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3ImportantCalculationsEveryMarineEngineerMustKnowOnShips

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3ImportantCalculationsEveryMarineEngineerMustKnow
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APRIL21,2014BYANANTHT

Inshipsengineroom,anumberofgauginginstrumentsdisplayvariousimportantparameterssucha

level,pressure,temperatureetc.Buttherearesomeessentialparameterswhichcannotbereaddirec
throughanyinstrumentastheydependonanumberofdynamicfactors.
Thisdemandsthemarineengineerworkingonboardshipstodosomeformulabasedcalculationsby

consideringallthosefactorsandwithpossibleavailableinputs.Ofalltheimportantcalculationsthata
tobedoneonboardships,thereafewoneswhichmarineengineersmustknowwithoutfail.
Followingare3importantparameterswhicharemostoftenrequiredtobecalculatedbymarine
engineersforrecordkeeping:

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1.BunkerCalculation:
Bunkertermstofueloilinmaritimeindustry.Bunker
quantitycalculationisthemostimportantcalculationwhich
everymarineengineershouldbefamiliarwiththroughout
hiscareer.Bunkerfuel,beingahighvaluedproduct,has
tobeverycarefullyandaccuratelycalculatedfor
determiningthequantity.
Thevolumeofdefinitequantityofbunkerincreaseswith
increaseintemperaturewhereasitsweightremainsthe
same.Forthisreason,bunkerisalwaysorderedand
measuredinweightandnotbyvolume.
Alsoalltheenergyandefficiencycalculationsoffuelon

boardshipsarecalculatedintermsofmassofthefuelratherthanitsvolume.(Calculationofbunkerf
quantityinweightinvolvesmanyfactorstobeconsideredmakingitmorecomplex.)

Mostly,thefourthengineerwillbethedeputyoftheChiefengineerforreceivingbunker&measuring
bunkerquantityformaintainingrecords.
Mentionedbelowistheprocedureformeasuringandcalculatingthebunkerquantity:
>Oncethetotalquantity(tonnes)ofbunkerfueltobereceivedisconfirmed,takesoundingofships

bunkertanks&calculatetheavailablequantityoffueloilonboardtoformulateabunkeringplandeno
howmuchtonnesoffueltobebunkeredoneachtank&thetanksequenceofbunkering.
>Beforecommencingofbunkeroperations,confirmthetemperatureatwhichthebunkeristobe

receivedandnotedownthestandarddensityofthefueloil.Withthisparameterscalculatethevolume

bunkertobereceivedineachtankasperbunkeringplanandnotedownthefinalsoundinglevelofea
tankafterbunkeringusingcapacitytablefortheeaseofstopping&changeovertonexttank.
Thebasicformulausedforcalculatingthebunkerquantityinweightis:
Mass=VolumexDensity
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>Itistobenotedthatintheaboveformula,thedensityandvolumeofbunkerfuelshouldbeknown
sametemperature.

>Afterreceivingthebunker,takesounding/ullageofallthebunkertanksusingsoundingtapeandno

downthetanktemperature.UsesoundingpasteinthetapewhilemeasuringdistillatefuelsuchasMD
foreasyreading.

>Shipalwaysdoesnotfloatwithevenkeelsothefloatingconditionsoftheshipsuchastrimandlist
shouldbewellnotedwhiletakingthesoundingofbunkertanks.
>Everyshipisprovidedwithatankcapacitytableinwhicheachtankcapacityinvolumeismarked
againstthesuccessivelevelsofsounding/ullagewithcorrectionfactorsundervarioustrimandheel

conditionsoftheship.Thevolumeoffueloilattanktemperatureforthecorrespondingtanksounding
thusmeasuredusingtankcapacitytable,whichgivestheactualsoundedvolume.

>Thedensityoffueloil(inkg/m3)atstandardreferencetemperatureof15Cisalwaysprovidedbyt

supplierinBunkerDeliveryNote.Withthisthedensityoffueloilattanktemperaturecanbedetermine
usingASTMtableorusingsoftwaremostcommonlyinstalledonallshipscomputer.
TheformulausedtocalculatetheTemperatureCorrectedDensityis:
=(DensityofFuelOil@15C)x[1{(T15)x0.00064}]
Where:
T=temperatureofoilinbunkertanksindegreecelcius,
0.00064=Correctionfactor

Sincethebunkeroilisnormallysuppliedtothevesselattemperaturehigherthen15C,theformulau
forcalculatingthebunkerquantityinweightwillbe
MetricTonnes=(ActualSounderVolume)X(TemperatureCorrectedDensity)

>Thecorrespondingvaluesofeachtankaretabulatedforeasyreadingandthetotalweightofbunk
quantityiscalculated.

