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LSAT

PrepTest 38
October 2002
Test ID: LL3038

A complete version of PrepTest XXXVIII has been reproduced


with the permission of Law School Admission Council, Inc.
Prep Test XXXVIII 2002 Law School Admission Council, Inc.
All actual LSAT questions printed within this work are used
with the permission of Law School Admission Council, Inc.,
Box 2000, Newton, PA 18940, the copyright owner. LSAC
does not review or endorse specific test preparation or
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work does not imply the review or endorsement of LSAC.

2003 Kaplan Educational Centers


All right reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by
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permission of Kaplan Educational Centers.

Logical Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION I

Analytical Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION II

Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION III

Logical Reasoning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION IV

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SECTION I
Time35 minutes
24 Questions
Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some
questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that
is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by
commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer,
blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
1. Physician: In itself, exercise does not cause heart
attacks; rather, a sudden increase in an exercise
regimen can be a cause. When people of any
physical condition suddenly increase their
amount of exercise, they also increase their risk
of heart attack. As a result, there will be an
increased risk of heart attack among employees
of this company due to the new health program.
The conclusion drawn by the physician follows
logically if which one of the following is assumed?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Employees will abruptly increase their amount


of exercise as a result of the new health
program.
The exercises involved in the new health
program are more strenuous than those in the
previous health program.
The new health program will force employees
of all levels of health to exercise regularly.
The new health program constitutes a sudden
change in the companys policy.
All employees, no matter what their physical
condition, will participate in the new health
program.

Questions 34
An anthropologist hypothesized that a certain
medicinal powder contained a significant amount of the
deadly toxin T. When the test she performed for the
presence of toxin T was negative, the anthropologist did
not report the results. A chemist who nevertheless learned
about the test results charged the anthropologist with
fraud. The anthropologist, however, countered that those
results were invalid because the powder had inadvertently
been tested in an acidic solution.
3. In the absence of the anthropologists reply, which
one of the following principles, if established, would
most support the chemists charge?
(A)

(B)
(C)
(D)

2. Last month OCF, Inc., announced what it described


as a unique new product: an adjustable computer
workstation. Three days later ErgoTech unveiled an
almost identical product. The two companies claim
that the similarities are coincidental and occurred
because the designers independently reached the
same solution to the same problem. The similarities
are too fundamental to be mere coincidence,
however. The two products not only look alike, but
they also work alike. Both are oddly shaped with
identically placed control panels with the same types
of controls. Both allow the same types of adjustments
and the same types of optional enhancements.

(E)

4. Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens


the anthropologists counterargument?
(A)
(B)

The main point of the argument is that


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

the two products have many characteristics in


common
ErgoTech must have copied the design of its
new product from OCFs design
the similarities between the two products are
not coincidental
product designers sometimes reach the same
solution to a given problem without
consulting each other
new products that at first appear to be unique are
sometimes simply variations of other products

Reporting results for an experiment that was


not conducted and reporting a false result for
an actual experiment are both instances of
scientific fraud.
Scientists can commit fraud and yet report
some disconfirmations of their hypotheses.
Scientists can neglect to report some
disconfirmations of their hypotheses and yet
be innocent of fraud.
Scientists commit fraud whenever they report
as valid any test result they know to be
invalid.
Scientists who neglect to report any
experiment that could be interpreted as
disconfirming their hypotheses have thereby
committed fraud.

(C)
(D)
(E)

The anthropologist had evidence from field


work that the medicinal powder was typically
prepared using toxin T.
The activity level of toxin T tends to decline if
the powder is stored for a long time.
When it is put into an acidic solution, toxin T
becomes undetectable.
A fresh batch of powder for a repeat analysis
was available at the time of the test.
The type of analysis used was insensitive to
very small amounts of toxin T.

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1
5. Naima: The proposed new computer system, once
we fully implemented it, would operate more
smoothly and efficiently than the current
system. So we should devote the resources
necessary to accomplish the conversion as
soon as possible.
Nakai: We should keep the current system for as
long as we can. The cost in time and money of
converting to the new system would be greater
than any predicted benefits.
Naima and Nakai disagree with each other over
whether
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

the predicted benefits of the new computer


system will be realized
it is essential to have the best computer system
available
accomplishing the conversion is technically
impossible
the current computer system does not work
well enough to do what it is supposed to do
the conversion to a new computer system
should be delayed

6. Every year, new reports appear concerning the health


risks posed by certain substances, such as coffee and
sugar. One year an article claimed that coffee is
dangerous to ones health. The next year, another
article argued that coffee has some benefits for ones
health. From these contradictory opinions, we see
that experts are useless for guiding ones decisions
about ones health.
Which one of the following most accurately describes
a flaw in the argument above?
(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

(E)

The argument takes for granted that coffee is


dangerous to ones health.
The argument presumes, without providing
warrant, that one always wants expert
guidance in making decisions about ones
health.
The argument fails to consider the nature of
expert opinion in areas other than health.
The argument presumes, without providing
justification, that because expert opinion is
trustworthy in one case, it must therefore be
trustworthy in all cases.
The argument fails to consider that coffee may
be harmful to ones health in some respects
and beneficial in others.

-3-

7. Because people are generally better at detecting


mistakes in others work than in their own, a prudent
principle is that one should always have ones own
work checked by someone else.
Which one of the following provides the best
illustration of the principle above?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

The best elementary school math teachers are


not those for whom math was always easy.
Teachers who had to struggle through math
themselves are better able to explain math to
students.
One must make a special effort to clearly
explain ones views to someone else; people
normally find it easier to understand their
own views than to understand others views.
Juries composed of legal novices, rather than
panels of lawyers, should be the final arbiters
in legal proceedings. People who are not legal
experts are in a better position to detect good
legal arguments by lawyers than are other
lawyers.
People should always have their writing
proofread by someone else. Someone who
does not know in advance what is meant to be
said is in a better position to spot
typographical errors.
Two people going out for dinner will have a
more enjoyable meal if they order for each
other. By allowing someone else to choose,
one opens oneself up to new and exciting
dining experiences.

