You are on page 1of 246

EBC Ocean & Coastal Resources Program:

Coastal Resiliency and Marine Spatial


Planning

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Welcome
Payson R. Whitney III, P.E.
Chair, EBC Ocean & Coastal
Resources Committee
Vice President, Water & Coastal Engineering
ESS Group, Inc.

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Introduction
Leslie-Ann McGee
Program Co-Chair and Moderator

Director, Ocean and Coastal Solutions


Battelle

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Introduction
Harlan Doliner
Program Co-Chair

Counsel, Head of Maritime Group


Verrill Dana LLP

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

THE COSTS OF SHELTERING IN PLACE

DOT Approach to Coastal


Resiliency
Steven Miller
Supervisor of Environmental Management
Systems and Sustainability
MassDOT
Environmental Business Council of New England
Energy Environment Economy

Environmental Business
Council
April 29, 2015

4/29/2015

The Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) system is a critical link in regional


transportation and a vitally important asset in the Boston
metropolitan area with 160 lane miles half of them in tunnels, six
interchanges, and 200 bridges.

Tip ONeill Tunnel Exit & Entrance Ramps

Vent Building 1

Tip ONeill Tunnel Exit & Entrance Ramps

Tip ONeill Tunnel Exit Ramp

Vent Building 4 Detail of 15KV Electrical Conduit

Tip ONeill Tunnel Northernmost Portal

165,000 Average Daily Travel in 2014

Stakeholder, Technical Advisory Committee, and


Institutional Knowledge meetings were used to
inform and refine the project approach.
2 Formal Stakeholder Meetings: Cities of Boston and Cambridge, TBHA,
BWSC, EOEEA, DCR, CZM, MWRA, MassPort (Logan International
Airport), MEMA, consultant teams for Cambridge and MassPort
2 Formal Technical Advisory Committee Meetings: EPA Region 1, USACOE,
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), NOAA
Many IK Meetings: District 6 Operations and Maintenance, Electrical,
Environmental (stormwater pump stations and outfalls)

| Leading the Nation in Transportation Excellence | www.mass.gov/massdot

Project Overview
Define Geographical Scope
Inventory of Assets
Surveys of Critical Areas of Central Artery
Hydrodynamic Analysis
Vulnerability Assessment
Adaptation Strategy
Project report and presentations

| Leading the Nation in Transportation Excellence | www.mass.gov/massdot

12

4/29/2015

| Leading the Nation in Transportation Excellence | www.mass.gov/massdot

High Resolution Hydrodynamic Modeling


Includes relevant physical processes (tides, storm surge, wind, waves,
wave setup, river discharge, sea level rise, future climate scenarios)
Charles River
Dam

Amelia Earhart Dam

Currents
Storm Surge
Tides
Water Levels
Winds
SLR
Discharge
Infrastructure

Waves
Wave Setup

Model Input
Data Input

Source

LiDAR and topography

MassGIS, MassDOT, USGS, NOAA CSC, Site-specific surveys

Bathymetry

NOAA/NGDC, USGS, Site-specific surveys

Land cover

MassGIS, USGS

River flow and hydrographs

BWSC, USGS, City of Cambridge, VHB

Historical high water marks

USGS, Gadoury (1979)

Tides

NOAA Tides and Currents

Sea level rise scenarios

US National Climate Assessment (2012)

Flood control structures

Massachusetts DCR, USACE, MCZM

Storm climatology - Tropical

Emanuel et al. (2006), Global Climate Models

Amelia
Earhart Dam Extra-Tropical
Storm
climatology

(Vickery et al., 2013), (ECMWF, 2014), Myers and Malkin (1961)

Risk Inundation Maps


Regional Output

Depth of Inundation Maps


Regional Output

Vulnerability Assessment
While considering exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity it
became apparent during the IK meetings that there is a high
sensitivity to flooding to almost all structures with little redundancy in
the system any water at grade is a problem.
Therefore, all structures have an equal priority

22

4/29/2015

| Leading the Nation in Transportation Excellence | www.mass.gov/massdot

Adaptation Strategy
Mix of local and regional actions coordinated with other
organizations.
Local protection of structures with water less than 2 feet would
consist of relatively inexpensive temporary flood structures. 1%
storm flood depths exceeding 2 feet would require a perimeter flood
walls but will not be needed until after 2030 and beyond. Portals
are vulnerable to flooding today but could be protected with
temporary barriers. Once the 0.1% flood depths exceed 0.5 feet
flood gates would be required.
Regional protection plans are still under development but will be
focused on major flood pathways identified in the 2070 and 2100
analysis.
23

4/29/2015

| Leading the Nation in Transportation Excellence | www.mass.gov/massdot

Table 5-2. The vulnerability results of non-Boat Section Structures for 2013 and 2030 flooding scenarios.
2013 indicates present vulnerability and 2030 indicates vulnerability over the period from the just past
the present to 2030.
Note: when a range of depths is shown, it means that flood depth varies along the perimeter of the structure.
Structure_ID
2013 1 %
2030 1 %
Structure Location
Depth (ft)
Depth (ft)
D6A-DC03

0 to 0.3

D6D-DC01

0 to 0.5

0 to 1.5

Depot-Main Complex SMF


Rutherford Street, Charlestown
Depot-Main Complex - 93 Granite Ave, Milton

D6D-D1-B

0 to 0.4

0.7

D6 Granite Ave Building B

D6D-D1-C

0.2

D6 Granite Ave Building C

HOC-D6

0 to 0.2

D6-ES02-FAC

0 to .03

Complex HOC / ES02 / I-90 ML


Massport Haul Road, South Boston
Emergency Response Station 2

D6-SWO4-FAC

Flooded d

Storm Water Pump Station 4

0 to 0.1

0.1

D6-TB03-FAC

0.1 to 0.45

Complex TB03 / ERS07


Bulfinch Triangle, East Boston
Toll Facility Building Sumner Tunnel

ERS07

0.25 to 0.7

Emergency Response Station 7

0 to 0.1

0.1 to 0.8

D6-TA03-FAC

0.4 to 0.8

D6-VB11-FAC

0 to 0.25

Complex TA03
Havre Street, East Boston
Sumner/Callahan
Tolls/Administration/Engineering
Vent Building 11 - Liverpool Street, East Boston

D6-VB13-FAC

0.05 to 0.7

Vent Building 13 - Decatur Street, East Boston

D6-VB1-FAC

0 to 1

Vent Building 1 - 55 Dorchester Avenue, Boston

D6-VB6-FAC

0.4

Vent Building 6 - 2 Fid Kennedy Drive, S. Boston

TE061W

0.4

Tunnel Egress 61W at VB6

MBTAAQ

0.4

0.5 to 1.5

MBTA Aquarium Station

TB03-D6

TA03-D6

Notes:

MBTA Aquarium StationMBTAAQ

Inside (downstream) of Portal BIN62B-POR, so protected if portal protected


Outside (upstream) of Portal BIN7UG-POR, floods if Boat Section floods
c
See note b. Also in 2030, 1% flood, there is only minor flooding of the Boat Section.
d
Door to pump station located in boat section, south and outside of Portal 7J8-POR. Portal is flooded
under 1% flood level in 2030.
b

Table 6-1. Number of lanes and dimensions for the portals in Table 5.3 requiring gates either now or by 2030
and material and installation costs.
Portal Label
No. of
Width Year
Gate
Installation
Total Cost
Lanes
(ft)
Installed
($Million)
($Million)
($Million)
BIN5VA

38

2013

1.7

1.1

2.8

BINA07

29

2030

1.5

1.0

2.5

BINC00

28

2030

1.5

1.0

2.5

BIN7UG/BIN7 MD/B IN7 GC

2/4/5

180

2030

8.7

5.7

14.4

BIN7J8/7J9

42

130

2013

6.4

4.2

10.6

BIN7JD/7JE/7JF/7RX

1/2/2/1

178

2013

8.5

5.5

14.0

Street View of Combined Bins 7UG,


7MD, and 7GC (from Google Earth)

Interaction with MassDOT, Regional Stakeholders, and the TAC:


MassDOT and the technical team members met weekly on a scheduled
conference call and regularly in person to develop a good understanding of
the project requirements, challenges and outputs. Besides the 2 major
meetings of the stakeholders and TAC there were regular email and
telephone conversations. A positive environment was created to seek input
on regional and scientific issues.