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2.SpecificFuelOilConsumption(SFOC):

SpecificfueloilconsumptionisthemeasureofmassoffuelconsumedperunittimetoproduceperK
ThemarineengineefficiencyisusuallydeterminedusingtheSFOC.
Inordertoachieveaccuracy,thefuelconsumptionandpowerdevelopedisalwaysmeasuredovera
suitabletimeperiodonagoodweather.TheformulausedforcalculatingSFOCis:
SFOC(g/kwh)=Massoffuelconsumedperhour/PowerdevelopedinKW
>Thereadingsofflowmetertomainengineshouldbenotedoverthespecifiedtimeintervalsay1

hour.Withthedifferenceinreadingsthevolumeoffuelconsumedisobtained.Itcanalsobemeasure
bynotingdowntheHFOservicetankreadingprovidedtheoilisbeingsuppliedonlytomainengine.
>Themassofobservedvolumeoffuelconsumedcanbedeterminedbyfollowingtheabovesaid
bunkercalculationprocedure.

>Thehorsepowercanbemeasuredusingdynamometeriffittedontheshaftoftheenginewhichwi

indicatetheBHPindigitalindicator.Ifnot,thehorsepowercanalsobecalculatedusingenginerpma
averagepumpfuelindexwiththeaidofenginecharacteristiccurveofvariousseatrialswhichis
suppliedbythemanufacturer.Howeverthecalorificvalueofthefuelusedforseatrialmaydifferand
hencecompensationfactorhastobedeterminedtoobtaintheaccuracyincalculation.
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3.PercentageofSlip:
MarineEngineerafterdoingMechanicalEngineering

Slipisconsideredasthedifference
betweenthespeedoftheengineand

actualspeedoftheship.Itisalwayscalculatedinpercentage.Positiveslipisinfluencedbyvarious
reasonssuchasfouledbottomorhullpartwhichoffersresistancetothemovementofship,

environmentalfactorssuchaswatercurrentandwindagainsttheshipdirection.Slipmaybenegative

theshipspeedisinfluencedbyfollowingseaorwind.Engineslipiscalculateddailyonboardthevess
andrecordedinlogbook.
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EnginedistanceObserveddistance
PercentageofSlip=X100%
Enginedistance

Theactualdistance(nauticalmile)coveredbytheshipfromnoontonoonismeasuredusingships
log.
Thetotalrevolutionsofthepropellerfromnoontonoonisobtainedusingrevolutioncounter.The

enginedistancecanbecalculatedusingthepitchofthepropellerprovidedbythemanufacturer.Ca
mustbetakeninunitconversionofpitchfrommetertonauticalmile(ingeneral1NM=1800m).
Enginedistanceinnauticalmile=(Pitchxrevolutionsperday)
Obtainingtheaccuracyofvalueinalltheabovecalculationsarealwayschallengingonboardasthe

parametersrecordedaremoresensitivetodynamicconditionsoftheshipandalsodependsonvario
environmentalfactors.
Overtoyou
Doyouknowanyotherimportantcalculationthatcanbeaddedtothislist?
Letusknowinthecommentsbelow.
References&ImageCredits:
M.V.JagRahulShipstankcapacityplanmanual.
M.T.JagPreetiMITSUIB&WOperation&DataManual
ReedsNavalArchitectureforMarineengineers.
ReportanError

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AboutAnanthT
AnanthisaMEOclassIVcompetencycertificateholder,workingwiththeGreatEasternShipping
company.Asamarineengineer,hehassailedonbothbulkcarriersandoiltankers.Whennot
sailing,helikestosharehisseafaringknowledgeandexperienceswithfellowmaritime
professionals.

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COMMENTS

ErikBremsKristensensays
April21,2014at4:23pm
Itisallcorrect.Whanimissisthecomparisonofthefuelcomsumptionwithareference.The
referenceisthespecificfuelconsumptionontestbedatthemanufacturer.Herethefuel
consumptionaswellastheengineperformancedataaremeasured,andconvertedtotheISO
condition.Itisimportantfortheactualsituationalsotorecordtheengineperformancedataand
toconvertthemtoISO,otherwiseyoucompareappleswithpears.Therearenotmanytools
availableforthismanouver.Youcandoitallmanually,butitwillconsumealotoftime.Atour
websiteyoucanseeouttool,whereyougettheisocorrectionandcomparisoninstantlywhen
enteringtheperformancedata.

MIKOYsays
April21,2014at4:36pm
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Really,andtheyhaventautomatedityet?

NIRBENsays
April21,2014at5:13pm
iscorrectionfactorof0.00064isapplicableforalloillikeheavyoil,dieseloiletc..

saidakrasays
April21,2014at5:46pm
Verygoodinformation

DhineshKhannasays
April21,2014at7:29pm
Greatworkananthveryusefulinfo

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ConradoWLalimsays
April22,2014at4:19pm
0.00064isnotaconstantcorrectionfactor.Thisdefendsonqualityofeveryoilbunkered.
NormallyontheBDR,densityisgivenat15degcent.Anestimateddensityathighertempis
alsomentionedontheBDRe.g.Densityat15degcent=0.9891,densityat40degcent=
0.9687.Tempdiffthenwillbe30anddensityis0.0204.Thecorrectionfactorthenshouldbe
[0.0204/30=0.00068ton/degoftemprise.

R.SHANMUGAMsays
April23,2014at2:37pm
itsVeryUsefulandeasyunderstandingarticleMr.Ananth.KeepWriting..

BuddyHarsays
April23,2014at3:56pm
atlastIfoundwhatIneedaslongthistimethanktoyou

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aminsays
April24,2014at2:43pm
yrinfo.asstarsforanyonegetlostinthetech.desert,SFOC.isthemostinterestingfactormust
butinconsiderationtoavoidanycommercialdisaster,imean,thefuelisbigproblemfor
expensesso,sfocveryimportant

AshokRobinsays
April25,2014at9:34pm
Greatworkcongrats

BalachanderRajagopalansays
May7,2014at11:58am
HiAnanth,
Averyniceandusefulpostwhichshouldcomeusefultoanyengineerwhohastohandle
bunkers.
Keepupthegoodwork:)

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Ajaisays
May24,2014at11:05am
DearAnanth,
Verygoodtopicdiscussed.
Ifeelthereisasmallcorrectioninslipitsholdbepositiveslip.
Negativeslipinfluencedbyfavaroublecurrentandhenclessercons.
Withrods,
AJAIKUMAR

Anishsays
May24,2014at12:05pm
ThankyouAjai,
Wellnotedandcorrectedthetypo.

MohamedKazzalisays
June20,2014at1:23pm
NiceJobBuddies.

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3ImportantCalculationsEveryMarineEngineerMustKnowOnShips

maazahmedsays
August16,2014at12:56am
ima4E.veryinformativeforme..butialsoreadsmvrabtsubtracting0.0011from
density@15degcelciusforsmcorrectionfactorforbuoyancyinair..plsadvice

kassahunkashesays
August20,2014at10:02pm
IfoundwhatIneedatthistime!!10QAnanthT.

emuowootovwodoOneGodsays
September6,2014at4:56pm
thankuforimpactingdpublicwiththisknowledge.manymarineengineershasgotten
problemsinfuelconsumptioncalculations.butwithwhatyouhaveexplained.lbelievedour
jobsasJuniorofficersismadeeasy.OneGod.

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3ImportantCalculationsEveryMarineEngineerMustKnowOnShips

IvanSanchezsays
September25,2014at8:20am
Areallygoodpost.Asa3rdEng,IreallyfoundthisveryinterestingsincenormallyIdontdo
thebunkerplanbutonlytheChiefEngineer.Anywayitisnotsocomplicatedafteryouhavegot
someexperiencewhenyouloadbunker.

Vishnubennysays
October7,2014at9:07pm
Goodinformatn...kepitupndkeepgoing..

vineetsays
November4,2014at7:18am
Intheslipcalculationyousayobserveddistanceshouldbeshipslogdistance.isitcorrect?
AspermyunderstandingitisDaysRunorGPSdistancenowadays..Logdistancewillgive
hugevariationsintheactualslip

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3ImportantCalculationsEveryMarineEngineerMustKnowOnShips

Ramakrishnansays
December28,2014at3:45pm
verynice

Aminulsays
April1,2015at7:56am
Itisgoodtohaveallimportantcalculationsinonepage.Ihaveasuggestiontoyou,thatyou
canaddthecalculationforbunkerrequisiton,co2bottleweightmeasurement,scbatime
durationcalculation,etc.

says
May10,2015at2:29pm
Greatarticle.

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3ImportantCalculationsEveryMarineEngineerMustKnowOnShips

Kamleshkumarsays
May11,2015at11:30am
Great,verygoodinformation,Keepitcontinue.

PRINCEKUMARsays
May11,2015at3:46pm
Itisveryuseful.

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