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1.

1 Arguments, premises and conclusions

Introduce key terms


Distinguish premises from conclusions
Identify Statements

Logic is...

...the study of (good, sound, cogent) reasoning. ...the


science of rational thought.

...the critical analysis of inference.

...a branch of philosophical inquiry.

...the methodology of philosophy.

Identifying Arguments

The candidate with the most votes will win the election
because either the candidate with the most votes wins or
the election was not fair. And, the election was fair.

Identifying Arguments

Since trucks and SUVs have burn more fuel than smaller
cars, and one ought to use as little fuel as possible, one
ought to drive a smaller car instead of a truck or SUV.

Identifying Arguments

Billie will die from lung cancer due to the fact that she
smokes and smoking causes lung cancer.

Identifying Arguments

I cleaned the bathroom last week and the deal was that
we should take turns cleaning the bathroom. You
should keep your promises. So, you should clean the
bathroom this week.

Key Terms

Argument: a set of claims in which some of the claims


give reason for thinking another of the claims is true

Premise: reasons given in support of the... Conclusion:


the claim being defended

Statement/Proposition: has a truth value (is either true


or false)
cf. questions, commands, suggestions,...

Premise
Indicators

Conclusion
Indicators

Since

Therefore

As indicated by

Wherefore

Because

Thus

For

So

In that

Consequently

May be inferred from

Accordingly

As

In follows that

Given that

For this reason

Seeing that

It must be that

For the reason that

It follows that

Selling junk food should be a crime because a diet high


in fat and sugar, the main ingredients in junk food,
causes numerous harms and it is wrong to cause harm.

(C) Selling junk food should be a crime because (P1) a diet


high in fat and sugar, the main ingredients in junk food,
causes numerous harms and (P2) it is wrong to cause
harm.

Countries whose citizens consume diets high in animal


fat have the highest rates of breast and other cancers.
Therefore, eating animal fat causes cancer.

(P1) Countries whose citizens consume diets high in


animal fat have the highest rates of breast and other
cancers. Therefore, (C) eating animal fat causes cancer.

Since plant-based foods are high in fiber, and high fiber


diets associated with a lower risk for heart disease,
plant-based diets will decrease ones risk for heart
disease.

Since (P1) plant-based foods are high in fiber, and (P2)


high fiber diets associated with a lower risk for heart
disease, (C) plant-based diets will decrease ones risk for
heart disease.

Meat is an essential ingredient to a healthy diet due to


the fact that people need iron and protein and one can
only get these from meat.

(C) Meat is an essential ingredient to a healthy diet due to the


fact that (P1) people need iron and protein and (P2) one
can only get these from meat.

Because iron intake is reflected by hemoglobin levels, if


rural Chinese who eat a plant-based diet have high
hemoglobin levels, then a plant-based diet can supply
adequate iron. A plant-based diet can supply adequate
iron since it has been shown that the rural Chinese
populations do show high hemoglobin levels.

Because (P1) iron intake is reflected by hemoglobin


levels, (P2) if rural Chinese who eat a plant-based diet
have high hemoglobin levels, then a plant-based diet
can supply adequate iron. (C) A plant-based diet can
supply adequate iron since (P3) it has been shown that the
rural Chinese populations do show high hemoglobin
levels.

Strictly following the Atkins Diet, one consumes about


1500 calories per day. That is about 35% fewer calories
than the average person consumes daily. One will lose
weight and have lower cholesterol levels if one
consumes 35% fewer calories than normal. It follows
that on the Atkins Diet one will lose weight and have
lower cholesterol levels.

(P1) Strictly following the Atkins Diet, one consumes


about 1500 calories per day. (P2) That is about 35%
fewer calories than the average person consumes daily.
(P3) One will lose weight and have lower cholesterol
levels if one consumes 35% fewer calories than normal.
It follows that (C) on the Atkins Diet one will lose weight
and have lower cholesterol levels.