26

4/29/2015

| Leading the Nation in Transportation Excellence | www.mass.gov/massdot

MassDOT is Expanding the model to entire coast and


islands:
This work will assess the vulnerability of MassDOTs transportation
systems (primarily roads, bridges, and railways) along the entire
Massachusetts coastline. This 2 year project has 3 main phases:

Phase 1: Pilot-scale analysis to develop methodologies and


test modeling schemes.
Phase 2: Extension and refinement of BH-FRM to the entire
coastline. The new model will be called the Massachusetts
Coastline Flood Risk Model (MC-FRM) and will be used for the
regional analysis.
Phase 3: Regional scale vulnerability analysis and conceptual
adaptation strategies.

Thank you!
Steven Miller
MassDOT, Highway Division
10 Park Plaza, Room 4260
Boston, MA 02116
368-857-8809
steven.j.miller@dot.state.ma.us

4/29/2015

Case Studies: Technical


Approach to Coastal Resiliency
Kirk F. Bosma, P.E., M.C.E.
Team Leader / Coastal Engineer
Woods Hole Group

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

April 29, 2015

Storm Surge Risk and


Coastal Engineering
Adaptations in a
Changing Climate
Kirk F. Bosma, P.E.
kbosma@woodsholegroup.com

Climate Change Preparation


1.
2.
3.

Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge Risk What is the real risk?
Vulnerability Assessment How do we determine what is vulnerable?
Preparedness Planning and Adaptations What should the plan be?

So how do we determine what is vulnerable?

FEMA is only backward looking


Only considers 100-year storm
Region I does not use dynamic modeling
Transect based analysis

So how do we determine what is vulnerable?

Inundation maps based on standard bathtub model do


not reflect dynamic nature of coastal flooding
Does not account for joint flooding conditions
Does not include effects of infrastructure (e.g., dams)
Does not account for tides

So how do we determine what is vulnerable?

Worst possible scenario for emergency planning (worst


storm at MHW)no associated risk planning
Coarse modeling domain results in local inaccuracies
Does not include impacts of waves
Errors are relatively large (+/- 20%)
Just hurricanes

Hi-Res Hydrodynamic Modeling


Includes relevant physical processes (tides, storm surge, wind, waves,
wave setup, river discharge, sea level rise, future climate scenarios)
Charles River
Dam

Amelia Earhart Dam

Currents
Storm Surge
Tides
Water Levels
Winds
SLR
Discharge
Infrastructure

Waves
Wave Setup

Why existing maps are not good enough

Regional Grid Requirements


Grid covers a large regional area (North Atlantic) to capture large-scale storm
(hurricane, noreaster) dynamics.

Unstructured Grid
Varying resolution with high resolution
in areas of interest

Boston Grid

Focus Areas

Model Input
Data Input

Source

LiDAR and topography

MassGIS, MassDOT, USGS, NOAA CSC, Site-specific


surveys

Bathymetry

NOAA/NGDC, USGS, Site-specific surveys

Land cover

MassGIS, USGS

River flow and hydrographs

BWSC, USGS, City of Cambridge, VHB

Historical high water marks

USGS, Gadoury (1979)

Tides

NOAA Tides and Currents

Sea level rise scenarios

US National Climate Assessment (2012)

Flood control structures

Massachusetts DCR, USACE, MCZM

Storm climatology - Tropical

Emanuel et al. (2006), Global Climate Models

Amelia Earhart Dam

Strom climatology ExtraTropical

(Vickery et al., 2013), (ECMWF, 2014), Myers and Malkin


(1961)

Using Projections to Bracket Risk


4X

2100
3 X 3a

Parris et al. (2012)


U. S. National Climate
Assessment.

1X

2070
2X

1a

2a
2030

Storm Climatology - Hurricanes

Monte Carlo simulations,


using a large statistically
robust set of storms
(Emanuel, et al., 2006) and a
physics based approach
Present and future climate
change scenarios

Simulates storms (both


hurricane and noreaster)
combined with SLR and
precipitation

A Large Statistically robust


set of storms.
No need to determine joint
probabilities.

Flood Control Structures


Charles River Dam

Amelia Earhart Dam

Integration of Urban Dams


Implementation of new boundary
condition in the ADCIRC model
Allows evaluation of combined
processes

Model Calibration Blizzard of 78

Model Validation Perfect Storm

Example Results Winds

Example Results - Waves

Example Results - Hurricane

Inundation Risk Maps

Depth of Inundation Maps

Example Assessment

LOCAL

7.33 hrs

LOCAL

Example Assessment

LOCAL

10.0 hrs

LOCAL

Local Assessment

Hull BMP Sites

Time Variable Accretion

Summary
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The MassDOT BH-FRM model


provides high-resolution flooding
results for projected climate change
scenarios.
The BH-FRM includes relevant
processes, storm types, and joint
probabilities.
The BH-FRM provides realistic
probability based results that can be
more effectively used to assess
vulnerabilities.
The model can be used to test
various adaptation and engineering
options, and can be connected to
economic models.
The BH-FRM is currently being
extended to the entire coastline of
Massachusetts.

Climate Change and Adaptation


Based on Vulnerability
Assessment
Paul Kirshen, Ph.D.
Research Professor
University of New Hampshire

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Climate Change and Adaptation


Planning Based on Vulnerability
Assessment
Environmental Business Council of New England
Battelle Memorial Institute
Norwell MA
April 29 2015
Paul Kirshen
paul.kirshen@unh.edu

All human and natural systems are sensitive to


climate: thus as climate changes, their services
will change. Therefore we must consider how
we will adjust to the changes, the process of
adaptation
A mix of local and regional actions
taken over space and time by public
and private organizations

Initial Step: Vulnerability


Assessment Impacts if no
adaptation
Function of Systems
-Exposure

-Sensitivity
-Adaptive Capacity

Built Environment
Adaptation
Accommodate
Protect

Retreat

Ecological Adaptation
Resistance options that forestall
impacts and protect highly valued
resources
Resilience options that improve the
capacity of ecosystems to return to
desired conditions after disturbance,
Response options that facilitate
transition of ecosystems from current to
new conditions.
Millar, Constance I., Stephenson, Nathan L., Stephens, Scott L., 2007. Climate change and forests of the future

Managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecological Applications, 17(8), 214521513

US NCA, 2013)

Can we assign probabilities to


these climate projections ?
No (mostly)
Deep Uncertainty

Address Uncertainty with


Strategies that:

Consider a range of future conditions (scenarios)


Are robust, and/or flexible and adjustable
Include no-regrets and co-benefit solutions
Are integrated with mitigation, regional and
sustainability planning
Recognizes Adaptive Capacity (economic, social, and
natural resources, institutions, technology )
Evaluated with Multiple Criteria
Are stakeholder driven
Combine here and now and prepare and monitor
actions

Example of Here and Now

Mechanical, electrical and


emergency services on roof
out of harms way

Key floors above 2085 High


Estimate 100 Year Flood

Operable windows keyed open


in event of systems failure

Critical patient programs above


ground floor

Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston


Architect: Perkins + Will

Analytical diagrams P+W / Partners HealthCare

Prepare and Monitor


Portsmouth Flooding Adaptation
North Mill Pond, 13.5 ft NAVD

Sample of Portsmouth NH Plan

Trigger Points (from Thames 2100)


Mean Sea Level
Peak Surge Level

Peak River Flood


Erosion

Habitat
Land Use
Public/Institutional Attitudes to Flood Risk

Infrastructure design has often had


demand flexibility, now must have
climate flexibility built in !

