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Chng 1.

Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in

Chng 1 Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng


sut trong h thng in

1.1. m bo tnh n nh ca h thng nng lng


Tnh n nh ca h thng nng lng c nh ngha l kh nng ca h thng
trong trng thi cn bng trong iu kin lm vic bnh thng v c th quay v c
trng thi cn bng chp nhn c sau nhng bin ng nhiu tc ng. Khi mc
phc tp ca h thng nng lng ngy cng tng ln do ngy cng c nhiu loi ngun
pht tham gia vo h thng v nhiu loi ph ti kiu in t cng sut tc ng nhanh
th h thng nng lng cng phi lm vic gn n gii hn ca n nh.
n nh ca h thng nng lng chia lm hai dng chnh: n nh gc ph ti
ca cc my pht v n nh in p. Vn th nht lin quan ch yu n li truyn
ti, trong khi vn th hai c tnh cc b hn, lin quan n li phn phi. n nh
gc ph ti l n nh tn s hay m bo tnh ng b. n nh in p l m bo mc
dao ng trong phm vi cho php, khng qu +/- 10% quanh gi tr nh mc trong
iu kin bnh thng v kh nng quay v phm vi ny sau khi c bin ng sy ra,
trnh trng hp in p st gim dn n hiu ng dy chuyn. m bo in p cn
p ng ng cng sut phn khng cho li v iu khin cc mc in p ph hp
bng cc cp cun dy my bin p.
n nh gc ph ti rotor li chia thnh n nh vi bin ng ln (s c xy ra ti
l no ) v n nh vi bin ng nh (s thay i ph ti). V bn cht vt l c hai
trng hp trn u lin quan n vn n nh cc dao ng c in do tng tc gia
cc qu trnh in v c trong h thng bin i c nng thnh in nng. Qu trnh bin
i ny c trng bi phng trnh ng hc cho my ng b nh (1.1)
Tm Te 2H

d 2
d
D
2
dt
dt

(1.1)

Vi Te K , V
Trong Tm v Te l mmen c v mmen in t, H mmen qun tnh quy v
trc my in, D h s dp dao ng, K hng s v l gc rotor. Vi bin ng nh
phng trnh (1.1) c th tuyn tnh ha quanh im lm vic cn bng, dn n:

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in


Tm Te 2H

d 2
d
D
K cos 0
2
dt
dt

(1.2)

t
Tm
4H

1 e sin t
K cos 0

(1.3)

Gii phng trnh (1.2) tm ra gc rotor nh (1.3), trong tn s dao ng xc


nh bng (1.4):

K cos 0 D

2H
4H

(1.4)

T phng trnh (4), thay nhng tham s tiu biu ca cc t my vo, c th thy
tn s dao ng trong khong 0,1 2,5 Hz.
Nhng dao ng ny c th pht sinh do nhng bin ng nh v tip din lin tc
trong h thng. Nhng dao ng vng tn s cao, khong 0,7 2 Hz, thng din ra
cc b ti mt t my, khng nh hng n ton b li in, gi l dao ng cc b.
Nhng dao ng vng tn s thp, 0,2 0,8 Hz, din ra gia cc t my vi nhau v rt
kh b dp tt. Chng sinh ra cc qu trnh trao i cng sut thng qua li truyn ti
gia cc nh my v cc t my vi nhau, gia vng ny vi vng kia ca li in. Cc
dao ng ny xut hin trong nhiu li in, ti nhiu ni trn th gii. Hu qu ca cc
dao ng lin vng ny l xung ng ln cc rotor ca cc t my, lm mi cc c cu c
kh, dn n nhng hng hc cc b phn iu khin, a n nhng chi ph kh lng.
Dao ng lin vng lm gim kh nng truyn ti ca li in, c th dn n gi li
trong mt s trng hp.
dp tt dao ng cn dng cc b iu khin. Cc b iu khin cc b l b
n nh cng sut h thng (Power System Stabilizer PSS) kt hp cng h thng iu
khin kch t my pht. PSS pht cc tn hiu cng pha vi s thay i ca tc rotor
sao cho cc dao ng ny b dp tt. Trn hnh 1 l cu trc b iu chnh PSS, gm bn
khu ni tip: khu khuych i, khu lc thng thp pht hin s thay i vi tn s
thp, hai khu lead/lag to sm pha cn thit cho tn hiu a vo mch kch t.

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in

Hnh 1.1. B iu chnh PSS chng dao ng h thng.

u vo l tn hiu bin ng tn s quay rotor, u ra l tn hiu ph tc ng vo


mch iu chnh kch t my pht.
dp dao ng lin vng s cn cc h thng FACT, nh SVC, STATCOM.
SVC hay STATCOM l cc thit b b song song, c th c tc ng iu chnh in p
ti im kt ni theo hng b lm tt dao ng. B iu chnh ca SVC c thm u
vo Additional input phn nh s dao ng ca li (tn s ), u ra tc ng thay i
dn B ca SVC nh biu din trn hnh 1.2.

Hnh 1.2. B iu chnh cho SVC c tc dng dp dao ng trn li.

Trn hnh 1.3 l cu trc b iu chnh ca STATCOM, c thm u vo phn nh


s dao ng ca li (tn s ), u ra tc ng thay i gc lch pha gia in p ra
ca STATCOM so vi im kt ni. T c th a vo hay ly ra cng sut, b li s
dao ng ca li in.

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in

Hnh 1.3. B iu chnh cho STATCOM c tc dng dp dao ng trn li.

Ngoi ra cc thit b FACTS khc nh TCSC, TCPS, UPFC, cng u c th


chnh nh c tc dng chng dao ng.

1.2. iu khin cht lng in nng


Nhng vn chnh lin quan n cht lng in nng l:
-

n nh in p;
Sng hi;
Lm in p;
Qu in p;
in p nhp nhy,

Tuy nhin ngy nay khi nim cht lng in nng mang ngha rng hn. Cht
lng in nng bao hm ton b cc quan h phc tp gia nh sn xut v ngi tiu
dng in, t nh my n khch hng cui cng. Trong sn xut v trong i sng hng
ngy xut hin nhiu loi thit b, my mc c yu cu cao v n nh, tnh lin tc
ca ngun in cung cp. Cc h thng dch v v sn xut cng thay i mi quan h
gia hot ng sn xut, kh nng cung cp dch v p ng cc nhu cu ca khch hng
nh mt trong nhng mi quan tm hng u. Tm li nhng trc trc nh trong h thng
cung cp nng lng c th dn ti nhng tn tht ln v kinh t. Chnh v vy ngy nay
khch hng t ra nhng tiu chun m nh sn xut v phn phi in phi p ng.
Khch hng thng c lin h vi nh cung cp in ngay t nhng khu u tin trong
qu trnh thit k, xy dng, lp t cng nh s dng hng ngy c m bo cung
cp in ph hp nht.

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in


Ngi s dng s chu nh hng mnh nht ca cc hin tng: lm in p, mt
ngun ngn hn v sng hi.
-

Lm in p: hin tng in p st gim xung ti 0,1 n 0,9 p.u. trong thi


gian 0,5 chu k in p li (10 ms 50 Hz) n 1 pht. Lm in p thng xut
hin do c s c trn ng truyn ti hoc ng phn phi lm cc thit b bo
v tc ng, do cc ng c cng sut ln khi ng. Do lm in p nhiu thit
b s b ngng hot ng, nh cc cng tc t, cc bin tn, thit b iu khin in
t, dn n c dy chuyn c th phi dng li. iu ny c th gy nn nhng
hu qu nghim trng.
Mt in ngn hn xy ra khi in p gim n 0 trong 1s n 5 pht. Cc hu qu
sy ra cng ging nh lm in p, tuy nhin vic khc phc s phc tp hn
nhiu.
Vn sng hi tr nn nghim trng hn do ngy cng c nhiu loi ph ti phi
tuyn c s dng nh cc b bin i bn dn, cc ph ti mt pha hoc do cc
qu trnh ph ti bin ng nhanh.
Sng hi c trng bi h s mo phi tuyn tng th:
hmax

THDM

M
h2

2
h

(1.5)

M1

Trong h l bc ca sng hi, s nguyn ln tn s c bn. mo phi tuyn


sng hi i vi dng in th hin r nht tc ng ca mo phi tuyn i vi cc thit
b trong h thng v dng in mi phn nh c cng sut.
hmax

TDDI

I
h2

2
h

(1.6)

IL

Trong IL l dng ti ln nht tn s c bn, ly gi tr trung bnh cho ph ti


trong 12 thng cui cng.

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in


1.2.1. Kim sot lm in p
gim thiu cc tn tht kinh t do lm in p mang li cn thc hin mt s
bin php. Lm in p pht sinh ch yu do cc s c xy ra trn mng in, v vy bin
php u tin l loi tr cc nguyn nhn dn n s c. Trong li truyn ti cn m
bo s vng chc ca cc ct ng dy, lm sch s , lp t cc my ct tc ng
nhanh v cc cun chn tip t. Trong li phn phi cn ct ta cy gn ng dy, lp
t cc b by ng vt, thit k h thng theo mch vng ch khng phi hnh sao, lp
t cc thit b bo v nhanh, Tuy cc bin php p dng cng khng th m bo
loi tr c ht cc s c.
Cc bin php tip theo cn p dng l s dng cc thit b gip vt qua cc lm
in p. Cc thit b FACTS (SVC, DVR, STATCOM) c th dng cho nhng mc ch
ny. Tuy nhin cc thit b ny tng i t tin. V li khng phi h tiu th no cng
cn mc bo v nh nhau v dch v vi gi thnh cao cho cc ph ti khng yu cu
khc nghit v cht lng in p s b phn i. V vy cc thit b tng t nh
FACTS nhng c thit k ph hp cho lui phn phi, p dng ring cho nhng ph
ti quan trng, vi cng sut nh hn, gi thnh thp s c tim nng ng dng nhiu
hn.
Ngoi nhng bin php trn vi cng sut va phi c th dng nhng loi thit b
khc, l nhng thit b tch tr nng lng in. Thit b tch tr nng lng hot ng
theo nguyn tc tch nng lng lc ti nh v a ra nng lng lc cn thit, p ng
nh ph ti, c th l ch trong mt thi gian ngn. Cc thit b ny c th l:
-

H thng tch tr nng lng bng acquy (BESS);


H thng dng bnh vnh cu (Flying Wheel);
H thng tch tr nng lng dng cun cm siu dn (SMESS);
H thng cp in lin tc (UPS).

c im ca cc h thng tch tr nng lng trn y l kh nng pht huy cng


sut trong thi gian rt ngn, c 0,1ms n 1s, ph hp vi thi gian xy ra lm in p
hay nhy in.
1.2.2. Kim sot thnh phn sng hi
Sng hi xut hin trong li in do nhiu nguyn nhn, do ti phi tuyn nh cc
b bin i bn dn, do mt s lng ln cc ph ti mt pha, do qu trnh ng ct ngu
nhin ca cc loi ph ti, Sng hi s i qua nhiu khu suy gim trc khi n c

