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Abstract

This experiment was conduct in order to have a good understanding for


students to know the differences between ferrous and non-ferrous alloy from the
metallurgical view. It is also enable the students to have a good understanding about
the ferrous and non-ferrous microstructure, phase diagram of iron-carbon and nonferrous alloys system which involving the heat treatment process and its procedure.
Other than that, students will also be able to describe the principal engineering
properties and industrial application of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. During the
experiment, heat treatment was conducted. From metallographic observation, the
result can be obtained which is the grain structure of ferrite, pearlite bainite,
martensite, and cementite.

Introduction
Heat treatment is a process that is used to harden or soften metals by heating and
cooling them until the desired properties are reached. Some commonly heat-treated
metals include aluminum, titanium and magnesium, although steel is by far the most
commonly heat treated metal. Some examples of heat treatment goods include car
doors, airplane wings, swords, musical instruments, and metal machine components
These are some common processes during heat treatment; annealing, normalizing,
spheroidizing, and hardening
Ferrous are metals that contain iron. They may have small amounts of other
metals or other elements added, to give the required properties. All ferrous metals are
magnetic and give little resistance to corrosion. Furthermore, these material are
primarily used for their tensile strength and durability. For instant, one of ferrous
metals is mild steel. Mild Steel is one of the most common of all metals and one of
the least expensive steels. The application of mild steel is bullets, nuts and bolts,
chains, hinges, knives, armor, pipes, and magnets.
Normally non-ferrous metals are more expensive than ferrous metals. Nonferrous metals are used because of desirable properties. Non-ferrous are not magnetic
and are usually more resistant to corrosion than ferrous metals. Non-ferrous metals
are much more malleable than ferrous metals and also much lighter, making them
well-suited for use where strength is needed, but weight is a factor, such as in the
aircraft or canning industries. Examples of non-ferrous are aluminum, copper, lead,
zinc and tin. The application of these materials is gutters, water pipes, roofing, and
road signs.