Articulating Floodwall

Enhanced Natural Dunes and Vegetation

Addressing Water Quality Impacts

Microbial Risks
Improved Filtration
Systems
MF and UF Membranes

Advanced Disinfection
Ozone
Ultraviolet
Advanced Oxidation

Chemical Risks
Improved Pretreatment
GAC and Ion Exchange
Sorption
NF and RO Membranes
Advanced Oxidation

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictu
res/8362183.stm

Example of Staged Strategy


Present to 2050 Local Solutions

2050 to 2100 Regional Solutions

Figure 15. Example of parapet wall

After 2100 - Retreat

Corollaries
Safe to Fail, not Fail Safe

Design with Nature

Five Natural Lines of Defense

Inniss et al (2014)
78

NYC, A Stronger,. More Resilient New York, 2013

Scenario Analysis Looking for


reasonable solutions that work over
the range of possibilities
Top-Down (few uncertainties)
Bottom-Up (many uncertainties)

Top-Down, Predict-then-Act
Select multi-criteria indicators and define their sensitivity
Select scenarios of climate and other changes high and
low, moderate, ensemble (many)
Determine Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive Capacity
Define adaptation plans or policies over time and space

Test plans against the scenarios


Select plan that works most reasonably no matter what
scenario actually occurs

Check for climate and other surprises


Monitor Climate and Other Thresholds

Good for well-bounded problems

Bottom-Up, Context-First, Robust


Decision Making, Decision Scaling, etc
Define adaptation policy or plan
Identify what climate and other changes
makes the plan vulnerable
Investigate the possibilities of these
changes occurring
Make decision
Good for complex combined scenarios
and/or poorly bounded or understood
future conditions

SLR and Climate Scenarios

Storm Climatology (pre and post


2050)

Vulnerability
Exposure From WHG maps based upon annual probabilities of
flooding ( include wave heights). Flood water at any part of
structure or boat section is problem (10 9 14 IK meeting)

Sensitivity - Each structure and boat section with few exceptions


are considered critical to maintaining the operability of the CAT
system. Large consequences if most structures or tunnels fail to
meet design conditions (10 9 14 IK meeting).
Adaptive Capacity No redundancies low or zero adaptive
capacity

CAT Project Design Criteria (BBP,


various dates, Volumes 1 3)
Tunnels 1000 year flood
Others 100 year flood

Structure Protection with Wall and


Gate

Tunnel Portals - Sensitive if flooding at grade exceeds 0.5 ft at most of perimeter


Table 5-3. Flood depths of vulnerable Boat Sections with Portals. Flood depth ranges are further defined in
notes below table.
2013 0.1 %
< 2030 0.1 %
Structure_ID
Depth (ft)
Depth (ft)
Ramp Area or Roadway Area
BIN5VA-POR

0 to 1.0d

0 to 1.7e

BIN7J8-POR
BIN7J9-POR
BIN7JD-POR
BIN7JE-POR
BIN7JF-POR
BIN7RX-POR
BIN7UG-POR
BIN7GC-POR
BIN7MD-POR
BINA07-POR

0 to 0.9d

0 to 2.9f

0 to 0.4g

0 to 1.4h

0.3

0.7

I-93 Northbound and Southbound


Tip ONeill Tunnel Portals
at Zakim Bridge
Sumner Tunnel Entrance East Boston

0.3 to 0.8j

Callahan Tunnel Exit East Boston

BINC00-POR
Notes:

0 to 0.4

more than 20% of perimeter at a depth >0.9 ft.


most of the perimeter is flooded at 1.1 ft.
f
most of the perimeter is flooded at 1.9 ft.
g
more than 80% of the perimeter is not flooded (0.0 ft depth).
i
most of the perimeter is flooded at 1.0 ft
j
more than 30% of the perimeter is flooded at >0.3 ft.
e

Ramp CN-SA
Central Artery Northbound to Surface Artery
Rose Kennedy Greenway Parcel 12
I-90 Main Line and HOVEB
at Highway Operations Center

Table 5-2. The vulnerability results of non-Boat Section Structures for 2013 and 2030 flooding scenarios.
2013 indicates present vulnerability and 2030 indicates vulnerability over the period from the just past
the present to 2030.
Note: when a range of depths is shown, it means that flood depth varies along the perimeter of the structure.
Structure_ID
2013 1 %
2030 1 %
Structure Location
Depth (ft)
Depth (ft)
D6A-DC03

0 to 0.3

D6D-DC01

0 to 0.5

0 to 1.5

Depot-Main Complex SMF


Rutherford Street, Charlestown
Depot-Main Complex - 93 Granite Ave, Milton

D6D-D1-B

0 to 0.4

0.7

D6 Granite Ave Building B

D6D-D1-C

0.2

D6 Granite Ave Building C

HOC-D6

0 to 0.2

D6-ES02-FAC

0 to .03

Complex HOC / ES02 / I-90 ML


Massport Haul Road, South Boston
Emergency Response Station 2

D6-SWO4-FAC

Flooded d

Storm Water Pump Station 4

0 to 0.1

0.1

0.1 to 0.45

Complex TB03 / ERS07


Bulfinch Triangle, East Boston
Toll Facility Building Sumner Tunnel

TB03-D6
D6-TB03-FAC
ERS07

0.25 to 0.7

Emergency Response Station 7

0 to 0.1

0.1 to 0.8

D6-TA03-FAC

0.4 to 0.8

D6-VB11-FAC

0 to 0.25

Complex TA03
Havre Street, East Boston
Sumner/Callahan
Tolls/Administration/Engineering
Vent Building 11 - Liverpool Street, East Boston

D6-VB13-FAC

0.05 to 0.7

Vent Building 13 - Decatur Street, East Boston

D6-VB1-FAC

0 to 1

Vent Building 1 - 55 Dorchester Avenue, Boston

D6-VB6-FAC

0.4

Vent Building 6 - 2 Fid Kennedy Drive, S. Boston

TE061W

0.4

Tunnel Egress 61W at VB6

MBTAAQ

0.4

0.5 to 1.5

MBTA Aquarium Station

TA03-D6

Other Structures

Flooding can be managed with small scale means up to 2 ft

MBTA Aquarium StationMBTAAQ

Table 6-1. Number of lanes and dimensions for the portals in Table 5.3 requiring gates either now or by 2030
and material and installation costs.
Portal Label
No. of
Width Year
Gate
Installation
Total Cost
Lanes
(ft)
Installed
($Million)
($Million)
($Million)
BIN5VA

38

2013

1.7

1.1

2.8

BINA07

29

2030

1.5

1.0

2.5

BINC00

28

2030

1.5

1.0

2.5

BIN7UG/BIN7 MD/B IN7 GC

2/4/5

180

2030

8.7

5.7

14.4

BIN7J8/7J9

42

130

2013

6.4

4.2

10.6

BIN7JD/7JE/7JF/7RX

1/2/2/1

178

2013

8.5

5.5

14.0

Street View of Combined Bins 7UG,


7MD, and 7GC (from Google Earth)