8. Pundit: The only airline providing service for our


town announced that because the service is
unprofitable it will discontinue this service
next year. Town officials have urged the
community to use the airlines service more
frequently so that the airline will change its
decision. There is no reason to comply with
their recommendation, however, for just last
week these same officials drove to an out-oftown conference instead of flying.
The pundits reasoning is most vulnerable to
criticism on the grounds that it presumes, without
providing justification, that
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

increasing the number of tickets sold without


increasing ticket prices will be sufficient to make
continued air service economically feasible
suspending service and losing money by
continuing service are the airlines only options
the town officials paid for their trip with
taxpayers money rather than their own money
ground transportation is usually no less
expensive than airplane transportation
if the town officials did not follow their own
advice then that advice is not worth following
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-4-

9. Some scientists believe that 65 million years ago an


asteroid struck what is now the Yucatn Peninsula,
thereby causing extinction of the dinosaurs. These
scientists have established that such a strike could
have hurled enough debris into the atmosphere to
block sunlight and cool the atmosphere. Without
adequate sunlight, food sources for herbivorous
dinosaurs would have disappeared, and no dinosaurs
could have survived a prolonged period of low
temperatures. These same scientists, however, have
also established that most debris launched by the
asteroid would have settled to the ground within six
months, too soon for the plants to disappear or the
dinosaurs to freeze.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to
resolve the apparent discrepancy between the
scientists beliefs and the scientists results, as
described above?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(E)

Loss of the herbivorous dinosaurs would have


deprived the carnivorous dinosaurs of their
food source.
Dinosaurs inhabited most landmasses on the
planet but were not especially abundant in
the area of the asteroid strike.
A cloud of debris capable of diminishing
sunlight by 20 percent would have cooled the
earths surface by 7 to 10 degrees Celsius.
The asteroid was at least 9.6 km in diameter,
large enough for many dinosaurs to be killed
by the strike itself and by subsequent tidal
waves.
Dinosaurs were susceptible to fatal respiratory
problems caused by contamination of the air
by asteroid debris.

10. Bernard: For which language, and thus which


frequency distribution of letters and letter
sequences, was the standard typewriter
keyboard designed?
Cora: To ask this question, you must be making a
mistaken assumption: that typing speed was to
be maximized. The real danger with early
typewriters was that operators would hit
successive keys too quickly, thereby crashing
typebars into each other, bending connecting
wires, and so on. So the idea was to slow the
operator down by making the most common
letter sequences awkward to type.
Bernard: This is surely not right! These technological
limitations have long since vanished, yet the
keyboard is still as it was then.
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by
Cora to counter Bernards rejection of her explanation?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Typewriters and word-processing equipment


are typically sold to people who have learned
to use the standard keyboard and who,
therefore, demand it in equipment they buy.
Typewriters have been superseded in most
offices by word-processing equipment, which
has inherited the standard keyboard from
typewriters.
The standard keyboard allows skilled
operators to achieve considerable typing
speeds, though it makes acquiring such skills
relatively difficult.
A person who has learned one keyboard layout
can readily learn to use a second one in place
of the first, but only with difficulty learn to
use a second one alongside the first.
It is now possible to construct typewriters and
word-processing equipment in which a single
keyboard can accommodate two or even more
different keyboard layouts, each accessible to
the operator at will.

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11. Some teachers claim that students would not learn
curricular content without the incentive of grades.
But students with intense interest in the material
would learn it without this incentive, while the
behavior of students lacking all interest in the
material is unaffected by such an incentive. The
incentive of grades, therefore, serves no essential
academic purpose.

-5-

13. Recent research indicates that increased consumption


of fruits and vegetables by middle-aged people
reduces their susceptibility to stroke in later years.
The researchers speculate that this may be because
fruits and vegetables are rich in folic acid. Low levels
of folic acid are associated with high levels of
homocysteine, an amino acid that contributes to
blocked arteries.

The reasoning in the argument is flawed because the


argument

Which one of the following statements is most


strongly supported by the information above?

(A)

(A)

(B)
(C)
(D)

(E)

takes for granted that the only purpose of


school is to convey a fixed body of
information to students
takes for granted that students who are
indifferent to the grades they receive are
genuinely interested in the curricular material
fails to consider that the incentive of grades
may serve some useful nonacademic purpose
ignores the possibility that students who lack
interest in the curricular material would be
quite interested in it if allowed to choose their
own curricular material
fails to consider that some students may be
neither fascinated by nor completely
indifferent to the subject being taught

12. Economist: Technology now changes so rapidly


that workers need periodic retraining. Such
retraining can be efficient only if it allows
individual companies to meet their own shortterm needs. Hence, large governmental job
retraining programs are no longer a viable
option in the effort to retrain workers
efficiently.
Which one of the following is an assumption
required by the economists argument?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Workers did not need to be retrained when the


pace of technological change was slower than
it is currently.
Large job retraining programs will be less
efficient than smaller programs if the pace of
technological change slows.
No single type of retraining program is most
efficient at retraining technological workers.
Large governmental job retraining programs
do not meet the short-term needs of
individual companies.
Technological workers are more likely now
than in the past to move in order to find work
for which they are already trained.

(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

An increased risk of stroke is correlated with


low levels of homocysteine.
A decreased risk of stroke is correlated with
increased levels of folic acid.
An increased propensity for blocked arteries is
correlated with decreased levels of
homocysteine.
A decreased propensity for blocked arteries is
correlated with low levels of folic acid.
Stroke is prevented by ingestion of folic acid in
quantities sufficient to prevent a decline in
the levels of homocysteine.

14. Thirty years ago, the percentage of the British people


who vacationed in foreign countries was very small
compared with the large percentage of the British
population who travel abroad for vacations now.
Foreign travel is, and always has been, expensive
from Britain. Therefore, British people must have, on
average, more money to spend on vacations now
than they did 30 years ago.
The argument requires assuming which one of the
following?
(A)
(B)
(C)

(D)
(E)

If foreign travel had been less expensive 30


years ago, British people would still not have
had enough money to take vacations abroad.
If travel to Britain were less expensive, more
people of other countries would travel to
Britain for their vacations.
If the percentage of British people vacationing
abroad was lower 30 years ago, then the
British people of 30 years ago must have
spent more money on domestic vacations.
If more of the British people of 30 years ago
had had enough money to vacation abroad,
more would have done so.
If British people are now wealthier than they
were 30 years ago, then they must have more
money to spend on vacations now than they
did 30 years ago.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

-6-

15. Mystery stories often feature a brilliant detective and


the detectives dull companion. Clues are presented in
the story, and the companion wrongly infers an
inaccurate solution to the mystery using the same clues
that the detective uses to deduce the correct solution.
Thus, the authors strategy of including the dull
companion gives readers a chance to solve the mystery
while also diverting them from the correct solution.
Which one of the following is most strongly
supported by the information above?
(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)
(E)

Most mystery stories feature a brilliant


detective who solves the mystery presented in
the story.
Mystery readers often solve the mystery in a
story simply by spotting the mistakes in the
reasoning of the detectives dull companion in
that story.
Some mystery stories give readers enough
clues to infer the correct solution to the
mystery.
The actions of the brilliant detective in a
mystery story rarely divert readers from the
actions of the detectives dull companion.
The detectives dull companion in a mystery
story generally uncovers the misleading clues
that divert readers from the mysterys correct
solution.

