You are on page 1of 9

SUBJECT: SCIENCE FORM: 5

1. NUTRITION AND GOOD 2. NUTRIENT


EATING HABITS REQUIREMENT PLANTS

NUTRITION

3. THE NITROGEN 4. MANAGING FOOD


CYCLE RESOURCES

1. NUTRITION AND GOOD EATING HABITS

1.1 NUTRIENTS

• Definition : Chemical substances which all living things need in order to live and
grow healthily.
• Importance: 1. To get energy Gigi
2. To grow Ghazali
3. To build new cell Baru Keyword
4. To repair damaged tissue Rongak,
5. To maintain good health Mak…

• Nutrient can be found in the 5 basic classes of food, there are:

Class of food Example Main Importance


Carbohydrates Bread, Rice, Sugar Energy supplier
Proteins Meat, Fish, Egg “
Fats Butter, Cheese, Oils “
Body’s protection from
Minerals & vitamins Vegetables, Fruits
certain diseases
Dietary fibre “ Constipation prevention
Water - Transportation of
substances in blood
To maintain body’s
temperature (37ºC)

1.2 CALORIFIC VALUES IN FOOD

• Definition: Amount of energy released by one gram of food when it is completely


oxidized (digested)
• How to measure: By using food calorimeter
• Unit: kilojoules per gram (kJ/gram)
• Different type of foods give different calorific values

Calorific values Calorific values


Food Food
(kJ/g) (kJ/g)
Bread 10.6 Milk 2.7
Butter 31.2 Mutton 10.1
• How to calculate energy supplied by food?

Energy supplied = mass of food (in gram) * calorific values

• Example :

1. Find energy supplied by:

1) 80 g of bread
2) 150 g of butter
3) 65 g of milk
4) 500 g of mutton

2. Find the total energy supplied for these foods

1.3 FACTORS AFFECTING ENERGY INTAKE

• Amount of energy required by person depend on:

1. Sex Sheila
Male need more energy than female

2. Body size Basuh


Person who has big size need more energy
than person who has small size
Keyword
3. State of health Stokin
Normal person need more energy than sick person

4. Physical activities Putih


People who do hard job need more energy
than people who do easy job

5. Temperature of surroundings Timah


People who live in cold country need more energy
than people who live in other places
1.4 BALANCED DIET

• Definition: Diet which consists of all the classes of food, include water and
dietary fibre, in the correct proportions.
• Importance: 1. To get energy Gigi
2. To grow Ghazali
3. To build new cell Baru Keyword
4. To repair damaged tissue Rongak,
5. To maintain good health Mak…

Carbohydrates = 80%
Proteins = 7.5%
Fats = 10%
Minerals & vitamins = sufficient amount
Dietary fibre = sufficient amount
Water = 7-8 glasses

1.5 HEALTH PROBLEM

A lot of problems might be arising from over eating, less eating or eating unbalanced
diet. For example:
a) Malnutrition  (eating unbalanced diet) d) Diseases due to unhealthy eating
b) Obesity  (more eating) habits (eating unbalanced diet).
c) Anorexia nervosa  (less eating)

For part a) malnutrition, diseases might be arising are as follow as:

Nutrient Disease Main symptoms Picture


lacking
Carbohydrate Marasmus Weak, dehydrated, severely underweight
& shrunken appearance

Protein Kwashiorkor Loss of appetite, failure to grow & much


swallowed abdomen

Iron Anaemia Pale appearance & loss appetite

Iodine Goitre Large swelling at the neck


Calcium Osteoporosis Weak bones and teeth & back bone might
be bent

Vitamin A Night Poor eye sight at night


blindness

Vitamin B Beri-beri Weakness of the legs & lack of nervous


sensation in the fingers and toes

Vitamin C Scurvy Bleeding gums

Vitamin D Rickets Bent legs due to the weak bones

Dietary fibre Constipation Difficulty in getting rid of solid waste


from the body

For part b) obesity,

- It happens due to over eating for long period of time. So, the excess food is
converted into fat and stored under skin (especially in the abdomen). As a result,
person will become very fat or obese

- Diseases might be arising from obesity are:

a) high blood pressure d) stones in the gall bladder


b) heart disease e) bent backbone
c) diabetes

- How to avoid from being obese?

1. Control the way of eating 2. Do exercise regularly

For part c) anorexia nervosa,

- It happens due to insufficient amount of food taking by person especially ladies since
they want to get slim body to look attractive. Eventually, they will vomit the digested
food and as a result, they will become thin, dehydrated, and very undernourished.

- It also classified as social and psychological problem

- How to avoid from being “anorexia nervosa” person?