Adaptation Strategy: Example of Old


Orchard Beach, Maine

Expected Value Net Benefits of Adaptation at Old Orchard Beach


ME (present to 2050)
SLR
Scenario

Adptation
Action

Expected Adaptation
Value of Cost
Residual $million
Damages
$million

Total
Damage
and
Cost
$million

Damages
Avoided
(Benefit)
$million

Net
Benefits
$million

No SLR

No Action

680

680

-680

100 +

60

60

680

620

50 +

3.4

52.4

55.8

676.6

620.8

No Action

899.3

899.3

-899.3

100 +

60

60

899.3

839.3

50 +

28.3

52.4

80.7

871

790.3

No Action

1016.6

1016.6

-1016.6

100 +

37.6

60

97.6

979

881.4

50 +

67.8

52.4

120.2

948.8

828.6

Low

High

Thank you

94

Massports Approach to Coastal


Resiliency and Marine Planning
Robbin E. Peach, MPA
Program Manager of Resiliency
Capital Programs and Environmental Affairs
Massport
Environmental Business Council of New England
Energy Environment Economy

Resiliency Massport

A pathway to a more resilient future

EBC 4.29.15

Overview of Massport
Massport is an independent authority
governed by a board of directors,
appointed by the states governor
Massport owns and operates

Boston-Logan International Airport


Hanscom Field, Bedford, MA
Worcester Airport
Conley Container Terminal
Black Falcon Cruiseport
Various real estate assets

97

Boston Logan International Airport

98

Port of Boston

99

Port of Boston
Oldest continually active port

in Western Hemisphere (400 years)


New Englands maritime hub
Supports 34,000 jobs
$2 billion to local, regional,
and national economies

100

Paul W. Conley Container Terminal

101

Privately owned petroleum and

liquefied natural gas terminals


Supplies more than 90% of
Massachusetts' heating and fossil fuel
needs.
Two ship repair yards,
Public and private ferry operations,
Marinas,
Coast Guards Sector Boston

102

Serves three of the worlds top 10


container lines.
Handles nearly 1.5 million metric tons
of cargo each year.

103

Cruiseport Boston

Connects New England with premier tourist destinations along the North
Atlantic, Canada, Bermuda, the Caribbean and beyond.

104

Secure and Resilient Massport on Boston Harbor

105

DRIVERS

DRIVERS
For Action
106

Resiliency and National Security


Climate (extreme weather, drought, sea level rise)
as global threat multiplier

Food and water shortages


More poverty
Forced migrations
Higher unemployement

Atlantic Ocean

Increased frequency of storms


Destablize U.S. Fleets and ships
Stressed weapon systems
Damage to ports
Increased calls for military assistance

107

Vulnerabilities

108

Vulnerabilities

109

Vulnerabilities

110

Preparation for Superstorm Sandy

Resident Engineers on-site inspections


Construction scaffolding removed
Tie-downs on bridge
Cleaned screens for storm drains
FOD removed before (and after)
Secure doors

111

Hazardous Waste

Hazardous waste moved inside

Hazardous waste moved inside

112

Monitoring
Massport essential personnel

Fire
Safety
Operations
Resident Engineers

Term-contractors on-site

Roofing
Electrical
Mechanical
Pumping
Cleaning

113

Assessing Damage

Solar panels destroyed


Terminals flooded
Standards and signs blown over
Vehicles destroyed
Roofing membranes peeled off

114

Possible Impacts

Airports
Logan Airport prolonged closure regional/national, international
transportation/economic impacts
Passenger, business, critical goods, and commerce disruption
Lack of ability to serve area-wide storm recovery efforts

Maritime
Major facility and equipment loss leading to long term closure
Loss of cruise & container business

Real Estate
Financial risks associated with tenant disruptions/recovery
Disruptions to local/regional transportation system

Agency-wide
Loss of human resources
Greater recovery cost

GOALS

Resiliency
GOALS
116

Resiliency Program Goals

Become an innovative and national model for resiliency planning and implementation within
the port authority.

Take responsibility for improving our overall infrastructure and operational resilience.

Increase our business value and (contextual community responsibilities) through improved
resiliency.

Engage our stakeholders to better understand and address their concerns.

Incorporate resilient design and construction practices in the development of our airports,
maritime systems, and real estate.

Monitor, measure, and adapt/modify our progress.

117

Program Manager of Resiliency


First position of its kind at Massport and possibly
at any national port authority.
Directs and coordinates resilience assessment and
adaptation preparedness activities of Massport.

Pursues two complementary objectives:


Making the resilience plan and its principles part of
business strategy and operations everywhere; and
Facilitating cooperation among internal staff
External stakeholders promoting partnership
&collective action.

118

THOUGHT PROCESSES

OUR
PROCESS
119

Defining Resiliency
Resiliency is the ability of a system to withstand a major
disruption within acceptable degradation parameters, recover
within an acceptable time, and balance composite costs and
risks.
How to protect Massport facilities against long-term sea-level
rise, storm surges, intense storm events, other unplanned
events and threats?
How to maintain and restore operational capabilities during
and after disruptive events?
How to implement a balanced composite cost and risk plan?

120

Summary of Projects in the Region


Client

Project

Climate Impacts

Cambridge

Disaster and Infrastructure Resiliency


Plan
Vulnerability Assessment

SLR, storm surge, precip, temp,


wind
SLR, storm surge, precip, temp

South Shore Communities

SLR and Storm Surge study

SLR, storm surge

MA Army National Guard

Vulnerability Assessment

SLR, storm surge, precip, temp

BWSC

Drainage Master Plan, including climate


projections

SLR, storm surge, precip

Vulnerability Assessment and


Adaptation for the Central Artery

SLR, storm surge, precip

Army Corps of Engineers, with


FEMA/MEMA

Preparing for the Rising Tide


Multi-state Hurricane Evacuation Study
and Hurricane Surge Inundation
Mapping
FEMA Risk Maps for Suffolk County

Boston Redevelopment Authority

Article 80 proposed amendment

Building Resiliency in Boston

SLR, storm surge


Storm surge
Updated FIRM flood maps
without CC considerations
Questionnaire for CC building
considerations
Building guidelines; planning
horizons
121

Resiliency Working Group

Logan
Maritime
Worcester
Hanscom
Corporate

122

Working Group Charge

Identification

Threat event
Threat level
Impacted facilities
Effect of impact
Critical facilities needing protection

Devise a Plan
Avoid, minimize, recover
Short term
Long term

123

Methodology
Modified DHS Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) Model
Identify Threats and
Hazards

Natural

Technological

Human Caused

Based on historical
occurrences and
probability models.