16. Policy analyst: Increasing the size of a police force


is only a stopgap method of crime prevention;
it does not get at the root causes of crime.
Therefore, city officials should not respond to
rising crime rates by increasing the size of
their citys police force.
The flawed reasoning in which one of the following
arguments most closely resembles the flawed
reasoning in the policy analysts argument?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Some people think that rules with higher


standards than people can live up to, such as
those enjoining total honesty, prevent some
immoral behavior by giving people a guide to
self-improvement. But such rules actually
worsen behavior by making people cynical
about rules. Thus, societies should not
institute overly demanding rules.
Swamps play an important role in allaying the
harsh effects of floods because they absorb a
great deal of water. Although dams prevent
many floods, they worsen the effects of the
greatest floods by drying up swamps. Thus
dams should not be built.
Although less effective in preventing theft than
security guards, burglar alarm systems are
more affordable to maintain. Because the
greater loss from theft when alarms are used
is outweighed by their lower cost, companies
are advised always to use burglar alarm
systems.
Because taking this drug does not cure the
disease for which it is prescribed, but only
reduces the diseases most harmful effects,
doctors should not continue to prescribe this
drug.
We will never fully understand what causes
people to engage in criminal activity.
Therefore, we should investigate other ways to
improve societys ability to combat crime.

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1
Questions 1718

-7-

In order to determine automobile insurance


premiums for a driver, insurance companies calculate
various risk factors; as the risk factors increase, so does the
premium. Certain factors, such as the drivers age and past
accident history, play an important role in these
calculations. Yet these premiums should also increase with
the frequency with which a person drives. After all, a
persons chance of being involved in a mishap increases in
proportion to the number of times that person drives.

19. Essayist: Only happiness is intrinsically valuable;


other things are valuable only insofar as they
contribute to happiness. Some philosophers
argue that the fact that we do not approve of a
bad persons being happy shows that we value
happiness only when it is deserved. This
supposedly shows that we find something
besides happiness to be intrinsically valuable.
But the happiness people deserve is
determined by the amount of happiness they
bring to others. Therefore, ______.

17. Which one of the following, if true, most undermines


the argument?

Which one of the following most logically completes


the final sentence of the essayists argument?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

People who drive infrequently are more likely


to be involved in accidents that occur on
small roads than in highway accidents.
People who drive infrequently are less likely to
follow rules for safe driving than are people
who drive frequently.
People who drive infrequently are less likely to
violate local speed limits than are people who
drive frequently.
People who drive frequently are more likely to
make long-distance trips in the course of a
year than are people who drive infrequently.
People who drive frequently are more likely to
become distracted while driving than are
people who drive infrequently.

18. The claim that insurance premiums should increase


as the frequency with which a driver drives increases
plays which one of the following roles in the
argument?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

a premise of the argument


the conclusion of the argument
evidence offered in support of one of the
premises
an assertion phrased to preclude an
anticipated objection
a clarification of a key term in the argument

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

the notion that people can be deserving of


happiness is ultimately incoherent
people do not actually value happiness as
much as they think they do
the judgment that a person deserves to be
happy is itself to be understood in terms of
happiness
the only way to be assured of happiness is to
bring happiness to those who have done
something to deserve it
a truly bad person cannot actually be very
happy

20. Sociologist: Climate and geology determine where


human industry can be established. Drastic
shifts in climate always result in migrations,
and migrations bring about the intermingling
of ideas necessary for rapid advances in
civilization.
The sociologists statements, if true, most strongly
support which one of the following?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Climate is the primary cause of migration.


All shifts in climate produce a net gain in
human progress.
A population remains settled only where the
climate is fairly stable.
Populations settle in every place where human
industry can be established.
Every migration is accompanied by rapid
advances in civilization.

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-8-

21. Some educators claim that it is best that school


courses cover only basic subject matter, but cover it
in depth. These educators argue that if students
achieve a solid grasp of the basic concepts and
investigatory techniques in a subject, they will be
able to explore the breadth of that subject on their
own after the course is over. But if they simply learn
a lot of factual information, without truly
understanding its significance, they will not be well
equipped for further study on their own.
The educators reasoning provides grounds for
accepting which one of the following statements?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

It is easier to understand how plants and


animals are classified after learning how
plants and animals can be useful.
It is more difficult to recall the details of a dull
and complicated lecture than of a lively and
interesting one.
It is easier to remember new ideas explained
personally by a teacher than ideas that one
explores independently.
It is easier to understand any Greek tragedy
after one has analyzed a few of them in detail.
It is easier to learn many simple ideas well
than to learn a few complicated ideas well.

22. Damming the Merv River would provide irrigation


for the dry land in its upstream areas; unfortunately,
a dam would reduce agricultural productivity in the
fertile land downstream by reducing the availability
and quality of the water there. The productivity loss
in the downstream area would be greater than the
productivity gain upstream, so building a dam would
yield no overall gain in agricultural productivity in
the region as a whole.
The reasoning in the argument above most closely
parallels that in which one of the following?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Disease-causing bacteria in eggs can be


destroyed by overcooking the eggs, but the eggs
then become much less appetizing; health is
more important than taste, however, so it is
better to overcook eggs than not to do so.
Increasing the price of transatlantic telephone
calls will discourage many private individuals
from making them. But since most transatlantic
telephone calls are made by businesses, not by
private individuals, a rate increase will not
reduce telephone company profits.
A new highway will allow suburban
commuters to reach the city more quickly, but
not without causing increased delays within
the city that will more than offset any time
saved on the highway. Therefore, the highway
will not reduce suburban commuters overall
commuting time.
Doctors can prescribe antibiotics for many
minor illnesses, but antibiotics are expensive,
and these illnesses can often be cured by rest
alone. Therefore, it is better to rest at home
than to see a doctor for these illnesses.
A certain chemical will kill garden pests that
damage tomatoes, but that chemical will
damage certain other plants more severely
than the pests damage the tomatoes, so the
only gardens that will benefit from the use of
the chemical are those in which only
tomatoes are grown.

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1
23. Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to
prolong its shelf life. Five animal studies were
recently conducted to investigate whether this
process alters food in a way that could be
dangerous to people who eat it. The studies
concluded that irradiated food is safe for
humans to eat. However, because these studies
were subsequently found by a panel of
independent scientists to be seriously flawed in
their methodology, it follows that irradiated
food is not safe for human consumption.