1. Take nutritious meal 2. See psychiatrist and therapist


For part d) diseases due to unhealthy eating habits,

- Diseases might be arising from these poor habits are:

1. hypertension 2. stroke
- other name for high blood pressure - stroke occurs if artery of the brain bursts
- affect to the heart - it can cause paralysis of part of the body
- happens due to taking too much salt or the whole body

3. tooth decay 4. diabetes melitus


- happen due to excess sugar in food, - happen when body can’t produce enough
so bacteria inside the mouth change it insulin to deal with excess glucolin (came
into lactic acid, and this acid destroy from food)
the tooth’s enamel. - it can cause tiredness, coma, even worse
- to avoid it, person should: death
a) eat less sugary food - to avoid it, person should:
b) always brushing the teeth after eat a) eat less sugary food
b) do exercise regularly
c) control weight

5. Atherosclerosis 6. Heart attack


- happens due to excess of cholesterol - occur when the blood’s flow to the heart
in bloodstream stop and part of the heart die.
- it makes artery becomes hard, less elastic - it might be fatal
and resist blood’s flow

- to avoid it, person should:


a) give up smoking
b) control weight
c) do exercise regularly
- side effect: hypertension d) eat healthy food
Importance of Taking Good Nutrition and Practicing Good Eating Habits

o Help us to prevent deficiency diseases such as ricket, goiter, scurvy and etc.
o Help us to prevent health problem such as hypertension, stroke, diabetes and etc.
o Supply necessary energy that required by us
o Maintain our good health

Note:

Good eating habits that we should adopt include the following:

o Eat nutritious food


o Eat food which is rich in dietary fibre
o Avoid taking food which has no nutritional value
o Avoid taking excessive amount of salts, sugars and fats with your food
o Drink 7-8 glasses of water per day

2 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF PLANTS

2.1 PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN GREEN PLANTS

Definition: Synthesize of food process by green plants in presence of sunlight using


water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
sunlight
Water + Carbon Dioxide Glucose + Oxygen
chlorophyll
How photosynthesis occur:

Water Carbon dioxide Sunlight Glucose Oxygen


o Absorbed o Absorbed o Supply o Combination o Waste
through the from air energy for of hydrogen product
roots through the this process and carbon o Released
o Transport stomata in dioxide from leaves
along leaves through
xylem to stomata
the leaves
Chlorophyll
o Absorb
sunlight

Importance of photosynthesis:
o Helps to maintain the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in atmosphere
o Supply foods to green plants, animals and human being
2.2 MACRONUTRIENTS

Definition: Minerals required by plants in large amount for their healthy growth

Macronutrients and their functions:

Macronutrient Function
Carbon (C) To form carbohydrates, proteins and fats
Hydrogen (H) “
Oxygen (O) “
Nitrogen (N) To form hormones, proteins, nucleic acid and chlorophyll
Phosphorus (P) To form proteins and nucleic acid
To stimulate the production of flowers and fruits
Potassium (K) To form carbohydrates, proteins and new cells
To build up resistance for disease
Calcium (Ca) To form cell walls
For growth
Magnesium (Mg) To form chlorophyll
To activate certain enzymes
Sulphur (S) To form certain amino acids
For growth

2.3 MICRONUTRIENTS

Definition: Minerals required by plants in very small amount for their healthy growth.
They also have known as trace elements.

Micronutrients and their functions:

Micronutrient Function
Boron (B) To help in the breaking up of the carbohydrates
Molybdenum (Mo) To help nitrogen to carry out its functions
Zinc (Zn) To activate certain enzymes
Manganese (Mn) “
Copper (Cu) To form enzymes for photosynthesis
Iron (Fe) To form chlorophyll

Effects of Deficiency of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Plant Growth

Macronutrient Deficiency symptom


Nitrogen (N) Stunted (short) growth
Leaves are small, yellow and drop off easily
Phosphorus (P) Poor growth especially the roots.
Few flower and fruits
Potassium (K) Leaves turn yellow (chlorosis)
Plants are weak and die before maturing.
3 NITROGEN CYCLE AND ITS IMPORTANCE.

3.1 NITROGEN CYCLE

Nitrogen in atmosphere
Action of denitrifying Synthesis of nitrogen fixing
bacteria bacteria
Lightning

Nitrates Nitrates

Action of nitrifying bacteria Absorption

Absorption

Nitrites Plant proteins

Decay by bacteria and fungi

Action of nitrifying bacteria Nutrition

Ammonium in compounds Animal proteins


Decay by bacteria and fungi

3.2 IMPORTANCE OF NITROGEN CYCLE

o Maintain soil fertility


o Increasing production of crops
o Maintaining the amount of nitrogen in atmosphere
o Reducing pollution of the environment
4 MANAGING FOOD RESOURCES AND HEALTHY EATING HABITS

- Plant and animals are said to be our food resources. Thus, we should manage these food
resources so that there will be a continuous food supply for us.
- To manage these food resources, we have to do a lot of following things:
 Avoid wastage
 Ensure that we do not cook more than we can eat.

- Besides, we have to practice healthy eating habits in our daily life. It can be done by:
 Eat well-balanced diet
 Avoid skipping meals especially breakfast
 Eat our food slowly so that the brain has enough time to register fullness.
 Avoid taking excessive amount of sugars, salts and fats in our food