Identify Critical
Infrastructure and Key
Resources (CI/KR)

What the CI/KR is


required to do

Identify
dependencies and
interrelationships

Assess Vulnerabilities

Functionality

Structural Integrity

Environmental
Considerations

Accessibility

Assess Probability
and Impact of each
threat/ hazard

Step 1

Step 2

Current and Planned


Activities

Step 3

Vulnerabilities
already being
addressed

External
coordination

Short range and


Capital
Improvement plans

Step 4

Gap Analysis

Gap between CI/KR


requirement and
existing or planned
capability

Findings

Identify resolutions
to minimize or
eliminate the gap
Resiliency
Redundancy
Development

Step 5

Step 6

124

Threats & Hazards to Critical Infrastructure

NATURAL

TECHNOLOGICAL

HUMAN-CAUSED

Resulting from acts of nature

Involves accidents or the


failures of systems and
structures

Caused by the intentional


actions of an adversary

Earthquake
Flood*
High winds*
Hurricane*
Sea Level Rise*
Tornado
Tsunami
Fire
Winter Storm*

Data Loss
Power Loss

Fire/Accident
Sabotage
Terrorism Acts (Bomb Blast)

* Addressed in Kleinfelder Study for


Logan and Maritime
125

Critical Infrastructure/Key Resources

Utilities
Electrical/Vaults/Sub Stations/Distribution etc.
Drainage
Generators
Water
Fuel Systems
Aviation Fuel
Ground Fuel
Generator Fuel

Human Capital
Workforce
HR Functions
Qualified Maintenance
Security

IT
ATC Tower
Telecommunications
Network
Software
Hardware
Enterprise

Parking
Surface Roads
Elevated Roads
Tunnels
Bridges

Transportation
Transit
Taxi
Shuttle
Rental Car

Equipment/Buildings
Terminals
Operating Cranes
Runway/Taxiway
Processing Gates
Apron
Tower
Security Gates
Berths

126

Probability
High Probability/High Impact
Natural

Technological

Flood
High Winds
Hurricane
Fire
Extreme Temps

Data Loss

Human-Caused

Low Probability/High Impact


Natural
Tsunami
Tornado
Earthquake

Technological

Human-Caused
Terrorism
Sabotage
Epidemic

127

Disaster Infrastructure Resiliency Planning (DIRP)


Goals of the project:
Understand Massports vulnerability to climate impacts
Develop short-term and long-term resiliency strategies

Project approach:
1 Climate projections

2 Vulnerability and risk assessment

3 Adaptation planning

Consequence of impact

& design

Probability of occurrence
128

Climate Study Area


Logan Airport

Maritime Facilities

129

Number of Occurrences

Historic Occurrence of Hurricanes Boston (1858-2013)


50
40

N = 34
P = 0.22

30

N = 13
P = 0.08

20
10

N = Number of Occurrences
P = Annual Probability

N=8
P = 0.05

0
SUB/TROPICAL STORMS
& DEPRESSIONS

CATEGORY 1
HURRICANE
Hurricane Sandy [1]:
October 29-30, 2012
Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944:
September 9 - 16, 1944
Unnamed (1936):
September 8 - 25, 1936
Unnamed (1924):
September 27 - 30, 1924
Hurricane of 1916:
July 10 - 22, 1916
Unnamed (1904):
September 8 - 15, 1904
Unnamed (1896):
August 30 - September 11, 1896
Unnamed (1894):
October 1 - 12, 1894
Unnamed (1893):
August 15 - 26, 1893
Unnamed (1888):
September 23 - 27, 1888
Unnamed (1885):
September 17 - 23, 1885
Unnamed (1879):
August 13 - 20, 1879
Unnamed (1858):
September 14 - 17, 1858

CATEGORY 2
HURRICANES
Hurricane Bob:
August 16 - 29, 1991
Hurricane Gloria:
September 27,1985
Hurricane Donna:
September 12, 1960
Hurricane Edna:
September 11, 1954
Hurricane Carol:
August 31, 1954
Great New England
Hurricane:
September 21, 1938
Unnamed (1924):
August 16 - 28, 1924
Unnamed (1869):
October 4 - 5, 1869

[1]

N=2
P = 0.01
CATEGORY 3
HURRICANES
Hurricane Esther:
September 10 - 27, 1961
Hurricane of 1869:
September 7 9, 1869

All storms listed above tracked within 150 miles of Boston, except Hurricane Sandy.

130

Tide Levels at Peak Hurricane Storm Surge Boston (1923-2013)

Number of Occurences

4
MLW = Mean Low Water (-4.36 ft)
MSL = Mean Sea Level
MHW = Mean High Water
MHHW = Mean Higher High Water
HAT = Highest Astronomical Tide (7.73 ft)

All tidal elevations are in NGVD29 datum

0
Category 1
Category 2
Category 3

MLW
1
2
0

MSL
2
3
1

MHW
0
2
0

MHHW
0
0
0

HAT
0
0
0

Sandy made final landfall near Atlantic City, NJ on 10/30/2012 00:00 GMT as a Category 1 hurricane at MHW
(NOAA, 2013)
131

Sea Level Rise Projections

Global mean sea level rise scenarios provided by NOAA as part of the
National Climate Assessment report published in December 2012.
132

Logan - Flooding from Category 2 Hurricane at MHHW

Logan - Flooding from Category 3 Hurricane at MHHW

South Boston - Flooding from Category 2 Hurricane


at MHHW

135

South Boston - Flooding from Category 3 Hurricane


at MHHW

136

Design Elevations for Logan Airport

20
18
16
14
12
10

Cat 3 MHHW 20.78 f

Cat 3 MHW 20.34 ft ~20.3 ft


(DFE New Construction)

Cat 2 HAT 18.79 ft


Cat 2 MHHW + 1 freeboard 17.79 ft
Cat 2 MHHW 16.79 ft

Cat 2 MHW 16.35 ft ~16.4 ft


(DFE Existing)
FEMA VE 2013 14.81 ft
FEMA VE 2009 13.81 ft
FEMA AE 2013 12.81 ft

Cat 2 MTL 12.31 ft


FEMA AE 2009 10.81 ft

(Feet NGVD29)

Cat 1 MHHW 11.58 ft

Wood Island Substation

Terminal A

Terminal A - Satellite

Fish Pier

141

Fish Pier East Design Flood Elevations

FEMA BFE (2013)


FLOOD EL. = 13.81

FEMA BFE (2009)


FLOOD EL. = 9.81

CAT. 2 HURRICANE (HAT)


EST. FLOOD EL. = 18.28

GROUND FLOOR
EL. = 11.11

CAT. 3 HURRICANE (MHHW)


FLOOD EL. = 20.46

- All elevations are in NGVD.


142

Fish Pier East Design Flood Elevations

CAT. 3 HURRICANE (MHHW)


FLOOD EL. = 20.46
CAT. 2 HURRICANE (HAT)
EST. FLOOD EL. = 18.28

FEMA BFE (2013)


FLOOD EL. = 13.81
GROUND FLOOR
EL. = 10.61

FEMA BFE (2009)


FLOOD EL. = 9.81

- All elevations are in NGVD.