-9-

24. One-year-olds ordinarily prefer the taste of sweet


food to that of salty food. Yet if one feeds a one-yearold salty food rather than sweet food, then over a
period of about a year he or she will develop a taste
for the salty flavor and choose to eat salty food rather
than sweet food. Thus, a young childs taste
preferences can be affected by the type of food he or
she has been exposed to.
Which one of the following is an assumption
required by the argument?
(A)

The reasoning in the activists argument is flawed


because that argument
(A)
(B)
(C)

(D)
(E)

(B)

treats a failure to prove a claim as constituting


proof of the denial of that claim
treats methodological flaws in past studies as
proof that it is currently not possible to
devise methodologically adequate alternatives
fails to consider the possibility that even a
study whose methodology has no serious
flaws nonetheless might provide only weak
support for its conclusion
fails to consider the possibility that what is safe
for animals might not always be safe for
human beings
fails to establish that the independent
scientists know more about food irradiation
than do the people who produced the five
studies

(C)
(D)
(E)

Two-year-olds do not naturally prefer salty


food to sweet food.
A childs taste preferences usually change
between age one and age two.
Two-year-olds do not naturally dislike salty
food so much that they would not choose it
over some other foods.
The salty food fed to infants in order to change
their taste preferences must taste pleasant.
Sweet food is better for infant development
than is salty food.

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.
DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.

-10-

2
SECTION II
Time35 minutes
24 Questions

Directions: Each group of questions in this section is based on a set of conditions. In answering some of the questions, it may be
useful to draw a rough diagram. Choose the response that most accurately and completely answers each question and blacken
the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
Questions 17
A car drives into the center ring of a circus and exactly
eight clownsQ, R, S, T, V, W, Y, and Zget out of the car,
one clown at a time. The order in which the clowns get out
of the car is consistent with the following conditions:
V gets out at some time before both Y and Q.
Q gets out at some time after Z.
T gets out at some time before V but at some time
after R.
S gets out at some time after V.
R gets out at some time before W.
1. Which one of the following could be the order, from
first to last, in which the clowns get out of the car?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

T, Z, V, R, W, Y, S, Q
Z, R, W, Q, T, V, Y, S
R, W, T, V, Q, Z, S, Y
Z, W, R, T, V, Y, Q, S
R, W, T, V, Z, S, Y, Q

2. Which one of the following could be true?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Y is the second clown to get out of the car.


R is the third clown to get out of the car.
Q is the fourth clown to get out of the car.
S is the fifth clown to get out of the car.
V is the sixth clown to get out of the car.

3. If Z is the seventh clown to get out of the car, then


which one of the following could be true?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

R is the second clown to get out of the car.


T is the fourth clown to get out of the car.
W is the fifth clown to get out of the car.
V is the sixth clown to get out of the car.
Y is the eighth clown to get out of the car.

4. If T is the fourth clown to get out of the car, then


which one of the following must be true?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

R is the first clown to get out of the car.


Z is the second clown to get out of the car.
W is the third clown to get out of the car.
V is the fifth clown to get out of the car.
Y is the seventh clown to get out of the car.

5. If Q is the fifth clown to get out of the car, then each


of the following could be true EXCEPT:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Z is the first clown to get out of the car.


T is the second clown to get out of the car.
V is the third clown to get out of the car.
W is the fourth clown to get out of the car.
Y is the sixth clown to get out of the car.

6. If R is the second clown to get out of the car, which


one of the following must be true?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

S gets out of the car at some time before


T does.
T gets out of the car at some time before
W does.
W gets out of the car at some time before
V does.
Y gets out of the car at some time before
Q does.
Z gets out of the car at some time before
W does.

7. If V gets out of the car at some time before Z does,


then which one of the following could be true?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

R is the second clown to get out of the car.


T is the fourth clown to get out of the car.
Q is the fourth clown to get out of the car.
V is the fifth clown to get out of the car.
Z is the sixth clown to get out of the car.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

2
Questions 813
Each of six tasksharvesting, milling, plowing, spinning,
threshing, and weavingwill be demonstrated exactly
once at a farm exhibition. No two tasks will be
demonstrated concurrently. Three volunteersFrank,
Gladys, and Lesliewill each demonstrate exactly two of
the tasks. The tasks must be demonstrated in accordance
with the following conditions:
Frank demonstrates exactly one task before Gladys
demonstrates any of the tasks.
Frank performs neither the first nor the last
demonstration.
Gladys demonstrates neither harvesting nor milling.
Leslie demonstrates neither harvesting nor threshing.
Milling is the next task demonstrated after threshing
is demonstrated.
8. Which one of the following is an acceptable list of the
volunteers and the tasks each demonstrates, in order
from the first to the last demonstration?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Frank: weaving; Gladys: threshing;


Leslie: milling; Leslie: spinning;
Frank: harvesting; Gladys: plowing
Leslie: plowing; Frank: harvesting;
Frank: threshing; Leslie: milling;
Gladys: spinning; Gladys: weaving
Leslie: plowing; Frank: spinning;
Gladys: threshing; Leslie: milling;
Frank: harvesting; Gladys: weaving
Leslie: spinning; Leslie: weaving;
Frank: plowing; Gladys: harvesting;
Frank: threshing; Gladys: milling
Leslie: weaving; Frank: threshing;
Gladys: spinning; Leslie: milling;
Frank: harvesting; Gladys: plowing

-11-

10. If Leslie performs the fourth demonstration, then


harvesting could be the demonstration performed
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

first
second
third
fourth
sixth

11. If Gladys demonstrates plowing immediately before


Frank demonstrates threshing, which one of the
following must be true?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Frank demonstrates harvesting for the second


demonstration.
Gladys demonstrates spinning for the fifth
demonstration.
Leslie demonstrates weaving for the first
demonstration.
Gladys performs the fourth demonstration.
Leslie performs the sixth demonstration.

12. Which one of the following must be true?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Frank performs the second demonstration.


Gladys performs the fourth demonstration.
Gladys performs the sixth demonstration.
Leslie performs the first demonstration.
Leslie performs the second demonstration.

13. Which one of the following could be true?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Harvesting is demonstrated first.


Milling is demonstrated second.
Threshing is demonstrated first.
Threshing is demonstrated last.
Weaving is demonstrated first.

9. Which one of the following must be true?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Frank demonstrates harvesting.


Frank demonstrates milling.
Frank demonstrates threshing.
Gladys demonstrates plowing.
Gladys demonstrates weaving.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

-12-

Questions 1419
Seven job applicantsFeng, Garcia, Herrera, Ilias, Weiss,
Xavier, and Yatesare hired to fill seven new positions at
Chroma, Inc. One position is in the management
department, three are in the production department, and
three are in the sales department. The following conditions
must apply:
Herrera is hired for a position in the same
department as Yates.
Feng is hired for a position in a different department
from Garcia.
If Xavier is hired for a sales position, then Weiss is
hired for a production position.
Feng is hired for a production position.
14. Which one of the following could be a complete and
accurate matching of the applicants with the
departments in which they were hired?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

management: Weiss;
production: Feng, Herrera, Yates;
sales: Garcia, Ilias, Xavier
management: Weiss;
production: Garcia, Ilias, Xavier;
sales: Feng, Herrera, Yates
management: Xavier;
production: Feng, Garcia, Herrera;
sales: Ilias, Yates, Weiss
management: Xavier;
production: Feng, Herrera, Ilias;
sales: Garcia, Weiss, Yates
management: Xavier;
production: Feng, Ilias, Weiss;
sales: Garcia, Herrera, Yates

15. Which one of the following is a complete and


accurate list of the applicants, each of whom
CANNOT be hired for a production position?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Feng, Ilias, Xavier


Garcia, Herrera, Yates
Herrera, Yates
Garcia
Ilias

2
16. It can be determined in which department each of
the seven applicants is hired if which one of the
following statements is true?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Feng and Weiss are both hired for production


positions.
Garcia and Yates are both hired for sales
positions.
Ilias and Weiss are both hired for sales
positions.
Ilias and Weiss are both hired for production
positions.
Ilias and Xavier are both hired for production
positions.