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in


ph ti. V d qua s phi hp cch u dy my bin p, tam gic hoc sao, qua cc
cun cm chn pha u vo. Cch suy gim sng hi tt nht l ti ch c th pht sinh
sng hi bng nhng thit k ph hp. K thut gim sng hi ph bin nht trong cc b
bin i l phng php bin iu b rng xung PWM.
Khi sng hi pht sinh vi cng sut ln cn nhng thit b lc. Thit b lc th
ng thch hp vi li phn phi (trung th), va lc va c tc dng b cng sut
phn khng. Lc th ng ch yu dng mch song song, ni ti nhng im c th ngn
chn s xm nhp ca sng hi vo ti. Do c tc dng b cng sut phn khng nn khi
thit k ban u cn chn dung lng t cn thit tn s c bn. Sau s tnh ton
in cm mc ni tip vi t to thnh mch cng hng tn s sng hi cn phi
dp, tiu biu l cc tn s bc 2, 4, 5, 7, Cui cng l thnh phn in tr cn a vo
mch to c tnh suy gim dao ng v chn lc v tn s ca b lc. Thng
thng vi cng sut ln cc mt lc sng hi bc 2, 4, 5, 7, c thit k v lp t
ring, ti im nt ni vi li. Mc d lc th ng c p dng tng i rng ri
nhng nhc im chnh ca cc h thng ny l c th gy cc dao ng trong li khi
c cc bin ng mnh xy ra.
Cc mch lc tch cc trn c s cc b bin i bn dn cng sut c kh nng
lc ht sng hi. Thng thng lc tch cc c cng sut nh hn nhiu so vi lc th
ng v thng c lp t ngay ti im c pht sinh sng hi. Do ch c chnh nh
vi thnh phn sng hi nn cng sut lc tch cc c th nh hn.

1.3. B v iu chnh in p
thy c nguyn l b v iu chnh in p ta xt mng in c mch tng
ng n gin trn hnh 1.4. Trn hnh 1.4 ngun in c s.. E truyn theo ng dy
c tng tr khng bng R s + jXs. Trn thanh ci in p V c ti P + jQ, mch b c cng
sut Q. th vector cho trn hnh 1.5.

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in

Hnh 1.4. Mch in tng ng.

Hnh 1.5. th vector ca mch in trn hnh 1.4.

Theo th vector c th tnh c st p trn ng dy bng:


V=E V =Zs I

(1.7)

Lu cc k hiu ch in m, khng nghing, th hin l cc vector, cc ch


nghing th hin cc gi tr thng thng.
Dng ti bng:
I

P jQ
V

(1.8)

Cc thnh phn ca st p c th xc nh bng:

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in


X P Rs Q
P jQ Rs P X s Q
V Rs jX s
j s
VR jVX

V
V
V

(1.9)

Nh vy st p gm hai thnh phn, VR ng pha vi V v Vx vung pha vi


V. St p ph thuc c vo phn cng sut thc v cng sut phn khng. S ph thuc
ca in p vo dng in gi l ng c tnh ti, th hin trn hnh 1.6. Mc d st p
ph thuc vo dng in nhng trong thc t do mc in p ch c php thay i
trong gii hn cho php nn trn trc honh ca c tnh ti ngi ta hay dng cng sut
phn khng Q thay cho dng in I. Nh vy c tnh ti th hin s ph thuc in p
vo cng sut phn khng, khi tiu th cng sut phn khng (Q > 0, ti cm) in p
gim so vi khi khng ti E, khi pht cng sut phn khng (Q < 0, ti dung) in p
dng ln cao hn E.

Hnh 1.6. ng c tnh ti.

1.3.1. B gi in p khng i
Bng cch ni song song vi ti mt tr khng b c th t c bin in p
bng in p khi khng ti,
|V| = |E|.

(1.10)

T th vector c th thy rng:


R P X s Qs X s P Rs Qs
2

E V s

V
V

(1.11)

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in


Gii h hai phng trnh trn c th lun lun xc nh c nghim Q cn thit
ca mch b bin in p lun bng gi tr lc khng ti, |V| = |E|. iu ny th
hin trn th vector hnh 1.7. Nh vy, nu mch b c th thay i mt cch lin tc
trong mt phm vi nht nh c th lun m bo in p khng i khi ti thay i.
1.3.2. B gi h s cng sut bng mt
Nu Q = Q th mch s c h s cng sut bng mt.
T y cng c th thy rng khng th dng mch b n nh in p v hiu
chnh h s cng sut cng mt lc.
1.3.3. ng c tnh ti
C th thy rng trong h truyn ti phn in tr thun ng dy rt nh so vi
cm khng, c th coi Rs ~ 0. Mt khc c th b qua phn st p VX v phn ny ch
lm thay i gc pha ca in p. V vy ta c:
V VR hay

V X sQ Q
2
V
V
S

(1.12)

Q
V E 1
S

(1.13)

Nh vy in p V t l nghch vi cng sut phn khng Q nh th hin trn


ng c tnh ti nh trn hnh 1.6.

Hnh 1.7. B gi in p khng i.

10

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in

1.4. iu khin cng sut v tn s


S mt h thng truyn ti c minh ha trn hnh 1.8, vi cc thnh phn
ngun cng sut s cp (turbine), my pht, ti. T s ta s a ra cc biu thc ch r
quan h h gia cng sut thc, cng sut phn khng, gc ti v gc pha ca ti.
Gc gia Es v Er gi l gc ti . Gc pha gia dng ti v in p Er l . C th
b qua thnh phn thun tr R s. V vy st p do tr khng ng dy s l jXs I, vung
gc vi dng in I.

Hnh 1.8. H thng truyn ti vi turbine, my pht v ph ti. in p c hai u


ng truyn coi l u c iu khin nn k hiu nh s.. qua Es v Er.

Hnh 1.9. th vector.

T th vector trn hnh 1.9 c th vit c:

11

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in


Es cos Er X s I sin
Es sin X s I cos

(1.14)

Cng sut ti bng:


P jQ Er I Er Icosr jEr I sin

(1.15)

T ta c phng trnh dng cng sut:


P

Es Er
sin
Xs

(1.16)

V phng trnh cho cng sut phn khng pha u thu:


Qr Er

Es cos Er
Xs

(1.17)
Do ng truyn gi s khng b tn tht nn P = P s = Pr . Pha u pht ta c:
Ps jQs Es Icos r jEs I sin

(1.18)

Cng sut phn khng pha u pht bng:


Qs Es I sin cos cos sin
Es sin
Es

Es sin
E cos Er
Es cos s
Xs
Xs

Es Er cos
Xs

(1.19)

V d 1: Gi s Es = Er =1.0 p.u v P =1.0 p.u . ng dy truyn ti c X s = 0.1


p.u v Rs l khng ng k. Ta c sin

P. X s
= 0.1 nn = 5.739o v cos =0.995. T
E s . Er

ta c Qs = +0.05 p.u v Qr = -0.05 p.u. Do , u pht v u thu u pht cng sut


phn khng .
V d 2: Gi s Es = 1.0 p.u trong khi in p ti u thu gim xung Er = 0.95
p.u vi P = 1.0 p.u. v X s = 0.1 p.u .Khi sin

P. X s
=0.105 v = 6.042o , ln hn
E s . Er

gc ca v d 1 v Er gim i 5%. Mt khc Qs = +0.553 p.u v Qr = 0.422 p.u. Khi


Qs dng, u pht pht ra VArs. Qr cng dng c ngha u thu li hp th VArs.

Trong v d 2, in p gim i 5% gy ra s trao i ln v cng sut phn khng


gia u pht v u thu. iu ny chng t rng in p trn ng truyn ti ph thuc
rt mnh vo cng sut phn khng. iu tng t cng xy ra khi gc pha c a ti thay
i ln. Khi cng sut thc thay i, in p thay i khng nhiu nhng gc ti li

12

Chng 1. Vai tr ca cc b bin i bn dn cng sut trong h thng in


thay i nhiu. iu ny c th thy c t phng trnh dng cng sut, sin ~ P, khi
nh th sin ~ .

1.5. Kt lun
Trong chng ny nhc li nhng vn c bn ca h thng in, tnh n
nh ca h thng nng lng v nhng vn lin quan n cht lng in nng, i
cng vi l vai tr to ln ca cc b bin i in t cng sut trong lui in.
Cc b bin i bn dn c th s dng cho cc mc tiu sau y:

iu khin dng cng sut trn cc ng dy theo mun.

Gi c ti ca cc ng dy gn gii hn nhit.

Nng cao kh nng truyn cng sut gia cc phn ca h thng, do ,


gim d tr chung ca h thng.

Phng nga c s c lan truyn.

Gim dao ng in p.

13

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

Chng 2 Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti


in

2.1. Yu cu c bn i vi h thng truyn ti


H thng truyn ti in phi m bo hai yu cu c bn, l:
1. m bo ng b: yu cu v m bo tn s;
2. m bo bin dng in p.
m bo ng b l yu cu cc my pht u a ra tn s chnh xc, v d 50
Hz, vi sai lch cho php trong phm vi +/-0,1 Hz. iu ny ch c th t c nu
mi my pht u hot ng trong gii hn n nh ch xc lp. Khi c bin ng h
thng iu khin phi c tc ng ng a c h thng v li trng thi cn bng
mi. Cc bin ng li chia ra lm bin ng nh v bin ng ln.
m bo bin dng in p l gi c in p ti mi im kt ni trn h truyn
ti trong phm vi cho php. C th thy rng bin ng in p lin quan n dng cng
sut phn khng, thay i theo din bin ca ph ti v ch hot ng ca h thng
nh kt ni ngun, sa thi ph ti hoc chuyn hng ng truyn, Mi din bin
qu in p hoc thp p u dn n nhng hu qu v kinh t, k thut. Gia hai
trng hp ti hn l khng ti v ngn mch i hi nhng bin php bo v khn cp
c rt nhiu bin php iu chnh m bo bin dng in p. Nhng bin php ny
tm tt trong bng di y. Mt s bin php c th c nhiu hiu qu khc nhau v c
th phi hp tc dng gia chng.

14

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

2.2. Cc c tnh ca ng dy cha b khng ti


2.2.1. Dng in, in p trn ng dy di l tng

Hnh 2.1. S ng truyn ti tham s ri vi cm khng ni tip v dung khng song


song.

Mch in tng ng ca ng dy di tham s ri cho trn hnh 2.1. Trn s


hnh 2.1, a l chiu di tuyn dy, x l chiu di dc tuyn ng dy. Cc thng s
ri ca ng dy: l in cm (H/m); c t in (F/m). Phng trnh vector in p V(x)
v dng in I(x) vit c theo (2.1).
d 2V
2V vi (r j l )( g j c)
2
dx

(2.1)

Trong (2.1), r l in tr trn mt n v chiu di (/m), ni tip vi tr khng l


(H/m); g l in dn trn mt n v chiu di (S/m) song song vi c; l tn s gc
(rad/s); ).
l s sng;
l tc lan truyn, hi nh hn tc nh sng
(30000km/s);

trong

l bc sng. Vi tn s 50 Hz, =

30000/50 = 6000 km v = 1,047. 10 -3 rad/km = 6 o/100km.