143

Fish Pier East Design Flood Elevations

144

Fish Pier Resiliency Objectives

Resiliency Performance Objectives:


Allow the first floors of buildings to flood
Prevent damage to critical electrical and fire protection
systems and building elevator machinery
Prevent flooding of underground waste storage tanks and
associated pump systems
Prevent structural failure of the building due to flooding

145

Fish Pier Potential Recommendations (I)

146

Fish Pier Potential Recommendations (II)

147

Conley Terminal

148

Conley Terminal - Overview

149

Conley Terminal - Vessel Berths

150

Conley Terminal Vessel Berths Potential Recommendations

151

Conley Terminal Vessel Cranes

152

Conley Terminal Vessel Cranes Potential Recommendations

153

Decision Matrix

Existing Critical Facilities

Protect and harden to CAT II Hurricane at Mean High Water (MHW)


Earthquake retrofits
Wind retrofits
Others

New Critical Facilities

Design above CAT III Hurricane at Mean High Water (MHW)


Earthquake design
Wind design criteria
Others

154

Risk-Based Prioritization

Probability of
Flooding

Determined based on Inundation Model results


Flooded in more storm scenarios higher probability, higher priority
Criticality Score

Consequence
of Flooding

Based on role in
disaster
preparedness,
response, recovery

Occupancy Category
Based on ASCE/SEI 24-05
Standard for Flood Resistant
Design and Construction

Higher consequence higher priority

Depth of
Flooding

Further distinguish among assets with


same Probability and Consequence
Higher depth higher priority

155

Consequence: Criticality Score


Description

Criticality Score

Assets required for bare-bones


functionality for disaster
preparedness, response, and
recovery

Assets required for disaster


response in the immediate
aftermath of a flood event

Assets required for facility to


recover to acceptable level of
service

156

Prioritizing Investments
Facility Asset Name(s)

Critical Functions

Estimated
Capital Costs

TIER 1 HIGHER PROBABILITY


HIGHER CONSEQUENCE
Conley
Conley

Logan
Logan
Logan
Logan

Site Switch House


Wharf Switch Houses No. 1-3, Marine
Operations Center
Fire-Rescue II (L79)
Marine Fire-Rescure (L85)
Wood Island Substation (L02)*
Porter Street Substation (L41)*

Fish Pier
Conley
Conley
Conley

Electrical

140,000

Electrical

254,000

Public Safety
Public Safety
Electrical
Electrical

$
$
$
$

15,000
345,000
359,000
474,000

SUBTOTAL $

1,587,000

Multiple

790,000

Access
Cargo
Cargo

$
$
$

500,000
190,000
1,650,000

SUBTOTAL $

3,130,000

$
$

200,000

SUBTOTAL
$
TIER 1 TOTAL $

200,000
4,917,000

LOWER CONSEQUENCE
Conley
Conley

Interchange Facility
Reefer Building and Yard

Cargo
Electrical

TIER 2 INTERMEDIATE PROBABILITY


INTERMEDIATE CONSEQUENCE
Conley

Fuel Island and USTs

Gangway / FMT

Fuel

70,000

SUBTOTAL $

70,000

Passenger

150,000

SUBTOTAL $
TIER 2 TOTAL $

150,000
220,000

TIER 3 LOWER PROBABILITY


HIGHER CONSEQUENCE
Logan
Logan
Logan
Logan
Logan
Conley
Logan
Logan

Logan
Logan
Logan
Logan

ATC Tower, Substation, and Generator (L26)


MPA Administration Building / Boutwell (L25)
Bird Island Flats Substation (L67)
Airfield Lighting Vault (L66)
Harborside Substation (L32)
Gate Switch House
Logan Office Center (L65)
MPA Pumping Station, Electrical Building,
Generator (L06A/B)
State Police & TSA Building (L11)
Central Heating Plant / Facilities I (L18)
Boston EMS Station (L43)
Fire-Rescue I (L78)

Logan
Conley

Facilities II
Administration Building, Substation
BOSFuel Operations Building, Tank Farm,
Fuel Island (L46)
Administration Building Generator

Maintenance
Administration

$
$

278,000
235,000

Logan
Conley
Black
Falcon

Fuel

503,000

Electrical

300,000

Main Terminal Building

Passenger

252,000

Logan
Logan
Logan
Logan
Logan
Conley
Conley
Conley

Passenger

1,356,000

Passenger
Passenger
Passenger
Drainage
Maintenance
Public Safety
Public Safety

$
$
$
$
$
$
$

3,695,000
827,000
3,067,000
13,302,000
200,000
78,000
5,000

Logan
Logan
Logan
Logan

Utilities

200,000

Maintenance
Public Safety
Public Safety

$
$
$

792,000
8,000
7,000

SUBTOTAL $

25,105,000

Environmental
Maintenance
Access
Electrical
Utilities
Utilities
Utilities
Drainage
Utilities

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

302,000
800,000
194,000
154,000
170,000
200,000

Utilities

50,000

Terminal E and West Baggage Screening


Room (L19, L73)
Terminal C (L20-L24)
Terminal A (L31, L32)
Terminal B (L27, L29)
West Outfall (Bar Screen Building)
Operations Building
Massport Police Pro Shop Building
Massport Police Main Gate Guard House
Tunnel T18C (Tunnel Intersection to
Terminal C)
Facilities III (L04)
North Gate (L44)
South Gate

LOWER CONSEQUENCE

LOWER CONSEQUENCE
Black
Falcon

Estimated
Capital Costs

TIER 3 LOWER PROBABILITY


INTERMEDIATE CONSEQUENCE

INTERMEDIATE CONSEQUENCE
Fish Pier Berths, East Building, West Building,
Electrical
Berths 11-12
Rubber Tire Gantry Cranes
Vessel Cranes 1-6

Critical Functions

Facility Asset Name(s)

Aviation
Administration
Electrical
Aviation
Electrical
Electrical
Administration

$
$
$
$
$
$
$

61,000
882,000
187,000
296,000
74,000
340,000
749,000

Water

854,000

Public Safety
Utilities
Public Safety
Public Safety

$
$
$
$

822,000
895,000
426,000

SUBTOTAL $

5,686,000

Logan
Logan
Logan
Conley
Logan
Logan
Logan
Haul Road
Logan
Logan
Logan

Fire Training Facility (Hazardous Waste)


Large Vehicle Storage Building (L15)
Water Shuttle Pier (L74)
Reefer Substation
Tunnel T18E (CHP to Terminal E)
Tunnel T31B (Terminal A to Terminal B)
Tunnel T18A (Intersection to Terminal A)
Haul Road Sump Pump
Tunnel T18B (CHP to Intersection)
Tunnel T18D (Old CHP Tunnel - Partly
Abandoned)
Tunnel T31A (Termina A Main to
Satellite)

Utilities

132,000

SUBTOTAL $
TIER 3 TOTAL $

2,002,000
32,793,000

TIERS 1-3 TOTAL

$ 37,930,000

157

Risk Based Prioritization Results

Intermediate
Lower

Consequence

Higher

Lower

Probability
Intermediate

Logan Airport:

ATC Tower, Substation & Generator

Major NSTAR Substations

Airfield Lighting Vault

Data Centers

Central Heating Plant

Water Pumping Station

Police, Fire-Rescue, and EMS Stations


Conley Terminal:

Gate Switch House

Higher
Logan Airport:

Fire-Rescue Stations 2 & 3

Major NSTAR Substations*


Conley Terminal:

Site Switch House

Wharf Switch Houses 1-3

Logan Airport:

Terminals

Fuel Farm

Facilities Buildings

Security Gates

Stormwater Drainage Facility


Conley Terminal:

Administration & Operations Buildings

Police Facilities
Black Falcon Terminal:

Main Terminal

Conley Terminal:

Fuel Island and USTs

Conley Terminal:

Berths 11-12

Vessel Cranes 1-6

RTG Cranes
Fish Pier:

East Building

Electrical

Berths

Logan Airport:

Utility Tunnels

Large Vehicle Storage Building

Water Shuttle Pier


Conley Terminal:

Reefer Substation
Haul Road:

Sump Pump

Black Falcon Terminal:

Gangway/FMT

Conley Terminal:

Interchange Facility

Reefer Building & Yard

158

Design Flood Elevations

159

Comparison of SLOSH & BH-FRM Flood Elevations


Logan Airport

160

Comparison of SLOSH & BH-FRM Flood Elevations


Maritime, South Boston

161

Common Recommendations Pedestrian Doors

162

Common Recommendations Overhead Doors

163

Common Recommendations
Hydrostatic Relief Valve for Slabs

164

Common Recommendations
Sump Pump System to Remove Water

165

Common Recommendations
Shut-Off Valve for Sewer and Drainage

Prevent backflow into


flood-protected areas

166

Common Recommendations
Seal Electrical Conduits Entering Building

167

Common Resiliency Recommendations Temporary Flood Walls

168

New Construction

169

New Construction

170

Expansion Solutions

171

West Garage Expansion

172

West Garage Expansion

173

Existing and New

174

Green/Blue Infrastructure
UMass Boston IGERT Fellows
Potential role of eelgrass beds to increase resiliency pros

and cons
Best type and size of bed to slow storm surges and stabilize
sea bottom
Appropriate locations
Best management practices for planting and maintenance
Environmental factors to consider
Other ecosystem services provided by eelgrass
What went wrong last time enlightened speculation
Plan moving forward
175

Monitoring and Engaging in Other Efforts


Federal:
FEMA Flood maps
Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012
EPA Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation

Regional:

Climate Leaders Summit

State:

MA Legislation Chapter 21 P (CAMP)


EEEA Climate Change Adaptation Advisory Comm.
NGO Climate Adaptation Coalition

Local:

BRA Re-modeling FEMA transects


Academia MIT, UMB, NE, UNH

Other:

Related Agencies (MBTA, Mass DOT, etc.)


176

Next Steps:
Resiliency Program

Near and long-term priorities identified

Cost estimates and capital program planned

Education

Speaker series for lessons learned and best management practices

Invite colleagues from other port authorities, as well as local experts

Technical training for planners, architects and engineers

Create resiliency planning and design standards

Integrate resiliency considerations early into review process

Engage tenants through TAA process

Collaboration

Convene task force of internal and external partners to share knowledge, inform plans, and explore
collaborative opportunities

177

Continued collaboration

Enhance Operational Resiliency


Update the Continuity of Operations Plan
Engage tenants
Improve airside materials storage practices
Collaborate with Other Agencies
Demonstrate leadership through collaborating with, supporting,
and learning from other complementary transportation entities
Create a Resiliency Task Force Participate in external
committees efforts at federal, state, and local level
Sponsor Research/Share Lessons Learned

Questions

179

Networking Break

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Massachusetts Office of Coastal


Zone Management: Planning and
Resiliency Efforts
Bruce Carlisle
Director
MA CZM

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Massachusetts
Office of Coastal Zone Management:

Advancing resilience of
coastal communities and ecosystems

MA CZM
Lead policy and planning
agency on coastal and
ocean issues within EEA
Networked coastal
program
Provide direct support,
coordination, and
technical assistance to
coastal communities
5 CZM regions
Regional Coordinators
serve as liaisons to locals
Host two National Estuary
Programs

Key CZM program areas


Ocean management
StormSmart Coasts
Coastal habitat
Water quality
Waterfront, port and harbor
planning
Project review
GIS / data management

Ocean management
CZM serves as lead agency in
implementing, reviewing, and
updating the Massachusetts Ocean
Management Plan
Comprehensive work to map and
characterize marine habitats
Federal offshore wind process
Regional ocean partnerships

Northeast Regional Planning Body


Northeast Regional Ocean Council
Gulf of Maine Council
Northeast Regional Association of
Ocean Observing Systems

StormSmart Coasts
Coastal communities are vulnerable
to storm damage, erosion, and
flooding problems
Effects of climate change
exacerbates and accelerates these
problems
Home rule- many land use
decisions made at local level
StormSmart Coasts provides
technical, planning, and financial
support to address these challenges
Emphasis on coordination,
collaboration, and partnerships

StormSmart Coasts
Technical information, data, maps,
and decision support tools:
Shoreline change & characterization
Sea level rise
Coastal structure inventory

Provide hands-on technical and


financial assistance to communities
Coastal Community Resilience
Grants
Green Infrastructure for Resilience
Grants
StormSmart Properties fact sheets
Training and workshops

Coastal habitat
CZM works to monitor, protect, and
restore coastal habitats and the
essential services they provide
Project to examine vulnerability of
salt marshes to SLR; model scenarios
and forecast effects
Provide Coastal Pollutant Remediation
Grants for local coastal water quality
restoration and boat pump-outs
Work with MassDEP & UMass on
developing and implementing coastal
wetland habitat assessment methods
Monitor marine invasive species;
emphasis on detecting new invasions

For more information:


mass.gov/czm/

Massachusetts Office of Coastal


Zone Management: Planning and
Resiliency Efforts
Marc Carullo
GIS / Environmental Analyst
MA CZM

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Modeling Sea Level Rise in Coastal Wetlands:


Predicted Impacts and Implications for Management in Massachusetts

Photo credit: Mike McHugh, MassDEP

Marc Carullo
Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management

Coastal Wetlands
Salt marsh
Intertidal emergent wetland dominated by grasses,
forbs, and shrubs that are tolerant to salinity ranges
from moderate to that of sea water (18-30 ppt).
Brackish marsh
Intertidal emergent wetland dominated by grasses,
forbs, and shrubs that are tolerant to salinities from
slight to moderate (0.5 to 18 ppt).
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

Mass. Coastal Watersheds

Salt Marsh Ecosystem Services

Flood Protection
Erosion Control
Wildlife Habitat
Commercial Fisheries
Water Quality
Recreation
Carbon Sequestration

USFWS

Salt Marsh Status & Trends

Photo: Bertness Lab Brown University

Photo: National Park Service

Photo: National Park Service

Massachusetts Climate Change Adaptation Report


Select adaptation strategies identified for coastal ecosystems:

Identify and protect undeveloped areas that are


upgradient from coastal wetlands to allow wetland
migration and buffer intact ecosystems

Identify, assess and mitigate existing impediments


to inland migration of coastal wetlands

Track the movement of tidal resources as they


respond to sea level rise

Project Goals
1.

Identify potential changes to wetland types as a result of sea level rise.

2.

Identify barriers to and opportunities for landward marsh migration.

3.

Communicate results via web-based maps, reports, and workshops.

4.

Explore adaptation strategies to address potential SLR impacts to


coastal wetlands.

5.

Establish a network of long-term monitoring stations to measure


impacts of sea level rise and potential marsh migration.

Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model


(SLAMM), Version 6.2

Simulates the dominant processes involved in


wetland conversions and shoreline modifications
during long-term SLR.
Current MHHW*

Warren Pinnacle Consulting, Inc.

Current MHHW + 6 ft SLR*

North and South


Rivers in Marshfield
and Scituate

*Data from NOAA Office for Coastal Management

Four scenarios with estimates of global SLR by 2100


Global Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United States National Climate Assessment (Parris et al., 2012)

1992 Start point

CZM Project
Time horizon is 2011 to 2100
Output results for 2030, 2050, 2070, 2100

Boston local vertical land motion

SLAMM 6.2
Additional model inputs

Dam locations
Dam crest elevations
SLR historic trend
Beach sedimentation rate

Model Inputs
Digital Elevation Model
(lidar-derived)
Wetland Map Data
Impervious Surface
Erosion Rates (horizontal)

Marsh Equilibrium Model


(MEM) accretion rates*

Accretion Rates (vertical)


GD Tide Range (MHHW-MLLW)
Salt Elevation (+ MTL)

*For select areas

Freshwater Parameters (flow, etc.)