17. Each of the following could be an accurate partial list


of the applicants hired for sales positions EXCEPT:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Garcia, Ilias
Garcia, Xavier
Garcia, Yates
Herrera, Weiss
Herrera, Xavier

18. If Feng is hired for a position in the same department


as Xavier, then each of the following could be true
EXCEPT:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Garcia is hired for a sales position.


Herrera is hired for a production position.
Ilias is hired for a sales position.
Weiss is hired for the management position.
Weiss is hired for a production position.

19. If Xavier is not hired for one of the production


positions, then which one of the following could be
true?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Feng and Herrera are both hired for sales


positions.
Herrera and Weiss are both hired for sales
positions.
Feng and Yates are both hired for production
positions.
Garcia and Weiss are both hired for
production positions.
Herrera and Weiss are both hired for
production positions.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

Questions 2024

22. If each piece (except the fifth) shares one instrument


with the piece performed immediately after it, then
which one of the following could be true?

Musicians perform each of exactly five piecesNexus,


Onyx, Synchrony, Tailwind, and Virtualonce, and one at
a time; the pieces are performed successively (though not
necessarily in that order). Each piece is performed with
exactly two instruments: Nexus with fiddle and lute, Onyx
with harp and mandolin, Synchrony with guitar and harp,
Tailwind with fiddle and guitar, and Virtual with lute and
mandolin. The following conditions must apply:
Each piece shares one instrument with the piece
performed immediately before it or after it (or
both).
Either Nexus or Tailwind is performed second.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

23. Each of the following could be the piece performed


first EXCEPT:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

20. Which one of the following could be the order, from


first to last, in which the pieces are performed?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Nexus, Synchrony, Onyx, Virtual, Tailwind


Synchrony, Tailwind, Onyx, Nexus, Virtual
Tailwind, Nexus, Onyx, Virtual, Synchrony
Tailwind, Nexus, Synchrony, Onyx, Virtual
Virtual, Nexus, Synchrony, Onyx, Tailwind

Nexus
Onyx
Synchrony
Tailwind
Virtual

24. If Synchrony is performed fifth, then which one of


the following could be true?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

21. Which one of the following instruments CANNOT


be shared by the third and fourth pieces performed?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Virtual is performed first.


Synchrony is performed second.
Onyx is performed third.
Nexus is performed fourth.
Tailwind is performed fifth.

Nexus is performed third.


Onyx is performed third.
Tailwind is performed fourth.
Virtual is performed first.
Virtual is performed second.

fiddle
guitar
harp
lute
mandolin

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.
DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.

-13-

-14-

SECTION III
Time35 minutes
27 Questions
Directions: Each passage in this section is followed by a group of questions to be answered on the basis of what is stated or
implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However,
you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question, and blacken
the corresponding space on your answer sheet.

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The myth persists that in 1492 the Western


Hemisphere was an untamed wilderness and that it was
European settlers who harnessed and transformed its
ecosystems. But scholarship shows that forests, in
particular, had been altered to varying degrees well
before the arrival of Europeans. Native populations had
converted much of the forests to successfully cultivated
stands, especially by means of burning. Nevertheless,
some researchers have maintained that the extent,
frequency, and impact of such burning was minimal.
One geographer claims that climatic change could have
accounted for some of the changes in forest
composition; another argues that burning by native
populations was done only sporadically, to augment the
effects of natural fires.
However, a large body of evidence for the routine
practice of burning exists in the geographical record.
One group of researchers found, for example, that
sedimentary charcoal accumulations in what is now the
northeastern United States are greatest where known
native American settlements were greatest. Other
evidence shows that, while the characteristics and
impact of fires set by native populations varied
regionally according to population size, extent of
resource management techniques, and environment, all
such fires had markedly different effects on vegetation
patterns than did natural fires. Controlled burning
created grassy openings such as meadows and glades.
Burning also promoted a mosaic quality to North and
South American ecosystems, creating forests in many
different stages of ecological development. Much of the
mature forestland was characterized by open,
herbaceous undergrowth, another result of the clearing
brought about by burning.
In North America, controlled burning created
conditions favorable to berries and other fire-tolerant
and sun-loving foods. Burning also converted mixed
stands of trees to homogeneous forest, for example the
longleaf, slash pine, and scrub oak forests of the
southeastern U.S. Natural fires do account for some of
this vegetation, but regular burning clearly extended
and maintained it. Burning also influenced forest
composition in the tropics, where natural fires are rare.
An example is the pine-dominant forests of Nicaragua,
where warm temperatures and heavy rainfall naturally
favor mixed tropical or rain forests. While there are
extensive pine forests in Guatemala and Mexico, these
primarily grow in cooler, drier, higher elevations,
regions where such vegetation is in large part natural
and even prehuman. Today, the Nicaraguan pines
occur where there has been clearing followed by

regular burning, and the same is likely to have occurred


in the past: such forests were present when Europeans
arrived and were found only in areas where native
(55) settlements were substantial; when these settlements
were abandoned, the land returned to mixed
hardwoods. This succession is also evident elsewhere
in similar low tropical elevations in the Caribbean and
Mexico.
1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses
the main idea of the passage?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Despite extensive evidence that native


populations had been burning North and
South American forests extensively before
1492, some scholars persist in claiming that
such burning was either infrequent or the
result of natural causes.
In opposition to the widespread belief that in
1492 the Western Hemisphere was
uncultivated, scholars unanimously agree that
native populations were substantially altering
North and South American forests well before
the arrival of Europeans.
Although some scholars minimize the scope
and importance of the burning of forests
engaged in by native populations of North
and South America before 1492, evidence of
the frequency and impact of such burning is
actually quite extensive.
Where scholars had once believed that North
and South American forests remained
uncultivated until the arrival of Europeans,
there is now general agreement that native
populations had been cultivating the forests
since well before 1492.
While scholars have acknowledged that North
and South American forests were being
burned well before 1492, there is still
disagreement over whether such burning was
the result of natural causes or of the
deliberate actions of native populations.

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3
2. It can be inferred that a forest burned as described in
the passage would have been LEAST likely to display
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

numerous types of hardwood trees


extensive herbaceous undergrowth
a variety of fire-tolerant plants
various stages of ecological maturity
grassy openings such as meadows or glades

3. Which one of the following is a type of forest


identified by the author as a product of controlled
burning in recent times?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

scrub oak forests in the southeastern U.S.


slash pine forests in the southeastern U.S.
pine forests in Guatemala at high elevations
pine forests in Mexico at high elevations
pine forests in Nicaragua at low elevations

6. As evidence for the routine practice of forest burning


by native populations before the arrival of
Europeans, the author cites all of the following
EXCEPT:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

extensive homogeneous forests at high


elevation
extensive homogeneous forests at low
elevation
extensive heterogeneous forests at high
elevation
extensive heterogeneous forests at low
elevation
extensive sedimentary charcoal accumulations
at high elevation

5. With which one of the following would the author be


most likely to agree?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

The long-term effects of controlled burning


could just as easily have been caused by
natural fires.
Herbaceous undergrowth prevents many
forests from reaching full maturity.
European settlers had little impact on the
composition of the ecosystems in North and
South America.
Certain species of plants may not have been as
widespread in North America without
controlled burning.
Nicaraguan pine forests could have been
created either by natural fires or by controlled
burning.

the similar characteristics of fires in different


regions
the simultaneous presence of forests at varying
stages of maturity
the existence of herbaceous undergrowth in
certain forests
the heavy accumulation of charcoal near
populous settlements
the presence of meadows and glades in certain
forests

7. The succession mentioned in line 57 refers to


(A)

4. Which one of the following is presented by the


author as evidence of controlled burning in the
tropics before the arrival of Europeans?

-15-

(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

forest clearing followed by controlled burning


of forests
tropical rain forest followed by pine forest
European settlement followed by
abandonment of land
homogeneous pine forest followed by mixed
hardwoods
pine forests followed by established
settlements

8. The primary purpose of the passage is to


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

refute certain researchers views


support a common belief
counter certain evidence
synthesize two viewpoints
correct the geographical record

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-16-

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3
Intellectual authority is defined as the authority of
arguments that prevail by virtue of good reasoning and
do not depend on coercion or convention. A contrasting
notion, institutional authority, refers to the power of
social institutions to enforce acceptance of arguments
that may or may not possess intellectual authority. The
authority wielded by legal systems is especially
interesting because such systems are institutions that
nonetheless aspire to a purely intellectual authority.
One judge goes so far as to claim that courts are merely
passive vehicles for applying the intellectual authority
of the law and possess no coercive powers of their
own.
In contrast, some critics maintain that whatever
authority judicial pronouncements have is exclusively
institutional. Some of these critics go further, claiming
that intellectual authority does not really existi.e., it
reduces to institutional authority. But it can be
countered that these claims break down when a
sufficiently broad historical perspective is taken: Not
all arguments accepted by institutions withstand the
test of time, and some well-reasoned arguments never
receive institutional imprimatur. The reasonable
argument that goes unrecognized in its own time
because it challenges institutional beliefs is common in
intellectual history; intellectual authority and
institutional consensus are not the same thing.
But, the critics might respond, intellectual authority
is only recognized as such because of institutional
consensus. For example, if a musicologist were to
claim that an alleged musical genius who, after several
decades, had not gained respect and recognition for his
or her compositions is probably not a genius, the critics
might say that basing a judgment on a unit of time
several decadesis an institutional rather than an
intellectual construct. What, the critics might ask,
makes a particular number of decades reasonable
evidence by which to judge genius? The answer, of
course, is nothing, except for the fact that such
institutional procedures have proved useful to
musicologists in making such distinctions in the past.
The analogous legal concept is the doctrine of
precedent, i.e., a judges merely deciding a case a
certain way becoming a basis for deciding later cases
the same waya pure example of institutional
authority. But the critics miss the crucial distinction
that when a judicial decision is badly reasoned, or
simply no longer applies in the face of evolving social
standards or practices, the notion of intellectual
authority is introduced: judges reconsider, revise, or in
some cases throw out the decision. The conflict
between intellectual and institutional authority in legal
systems is thus played out in the reconsideration of
decisions, leading one to draw the conclusion that legal
systems contain a significant degree of intellectual
authority even if the thrust of their power is
predominantly institutional.

3
9. Which one of the following most accurately states the
main idea of the passage?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Although some argue that the authority of


legal systems is purely intellectual, these
systems possess a degree of institutional
authority due to their ability to enforce
acceptance of badly reasoned or socially
inappropriate judicial decisions.
Although some argue that the authority of
legal systems is purely institutional, these
systems are more correctly seen as vehicles for
applying the intellectual authority of the law
while possessing no coercive power of their
own.
Although some argue that the authority of
legal systems is purely intellectual, these
systems in fact wield institutional authority
by virtue of the fact that intellectual authority
reduces to institutional authority.
Although some argue that the authority of
legal systems is purely institutional, these
systems possess a degree of intellectual
authority due to their ability to reconsider
badly reasoned or socially inappropriate
judicial decisions.
Although some argue that the authority of
legal systems is purely intellectual, these
systems in fact wield exclusively institutional
authority in that they possess the power to
enforce acceptance of badly reasoned or
socially inappropriate judicial decisions.

10. That some arguments never receive institutional


imprimatur (lines 2223) most likely means that
these arguments
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

fail to gain institutional consensus


fail to challenge institutional beliefs
fail to conform to the example of precedent
fail to convince by virtue of good reasoning
fail to gain acceptance except by coercion

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

3
11. Which one of the following, if true, most challenges
the authors contention that legal systems contain a
significant degree of intellectual authority?
(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

(E)

Judges often act under time constraints and


occasionally render a badly reasoned or
socially inappropriate decision.
In some legal systems, the percentage of
judicial decisions that contain faulty
reasoning is far higher than it is in other legal
systems.
Many socially inappropriate legal decisions are
thrown out by judges only after citizens begin
to voice opposition to them.
In some legal systems, the percentage of
judicial decisions that are reconsidered and
revised is far higher than it is in other legal
systems.
Judges are rarely willing to rectify the
examples of faulty reasoning they discover
when reviewing previous legal decisions.

12. Given the information in the passage, the author is


LEAST likely to believe which one of the following?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Institutional authority may depend on


coercion; intellectual authority never does.
Intellectual authority may accept wellreasoned arguments; institutional authority
never does.
Institutional authority may depend on
convention; intellectual authority never does.
Intellectual authority sometimes challenges
institutional beliefs; institutional authority
never does.
Intellectual authority sometimes conflicts with
precedent; institutional authority never does.

-17-

13. The author discusses the example from musicology


primarily in order to
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

distinguish the notion of institutional


authority from that of intellectual authority
give an example of an argument possessing
intellectual authority that did not prevail in
its own time
identify an example in which the ascription of
musical genius did not withstand the test of
time
illustrate the claim that assessing intellectual
authority requires an appeal to institutional
authority
demonstrate that the authority wielded by the
arbiters of musical genius is entirely
institutional

14. Based on the passage, the author would be most


likely to hold which one of the following views about
the doctrine of precedent?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

It is the only tool judges should use if they


wish to achieve a purely intellectual authority.
It is a useful tool in theory but in practice it
invariably conflicts with the demands of
intellectual authority.
It is a useful tool but lacks intellectual
authority unless it is combined with the
reconsidering of decisions.
It is often an unreliable tool because it
prevents judges from reconsidering the
intellectual authority of past decisions.
It is an unreliable tool that should be
abandoned because it lacks intellectual
authority.

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-18-

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3
In explaining the foundations of the discipline
known as historical sociologythe examination of
history using the methods of sociologyhistorical
sociologist Philip Abrams argues that, while people are
made by society as much as society is made by people,
sociologists approach to the subject is usually to focus
on only one of these forms of influence to the
exclusion of the other. Abrams insists on the necessity
for sociologists to move beyond these one-sided
approaches to understand society as an entity
constructed by individuals who are at the same time
constructed by their society. Abrams refers to this
continuous process as structuring.
Abrams also sees history as the result of
structuring. People, both individually and as members
of collectives, make history. But our making of history
is itself formed and informed not only by the historical
conditions we inherit from the past, but also by the
prior formation of our own identities and capacities,
which are shaped by what Abrams calls
contingenciessocial phenomena over which we
have varying degrees of control. Contingencies include
such things as the social conditions under which we
come of age, the condition of our households
economy, the ideologies available to help us make
sense of our situation, and accidental circumstances.
The ways in which contingencies affect our individual
or group identities create a structure of forces within
which we are able to act, and that partially determines
the sorts of actions we are able to perform.
In Abramss analysis, historical structuring, like
social structuring, is manifold and unremitting. To
understand it, historical sociologists must extract from
it certain significant episodes, or events, that their
methodology can then analyze and interpret. According
to Abrams, these events are points at which action and
contingency meet, points that represent a cross section
of the specific social and individual forces in play at a
given time. At such moments, individuals stand forth
as agents of history not simply because they possess a
unique ability to act, but also because in them we see
the force of the specific social conditions that allowed
their actions to come forth. Individuals can make their
mark on history, yet in individuals one also finds the
convergence of wider social forces. In order to capture
the various facets of this mutual interaction, Abrams
recommends a fourfold structure to which he believes
the investigations of historical sociologists should
conform: first, description of the event itself; second,
discussion of the social context that helped bring the
event about and gave it significance; third, summary of
the life history of the individual agent in the event; and
fourth, analysis of the consequences of the event both
for history and for the individual.

3
15. Which one of the following most accurately states the
central idea of the passage?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Abrams argues that historical sociology rejects


the claims of sociologists who assert that the
sociological concept of structuring cannot be
applied to the interactions between
individuals and history.
Abrams argues that historical sociology
assumes that, despite the views of sociologists
to the contrary, history influences the social
contingencies that affect individuals.
Abrams argues that historical sociology
demonstrates that, despite the views of
sociologists to the contrary, social structures
both influence and are influenced by the
events of history.
Abrams describes historical sociology as a
discipline that unites two approaches taken by
sociologists to studying the formation of
societies and applies the resulting combined
approach to the study of history.
Abrams describes historical sociology as an
attempt to compensate for the shortcomings
of traditional historical methods by applying
the methods established in sociology.

16. Given the passages argument, which one of the


following sentences most logically completes the last
paragraph?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Only if they adhere to this structure, Abrams


believes, can historical sociologists conclude
with any certainty that the events that
constitute the historical record are influenced
by the actions of individuals.
Only if they adhere to this structure, Abrams
believes, will historical sociologists be able to
counter the standard sociological assumption
that there is very little connection between
history and individual agency.
Unless they can agree to adhere to this
structure, Abrams believes, historical
sociologists risk having their discipline
treated as little more than an interesting but
ultimately indefensible adjunct to history and
sociology.
By adhering to this structure, Abrams believes,
historical sociologists can shed light on issues
that traditional sociologists have chosen to
ignore in their one-sided approaches to the
formation of societies.
By adhering to this structure, Abrams believes,
historical sociologists will be able to better
portray the complex connections between
human agency and history.
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3
17. The passage states that a contingency could be each
of the following EXCEPT:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

a social phenomenon
a form of historical structuring
an accidental circumstance
a condition controllable to some extent by an
individual
a partial determinant of an individuals actions

3
19. The primary function of the first paragraph of the
passage is to
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

18. Which one of the following is most analogous to the


ideal work of a historical sociologist as outlined by
Abrams?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

In a report on the enactment of a bill into law,


a journalist explains why the need for the bill
arose, sketches the biography of the principal
legislator who wrote the bill, and ponders the
effect that the bills enactment will have both
on society and on the legislators career.
In a consultation with a patient, a doctor
reviews the patients medical history, suggests
possible reasons for the patients current
condition, and recommends steps that the
patient should take in the future to ensure
that the condition improves or at least does
not get any worse.
In an analysis of a historical novel, a critic
provides information to support the claim
that details of the works setting are accurate,
explains why the subject of the novel was of
particular interest to the author, and
compares the novel with some of the authors
other books set in the same period.
In a presentation to stockholders, a
corporations chief executive officer describes
the corporations most profitable activities
during the past year, introduces the vice
president largely responsible for those
activities, and discusses new projects the vice
president will initiate in the coming year.
In developing a film based on a historical
event, a filmmaker conducts interviews with
participants in the event, bases part of the
films screenplay on the interviews, and
concludes the screenplay with a sequence of
scenes speculating on the outcome of the
event had certain details been different.