Nghim ca phng trnh (2.1) i vi vector in p v dng in th hin trong
(2.2), (2.3).
V(x) =Vrcos (a x) + jZ0 Ir sin (a x)
I(x) = j

Vr
sin (a x) +Ircos (a x)
Z0

(2.2)
(2.3)

Z0 = l / c [], gi l tr khng surge. i vi dng dy cao th gi tr tiu biu


ca Z0 c 250 .

15

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


Tr khng ca ng truyn l Z(x)=V(x)/(I(x) biu din c nh (2.4).

Z ( x)

V ( x) Z 0 I r [ I r cos (a - x) j sin (a x)]

Z0
I ( x)
I r [ I r cos (a - x) j sin (a x)

(2.4)

V(x) v I(x) ng pha trn sut cc im trn ng dy nhng gc pha cng thay
i:

V ( x) Vr e j (a x)
I ( x) I r e j ( a x)
Tr khng surge Z0 l tr khng ca ng dy di v tn.
th vector c dng nh trn hnh 2.2. Bin dng in p, V(x) thay i theo x,
c dng nh trn hnh 2.3.

Hnh 2.2 th vector.

Cng sut truyn trn ng dy trong trng hp ny gi l ti t nhin v gi tr


bng:

V2
P0
Z0

(2.5)

ngha ca tr khng Z0 v ti t nhin phi hiu l thc ra ti ch l gi nh, nu


cui ng dy trn hnh 2.1 c mt ti c gi tr cng sut tc dng P 0 th ti ny s nhn
thy ng dy di tr khng Z0.

16

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

Hnh 10.3 Bin dng in p trn ng dy cha b.

2.2.2. c tnh h mch ca ng dy truyn thng cha b, khng tn


tht trn ng dy
Trn ng dy khng ti, khng tn tht, dng v p trng pha nhau, khng c
cng sut phn khng:

V ( x) Vr (a x )

(2.6)

V
I ( x) j r sin (a x)
Z0

(2.7)

th vector c dng nh trn hnh 2.4, bin dng in p v dng in th hin


trn hnh 2.5.

Hnh 2.4. th vector ng dy di khng ti.

17

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

Hnh 2.5 Bin dng dng in v in p trn ng dy khng ti (h mch) 300 km.

in p tng ln cui ng dy n 1,05 p.u. Nu ng dy di n 1500 km


in p h mch s tng n v cng, khng th chp nhn c. My pht phi cung cp
dng np cho ng dy vi gc pha vt trc, ngha l vi dng kch t nh hn nh
mc. iu ny c th dn n h thng bo v kch t tc ng.

2.3. ng dy cha b c ti
2.3.1. ng dy truyn thng vi in p c nh pha nhn
Gi s pha cui dng dy c ti c cng sut P+jQ. Dng in c dng:
Ir

P jQ
Vr*

(2.8)

in p u v cui ng dy lin h vi nhau theo phng trnh:


Es Vr cos jZ 0

P jQ
sin
Vr*

(2.9)

Gii hai phng trnh trn c th xc nh c in p vn hnh V* r.

18

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

Hnh 2.6. th bin in p ca ng dy di 300 km ph thuc cng sut P/P0 , ti


cc h s cng sut khc nhau.

Vi mi h s cng sut c mt gi tr cng sut P max ng vi im lm vic n


nh gii hn (statedy state stable limit). Khi P < P max c hai gi tr Vr, mt ng c
tnh tng i phng pha trn v mt pha di. Thng thng im pha trn l im
lm vic vi in p trn di mt cht so vi 1,0 p.u.
2.3.2. ng dy cha b i xng

Hnh 2.7. S ng dy i xng.

in p v dng in mt na u pha pht:


Es Vm cos

Is j

jZ 0 I m sin

(2.10)

Vm

sin I m cos
Z0
2
2

(2.11)

19

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


Ph ti ni im gia ng dy:

Pm jQ Vm I m* P

(2.12)

Cng sut phn khng t mi pha pht ra Qs = - Qr:


P 2 V 2 V 2 sin
Qs P0 2 02 m2
P0 Vm V0 2

(2.13)

Hnh 2.8. th vector ng dy i xng.

Bng 2.1 nh hng ca cng sut truyn ti ln bin dng in p v yu cu


cng sut phn khng.
Trng hp
P<P 0

in p
Vm > Es , Er

P>P 0

Vm > Es , Er

C s thiu ht dng cng sut phn khng, c


cung cp cui ng dy: Qs >0 v Qr <0.

P=P 0

Vm = Es = Er .

Bin dng in p l phng. ng dy khng i


hi cng sut phn khng v Qs = Qr =0.

Cng sut phn khng


C s d tha dng cng sut phn khng, c hp
th cui ng dy: Qs <0 v Qr >0.

2.3.3. Cng sut max v n nh xc lp


Nu ta coi im pha ti tng ng vi ngun s.. E r, c th vit s.. pha
my pht nh sau:

20

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


E s Es e

Es (cos j sin )

(2.14)

trong gc gi l gc ti hay gc truyn ti. Khi cng sut truyn ti s l:


P

Es Er
sin
Z 0 sin

(2.15)

Nh vy ta c cng sut ln nht c th xc nh:


P

Es Er
s
Z 0 sin

(2.16)

Cng sut pht ph thuc gc ti theo th. im cng sut ln nht xc nh


gii hn n nh xc lp. Theo th c th coi cng sut pht ph thuc gc ti .
Tuy nhin trong thc t cn coi vi mi gi tr cng sut P cn iu chnh gc ti ph
hp sao cho gi c d tr n nh cn thit. Thng thng gc ti bng = 30 o v
sin =0,5 c d tr n nh 100%.
Cng sut phn khng hai u ng dy l:
Qr

Er ( Es cos Er cos )
Z 0 sin

Qs

(2.17)

Es ( Er cos Es cos )
Z 0 sin

(2.18)

Trong mi trng hp P < P max . Nu P < P 0 , Es = 1,0 p.u, gc < , Qs < 0, Qr >
0. Ngha l c hai u u thu cng sut phn khng. Nu P > P 0 c hai u u pht cng
sut phn khng.

21

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

Gii hn n nh xc lp

Hnh 2.9. c tnh cng sut theo gc truyn ti.

2.4. ng truyn ti c b
B trong h thng truyn ti c mc tiu:
-

Gi bin dng in p phng vi mi cng sut truyn;


m bo n nh tng dung lng ng truyn;
Cung cp cng sut phn khng theo mt mc tiu kinh t k thut nht nh.

Cc h thng b c th l b th ng v b tch cc. B th ng ngha l ng


ct mt lng khng hoc t c nh. B tch cc l kh nng a vo hoc tiu th mt
lng b va m bo c tnh truyn ti trong mi ch , ni chung l m bo
bin dng in p phng. V d my b ng b, cc thit b b c iu khin.
Cc h thng v thit b b ph bin bao gm:
-

B bng khng hoc t song song. Khng song song c tc dng b dung khng
ng dy khi ti nh in p khng tng qu mc. T song song c tc dng
b phn khng cho ti khi ti nng.
H thng b ni tip: b cho di ng dy.

22

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


2.4.1. B tnh song song

My ct

Khng b

Hnh 2.10. S mch b tnh bng khng song song.

in p

Dng in
Hnh 2.11. Bin dng in p v dng in trong b khng song song.

H thng b tnh song song c s nh trn hnh 2.10. Bin dng in p t


c th hin trn hnh 2.11.
V d:
Vi ng dy di 300km, vi f=50hz,v E s V0 1.0 p.u , in p im gia l
1.0125 p.u. v cng sut phn khng hp th cui ng dy l 0.158 P 0. Nhng gi tr
ny nn c so snh vi in p cui ung dy 1.05 p.u v cng sut phn khng
im u hp th Qs =0.329 P 0 khi khng c b song song. Vi nhim v b song song
ung dy 500 kV khng ti, cng sut ca cun khng thng l 53 MVAr trn mi
pha, nu Z0=250 .
Nguyn l b song song trn ng dy di, vi bin dng in p c th t
c, th hin trn hnh 2.12. Trn hnh c th thy rng c th t c bin dng in
p tng i phng nu sau mi 300 km ng dy c mt mt b.

23

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

Bin dng in p(p.u)

Hnh 2.12. B song song theo ng dy di.

H thng b song song c th dng cho mc ch iu chnh in p trn ng


dy nu kt hp c cun khng v t song song. Nguyn l iu chnh in p bng b
song song c th thy r trn hnh 2.13.

Ngun
Ti

Cha b
Cha b

Hnh 2.13. Nguyn l iu chnh in p bng b song song.

24

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


2.4.2. B gia ng dy

Hnh 2.14. Mch b gia ng dy.

Nguyn l b gia ng dy cho trn hnh 2.14.


Bnh thng khi cha b: P

Es .Er
sin
XL

Sau khi b gia ng dy: P 2

(2.19)

Es .Er

sin
XL
2

(2.20)

Nh vy cng sut max tng gp 2 ln bnh thng, kh nng truyn ti v d


tr n nh cng tng gp i. c tnh ng truyn cho trn hnh 2.15.

b
Cha b

Hnh 2.15. c tnh ng truyn c mch b gia ng dy. Cng sut truyn ln gp
i so vi khi khng b.

25

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


2.4.3. B tnh ni tip
T b mc ni tip c th trung ha phn cm khng ca ng dy, gim gc ti
, do gim dng np cho ng dy, dn n c th tng c cng sut ti t nhin.
Do tr khng ng dy gim nn c th cn n thnh phn cm song song nh th hin
trn hnh 2.16. B ni tip thng dng cho ng dy rt di nhng cng c th dng
cho mch nhnh song song ca ng truyn hiu chnh dng cng sut. th vector
th hin trn hnh 2.17.

Hnh 2.16. Mch b ni tip.

Hnh 2.17. th vector mch b ni tip.