SLAMM-MEM Pilot Site

SLAMM
Statewide
Compare 2 m and 5 m grids
Parameter Sensitivity Analysis
Elevation Uncertainty Analysis

DRAFT

Time Variable Accretion

DRAFT

DRAFT

DRAFT

DRAFT

DRAFT

Time Variable Accretion

DRAFT

DRAFT

DRAFT

DRAFT

Barriers to (and opportunities for) marsh migration

2070 High SLR w/MEM


Draft Pilot

Legend
Transitional Marsh/Scrub Shrub
Reguarly Flooded Marsh
Irregularly Flooded Marsh

2070 High SLR w/MEM


Draft Pilot

Legend
Transitional Marsh/Scrub Shrub
Reguarly Flooded Marsh
Irregularly Flooded Marsh
Impervious Surface

2070 High SLR w/MEM


Draft Pilot

Legend
Coastal Structure
Transitional Marsh/Scrub Shrub
Reguarly Flooded Marsh
Irregularly Flooded Marsh
Impervious Surface

2070 High SLR w/MEM


Draft Pilot

Legend
Coastal Structure
Transitional Marsh/Scrub Shrub
Reguarly Flooded Marsh
Irregularly Flooded Marsh
Impervious Surface
Slope
High : 60.5003
Low : 0

2070 High SLR w/MEM


Draft Pilot

Legend
Coastal Structure
Transitional Marsh/Scrub Shrub
Reguarly Flooded Marsh
Irregularly Flooded Marsh
Impervious Surface
Assessor Parcels
Slope
High : 60.5003
Low : 0

Anticipated Outcomes
Outreach and Education

Public outreach and education on the fate of coastal wetlands using the
latest SLR projections and local data.

Better integration of salt marshes into CZMs StormSmart Coasts program.

Anticipated Outcomes
Regulatory
Support for regulatory decisions, federal consistency determinations, and
implementation of specific performance standards.
Augmented or new coastal program policies.

Assessment of current wetland buffer and setback regulations.


Support for wetland mitigation planning

Anticipated Outcomes
Restoration
Determination of priority coastal wetland restoration areas.
Information to assess future objectives in ecological restoration.

Marsh Restoration/Adaptation Strategies

Facilitated marsh migration


Living shorelines
Thin-layer deposition (beneficial reuse of dredged material)
Invasive species control (manage Phragmites in transition)
Hydrologic modification (runnels, creek excavation)
Enhance ecological integrity to increase resilience to SLR

Delaware Department of Natural Resources and


Environmental Control

Burke Environmental Associates via VIMS Center for Coastal Resources Management

Anticipated Outcomes
Species and habitat conservation
Comparison or update of the coastal adaptation analysis used in BioMap2.

Saltmarsh Sparrow
Potential habitat loss due
to high marsh conversion
to low marsh or tidal flat.

Saltmarsh Sparrow
Illustration credit:
Massachusetts Audubon Society

Saltmarsh Sparrow nest


Photo credit: David Johnson

Anticipated Outcomes
Land Management
Identification of sites for land acquisition,
conservation restrictions, and/or changes
in land management practices.
Improved management of hardened coastal
structures (proposal, maintenance, or removal).

CZM Grant Programs


(1) Coastal Community Resilience and (2) Green Infrastructure

Municipal Coastal Resiliency Plans*


Ipswich River Watershed Association and National Wildlife Federation

Restoring Resiliency to the Great Marsh*


Various partners
*USFWS Hurricane Sandy Recovery Projects

Anticipated Outcomes
Emerging Concept: Blue Carbon Market
Massachusetts Global Warming Solutions Act
Clean Energy and Climate Plan for 2020 Update

Bringing Wetlands to Market initiative


InVEST Blue Carbon Model
Aboveground
living biomass

Belowground
biomass

Soil

Soil

Adapted from The Blue Carbon Initiatives Coastal Blue Carbon: Methods for assessing

Marsh Migration Monitoring

Set up 20-40 salt marsh monitoring stations


statewide based on model results and
stakeholder participation.

Track the movement of plant community


structure, especially in the marsh-upland
ecotone.

Collect physical data on hydroperiod, surface


elevation, relative vertical accretion/erosion,
and soil characteristics.*

*Possible addition at select sites

marc.carullo@state.ma.us

Massachusetts Office of Coastal


Zone Management: Planning and
Resiliency Efforts
Patricia Bowie
Coastal Resiliency Specialist
MA CZM

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Community-based Grants for


Coastal Resilience
MA Environmental Business Council
April 29, 2015

Patricia Bowie
Coastal Resiliency Specialist
MA Office of Coastal Zone Management

CZM Support for Local Adaptation


Coastal Community Resilience Grant
Financial and technical resources to advance new and innovative
local efforts to increase awareness of climate impacts, identify
vulnerabilities and implement measures to increase community
resilience

Green Infrastructure for


Coastal Resilience
Financial and technical resources to advance
understanding & implementation of natural
approaches to mitigating coastal erosion and
flooding problems

Coastal Community Green Infrastructure


Resilience Grant
Grant
Eligible
Applicants

78 coastal cities and


towns

78 coastal cities and towns


and 501 (c)(3) non-profits

Funding
Availability
(FY15)

$1,500,000 (total)
Request up to $350,000

$1,500,000 (total)
Request up to $750,000

Match
25% of total project cost
Requirement

25% of total project cost

First two grant rounds:


58 applications
37 funded projects
Over $5 million in
grant funding
Over $2.6 million in
local match

Coastal Community Resilience Grant


Public education, outreach,
communication
Risk and vulnerability
assessment
Municipal infrastructure
retrofits
Identify and implement
management measures,
standards, and policies

Green Infrastructure for Coastal


Resilience Grant
Beach, berm, and dune
building, restoration and
enhancement
Bio-engineering with coir rolls,
natural fiber blankets and
other organic, biodegradable
materials with plantings

Natural oyster or mussel reef


creation, enhancement or
restoration
Fringing salt marsh creation or
restoration

Evaluation Criteria

Problem and need for assistance


Current management approach
Project description and public benefit
Climate adaptation
Transferability
Timeline
Budget
Project Management
Partners

StormSmart Resources

Sea Level Rise


Highest (6.6 ft sea
level rise by 2100)
Intermediate-High
(3.9 ft)

Intermediate-Low
(1.6 ft)

Which scenario are


communities
using?

Global Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United


States National Climate Assessment (Parris et al.,
2012)

Number of Communities

Lowest (0.7 ft)

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Undefined

Lowest

Intermediate Intermediate
- Low
- High

NOAA Sea Level Rise Scenario

Highest

What would implementation look like?

Town of Hull Gun Rock/Atlantic Ave. Storm


Damage Adaptation Project ($41,250)

Stages of Work

Planning
Feasibility Assessment and Siting
Design and Permitting
Construction, Installation, and Monitoring

Coastal Retreat
Town of Brewster Breakwater Beach ($355,000)*
Pull back
pavement

Restore dunes
Manage
stormwater
runoff
Maintain
access
* Total of two grants

Restore Natural Processes


Duxbury Beach Reservation, Inc. Cobble
Berm Restoration ($86,947)

Restore
cobble berm

Construct
beach grass
nurseries
Eradicate
Japanese
Knotweed

Accommodate
Town of Oak Bluffs Pump Station
Improvements ($200,000)

Elevate
electrical
equipment

Install
protective
flood panels

Increase Awareness
City of Boston Designing for the
Rising Tide ($86,000)

www.bostonlivingwithwater.org

Grant information available on CZMs


StormSmart Coasts website at
www.mass.gov/czm/stormsmart
Patricia Bowie
patricia.bowie@state.ma.us
617-626-1186

Networking Break

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Panel Discussion

Moderator: Leslie-Ann McGee, Battelle


Speakers
Robbin Peach, Massport
Julie Conroy, MAPC
Morgan McCarthy, MOTN

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy