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Ali Pravda

11081138 alp993
November 17, 2014
Curriculum Studies 291:
Introduction to Teaching of English as a Second Language
Assignment 3 (C)
John Lingard

The twelve students of this English as an Additional Language


classroom come from the countries of Russia, The Ukraine, China, Japan,
Somalia, Israel and Germany. They each have prior education, but very little
to none have had instruction of the English language while in their previous
countries. The students speak Russian, Ukrainian, Mandarin, Japanese, Arabic
and German, and are between the ages of 16 to 19. According to the
Canadian Framework Reference (CFR) the students are all at level A1.2 (CFR,
96). Some students are on their own through sponsors or a student visa, and
some are with their parents. The students all have a goal of being able to live
in a Canadian community successfully.
The goals of the course are to improve the students English language
skills, that being listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The course has no
distinct curriculum as the students fluctuate in skill and progress. The
language development objectives are those of the CFR scale of A1.2 learners,
such as: speaking skills, can name subject-specific vocabulary terms (CFR,
97); reading skills, can pick out the main information from simple, short
texts (CFR, 97); listening skills, can recognize isolated vocabulary and
terms from specific subject areas (CFR, 96); writing skills, can write very
simple informal messages (CFR, 98). The course content is driven by real-life
skills and situations that students will face outside of the classroom. Through
a unit of this course students will learn how to navigate and communicate in
a grocery store (i.e. the terminal objective) by learning the standard of
Canadian culture. The unit will discuss different food and category names,

different terms and names used for grocery stores (e.g. market, food store,
Co-op, Safeway, etc.) as well as how to ask relevant questions and how to
answer those from the grocery store clerks. The following, a formal,
summative, criterion-referenced achievement test (Brown, 454), will assess
the students reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills using the theme
of the grocery store.

English as an Additional Language Unit 1: Grocery Store


Name:_________________
Unit Test
A: Listening Comprehension

/5
marks (1/2 per square)

As Miss. Pravda describes her experience in the grocery store, as you listen
write and label the areas of the grocery store on the diagram using the words
from the word bank:

Word Bank:
Bakery

Deli

Gifts

Seafood

Diner

Frozen Foods

Flowers

Produce

Coffee Shop

Tills

Prepared Dishes

Dairy

Pharmacy and Personal


Needs
Items

Canned and Processed


Foods

B: Writing and Grammar Check Short Answer

Entrance/Exit

/5
marks (1 per answer)

In one or two sentences write a question that would be used in the following
scenarios:
1. A woman is trying to reach a brand of cookies on the top shelf. She
asks the grocery store worker
___________________________________________________________________?
2. A boy is looking for the toothbrushes. He asks the grocery store
worker.
___________________________________________________________________?
3. A man is wanting to buy some cherries but sees that the area labeled
cherries is empty. He asks the grocery store worker
___________________________________________________________________?
4. A lady is ordering 300 grams of ham, she asks the deli clerk
___________________________________________________________________?
5. A man is wanting to pay for his groceries with an American Express
credit card. He asks the clerk
___________________________________________________________________?

C. Reading Comprehension
marks (1 per answer)

/5

Read the following paragraph and answer the questions below. You may use
point form or complete sentences:
A group of thirteen year olds decide to have a movie night. Their
parents give them money to get snacks from the grocery store for the event.
To watch a movie they decide that they want popcorn, potato chips, cans of

pop, and fruit juice. When they get to the grocery store they do not grab a
basket because they will be able to carry the items themselves. Two children
go to the frozen foods aisle to get frozen juice mix. Three of the other
children go to the processed foods aisle to get the other items. They buy
plain popcorn because they know the butter on the other microwavable
popcorn is unhealthy. They meet at the tills so that they can all make one
transaction (payment) together. The total of the purchase is $17.50. They
pay with a $20 bill so they get $2.50 back in change. The clerk asks if they
want a bag, but again, they can carry the items themselves.
1. Why did the children want the food items?
2. Was the juice and the pop in the same area of the grocery store?
3. Did the children buy butter-flavored popcorn?
4. What did the children use for payment? (How did the children pay for the
items?)
5. How many bags did the children want for their items?
D. Speaking Assessment: (administrated one-on-one with the instructor; the
following is given to the student at the teachers desk/when this part of the
test commences
1. What can you tell me about this picture?

2. What can you tell me about this picture?

3. What can you tell me about this picture?

4. What can you tell me about this picture?

5. Why are these foods not good for you?

English as an Additional Language Unit 1: Grocery Store

Name:_________________

Unit Test Answer Key

A: Listening Comprehension
As Miss. Pravda describes her experience in the grocery store, as you listen
write and label the areas of the grocery store on the diagram using the words
from the word bank:

/5 marks (.5 per square)


The Entrance/Exit will be explicitly instructed and not marked

Oral description:

Bakery

Deli

Gifts

Walking into
the grocery
Seafood
Diner
Frozen Foods
store I see
the coffee
Flowers
Produce
Coffee Shop
shop. Having
the coffee
Tills
Prepared Dishes
Dairy
shop near
the entrance
Pharmacy and
Canned and
Entrance/Exit
makes it
Personal Needs
Processed Foods
easy for me
Items
to run in to
quickly grab
a coffee. Across from the coffee shop is the prepared dishes section. Again,
when I dont have time to cook, it makes it easy to quickly grab a prepared
meal. Behind the coffee shop, on the back wall is the bakery. If I want a
croissant or another baked good with my coffee it is nice to have it close to
the coffee shop. The bakery is in the corner of the market because they have
big pieces of machinery. Beside the bakery is the deli. It is also on the back
wall of the store because they have big pieces of machines as well. The deli
is where I will ask for some sandwich meat. Beside the deli is the dairy
section. The dairy section is also in a corner of the grocery store. This section
is where I can buy milk, yogurt, or cottage cheese. If I continue around the
perimeter of the store I will end up at the personal needs area and the
pharmacy. The personal needs items and pharmacy are just below the dairy
section. It is a bigger section and on the outside of the market because the
pharmacy also needs a lot of space. Here I can fill my prescription and get
face wash and contact solution. Beside the pharmacy and in the middle of
the store is the canned and processed foods. I can buy processed food like
candy. I can also buy pickles or soup while shopping in this canned foods
area. Below both this area and the pharmacy is the produce department. It is
filled with fruits and vegetables. The produce department is in the last corner
of the grocery store. It is a big section as well because of the variety of fruits
and vegetables that it has. Before I pay for my items I go to the very middle
of the store. Here is the frozen foods section. It is good to get these items last
because they thaw when at room temperature. The frozen foods are below
the deli. Once I have all of my groceries it is time to pay. Below the frozen
foods section and beside the produce department are the tills. The clerks at
the tills will assist me in paying and then bagging my food. Once that I am
done at the tills I can leave back through the entrance and exit doors.

Word Bank:

B: Grammar Check Short Answer

/5
marks (1 per answer)

In one or two sentences write a question that would be used in the following
scenarios:

1. A woman is trying to reach a brand of cookies on the top shelf. She


asks the grocery store worker

Would you please help me reach these cookies? or


Would you mind helping me reach these cookies? or
Could you reach these cookies for me, please?

2. A boy is looking for the toothbrushes. He asks the grocery store


worker.
Can you tell me where the toothbrushes are, please? or
Where are the toothbrushes?

3. A man is wanting to buy some cherries but sees that the area labeled
cherries is empty. He asks the grocery store worker
There are no more cherries on display, are there some in the back? or
Do you have more cherries in stock? or
Could you look for cherries for me in the stock, please?

4. A lady is ordering 300 grams of ham, she asks the deli clerk
May I get 300 grams of ham, please? or
I would like to order 300 grams of ham, please?
Could I please get 300 grams of ham?

5. A man is wanting to pay for his groceries with an American Express


credit card. He asks the clerk

Do you accept American Express? or


Do you accept credit cards?
Would it be alright if I paid with American Express ?

C. Reading Comprehension Acceptable Answers:


marks (1 per answer)

/5

1. They wanted the items to eat while they watched a movie.


2. No, the juice was in the frozen food section, the chips, popcorn, and
pop was in the processed food section.
3. No, they bought plain popcorn.
4. They used cash for payment.
5. They did not want any bags (zero).
D. Speaking Assessment Acceptable answers:
marks (1 per answer)

/5

1. They are paying with money. They are buying a lemon and an apple.
The groceries are bagged. The customer will be getting a receipt.
2. It is the produce department. There are fruits and vegetables. There
are apples, oranges, etc.
3. It is a grocery cart/shopping cart. It holds the groceries while you shop.
4. It is the frozen food department. It is aisle 10. It is a sign for an aisle in
a grocery store.
5. They are processed foods. They are potato chips. They are high in fat.

As the courses goals are to develop reading, writing, speaking, and


listening skills the test is constructed into these four categories as well. Each
category is testing these skills using the content from the previous lessons,
based wholly around grocery store shopping. The validity (Brown, 448) of the
test as a whole is acceptable because it tests these skills using the material
from the lessons to do so.

The validity of the first section (i.e. listening) is acceptable because the
layout of the grocery store had been changed from the notes, therefore,
students are not simply memorizing a map and filling in the blanks. They
must listen to hear the correct order which is an example of a selective
listening task (Brown, 319). The test gives the options for these spaces as it
is not meant to be assessing spelling but rather just the content (i.e.
produce is the same as fruits and vegetables, etc.) and listening skills.
Therefore the test has content validity (Brown, 449). The spoken aspect is
meant to have some redundancy as does normal speech. The idea is that the
students do not have to understand every sentence in order to get the entire
section correct but rather they need to search for general meaning. This
design has construct validity (Brown, 449) as long as the students know the
vocabulary of relations (e.g. up, down, below, beside, in the middle, etc.).
These terms would have to be reviewed prior to the test. The students who
perceive that the test is assessing their listening skills as it has the
instructions of the students to listen first which gives this section face
validation (Brown, 449). For students who have a difficult time with the
English alphabet this section could be modified for them by putting numbers
beside each term in the word bank and allowing it to be a matching format
instead; doing so will ensure that only listening is being assessed and not
their writing skills.
Although section B would only require one sentence answers in theory I
allow students the option to write two in case they find it easier to break up

their sentence into simpler fragments (e.g. You are out of bread. Would you
mind getting some more from the back?). Therefore, the use of commas is
not the main focus, but rather it is forming a proper question. This method is
an example of intensive writing (Brown, 415). The material of asking
questions in the supermarket was learnt in the previous lessons therefore this
section also has content validity. The students will see the word write and
therefore it has face validity. The scenarios are repetitive so that there is less
vocabulary recognition required. There is construct validity because the
vocabulary needed is mostly given in the question (e.g. What is she
reaching? The scenario says she is reaching for the cookies) thus the
students have the majority of information readily available for them to write.
The exam could be modified so that there are pictures of these scenarios as
well; having pictures will ensure that the reading skills are not the skill being
assessed but rather only the writing.
The validity of reading in section C is appropriate since the vocabulary
is acceptable, the statements concise, and the questions straightforward.
This method is a form of interactive reading assessment (Brown, 386). The
majority of the text is about the grocery store but the beginning is referring
to watching a movie. For this section to be completely valid in regards to
content the prior lessons must also discuss the reasons why people go to the
grocery store. The answer for question two requires the students to
understand that the frozen food section is not the same as the processed
food section, which is also content validity. This part of the test has face

validity because it instructs the students to read and does not stress a writing
component as it allows single word statements for the responses. This
portion of the test also has construct validity as it is necessary to understand
the passage in order to answer the questions. An example of the necessity of
comprehension is the answer for question four which is cash but the only
terms used in the text is bills and change; not having cash or card in the
passage ensures that students are not simply scanning for the word for each
answer (although scanning is a form of extensive reading (Brown, 386) and
therefore students can use that method for specific questions such as three
and five) but rather they must also read for understanding.
The last section of the test, Part D, assesses speech using a responsive
speaking task (Brown, 351). The use of pictures is to reduce the amount of
reading necessary. One picture does have words but they do not need to be
used in order to create a correct sentence. This method ensures that the
validity is acceptable, as does simply asking the students to talk about the
picture; instead of asking precise question about each photo the students are
prompted to share ideas which ensures that listening comprehension is not
the skill that is being assessed. Each picture is about grocery stores which is
content validity and the task also has face validity as the students are asked
to speak and create their own sentences orally. The construct validity
depends on what is perceived as correct. As long as the meaning is construed
then grammar should not effect the students score. The photos each have

content validity as they are directly related to grocery stores which was the
lesson material used.
The content for this unit is addressed while ensuring that each skill is
properly assessed. Each section of the test is validated to clarify that each
skill is tested separately. Each category was tested around the theme of
grocery stores by using vocabulary and situations that are common in
Canadian culture. The navigation of a grocery store is related in section A in
which the students had already learnt that often the main food groups
(wheat, meat, dairy, fruits and vegetables) are usually on the perimeter of
the store, while processed and frozen foods are in the middle aisles and why
might this layout not always be the same. The content of grocery store
communication was also assessed through section B, a written assessment.
Also, the reading assessment related to the content of what the cashier may
ask the customer (i.e. What is your method of payment?, Do you want any
bags?).
The skills and objectives themselves were also assessed along with the
content of the lessons. An A1.2 learner can name subject-specific vocabulary
terms as was done using the pictures in section D. Another indicator is that
learners can pick out main information from short texts, such as the
paragraph and corresponding questions of section C. The indicator of
listening for isolated vocabulary and terms from specific subject areas was
done in section A, and finally writing informal messages was done in section
B.

This assignment was a useful in my learning as I got to practice putting


the assessment of speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills to use.
Starting with methods that were effective in measuring these skills, I learnt
that I needed to check the validity (Brown, 448) to ensure that other aspects
were not interfering or also being tested when they were not the focus. If
there were other language skills being tested then I had the practice of
considering how to modify them. As well, the idea that they were not using a
language skill but rather only memorization needed to be considered.
Particularly, the question of validity made me learn to give more thought into
the questions or rather the form of the questions that I am asking. I had to
reflect if I was using the necessary verb, if I needed to modify the question so
that it was apparent that another skill was not the main focus, and if I needed
more specification or detail to ensure accuracy.
Although I already understood the dynamic behind achievement tests
(Brown, 454) this assignment did make me consider the steps prior to the
exam (i.e. the lessons). While creating and evaluating the exam I questioned
many times if I had planned to teach specific aspects. From realizing that I
did not intend to review relations (i.e. up/down, beside, past, etc.) to noticing
that grocery store vocabulary (i.e. receipt, cart, etc.) was not going to be a
specific part of the previous lessons but rather only store areas were (i.e. deli,
bakery, etc.). The assignment made me consider what was reasonable for my
students, such as if it is reasonable to expect students to use food vocabulary
when there is such a vast amount of words and to understand the nutrients

as well. Lastly, it made me consider if I actually taught concepts rather than


just give examples of the concept (i.e. Did I teach how to frame a question by
using why, what, where, when, who, how, and would/could, or did I assume
that they already knew that and then made it relatable to the
content/material?).

Works Cited Page:


Brown, H. Douglas. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to
language pedagogy (3rd ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Eucation.
Saskatchewan. Ministry of Education. A guide to using the Common
Framework of Reference (CFR) Appendix B: Charts for Secondary Level.
September 2013. Ministry of Education Services. Web. 16 Nov. 2014.