C th xc nh cng sut truyn ln nht nh sau:


Theo th vector c th xc nh cng sut truyn P = Im Vm nh sau:
P

EsVm

Xc
Z

Z 0 sin (cos 0 sin )


2
2
2 X
2

sin

26

(2.21)

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


Vi
Es cos

Z
Vm cos 0 sin Er cos
2
2 X
2
2

(2.22)

Khi m bo iu kin Es = E r ta c:
P

Es Er
sin
Xc

Z 0 sin 2 (1 cos )

(2.23)

Vi
1

Z0 sin
Z

1 0 tan
X 1 cos
X
2

(2.24)

T nhng phng trnh trn mi mi mc cng sut truyn ti c th xc nh gc


ti , gi tr in p Vm , V1, V2, VC.
Trng hp n gin ha nu c th b qua c in cm ng dy, khng tnh
n in cm song song jX, biu thc cng sut c dng n gin nh sau:
P

E2
sin
X L Xc

(2.25)

2.5. Tnh ton dng cng sut


Tnh ton dng cng sut l xc nh ch xc lp ca h thng truyn ti.
Qu trnh nghin cu cn xc nh dng cng sut thc, cng sut phn khng vo ra, gi
tr in p, gc pha ti cc nt ca li.
Cc gi tr tnh ton c ph thuc cu hnh v cc bin php iu khin trn
li.Nu cng sut tnh ton vt qu gi tr gii hn cc bin php iu khin cn c
tnh ti. Nu gi tr in p ra khi phm vi cho php c n tnh ti cc bin php b.
2.5.1. Phng trnh mng li c bn
Kt hp nh lut Ohm v nh lut Kirchhoff v dng in gia hai nt l v m.
Ta c, phng trnh quan h gia nt l v m:

27

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


Vm Vl Z k .I k => I k

Trong Z k

Vl Vm
= Yk .V
Zk

(2.26)

1
l tng tr gia hai nt l v m, I k l dng in chy t nt l sang
Yk

nt m.
Ti nt i, gi s c q dng vo ra:
q

Ii I k

(2.27)

k 1

Trong I i l dng in ti nt i, k l s nhnh ni vi nt i. Tt nhin, I k l


dng in ti nhnh k.
Kt hp phng trnh (2.26) v (2.27) ta c:
q

I i Yk Vl Vm

(2.28)

k 1

Ta c th bin din (2.28) theo phng trnh ma trn sau:

I1 Y11
I
2 Y21
I 3 Y31

. .
. .

I n Yn1

Y12
Y22
Y32
.
.
Yn 2

Y13 ... Y1n V1



Y23 ... Y2 n V2
Y33 ... Y3n V3

.
.
. .
.
.
. .

Yn 3 ... Ynn Vn

28

(2.29)

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


VD1: Ta xt 1 v d gm cc nt a,b,c,d nh hnh v v tng tr cc nhnh u l
Y.

Theo nh lut Ohm ta c:


I1 =Y(Va-Vc)
I2 =Y(Va- Vb)
I3 =Y(Vb-Vd)
I4 =-Y(Vc-Vd)
I5 =-Y(Va-Vc)
I6 =-Y(Vb-Vc)
Theo nh lut Kirchhoff v dng in ta c:

I 2 I1 I 5 I a
I 2 I6 I3 Ib
I1 I 6 I 4 I c
I5 I3 I 4 I d
T ta c:

29

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

YVa YVb YVc YVd I a


YVa YVb YVc YVd I b
YVa YVb YVc YVd I c
YVa YVb YVc YVd I d
Hoc dng ma trn:

Ia Y
I
b Y
I c Y

Id Y

Y
Y
Y
Y

Y
Y
Y
Y

Y Va

Y Vb
Y Vc

Y Vd

T phng trnh ma trn (2.29) ta c:

V1 Z11
V
2 Z 21
V3 Z 31

. .
. .

Vn Z n1

Z12
Z 22
Z 32
.
.
Zn2

Z13 ... Z1n I1



Z 23 ... Z 2 n I 2
Z 33 ... Z 3n I 3

.
.
. .
.
.
. .

Z n 3 ... Z nn I n

Vi:

Y11
Y
21
Y31

.
.

Yn1

Y12 Y13
Y22 Y23
Y32 Y33
.
.
.
.
Yn 2 Yn 3

...
...
...
.
.
...

Y1n
Y11
Z
Y2 n
21
Z 31
Y3n

.
.
.
.

Ynn
Z n1

30

Y12
Z 22
Z 32
.
.
Zn2

Y13
Z 23
Z 33
.
.
Z n3

...
...
...
.
.
...

Y1n
Z 2 n
Z 3n

.
.

Z nn

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


2.5.2. L thuyt dng cng sut
Trong l thuyt dng cng sut, cc nt uc chia lm 3 loi, nh vic phn loi
ny m ta c th tnh ton thng s cc nt, t xc nh dng cng sut thc, cng
sut phn khng vo ra, gi tr in p, gc pha ti cc nt ca li thc hin cc
phng php iu khin.
a. Nt iu khin in p: Nu cng sut phn khng ti nt ,in p ti nt c
th iu chnh c v nt s l nt kiu iu khin in p. My b ng b hoc cc
b thit b b tnh SVCs l thit b dng iu chnh in p. Trong trng hp my b
ng b th cng sut tiu th c cho bit, con vi SVCs cng sut tiu th bng 0. Ti
nt, cc thng s cha bit l gc pha in p v cng sut phn khng ca mng. Nt
kiu ny uc gi l nt PV.
b. Nt ti: nu khng c ngun cp c s ti nt, l dng nt ti. Dang nt ny
cng sut tiu th v cng sut phn khng c xc nh,in p v gc pha l bin
cha bit. Nhng nt kiu ny cn c gi l nt PQ. Nu khng c s pht in v
lng nhu cu mt nt ring bit no th nt ny thuc loi PQ vi lng cng sut
bm vo l bng 0. Bin in p ti khng th iu chnh uc nu ngun pht khng
p ng yu cu cng sut. Trong vn hnh thc t th im nt thay i t loi PQ
sang PV.
c. Sack node: Kiu nt th 3 khi nghin cu v dng cng sut l Slack node. S
cn thit xc nh nt slack t thc t tn tht cng sut tiu th v cng sut phn khng
trong mng u khng bit. My pht ni vi nt Slack s cung cp cng sut b mt
trn ng truyn ti, nng cao d tr ca mng li. nt Slack, in p v gc pha
bin, cng sut tiu th v cng sut phn khng l bin cn xc nh.
2.5.3. Biu din li in thng thng.
Cc thit b ca mt mng li in trong cc m hnh dng cng sut chy
thng gm c: cc my pht, cc my bin p, h thng dy truyn ti, ti v cc thit b
b song song v ni tip.
Nt pht:

31

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

ng dy truyn ti:S thay th hnh II

S thay th my bin p:

S thay th t b ni tip:

32

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

2.5.4. Phng php dng cng sut Newton-rapson.


Ti nt l: Ta c cng thc
Sl=Pl +jQl =VlI*l

(2.30)

Trong : Sl l cng sut phc a vo nt l,


Pl l cng sut tc dng a vo nt l,
Ql l cng sut phn khng a vo nt l,
Vl l in p phc ti nt l,
I l l dng in phc a vo nt l.

Gi s c n nhnh dng in ni vi nt l , ta c:
n

I l YlmVm

(2.31)

m 1

Trong : Ylm = Glm + jBlm


T (4.37) v (4.38) ta c:
n

Pl jQl Vl Ylm* Vm*

(2.32)

m 1

Mt khc : Vl = | Vl |` e

jl

v Vm = | Vm | e

33

j m

nn thay vo (2.32) ta c:

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


j ( m )
n
P jQ V Vm (G jB )e l
l
l
l m1
lm
lm

(2.33)

n
P jQ V Vm (G jB ) cos(l m ) j sin(l m )
l
l
l m1
lm
lm

(2.34)

n
P V Vm G cos( m ) B sin( m )
l
l m1
lm
l
lm
l

(2.35)

n
Q V Vm G sin( m ) B cos( m )
l
l m1
lm
l
lm
l

(2.36 )

trong , | Vl | v | Vm | l cc bin in p im nt ti nt l v m, cn l v m l cc gc
pha in p ti nt l v m.
Ta tuyn tnh ha cc phng trnh (2.35) v (2.36) ta c:
P2

P
3

(r ) 2
P2

P3
Pn

2
P
n


Q
Q
2
2

3
2

Qn
3
2

Qn

2

P
P
2 2

n
3
P
P
3 3

n
3

Pn
P
n

n
3
Q
Q
2
2

n
3
Q
Q
3
3

n
3

Qn
Qn

n
3

P
2
V
2
P
3
V
2

Pn

P
P
2
2
Vn
V
3
P
P
3
3

V
V
n
3

Pn
Pn

Vn
V V
2
3
Q
2
V
2
Q
3
V
2

Qn

Q
Q
2
2

V
V
n
3
Q
Q
3
3
Vn
V
3

Qn
Qn

Vn
V V
2
3

Trong :

34

(r )

V2

V
3

Vn

(r )

(2.37)

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


Pl = Pl net Pl calc l cng sut tc dng sai lch ti nt l.
Ql = Qlnet Qlcalc l cng sut phn khng sai lch ti nt l.

Pl calc v Qlcalc l cng sut tc dng v phn khng tnh ton c ti nt l.


Pl net = Pl gen Pl load l cng sut tc dng d tnh ti nt l.
Qlnet = Qlgen Qlload l cng sut phn khng d tnh ti nt l.
Pl gen v Qlgen l cng sut tc dng v phn khng c pht ra ti nt l.
Pl load v Qlload l cng sut tc dng v phn khng c tiu th bi ti ti nt l.
l v | Vl | l thay i v bin v gc pha in p im nt ti nt l.

(r) biu th bc lp th r v l = 2, 3, 4,..,n.


Cc thnh phn ca ma trn Jacobian c th c xc nh bng cch ly vi phn
cc phng trnh (4.42) v (4.43) theo l, m , |Vl | v |Vm|.
Khi l = m:

n
Pl
2
2
V Vl G sin( m ) B cos( m ) Vl Bll Ql Vl Bll
l
lm
l
lm
l
l
ml

Pl

n
P
Vm G cos( m ) B sin( m ) Vl Gll l Vl Gll
lm
l
lm
l
Vl
ml
V
l

n
Ql
2
2
V Vm G cos( m ) B sin( m ) Vl Gll Pl Vl Gll
l
lm
l
lm
l
1
ml

Ql

n
Q
Vm G sin( m ) B cos( m ) Vl Bll l Vl Bll
lm
l
lm
l
Vl
ml
V
l

Khi l m:

35

(2.38)

(2.39)

(2.40)

(2.41)

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


P1

V Vm G sin( m ) B cos( m )
l
lm
l
lm
l

P
Q
1 V G cos( ) B sin( ) 1
1
m
m
l lm
l
lm
l
Vm
Vm m
Q1

(2.42)

(2.43)

(2.44)

V G cos( m ) B sin( m )
l lm
l
lm
l

Q
P
1 V G sin( ) B cos( ) 1
1
l lm
l m
lm
l m
Vm
Vm m

(2.45)

Ta tin hnh gii lp, gi s bit v bin v gc pha ca in p im nt ti


cc nt PQ, cc gc pha in p ti cc nt PV tnh ton cng sut tc dng v phn
khng a vo bng cc phng trnh (2.35) v (2.36). Khi m gi s sai th cc cng
sut bm vo tnh c s khng ng vi cc cng sut xc nh bit.
Cc vector cng sut sai lch c th c xc nh nh sau:
P

(r )

(P

(r )

(Q

gen

Pload ) P

calc,(r )

gen

calc,(r )
calc,(r )
Qload ) Q
Qnet Q

P net P

calc,(r )

(2.46)
(2.47)

Khi ta c:
(r1) (r ) (r )
V

(r1)

(r )

(2.48)
(r )

(2.49)

C th lp i lp li cc php tnh c a cc phng trnh t (2.35) n (2.36) v t


(2.46) n (2.49) cho n khi sai lch cng sut P v Q l nh trong dung sai chp
nhn c, v d khong = 1012 .
Ta c th tm tt ton b qu trnh trnh trn bng s sau:

36

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in

37

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


V d:

Mch in bao gm 2 nt, mt ngun pht, ng dy v mt ti. Ti c gi tr


1+j0.5 pu v in khng ca ng dy l 0.1 pu. Bin v gc pha in p ti im
ngun pht (nt Slack) c gi ln lt ti 1 pu v 0 radians.
S dng phng php dng cng sut Newton-Raphson, bin v gc pha in
p im nt ti nt 2 s c xc nh bng cch s dng bin in p 1 pu v gc pha
0 radians pha ti lm iu kin ban u.
Ma trn tng dn im nt c nh dng cho h thng ny nh sau:
j10 j10
Y G jB
j10
j10

Note: Z = R + jX, Y = G + jB, Y = 1/Z, G = 1/R v B = 1/X


Cng sut tc dng v phn khng ca mng c tnh ton nh sau:
?
P net P gen Pload p.u
1

?
Q net Q gen Qload
p.u
0.5

Bc lp u tin
S dng cc gi tr in p ban u | V1 | = | V2 | = 1, 1 = 2 = 0 v cc gi tr ma trn

tng tr im nt cc phng trnh (2.35) v (2.36), cc cng sut c tnh nh sau:

38

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


P2calc V2 V1 {G21cos( 2 1 ) B21 sin( 2 1 )}+ V2 V2 {G22 cos( 2 2 ) B21 sin( 2 2 )}
Q2calc V2 V1 {G21 sin( 2 1 ) B21cos( 2 1 )}+ V2 V2 {G22 sin( 2 2 ) B21cos( 2 2 )}

Theo cc phng trnh (2.46) v (2.47) ta c:


P1
P
2

(1)

Q1
Q
2

P1net P1calc ?
net calc p.u
P2 P2 1

(1)

Q1net Q1calc ?
net calc
p.u
Q2 Q2 0.5

2
Mt khc theo cc phng trnh t (2.38) n (2.45) vi Pcal2 = 0 v Qcal
=0 ta

c:

P2
0
V2

P2
10
2

Q2
0
2

Q2
10
V2

Kt qu ca h thng tuyn tnh ha ca phng trnh l:


P2
Q
2

(1)

10 0 2

0 10 V2

(1)

V2

(1)

0.1 0 1 0.1

0 0.1 0.5 0.05

Theo phng trnh (2.48) v (2.49) kt qu ca bc lp 1 l:


2

V2

(1)

0

1

(0)

0.1

0.05

(1)

0.1

0.95

(1)

p.u

Bc lp th 2
S dng thng tin v in p c cp nht | V1 | = 1, |V2 | = 0.95, 1 = 0 v 2 =

-0.1 cc phng trnh (2.35) v (2.36), cc cng sut tc dng v phn khng mi c
tnh ton nh cc kt qu sau:
P2calc 0.94841 p.u.
Q2calc 0.4275 p.u.

Cc phng trnh v sai lch cng sut nh sau:

39

Chng 2. Tng quan v b trong h thng truyn ti in


P1
P
2

(2)

Q1
Q
2

P1net P1calc ? ?
?

net calc

p.u.
P2 P2 1 0.94841 0.051583

(2)

Q1net Q1calc ? ?
?

net calc

p.u.
Q2 Q2 0.5 0.4275 0.07246

Ta nhn thy rng cc sai lch v cng sut gim nhiu v bin so vi cc
gi tr sai lch bc lp 1.
Cc thnh phn Jacobian ca nt 2 l:

Q2
P
Q2
P2
8.574958 .
0.948417 ;
9.45254 ; 2 0.998334 ;
2
V2
V2
2
Kt qu h thng tuyn tnh ha ca phng trnh l
P2
Q
2
2

V2

(2)

(2)

9.45254 0.998334 2

0.948417 8.574958 V2

(2)

0.107042 0.012462 0.051583 0.006425

0.011839 0.113996 0.07246 0.009161

(2)

Theo phng trnh (2.48) v (2.49) kt qu ca bc lp 1 l:


2

V2

(2)

0.1
0.006425 0.106425

0.009161 0.940839
0.95

(1)

n y, xc nh c cc in p ti nt 1 v 2 nh sau:
V1
V
2

(2)

10

p.u.
0.940839 0.106425

Cc in p ny kh l gn vi cc kt qu thc. Nu qu trnh tnh ton c lp


li nhiu hn 2 bc lp th P2 v Q2 s nh hn 106

40

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)

Chng 3 TNG QUAN V H THNG TRUYN TI IN


XOAY CHIU LINH HOT (FACTS)

3.1. Gii thiu chung


H thng nng lng in bao gm ba b phn chnh: ngun pht, h thng truyn
ti (in p cao) v h thng phn phi (trung th v h th). Cc ngun pht c xy
dng v pht trin thng xa cc trung tm ph ti ln, chng hn nh cc nh my
thy in xy dng ngun nc ni c ct p v lu lng dng chy ln, cc nh my
nhit in xy dng gn ngun nhin liu, cc nh my a nhit v thy triu ch c th
xy dng mt s a im, cn nh my in ht nhn th c xy dng xa khu th.
a in nng i xa cn c li in truyn ti cao p, kt ni tt c cc ngun pht
to nn li in quc gia. Cc h thng phn phi s kt ni vi li truyn ti ti gn
cc h ph ti. H thng truyn ti c vai tr c bit quan trng trong m bo an ninh
nng lng v phi c pht trin ph hp vi yu cu pht trin kinh t x hi ca
quc gia. H thng truyn ti phi m bo tin cy, an ton v c d tr nht
nh v dung lng p ng cc nhu cu pht trin ca ph ti.
H thng truyn ti in thng l 3 pha xoay chiu, vn hnh cc cp in p
khc nhau (thng thng l 230kV tr ln). Vi yu cu ngy cng tng v cng sut v
khong cch truyn ti, cc cp in p truyn ti cng ngy cng tng ln gim tn
tht.
Kh nng ti ca h thng
truyn ti ph thuc vo cc yu t
sau:
-

Gii hn v nhit;
Gii hn v cch in;
Gii hn v n nh.

Cc gii hn ny xc nh cng
sut ti a truyn ti c m khng
gy nguy him n cc ng dy
truyn ti v cc thit b in. V c
bn, gii hn ca cng sut truyn ti
c th gii quyt bng vic xy dng thm cc tuyn truyn ti mi. Tuy nhin iu ny

41

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
dn n tn km v vn xy dng, thi gian thi cng v mt qu t cho cc hnh lang
an ton ca tuyn ng dy. V th khi h thng in pht trin nhanh i hi nhng
cng ngh mi khai thc trit cc kh nng ca h thng in hin c m khng
nh hng n s an ton ca h thng. p ng nhu cu ny, cc nghin cu v thit
b iu chnh linh hot h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu FACTS (Flexible AC
Transmission Systems) c tin hnh vo cui nm 1980 nhm gii quyt hai vn
chnh l nng cao kh nng truyn ti ca cc h thng truyn ti v gi cng sut trong
khong gii hn nh trc. Vi s pht trin vt bc trong lnh vc iu khin t
ng, cng vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca cc phn t bn dn cng sut ln to ra
cc b bin i bn dn in t cng sut ln cho php iu khin, khng ch cc dng
nng lng gn nh tc thi, gip cho qu trnh iu khin h thng in c th thc hin
c theo cc cch thc m cc phn t c kh, in t trc khng th m bo
c. Cng ngh FACTS l duy nht c kh nng iu khin nhanh mt cch linh
hot cng sut tc dng v phn khng ca h thng in. Cc thit b FACTS khc nhau
c cc thng s iu khin khc nhau v c cc m hnh vt l khc nhau iu khin
cng sut. iu khin cng sut mt cch c hiu qu trong h thng in, cn xem
xt n cc yu t gii hn kh nng truyn ti v xc nh r li ch t c khi p
dng cc thit b iu khin FACTS.

3.2. Cc thit b b ngang SVC, STATCOM


3.2.1 SVC (Static Var Compensator)- B b tnh
SVC l ngun pht hoc b tiu th cng sut phn khng c th thay i c, c
th c iu chnh trao i dng in in cm hoc in dung duy tr hoc iu
khin cc thng s c th ca h thng in ti im kt ni (in hnh l in p nt).
SVC bao gm b in cm v t in (reactor hoc capacitor) ng m hoc iu
khin bng thyristor. SVC dng cc thyristor iu khin khng hon ton thng thng,
ngha l c th iu khin m bng cc iu khin nhng kha li mt cch t nhin khi
dng qua n bng khng. in khng c ng m hoc iu khin bng thyristor dng
tiu th cng sut phn khng v t in ng m bng thyristor cung cp cng
sut phn khng.
Trong trng hp chung, SVC c cu to t cc phn t c bn, nh th hin
trn hnh 3.2, TCR (Thyristor Controlled Reactor), TSR (Thyristor Switched Reactor),
TSC (Thyristor Switched Capacitor), mt hay nhiu b lc LC c hiu chnh cho cc
sng hi bc 3, 5, 7,

42

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)

Hnh 3.2 Cu to chung ca SVC.

TCR (Thyristor Controlled Reactor) Cun khng iu chnh bng thyristor: l


cun cm c iu khin bng thyristor, mc song song, in khng ca n thay
i lin tc bng cch iu chnh gc dn ca van thyristor (thit b khng c tham
s c iu chnh trn).
TSR (Thyristor Switched Reactor) Cun khng ng m bng thyristor: l cun
cm ng m bng thyristor, ni song song, m in khng ca n c thay i
theo bc theo trng thi dn dng hoc khng dn dng ca van thyristor.
TSC (Thyristor Switched Capacitor) T ng ct bng thyristor: l t in ng
ct bng thyristor, mc song song, in dung ca n c th thay i dng bc
thang bng cch ng hoc kha cc thyristor.

Phi hp 3 loi phn t trn cho php to ra c nhng khng b ngang thay i
c lin tc thng s (in khng, cng sut) trong phm vi rng (du m v dng)
vi gi thnh h.
Cc chc nng chnh ca SVC bao gm:
-

n nh in p trong nhng h thng c bin ng ln, nhanh ca ph ti, nh


cht lng in p c nng cao ng k.
iu khin dng cng sut phn khng ti nt c b.
Gim qu in p khi xy ra s c ngn mch trong h thng.
iu khin qu trnh qu , nng cao tnh n nh cho h thng.

43

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
-

Gim dao ng cng sut khi xy ra s c trong h thng nh ngn mch, mt ti


t ngt...
Nng cao gii hn truyn ti ca ng dy theo iu kin n nh tnh.
Gim tn tht cng sut v in nng.

3.2.2. STATCOM (Static synchronous Compensator)- B b ng b tnh


STATCOM ging nh mt my pht ng b tnh, hot ng nh mt b b tnh
mc song song, dng in cm hoc dung c th c iu khin c lp i vi in p
h thng. Khc vi SVC dng in hay cng sut phn khng ph thuc vo mc in p
ti im kt ni, dng v cng sut ca STATCOM c th c iu khin c lp vi
in p, nh kh nng ca STACOM cao hn nhiu so vi SVC.

Hnh 3.3 Cu to ca STATCOM.

STATCOM l mt trong nhng loi b iu khin FACTS quan trng, xy dng


trn c s b nghch lu ngun p (VSI) hoc ngun dng (CSI), nh minh ha trn hnh
3.3. V gi thnh cc VSI c th c xy dng trn cc module mch lc c sn nn
c dng nhiu hn.
Vi b nghch lu ngun p, in p u ra xoay chiu ca n c th c iu
chnh v bin v v gc pha sao cho ph hp vi dng cng sut phn khng theo yu
cu tng ng vi in p ti im kt ni, in p pha mt chiu trn t s c iu
chnh t ng theo yu cu hot ng nh ngun p cho b bin i. STATCOM cng
c th c thit k cng hot ng c nh mt b lc tch cc lc cc sng hi.
STATCOM c nh ngha theo IEEE, l mt tp hp cc b iu khin ni song
song bao gm c cc ngun cng sut tc dng hoc ngun d tr bn pha mt chiu

44

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
sao cho dng in bm vo c th cha cng sut tc dng. Nhng b iu khin nh
vy bao gm:
-

SSG (Static Synchronous Generator) My pht ng b tnh: b chuyn i


cng sut c kha bn dn hai chiu c cung cp t mt ngun nng lng ph
hp, c th to ra mt lot cc in p u ra nhiu pha c th iu chnh c,
kt hp cng h thng in xoay chiu cho mc ch trao i cng sut tc dng
v phn khng mt cch c lp.

R rng l SSG l s kt hp ca STATCOM v mt ngun nng lng no


cung cp hoc tiu th cng sut, nh minh ha trn hnh 3.4. Ni chung SSG c lin
kt vi bt k mt ngun nng lng no , c th l acquy, t in mt chiu cng sut
ln, cc b bin i, chnh lu khc, ... Mt b bin i DC DC ng vai tr l giao
din gia ngun nng lng v b nghch lu DC - AC. i vi b nghch ngun p VSI
ngun nng lng np in cho t thng qua giao din in t ny v duy tr in p t
in theo yu cu.

Hnh 3.4 H thng BESS.

SSG cng bao gm BESS (H thng d tr nng lng Battery).


-

BESS (Battery Energy Storage System) - H thng d tr nng lng acquy: Mt


h thng d tr nng lng di dng ha nng, s dng b nghch lu ngun p,

45

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)

ni song song c kh nng iu chnh nhanh chng lng in nng cung cp hoc
tiu th t h thng.
i vi ng dng truyn ti, kch c ca b d tr ca BESS c xu hng nh
(hng chc MWh) v nu nh cng sut b bin i ln, n c th phn phi
cng sut tc dng vi t l MW/MWh cho n nh qu
.

B bin i c th tiu th hoc pht cng sut phn khng trong kh nng dung
lng MVA ca b bin i. Khi khng cung cp cng sut tc dng cho h thng, b
bin i thng c s dng np cquy vi tc c th chp nhn c.
Nhng b d tr nng lng khc, ph hp cho cc ng dng truyn ti, c th
c s dng l h thng d tr nng lng t cun cm siu dn SMES
(Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage), c nh ngha bi IEEE nh sau:
-

SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage)- B d tr nng lng t


cun cm siu dn: l mt thit b d tr nng lng in t siu dn c cha cc
b bin i in t, c kh nng bm vo hoc tiu th cng sut tc dng, phn
khng mt cch nhanh chng hoc iu khin ng dng cng sut trong h thng
in xoay chiu.

V dng in mt chiu trong mch t khng th thay i nhanh chng, nng


lng u vo hoc u ra c thay i nh vic iu khin in p ca hai u ni vi
giao din in t ni vi STATCOM.
Cc chc nng chnh ca STATCOM cng ging nh ca SVC nhng kh nng
iu chnh, iu khin cc thng s ca STATCOM mc cao hn, bao gm cc chc
nng sau:
-

iu khin in p ti nt kt ni STATCOM n nh in p, nh cht


lng in p c nng cao.
iu khin dng cng sut phn khng ti nt c b.
Gim qu in p khi xy ra s c (ngn mch, mt ti t ngt...).
Gim qu in p khi xy ra s c ngn mch trong h thng in.
iu khin qu trnh qu , nng cao tnh n nh cho h thng.
Gim dao ng cng sut khi xy ra s c trong h thng nh ngn mch, mt ti
t ngt...
Nng cao gii hn truyn ti ca ng dy theo iu kin n nh tnh.

46

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
-

Gim tn tht cng sut v in nng.


Ngoi ra STATCOM cn c cc c im ni tri so vi SVC l:

C kh nng vn hnh trong ch s c v tip tc iu khin khi loi tr s c.


C th pht cng sut phn khng khi in p thanh ci nh hn in p li v
ngc li, tiu th cng sut phn khng khi in p thanh ci ln hn in p
li.
Khi trang b thm ngun cng sut tc dng hoc cc thit b d tr nng lng
pha mt chiu, STATCOM c th trao i cng sut phn khng v cng sut tc
dng vi h thng, do nng cao kh nng n nh ng v chng dao ng
cng sut.
Nhng khi nim khc ca b iu khin theo IEEE bao gm:

SVG (Static Var Generator or Absorber) - b tiu th hoc my pht tnh: l mt


thit b hoc h thng in c kh nng ly ra dng in dung hoc cm t h
thng in v do pht hay tiu th cng sut phn khng. N thng cha TCR
v/hoc TSC.

SVG, theo nh ngha ca IEEE, l mt ngun cng sut phn khng m, nu iu


khin ph hp, c th chuyn i thnh b b ngang cng sut phn khng theo mt mc
ch c th no hoc a mc ch. V th c SVC v STATCOM u l cc my pht
tnh c trang b vng iu khin ph hp thay i u ra p ng i tng b c
th.
-

SVS (Static Var System) h thng thay i tnh: l s kt hp ca cc b b c


th thay i c kha ng m c kh tnh khc nhau v u ra c phi hp.
TCBR (Thyristor Controlled Braking Resistor) in tr hm iu khin bng
thyristor): l in tr ng ct bng thyristor, mc song song, c th c iu
khin gip n nh ca h thng in hoc lm gim gia tc nng lng ca
khi pht in trong lc c nhiu.

47

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)

Hnh 3.5 B TCBR

TCBR lin quan n vic ng m theo tng chu k ca in tr (thng l in


tr tuyn tnh) vi mt thit b ng ct xoay chiu da trn thyristor v khng iu
khin gc pha, nh minh ha trn hnh 3.5. gim chi ph, TCBR c th l cc thyristor
khng c iu khin gc pha, tuy nhin vi vic iu khin gc pha theo tng na chu k
c th lm gim dao ng tn s thp mt cch c la chn.

3.3. Cc thit b b dc
3.3.1. SSSC (Static Synchronous Series Compensator) B b ni tip
ng b tnh
SSSC l mt my pht ng b khng c ngun nng lng in bn ngoi, hot
ng nh mt thit b b ni tip m in p u ra c th iu khin c lp v vung
pha vi dng in trn ng dy nhm mc ch tng hoc gim in p dung khng ri
trn ng dy v v th iu khin cng sut truyn ti. SSSC c th cha b d tr
nng lng hoc cc thit b tiu th nng lng nhm tng cng kh nng n nh
ng ca h thng in bng cch b thm cng sut tc dng tc thi, tng hoc gim
in p ri trn ng dy.
SSSC l mt trong nhng b iu khin FACTS quan trng nht. N ging nh
STATCOM, nhng khc l in p u ra ac ni tip vi ng dy, nh biu din trn
hnh 3.6. N c th da trn b bin i ngun p hoc b bin i ngun dng. Thng
in p ni tip a thm vo l kh nh so vi in p ng dy, v cch in i vi
t kh ln. Vi cch in ph hp gia cun s cp v th cp ca my bin p, cc
thit b chuyn i c t in th mt t tr khi cc thit b ny c t trn mt

48

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
phng c cch in vi t. T s my bin p c bin i sao cho thit k b bin
i kinh t nht. V khng c ngun in thm ngoi, SSSC ch c th a thm vo 1
in p ri thay i nhanh pha hn hoc chm pha hn so vi dng in 1 gc 90 .
Cun s cp ca bin p v do c cun th cp cng nh b chuyn i phi mang
c dng in trn ng dy khi y ti, k c dng lm vic khi s c, tr khi b
chuyn i c i vng qua mt cch tm thi trong khi c s c nghim trng.

Hnh 3.6 SSSC da trn b bin i ngun p v SSSC c ngun d tr.

B d tr in hoc d tr t siu dn cng c th c ni vi b iu khin ni


tip a thm vector in p vi cc gc pha khc nhau vo ni tip vi ng dy.
Chc nng chnh ca SSSC l:
-

iu chnh dng in.


Gii hn dng in s c.
Gim dao ng cng sut.
Nng cao n nh ng v n nh qu .
n nh in p.

3.3.2. IPFC (Interline Power Flow Controller) b iu khin dng cng


sut lin ng dy
IPFC l mt khi nim mi c a ra, do cha c nh ngha theo IEEE. Mt
nh ngha c th chp nhn c nh sau: IPFC l s kt hp ca 2 hay nhiu SSSC,
lin kt vi nhau thng qua phn mt chiu chung trao i dng cng sut tc dng
theo c hai chiu gia cc u ra ca SSSCs, v c iu khin cung cp b cng
sut phn khng cho s iu chnh ca dng cng sut tc dng trn mi ng dy v
duy tr phn phi dng cng sut phn khng theo yu cu gia cc ng dy. Cu trc
ca IPFC c th bao gm mt STATCOM, kt hp vi phn mt chiu chung ca IPFC,

49

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
cung cp b cng sut phn khng ngang v cung cp hay tiu th lng cng sut tc
dng thiu ht ca cc b SSSC.
3.3.3. TCSC (Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor) T ni tip iu khin
bng thyristor
TCSC l mt b b in khng mang tnh cht dung khng, c cha mt b cc t
in ni tip v b ny song song vi khng in iu khin bng thyristor (TCR) nhm
cung cp in dung c th iu chnh trn, nh minh ha trn hnh 3.7.
TCSC da trn thyristor thng thng. N l mt s la chn khc cho SSSC v
cng ging nh SSSC, l mt thit b FACTS quan trng. Mt khng in c th thay i
in khng nh TCR c ni song song vi b t. Khi gc pha ca TCR l 180 o, khng
in s khng dn in na v khi b t c in khng bnh thng ca n. Khi gc
pha thay i t 180 0 v nh hn 180 0, in khng dung s tng ln. Khi gc pha l 90 0,
khng in tr nn dn in hon ton, in khng tng s mang tnh cht cm, bi v
in khng ca khng in c thit k nh hn nhiu so vi in khng ca b t.Vi
gc pha l 90 0, TCSC c th hn ch dng s c. TCSC c th l mt khi ln, n l
hoc cha vi t in kch c bng hoc khc nhau c th hot ng mang li hiu qu
tt hn.
3.3.4. TSSC (Thyristor- Switched Series Capacitor) - T in ni tip ng
m bng thyristor
TSSC l b b in khng mang tnh cht dung cha b t ni tip v b t ny
song song vi mt in khng ng m bng thyristor cung cp s iu khin theo
bc cho in khng, nh cng c minh ha trn hnh 3.7.

Hnh 3.7 Cu to chung ca TCSC v TSSC.

Thay v iu khin trn dung khng, in khng ca khng in khi gc pha l 0 0


hoc 90 0 (khng iu chnh gc pha) c th lm gim chi ph v tn tht cho b iu

50

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
khin. Rt hp l khi sp xp mt trong cc module c iu khin thyristor, trong khi cc
module khc th ch ng ct thyristor.
3.3.5. TCSR (Thyristor- Controlled Series Reactor) in khng ni tip
iu khin bng thyristor:
TCSR l mt b b cm khng c cha b cc khng ni tip v mc song song
vi in khng iu khin bng thyristor nhm iu chnh cm khng mt cch lin tc,
minh ha trn hnh 3.8.
Khi gc pha ca TCR l 90 0, n s khng dn in, in khng khng c iu
khin s hot ng nh 1 b hn ch dng s c. Khi gc pha gim xung di 90 0, in
khng tng s gim cho n khi gc pha l 0 0, in khng tng l hai in khng song
song vi nhau. Cng ging nh TCSC, TCSR c th l mt khi ln ring l hoc mt
vi khi nh hn.
3.3.6. TSSR (Thyristor- Switched Series Reactor) khng in ni tip ng
m bng thyristor)
TSSR l b b cm khng c cha b cc khng ni tip v mc song song vi
in khng ng ct bng thyristor nhm iu chnh cm khng theo bc. Ging nh
TCSR, nhng kha thyristor ch ng hoc ct (khng c iu khin gc pha), s cng
c minh ha trn hnh 3.8.

Hnh 3.8 Cu to chung ca TCSR v TSSR.

Cc b iu khin ni tip ni chung c cc chc nng tng t nhau, tuy nhin


mc iu khin v iu chnh in p, dng cng sut, n nh ng, n nh tnh l
khc nhau ty thuc vo tng loi b iu khin khc nhau. Cc chc nng chnh l:
-

iu chnh dng in.


Gii hn dng in s c.

51

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
-

3.4.

Gim dao ng cng sut.


Nng cao n nh ng v n nh qu .
n nh in p.

B iu khin kt hp ni tip- song song

3.4.1. UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller)


UPFC l s kt hp ca STATCOM v SSSC vi phn mt chiu chung, cho
php dng cng sut tc dng theo c hai chiu gia cc u ra ni tip ca SSSC v cc
u ra song song ca STATCOM, v c iu khin cung cp b cng sut phn
khng v tc dng mt cch ng thi m khng cn ngun in bn ngoi. UPFC, bng
cch a thm vo in p ni tip mt cch t nhin, c kh nng iu khin, ng thi
hoc c la chn, in p ng dy truyn ti, in khng, gc pha, hoc dng cng
sut tc dng, phn khng chy trn ng dy. UPFC c th cung cp b phn khng
ngang c iu khin mt cch c lp.
Trong UPFC bao gm STATCOM v SSSC, cng sut tc dng cho khi ni tip
(SSSC) ly t li thng qua khi song song STATCOM. SSSC cng c dng iu
chnh in p bng cch iu chnh cng sut phn khng. y l b iu khin y ,
c th iu chnh c c dng cng sut phn khng v tc dng, cng nh in p
ng dy.

Hnh 3.9 Cu to chung ca UPFC.

B d tr nng lng b sung nh BESS hoc SMES c th c ni vi thanh


ci mt chiu thng qua giao din in t s cung cp cch thc tng cng thm hiu
qu ca UPFC. Nh nhc n trong cc phn trn, s trao i dng cng sut tc dng
c iu khin vi ngun bn ngoi, chng hn nh b d tr, hiu qu hn rt nhiu

52

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
trong vic iu khin ng h thng hn l ch iu bin s trao i cng sut trong cng
mt h thng.
V chc nng, UPFC c cc chc nng ca STATCOM v SSSC, l:
-

iu khin dn cng sut tc dng v phn khng ti nt b.


Tng cng tnh n nh tnh v n nh ng ca h thng.
Gim dao ng cng sut khi xy ra s c trong h thng.
C kh nng vn hnh trong ch s c v tip tc iu khin khi loi tr
c s c.

3.4.2. TCPST (Thyristor- Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer)


TCPST - bin p dch pha iu khin bng thyristor, l mt bin p dch pha c
iu chnh bng kha thyristor thay i gc pha mt cch nhanh chng, nh biu din
trn hnh 3.10.

Hnh 3.10 Cu to chung ca TCPST.

Ni chung, dch pha t c bng cch thm vector in p vung gc ni tip


vi pha. Vector ny ly t hai pha cn li thng qua bin p mc ngang song song. in
p ni tip vung pha c to ra c th thay i bng rt nhiu loi cu trc in t
cng sut. B iu khin ny cn c gi l TCPAR (Thyristor- Controlled Phase Angle
Regulator).
TCPST c cc chc nng ging nh cc b iu khin FACTS khc, tuy nhin,
chc nng chnh ca n l iu chnh gc lch pha ca in p pha ca ng dy, v n
c kh nng iu khin dng cng sut rt cao.

53

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)
3.4.3. TCVL (Thyristor- Controlled Voltage Limiter) B gii hn in p
iu chnh bng thyristor
TCVL l mt bin tr oxit kim lo i (MOV) c s dng gii hn in p hai
u trong qu trnh qu .

Hnh 3.11 TVCR

Kha ng m thyristor c th c ni ni tip vi chng st van khng khe h,


hoc nh trn hnh 3.11, mt phn ca chng st van khng c khe h (10-20%) c th
c ni vng qua mt kha thyristor lm gim mc gii hn in p. Ni chung,
MOV c ngha quan trng hn so vi chng st van. Nh trn hnh 3.11, TCVL thng
thng c dng hn ch qu in p ng, nu khng c s ngn cn ny th qu
in p ng c th din ra trong hng chc chu k.
3.4.4. TCVR (Thyristor- Controlled Voltage Regulator) b iu chnh in
p iu chnh bng thyristor
TCVR l mt bin p c th cung cp in p cng pha vi kh nng iu chnh
trn. Trong thc t, thit b ny c th l bin p thng thng vi u iu chnh iu
khin bng thyristor hoc vi b bin i in p xoay chiu sang xoay chiu iu khin
bng thyristor a thm vo in p xoay chiu thay i c ca cng mt pha ni
tip vi ng dy, nh biu din trn hnh 3.12.

54

Chng 3.Tng quan v h thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot (FACTS)

Hnh 3.12 TCVR loi da trn u phn p v loi da trn s a thm in p vo


ng dy.

3.5.

Kt lun

H thng truyn ti in xoay chiu linh hot FACTS c ng dng rt rng ri


trong vic nng cao kh nng truyn ti, nng cao mc n nh tnh, n nh ng, n
nh in p v gim cc dao ng trong h thng in.
Cc thit b FACTS c thit k v ch to vi nhiu loi khc nhau tng
ng vi cc loi iu khin v cc thng s iu khin trong h thng in. Nhn chung
thit b FACTS c chia thnh cc thit b iu khin dc, ngang v t hp gia chng.
Cc thit b b dc c iu khin ch yu s dng iu khin dng in cng nh
dng cng sut trong h thng truyn ti. Ngoi ra chng cn c s dng tng
cng mc n nh v gim dao ng ca h thng in. Cc thit b b ngang c
iu khin ch yu s dng iu khin v gi in p ti cc im nt ca h thng
in, ngoi ra cn c tc dng b cng sut phn khng, nng cao n nh tnh v n nh
ng, gim cc dao dng trong h thng in.
Cc thit b FACTS c thit k, ch to v lp t ph bin trn th gii vi
rt nhiu chng loi tng ng vi cc thng s iu khin trong h thng in. Vic la
chn thit b ph thuc vo mc ch iu khin, hin trng lin kt li in v tnh ton
cc chi ph u t xy dng v li ch v kinh t m thit b FACTS mang li.
Ni chung cc thit b FACTS u t tin, nht l cc thit b iu khin hn hp,
c th b dc ln b ngang. Chnh v th cc thit b iu khin hn hp nh UPFC,
TCPST,... t c ng dng trong thc t. Trn th gii hin nay, c 2 loi thit b
FACTS c lp t nhiu v chng t c hiu qu hot ng ca chng, l
TCSC b dc v SVC b ngang.

55

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC

Chng 4 Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh


STATIC VAR COMPENSTATOR (SVC)
SVC (Static Var Compensator)- L thit b b tnh c dung lng b thay i c, ni
song song vi li in, cng sut u ra ca n c th c iu chnh trao i dng
in in cm hoc in dung duy tr hoc iu khin cc thng s c th ca h thng
in (in hnh l in p nt).
4.1. Vai tr ca SVC
Mt s ng dng ca SVC:

Hnh 1:mt s chc nng ca SVC


a. Chc nng c bn ca SVC l iu khin in p v tro lu cng sut
phn khng ti im m n c ni vo li in.
Cng sut phn khng c nh hng ln ti in p, m SVC l mt thit b c
kh nng to ra hoc tiu th cng sut phn khng.
Trong h thng in vi cc s c ngn mch hay cc ng dy di c
khong cch ln th cht lng in p b nh hng bi s thay i ca cng
sut ti.Vi cng sut ti ln th in p s b gim ng k. Qu p l nguyn

56

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC


nhn gy nn hin tng bo ha mch t ca my bin p,v lm tng vt cc
thnh phn sng hi trong cc my pht in. Cc thnh sng hi ny cng
hng vi cc t v in cm k sinh trn ng dy dn n c th ph hng
cc thit b in.
b. Chc nng quan trng nht l gii hn thi gian v cng qu p khi
xy ra s c bnh thung nh mt ti t ngt ti 1 im trn ng dy
hoc ngn mch yu.V SVC c th phn ng trong vng 10ms,nn thi gian
qu p s c gim xung thp hn thi gian chnh nh bo v ca h thng
R le.Do cc R le khng cn tc ng v tnh cht ti in lin tc s uc
nng cao. c im ny rt quan trng i vi cc ng dy co p v siu
cao p nc ta v n c chiu di ln nn nhiu trng hp phi ngn mch
1 pha cc on ng dy nn c th dn n hin tng qu p.
c. n inh dao ng cng sut hu cng.
Dao ng cng sut hu cng l 1 hin tng c th xay ra sau 1 qu trnh qu
,v d nh mt ti thnh lnh, gim bt cng sut pht in ti ngun hoc t
ng ng li sau s cH thng ti in cng yu th hin tng ny cng
d xy ra.
Khi c dao ng cng sut hu cng, SVC s iu khin n nh bng cch
m gc m Thyristor ca TCR gn nh tc thi n inh cng sut hu
cng.
d. Gim cng dng in v cng v nh th s gim bt i tn tht gy
ra bi dng in ny trn ng dy m cc nh my pht in phi cung
cp.Ni chung l tit kim nng lng v tng nng sut ca ca h thng in.
e. Tng kh nng ti ca ng dy v tng d tr n nh.Cng sut
truyn ti ca h thng in thng c gii hn bi cp in p v in
khng ca cc my bin p trong h thng.Gi s b gia ng dy:

57

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC

Bnh thng khi cha b: P

Es .Er
Sin
XL

Sau khi b gia ng dy: P 2

Es .Er

Sin
XL
2

Nh vy cng sut max tng gp 2 ln bnh thng, kh nng truyn ti v


gi tr n inh tng gp i.

g. Cn bng cc ph ti khng i xng do SVC c kh nng gi in p n


nh theo tng pha ring r nn n lm cho s khng i xng ca ph ti
gim xung. S khng i xng v s xut hin ca cc ti 1 pha c nh
hng n cht lng in p trong h thng in. V vy cn bng ph ti l 1
nhim v quan trng.
h. Ci thin n nh sau s c.
cho h thng in gi uc trng thi n nh sau cc nhiu lon ln do
vic loi tr cc s c bng tc ng ca cc phn t bo v. H thng phi gi
cng sut truyn ti nh hn gi tr cng sut gii hn n nh. Khi thit b

58

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC


SVC uc ng dng th kh nng ti ca uc dy c tng ln,v theo gi
tr cng sut gii hn n nh tng ln. Mt khc, thng qua SVC ta c th gi
cng sut truyn ti bng cch thay i gc m Thyristor ca TCR.
4.2 Cu to ca SVC
-V mt cu to th SVC c 2 dng cu hnh chnh l: TCR/FC v TCR/TSC.

Cu hnh TCR/FC

Cu hnh TCR/TSC
Hnh 2:Cc cu hnh SVC

-TCR bao gm cun khng v cc van Thyristor. Nhnh TCR iu khin mt cch
lin tc cng sut phn khng bng cch thay i bin ca dng in chy qua
cun khng.
-TSC bao gm cc van thyristor, t in v cun khng hn ch tng dng qua
van (surge current). TSC ch c iu khin ng hoc ngt t ra khi h
thng.
-B lc FC dng pht mt lng c nh cng sut phn khng v lc sng hi
dng in to ra bi TCR
4.3 Nguyn l hot ng ca TCR

59

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC

Dng in trong in khng c th c iu khin t gi tr ln nht ti 0 bng cch


iu khin gc m

Hnh 3: dng sng vn hnh vi cc gc m


Bin IL() ca thnh phn dng in c bn iL() c th c biu th l hm ca
gc nh sau:
I L ( )

V
2
1
(1 sin 2 ) (4.1)
L

Trong V l bin ca in p ngun, L l in cm ca in khng iu khin


bng thyristor, l tn s gc ca in p ngun.

60

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC

Hnh 4: Bin thin bin cc dng in thnh phn c bn qua TCR


ph thuc gc m
TCR c th iu chnh dng in c bn chy qua in khng, v nu nhn t pha li
th TCR c th coi l 1 in dn cm khng c th thay i gi tr. V th, in dn cm
khng hiu dng ca TCR c xc nh t cng thc (2.2), l hm ca gc nh
sau:
B L ( )

1
2
1
(1 sin 2) (4.2)
L

ngha ca (2.3) l vi mi gc iu khin , in dn BL() c xc nh, n xc


nh bin ca thnh phn dng in c bn ILF() trong
TCR 1 in p ngun cho trc. Trong ng dng thc t,
bin ln nht ca in p ngun v ca dng in b gii
hn bi gi tr nh mc ca cng sut m cc thnh phn
(in khng, van thyristor) s dng. V th, TCR trong
thc t c th vn hnh bt c im no trong vng V-I xc
nh, ng bin ca n xc nh bng in dn ln nht c
th t c, in p v dng in nh mc, nh minh ha
trn hnh 4. Gii hn ca TCR c thit lp khi thit k t
yu cu vn hnh thc t.
Hnh 4: c tnh V-I

61

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC

Nu kha TCR b gii hn gc iu khin c nh, thng = 0 th n s tr thnh


TSR-Thyristor-Switched Reactor (in khng ng ct bng thyristor). TSR to ra 1 in
dn cm khng c nh v do , khi c ni vi h thng li xoay chiu, dng in
chy qua n s t l vi in p ngun. Mt vi TSR c th to ra in dn iu chnh
c gin on theo bc. Nu TSR vn hnh = 0, dng in xc lp c dng hnh sin.
-Sng hi: iu khin gc dn dng (c tnh vn hnh ca TCR) dn n kt qu l
dng sng ca dng in khng cn l hnh sin. Ni cch khc, ngoi thnh phn c bn,
TCR cn sinh ra cc sng hi. Trong na chu k dng in dng, m xc nh, ch c
cc sng hi bc l mi c to ra. Bin ca cc sng ny l hm ca gc iu khin
, c th hin trong cng thc:
I Ln ()

V 4 sin cos(n) n cos sin(n)

(4.3)
L
n (n 2 1)

vi n = 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3,...

Hnh 5: Bin cc thnh phn dng in bc cao ca TCR so vi .


Trong h thng 3 pha, ngi ta s dng 3 b TCR 1 pha v ni tam gic. Trong iu
kin cn bng, dng in hi vi bc l bi ca 3 chy qun trong b TCR ni tam gic
v khng i vo h thng in.

62

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC


Ngoi ra t c yu cu k thut v kinh t hoc cc l do thc t khc, ngi ta s
s dng b lc sng hi. Thng thng, cc b lc ny l cc nhanh LC v LCR ni tip
vi nhau v song song vi TCR v ha hp vi cc sng hi chim u th ln, nh bc 3,
5, 7, v i khi l bc 11,13.
4.4 Nguyn l hot ng ca TSC
Trong ch xc lp, khi thyristor dn v TSC c ni vi ngun p xoay chiu,
v = Vsint th dng in trong nhnh s l i(t ) V
n

1
LC
2

n2
C cos t trong
n 2 1

XL
XC

Bin ca in p t l VC

n2
V
n 2 1

(3.4)

Nhnh TSC c th khng c ni vo HT (b ngt ra) lc dng in bng 0. Khi dng


in qua gi tr 0, in p t in t gi tr cc i th ta c:

n2
V
n 2 1
T in khng c ni s gi in p mc ny v dn n in p ngc t ln
v C ,i 0

thyristor thay i t 0 ln n gi tr bin dao ng kp (peak to peak) ca in p


ngun.
Nu in p ca t khi b ngt vn khng i, TSC c th ng li m khng c qu
trnh qu , ti gi tr nh ph hp ca in p ngun.

Hnh 6: Dng sng minh ha qu trnh ng ct khng c qu trnh qu ca TSC.

63

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC


Thng thng, cc bn t in b phng in sau khi b ngt ra khi ngun, v th vic
ni li cc t in ny s phi thc hin vi phn in p d trn t nm trong khong

n2
V . iu ny c th i km vi nhiu
n 2 1
qu nh nht nu thyristor ng nhng thi im in p d trn t v in p
gia gi tr 0 v gi tr ln nht ca t v C,i 0

ngun bng nhau, ngha l khi in p qua thyristor bng 0.


Cc qu trnh qu ny gy ra bi thnh phn dv/dt khc 0 thi im ng, nu nh
khng c in khng ni tip s to ra dng in tc thi ic=Cdv/dt (Dng in ny biu
th cho gi tr tc thi ca dng in qua t ch xc lp ti thi im ng kha). Tc
ng qua li gia t in v in khng hn ch dng in, cng vi in tr, sinh ra dao
ng qu , c th thy trn dng sng ca in p v dng in. (Ch l qu trnh qu
khi ng t in phng in hon ton th phc tp hn so vi khi t in mi
phng in 1 phn v thnh phn dv/dt ca in p ngun t gi tr ln nht im qua
gi tr 0 ).
Nhng iu kin ng t in khng qu :
1. Nu in p d trn t in thp hn nh in p ngun (Vc<V) th thi im tt
ng l khi in p ngun tc thi cn bng vi in p ca t in.
2. Nu in p d trn t in bng hoc ln hn
gi tr cc i ca in p ngun (Vc> V) th thi
im ng s l khi in p ngun t cc i, khi
in p t ln thyristor l nh nht.
T cc phn tch trn ta thy, gc iu khin ln
nht ng cc bn t l c chu k ca in p
ngun, ngha l kho ng thi gian t nh dng
(hoc m) n nh dng (hoc m)
V cng c th thy rng iu khin gc m
khng p dng i vi t in, vic ng t in ch
c th din ra thi im c th trong mi chu k
m cc iu kin qu trnh qu din ra phc tp nht. V l do ny m TSC ch
c th cung cp s thay i theo bc dng in dung (gi tr ln nht hoc 0). Ni cch
khc, nhnh TSC biu th cho 1 in dung hoc l ni hoc l ngt ra khi h thng.
Dng in trong nhnh TSC thay i tuyn tnh vi in p ngun ty thuc vo in
dung ca t in. in p ngun ln nht v dng in tng ng b gii hn bi nh
mc ca cc thnh phn TSC (t in v thyristor)

64

Chng 4.Cu to v nguyn l lm vic ca thit b b tnh SVC


xp x s thay i dng in, ngi ta thng s dng mt vi TSC song song nhau
(lm tng in dung bc), hoc phi hp vi 1 nhnh TCR.
4.5 Nguyn l hot ng ca FC.
Nhnh FC (Fixed Capacitors) ca SVC bao gm t in v cun khng hot
ng nh mt b lc xoay chiu. FC lc cc thnh thnh sng hi dng in do s
hot ng ca TCR to ra. Ngoi ra nhnh FC cn c kh nng pht mt lng
cng sut phn khng nht nh ln li.

65