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PRESENTATION ON PUMP TURBINE

NO.1
SUDANESE HYDRO POWER
GENERATION COMPANY LTD.
KASHEM EL-GIRBA HYDRO POWER
PLANT
COMPILED BY CONSULTANT ENGINEER
SALIH AHMED OBEID SALIH
15/4/2015

FROM 21/8/2014 UNIT WAS


SHUTDOWN DUE TO THE FREQUENT
HIGH TEMPERATURE OF THE OIL
HEAD AND COULD NOT BE
OPERATED FOR LONG TIME AND SO
IT WAS LEFT OUT OF SERVICE FROM
THAT TIME WAITING FOR THE
PROVISION OF THE REQUIRED
SPARE PART
THE SPARE PART WAS RECEIVED ON
MARCH 2015
THE MECHANICAL STAFF OF THE
POWER STATION DID THEIR BEST

WHEN THE UNIT WAS MADE READY FOR


SYNCHRONIZATION IT TRIPPED BY MEANS
OF
1-OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
2-EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
THESE ALARMS WERE ACCOMPANIED BY A
VERY HIGH SOUND OF THE C.B
THEN ANOTHER TRIAL WAS MADE AND
THAT TIME IT TRIPPED AGAIN BY MEANS OF
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION AND THE
SHEAR PINS OF THE COUPLING OF THE
GENERATOR WERE FOUND BROKEN.
THE POWER STATION STAFF WERE TOLD
NOT TO OPERATE THE UNIT TILL THE

OUR PROTECTION ENGINEER WAS


SENT TO KASHMEGIRBA TO CHECK
AND SOLVE THE PROBLEM
THE STATOR WINDINGS OF THE
GENERATOR WERE TESTED BY AN
INSULATION METER AND WERE FOUND
VERY GOOD AND THE PROTECTIVE
DEVICE WAS ALSO CHECKED.
.ON THE TRIAL OF SYNCHRONIZING
THE UNIT,IT WAS SYNCHRONIZED AND
LOADED FOR MORE THAN 15
MINUTES AND FOUND TO BE OK.
THEN THE ROTECTION ENGINEER

WHEN THE PROTECTION ENGINEER ARRIVETD


AT KHARTOUM AND AFTER SOME DAYS THE
UNIT WAS AGAIN OPERATED AND THAT TIME
IT WAS FOUND TO TRIP BY THE DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION AND THE COUPLING SHEARPINS
WERE FOUND BROKEN AGAIN
THE GENERATION DIRECTORATE MANAGER
WITH HIS SENIOR STAFF ARRIVED AT ELGIRBA
TO CHECK AND FIND SOLUTION TO THE
PROBLEMS OF THE PUMP TURBINE AS FEAR
CAME FROM THE LONG TIME OF THE
STANDSTILL DURATION AND THE HUMIDITY
AND CONDENSATION

ON ARRIVAL THERE A TEAM FROM


CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
SECTION WAS ALREADY THERE WITH
COMMERTIAL ADMINSTRATION
ENGINEER ON A JOB OF CALIBRATION
AND CONNECTION AND INSTALLATION
OF NEW ENERGY METER FOR STATION
AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER (AT1).
SO ALL OF US MADE AN INSULATION
MEASUREMENT OF THE PUMP STATOR
WINDINGS AND IT WAS FOUNK OK.

THE UNIT WAS TESTED AGAIN FOR


STATOR WINDING INSULATION
MEASUREMENT AND THE RESULT WAS
FOUND OK. (6 GEGA OHM)
AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO DRY THE
UNIT BY MEANS OF AN EXTERNAL DC
SUPPLY AS AN EXCITATION SOURCE
AND SHORT ALL THE STATOR WIRES BY
COPPER BAR AND THE UNIT TO
OPERATED TO ITS RATED SPEED AND
APPLY THE EXCITATION SUPPLY
GRADUALLY TILL WE GET ITS RATED
CURRENT AND BY DOING SO WE WILL

THE TRIAL OF DRYING THE UNIT COULD NOT


BE DONE ALTHOUGH THE JUMPERS WERE
MADE DUE TO DIFFICULTY OF FINDING
CLEAR DRAWINGS AND THE INTERLOCK
SYSTEM WHICH WAS MADE BY THE
CONTRACTOR (BE,SC,SIEMENS PLC
S7,MECHANICAL INTERLOCK,PROTECTION
INTERLOCK,AC SUPPLY INTERLOCK ,DC
SUPPLY INTERLOCK)WAS TOO MUCH
COMPLICATED AND NOT EASY
IT IS WORTH MENTIONING THAT STARTING
OF THE UNIT IS TOO DIFFICULT BESIDE THE
GOVERNOR AND HYDRAULIC TROUBLES AND
IT SHOULD BE MADE EASY AND SIMPLE

THE PUMP TURBINE NO.1 WAS


OPERATED AFTER DIFFICULTY AND WAS
SYNCHRONIZED BUT IT TRIPPED
IMMEDIATELY BY THE DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION SO IT WAS DECIDED TO
REPLACE THE PROTECTION DEVICE BY
ANOTHER ONE FROM UNIT 3 AND AFTER
THAT THE UNIT WAS SYNCHRONIZED
WITH NO ALARM BUT IT WAS NOTICED
TO HAVE A HIGH SOUND ON THE
CIRCUIT BREAKER CLOSURE AND WE
WERE NOT HAPPY TO THAT SOUND ,BUT
THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERS SAID IT

THE UNIT WAS LOADED UP TO 300 KW AND IT


WAS OBSERVED TO FIND THAT THE
TEMPERATURE SENSOR OF THE GEAR BOX
WAS NOT GIVING ANY INDICATION ON THE
PANEL AND THE UNIT WAS STOPPED FOR
FURTHER CHECKING AND MAINTENANCE AND
INVESTIGATION
THE SENIOR STAFF WITH THE GENERATION
DIRECTORATE MANAGER LEFT FOR
KHARTOUM
AFTER SOME DAYS WE WERE REPORTED THAT
PT1 WAS OPERATED AND WAS FOUND TO TRIP
BY FIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION ACCOMPANIED
BY BROKEN SHEARPINS OF THE COUPLING.

ANOTHER TEAM WAS AGAINT SENT TO


KASHMELGIRBA FOR FURTHER STUDY AND
INVESTIGATION AND SOLUTION TO THE
PROBLEM
IT WAS DECIDED THAT THE PROTECTION
ENGINEER TO CHECK ALL THE CURRENT
TRANSFORMERS AND THE CONTROL
ENGINEER TO CHECK THE SIEMENS PLC
PROGRAMME AND FEAR WAS CLEAR THAT
TIME THE C.B SHOULD BE RACKED OUT AND
THE TEAM CAME TO DECIDE WETHER THE C.B
CLOSURE IS CORRECT OR NOT
AND ALL OF US ARE AFRAID OF WRONG
SYNCHRONIZATION OR C.B DELAY TIME

THE PROTECTION ENGINEER TESTED


ALL THE CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
AND THEY WERE FOUND TO BE OK.
THE CONTROL ENGINEER TESTED THE
SIEMENS PLC AND INDICATEDT HAT
NO SIGNAL OF CLOSING THE C.B IN
PUMPING MODE COULD BE GOT IN
GENERATION MODE
THE C.B WAS PUT IN RACKED OUT
POSITION AND SOME WIRES WERE
USED TO SIMULATE IT IN RACKED IN
POSITION BUT THAT PROCEDURE
FAILED AND THE C.B COULD NOT BE

THE C.B WAS AGAIN PUT IN


RACKED IN POSITION BUT
ITS CLOSING COIL WAS
DISCONNECTED AND THE
PROTECTION ENGINEER
WAS REQUESTED

TO BE NEAR
THE C.B SO AS
TO HEAR THE
SOUND OF THE
CLOSING RELAY

AN INDICATION LAMP
WAS CONNECTED
ACROSS THE SIGNAL
LOCATION SO AS TO
SEE EXACTLY THE
TIME OF THE
CLOSING SIGNAL.

THE IDEA WAS MADE IN ORDER TO


CHECK THE EXACT SIGNAL CLOSURE
WITH RESPECT TO ALL THE
SYNCHRONIZING DEVICES WHICH ARE
1-AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZING
UNIT( SCK4N)
2-RUNNING VOLTAGE
3-INCOMING VOLTAGE (GENERATOR)
4-SYNCHROSCOPE DEVICE
5-RUNNING FREQUENCY
6-INCOMING FREQUENCY
(GENERATOR)

THE TEAM DID THEIR BEST TO


OPERATE THE UNIT AND THE TEST WAS
DONE WHERE THE LAMP WAS FOUND
TO BE ILLUMINATED ALL THE TIME AND
THE SYNCHROSCOPE WAS RUNNING
FROM SLOW TO FAST AND FROM FAST
TO SLOW
WHILE DOING SO AND OBSERVING THE
SITUATION THE LAMP WENT OFF WHEN
THE SYNCHROSCOPE WAS SEEN
POINTING 180 DEGREE FROM THE (S)
POSITION AND ALL OF US WERE
SURPRISED OF THAT CONDITION

THEN IT WAS DECIDED TO REPLACE


THE FAULTY DEVICE WITH THE ONE OF
UNIT 3 AND ALSO TO REPLACE THE C.B
WITH THAT OF PT3
THE UNIT WAS OPERATED AND WAS
SYNCHRONIZED SMOOTHLY AND IN
GOOD CONDITION WITHOUT ANY
PROBLEM WHILE DISCOVERING SUCH
AN ODD PROBLEM WHICH HAPPENED
TO US FOR THE FIRST TIME.
SINCE WE NEVER THINK OF HAVING
THE SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE TO BE
ITSELF DEFECTIVE

ON A RECENT STUDY FOUND ON THE WEB


(http://www.emo.org.tr/ekler/8c83e21f7df
5abe_ek.pdf) .THE REASONS OF THE OUT
OF PHASE SYNCHRONIZATION ARE:
1-WRONG WIRING OF THE
SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE DURING
COMMISSIONING OR MAINTENANCE
2-DELAY TIME OF THE C.B CLOSURE
WHEN A CLOSING SIGNAL IS OBTAINED
3-C.B CONTACTS FAILURE OR FLASH
4-WRONG SETTING ON THE
SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE

AS A REMINDER SYNCHRONIZING IS
ONLY POSSIBLE IF AND ONLY IF WE GET
THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS
1-VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE IS EQUAL FOR
BOTH RUNNING AND INCOMING
2-FREQUENCY IS THE SAME FOR BOTH
RUNING AND INCOMING
3-PHASE ROTATION ARE THE SAME FOR
BOTH RUNNING AND INCOMING
(RST,OR RYB SYSTEM)
4-THE PHASE ANGLE ARE THE SAME
FOR BOTH RUNNING AND INCOMING

POOR SYNCHRONIZATION CAN MAKE:


Damage the generator and the prime mover because of
mechanical stresses caused by rapid acceleration or
deceleration, bringing the rotating masses into
synchronism (exactly matched speed and rotor angle)
with the power system.
Damage the generator and step-up transformer
windings caused by high currents.
Cause disturbances to the power system such as power
oscillations and voltage deviations from nominal.
Prevent the generator from staying online and picking
up load when protective relay elements interpret the
condition as an abnormal operating condition and trip
the generator.

SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE

IT IS WORTH MENTIONING THAT


SYNCHRONIZATION CAN BE DONE BY
ONE OF THE FOLLOWINGS
1-BY MEANS OF LAMPS (DARK &BRIGHT
LIGHT) WITH MANUAL CLOSING OF THE
C.B
2-MANUAL CLOSING OF THE C.B WITH
THE HELP OF SYNCHROSCOPE
3-CLOSING THE C.B BY MEANS OF
CONTACTS FROM THE SYNCHROSCOPE
4-CHECK SYNCHRONIZING RELAY
5-AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE

THANKE YOU FOR


YOUR ATTENTION