instance, claim
that the average rainforest withholds 210 gigatonnes of
carbon, and approximately 4500 acres of forests are cleared
every hour. The recommendations from the latter 11 facts
give advice on how to reduce deforestation via less
packaging, more recycling, more energy efficiency, etc.
Africa Adapt is a website dedicated to the welfare of African
inhabitants. The article Alternative Fuel to Wood Charcoal
was created with the attempt to help stabilize the economy of
the Kenya locals via wood management. Because illegal
industries such as charcoal production are predominant in
third world and developing countries, the people in Kenya
are finding it increasingly difficult to meet energy needs that
require wood. Thus, two organizations the Tree of Healing
USA and God of Kenya have risen to defend Kenya locals
via green charcoal, an innovative, ecofriendly biomass that
rivals with charcoal in terms of energy output. Alternative
Fuel to Wood Charcoal also claims that green charcoal
produces less carbon emission and is much cheaper per unit
of energy than traditional charcoal.
Written in 1990, Andersons book Alternatives to
Deforestation is relatively outdated considering the
quickened pace of current society. Though, its key points
cannot be overlooked; Anderson points out many ways
through which deforestation may be reduced, thus extending
the longevity of the Amazon forest. For instance, on pages
208-211, Anderson mentions germplasm and
agrosilvopastoral systems. Germplasm is the process of
introducing species of grasses and legumes specialized for
the barren landscape of pastured lands. Agrosilvopastoral
systems serve the same purpose as germplasms but is
slightly different in its approach in that trees and various
shrubberies along with grasses and legumes are added to
pastured lands.

THOUGHTS/CONNECTIONS
51 Facts About Deforestation was
relatively informative due to the
numerous facts associated with
deforestation. Though, the statistics
that Kukreja listed were not
presented with credibility, many of
them stuck with me. Kukrejas
website directly tied with the
following two sources, in that the
detriments of deforestation must be
established so that forests and
peoples livelihood be preserved.

Alternative Fuel to Wood addresses


the problems that accompany
deforestation in Kenya how the
local ecology is affected and people
left in desperation. The author of
the website introduces two
organizations that hopes to
represent a prospective innovation
to replace the traditional charcoal
(which directly ties into my thesis
as well that alternative renewable
resources must replace/reduce wood
usage).
Alternatives to Deforestation by
Anderson is a combination of
Kukrejas blog and Alternative Fuel
to Wood, in that his book contains
both statistics and ways in reducing
deforestation. I found the book
slightly useful because it addressed
the problems with deforestation;
however, it failed to establish
alternative energy sources for wood.

Lee | Page 1

UWRT 1102-026
SOURCE
Oyvind Skreiberg
(SINTEF); Top
Class Fuel from
the Depths of the
Forest; February
15, 2015
(online article)

Energy Efficiency
and Conservation
Authority
(EECA); Wood
Energy
Knowledge
Centre; February
15, 2015
(website)

Marshall Brain
and Robert Lamb
(How Stuff
Works); How
Nuclear Energy
Works; February
15, 2015
(online article)

ANNOTATION
Oyvind Skreiberg, a senior scientist at Norways private
research institute SINTEF, is researching on ways to
produce a cheap but efficient fuel rivaling coal and timber.
Skreiberg claims that Norway contains enough GROT (i.e.,
woody byproducts) to provide between five to six Terawatt
hours of energy annually. However, before the GROT may
be utilized as fuel, its compositions must first be altered to
preferred standards. Skreiberg and his colleagues undergo
the GROT through torrefaction, a process that dries and
condenses the woody biomass into pellets. Skreiberg claims
that these pellets weigh 70% less, retain 90% of its former
energy, and is much cheaper than timber or wood chips.
Many coal-fired power stations are already combining
traditional wood pellets with the coal, with the aim of
reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Skreiberg.
EECA is a New Zealand government agency dedicated to
the energy efficiency of its constituents. The agency
promotes the usage of woody byproducts as fuel, such as
wood pellets and residues, but also supports minute
deforestation. According to the agency, the sustainability of
a forest depends several processes of which include: harvest
management (communication), soil management (soil
maintenance), ash application (soil quality and disposal
costs), and wood residue removal (waste maintenance).
The agency expounds wholly upon the pros of exploiting the
usefulness and versatility of wood that wood energy is
good for the environment because it is carbon neutral, that
the usage of wood improves ones reputation, etc.
Despite its potential for disaster, ironically, nuclear energy
provides one of the cleanest and swiftest energies for
mankind; furthermore, its fission-fusion reactions are so
powerful, one pound of enriched uranium provides just as
much energy as one million gallons of gasoline. In 2011,
nuclear energy accounted for 20% of the US electricity
supply. Nuclear power plants, however, are expensive to
build and maintain. Approximately 2000 metric tons of
radioactive wastes are produced by Earths nuclear power
plants, and it will take millenniums for its decay.

THOUGHTS/CONNECTIONS
Skreiberg mentioned green
charcoal, which are woody
byproducts that have been terrified
(undergone torrefaction).
Coincidentally, Africa Adapt
(Source #2 mentions green
charcoal. Skreiberg claims that
many nations are on the race to
develop an affordable and energy
efficient green charcoal that will
reduce or replace traditional fuels.

As with Skreiberg and Africa


Adapt, the implementation of
green charcoal and woody
byproducts is becoming
increasingly popular amongst
researchers. Green charcoal
(torrefied woody byproducts) are
great because they increase the
stock in wood fuel, thus reducing
the need to acquire more timber and
reducing further deforestation.
Nuclear energy is to modern
humans as is wood to our human
ancestors. Its relatively new, clean,
and versatile. In fact, nuclear fission
produces such enormous amounts
of energy that if handled and
correctly sustained, nuclear energy
would ultimately eliminate the need
for wood fuel or coal.

Lee | Page 2

UWRT 1102-026
SOURCE
Nuclear Energy
Institute (NEI);
Why Nuclear
Energy?; March
22, 2015
(website)

Mitchell Vale
(Scientific
American);
Deforestation and
its Extreme Effect
on Global
Warming; March
22, 2015
(scholarly article)
People for the
Ethical Treatment
of Animals
(PETA);
Vegetarianism
and the
Environment;
March 22, 2015
(website)
2015 Index of
Economic Freedom
(The Heritage
Foundation);
Brazil and
Kenya;
April 1, 2015
(website)

Vanderbilt
University; What
is Sustainability?;
April 1, 2015
(website)

ANNOTATION
The Nuclear Energy Institute is an official organization
established for the promotion of nuclear energy. The
organization claims that the centralization of nuclear plants
will more than likely create opportunities for jobs for
locals. Accordingly, they claim that nuclear energy
contributes absolutely zero detriments to the surrounding
areas. As stated by the organization, . . . generates nearly
two-thirds of Americas clean electricity. Its the largest
source of electricity that doesnt emit air pollution.
Carbon emissions from deforestations have a greater
contribution towards global warming than do emissions
from all the cars and trucks worldwide. It is estimated that
thirteen-percent of carbon emissions are attributed towards
automobiles whereas at least fourteen-percent from
deforestation. Thusly, the United Nations created REDD,
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation, which is an agency that rewards developing
countries that have reduced their deforestation rate below a
base line. Accordingly, REDD has already rewarded more
than $117 million to 44 countries.
Of all the lands in the United States, 80 percent of land is
used for meat production and so forth, and according to
scientists at the Smithsonian Institution, seven football
fields worth of land is bulldozed every minute to make
room for farmed animals and crops to feed them. Producing
a little more than 2 pounds of beef causes more
greenhouse-gas emissions than driving a car for three
hours.

THOUGHTS/CONNECTIONS
The NEI pursues the exact same
goals as did Brain and Lamb in their
article abovementioned How
Nuclear Energy Works. I believe
nuclear energy is, indeed, one of the
way to go green in the future.

Brazils economic freedom score, as of the 2015 index, is at


56.6, making it the 118th freest country. Likewise, Kenya is
one point below Brazil at 55.6, making it the 121st freest
country. The two countries have seen little to no change to
their economic opportunities, as Brazil has only risen less
than 0.5 points and Kenya fallen by 1.8 points over the past
five years. In a 2014 survey, 85% of Brazilians disapproved
their Presidents policies on crime and corruption. From
2014 onwards, Kenya has managed to control corruption,
however, compromised 5 of the 10 economic freedoms,
including trade freedom, business freedom, and the
control of government spending. When comparing the
two countries economic state, from FREE to
REPRESSED, both maintained a relatively linear line
along the MOSTLY UNFREE section.
Sustainability may be constructed via three
comprehensions: the environmental, economic, and social
spheres. The environmental sphere concerns natural
resource use, environmental management, and pollution
prevention. The economic sphere revolves around profit,

The close relationship between


Kenya and Brazil is apparent in the
trends described, which is the chief
reason as to why I chose them.
Kenyans are steadily falling into an
economic downcast and must seek
more ways to earn livings. And,
Brazilians are maintaining their
economic status but at the cost of the
worlds largest rain forest.

REDD is an excellent combatant for


the reduction of deforestation and
anything thereof because it provides
a reward provocation for poor
countries. As with the prospective
future with nuclear energy, I believe
a future promoted with REDD will
be much more profitable for future
generations.
PETA is actually one of the green
organizations I intend to target
because the collective is actually
quite massive, consisting of several
hundred staffs and supporters. I
believe this organization has the
persuasion to change people in many
developing countries.

The key issue of my inquiry question


is the reduction or complete
elimination of deforestation in Brazil
and Kenya thus, reducing or
eliminating the usage and/or
Lee | Page 3

UWRT 1102-026

Solutions Journal;
How Brazil Has
Dramatically
Reduced Tropical
Deforestation;
January 28, 2015
(online article)

cost savings, economic growth, and research and


development. The social sphere consists of standards of
living, education, communities, and equal opportunities.
Maintaining a consistent relationship between these three
spheres will maximize sustainability.
The rate of deforestation in the Amazon forest has declined
by 70%, over the past nine years. Many factors are
responsible for Brazils success: the continual presence of
Government policing and enforcing prosecutions,
incentives created by Norways pledge to reward up to $1
billion for positive results, and pressure by non-government
organizations.

destruction of timber.

This online articles demonstrates the


viability of controlling deforestation
given the intervention of
Government and non-government
organizations. Definitely, Kenya may
undergo the exact same procedure.

Lee | Page 4