-19-

(E)

outline the merits of Abramss conception of


historical sociology
convey the details of Abramss conception of
historical sociology
anticipate challenges to Abramss conception
of historical sociology
examine the roles of key terms used in
Abramss conception of historical sociology
identify the basis of Abramss conception of
historical sociology

20. Based on the passage, which one of the following is


the LEAST illustrative example of the effect of a
contingency upon an individual?
(A)
(B)
(C)

(D)
(E)

the effect of the fact that a person experienced


political injustice on that persons decision to
work for political reform
the effect of the fact that a person was raised in
an agricultural region on that persons
decision to pursue a career in agriculture
the effect of the fact that a person lives in a
particular community on that persons
decision to visit friends in another
community
the effect of the fact that a persons parents
practiced a particular religion on that
persons decision to practice that religion
the effect of the fact that a person grew up in
financial hardship on that persons decision to
help others in financial hardship

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

-20-

(5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

(35)

(40)

(45)

(50)

(55)

(60)

3
One of the greatest challenges facing medical
students today, apart from absorbing volumes of
technical information and learning habits of scientific
thought, is that of remaining empathetic to the needs of
patients in the face of all this rigorous training.
Requiring students to immerse themselves completely
in medical coursework risks disconnecting them from
the personal and ethical aspects of doctoring, and such
strictly scientific thinking is insufficient for grappling
with modern ethical dilemmas. For these reasons,
aspiring physicians need to develop new ways of
thinking about and interacting with patients. Training
in ethics that takes narrative literature as its primary
subject is one method of accomplishing this.
Although training in ethics is currently provided by
medical schools, this training relies heavily on an
abstract, philosophical view of ethics. Although the
conceptual clarity provided by a traditional ethics
course can be valuable, theorizing about ethics
contributes little to the understanding of everyday
human experience or to preparing medical students for
the multifarious ethical dilemmas they will face as
physicians. A true foundation in ethics must be
predicated on an understanding of human behavior that
reflects a wide array of relationships and readily adapts
to various perspectives, for this is what is required to
develop empathy. Ethics courses drawing on narrative
literature can better help students prepare for ethical
dilemmas precisely because such literature attaches its
readers so forcefully to the concrete and varied world
of human events.
The act of reading narrative literature is uniquely
suited to the development of what might be called
flexible ethical thinking. To grasp the development of
characters, to tangle with heightening moral crises, and
to engage oneself with the story not as ones own but
nevertheless as something recognizable and worthy of
attention, readers must use their moral imagination.
Giving oneself over to the ethical conflicts in a story
requires the abandonment of strictly absolute, inviolate
sets of moral principles. Reading literature also
demands that the reader adopt another persons point of
viewthat of the narrator or a character in a story
and thus requires the ability to depart from ones
personal ethical stance and examine moral issues from
new perspectives.
It does not follow that readers, including medical
professionals, must relinquish all moral principles, as is
the case with situational ethics, in which decisions
about ethical choices are made on the basis of intuition
and are entirely relative to the circumstances in which
they arise. Such an extremely relativistic stance would
have as little benefit for the patient or physician as
would a dogmatically absolutist one. Fortunately, the
incorporation of narrative literature into the study of
ethics, while serving as a corrective to the latter stance,
need not lead to the former. But it can give us
something that is lacking in the traditional
philosophical study of ethicsnamely, a deeper
understanding of human nature that can serve as a
foundation for ethical reasoning and allow greater
flexibility in the application of moral principles.

3
21. Which one of the following most accurately states the
main point of the passage?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Training in ethics that incorporates narrative


literature would better cultivate flexible
ethical thinking and increase medical
students capacity for empathetic patient care
as compared with the traditional approach of
medical schools to such training.
Traditional abstract ethical training, because it
is too heavily focused on theoretical
reasoning, tends to decrease or impair the
medical students sensitivity to modern
ethical dilemmas.
Only a properly designed curriculum that
balances situational, abstract, and narrative
approaches to ethics will adequately prepare
the medical student for complex ethical
confrontations involving actual patients.
Narrative-based instruction in ethics is
becoming increasingly popular in medical
schools because it requires students to
develop a capacity for empathy by examining
complex moral issues from a variety of
perspectives.
The study of narrative literature in medical
schools would nurture moral intuition,
enabling the future doctor to make ethical
decisions without appeal to general
principles.

22. Which one of the following most accurately


represents the authors use of the term moral
imagination in line 38?
(A)

(B)

(C)
(D)

(E)

a sense of curiosity, aroused by reading, that


leads one to follow actively the development
of problems involving the characters depicted
in narratives
a faculty of seeking out and recognizing the
ethical controversies involved in human
relationships and identifying oneself with one
side or another in such controversies
a capacity to understand the complexities of
various ethical dilemmas and to fashion
creative and innovative solutions to them
an ability to understand personal aspects of
ethically significant situations even if one is
not a direct participant and to empathize
with those involved in them
an ability to act upon ethical principles
different from ones own for the sake of
variety

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

23. It can be inferred from the passage that the author


would most likely agree with which one of the
following statements?
(A)

(B)
(C)

(D)

(E)

3
25. The passage ascribes each of the following
characteristics to the use of narrative literature in
ethical education EXCEPT:

The heavy load of technical coursework in


todays medical schools often keeps them
from giving adequate emphasis to courses in
medical ethics.
Students learn more about ethics through the
use of fiction than through the use of
nonfictional readings.
The traditional method of ethical training in
medical schools should be supplemented or
replaced by more direct practical experience
with real-life patients in ethically difficult
situations.
The failings of an abstract, philosophical
training in ethics can be remedied only by
replacing it with a purely narrative-based
approach.
Neither scientific training nor traditional
philosophical ethics adequately prepares
doctors to deal with the emotional dimension
of patients needs.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

(B)

(C)
(D)
(E)

to advise medical schools on how to


implement a narrative-based approach to
ethics in their curricula
to argue that the current methods of ethics
education are counterproductive to the
formation of empathetic doctor-patient
relationships
to argue that the ethical content of narrative
literature foreshadows the pitfalls of
situational ethics
to propose an approach to ethical training in
medical school that will preserve the human
dimension of medicine
to demonstrate the value of a well-designed
ethics education for medical students

It tends to avoid the extreme relativism of


situational ethics.
It connects students to varied types of human
events.
It can help lead medical students to develop
new ways of dealing with patients.
It requires students to examine moral issues
from new perspectives.
It can help insulate future doctors from the
shock of the ethical dilemmas they will
confront.

26. With regard to ethical dilemmas, the passage


explicitly states each of the following EXCEPT:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

24. Which one of the following is most likely the authors


overall purpose in the passage?
(A)

-21-

(E)

Doctors face a variety of such dilemmas.


Purely scientific thinking is inadequate for
dealing with modern ethical dilemmas.
Such dilemmas are more prevalent today as a
result of scientific and technological advances
in medicine.
Theorizing about ethics does little to prepare
students to face such dilemmas.
Narrative literature can help make medical
students ready to face such dilemmas.

27. The authors attitude regarding the traditional


method of teaching ethics in medical school can
most accurately be described as
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

unqualified disapproval of the method and


disapproval of all of its effects
reserved judgment regarding the method and
disapproval of all of its effects
partial disapproval of the method and clinical
indifference toward its effects
partial approval of the method and
disapproval of all of its effects
partial disapproval of the method and
approval of some of its effects

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.
DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.

-22-

SECTION IV
Time35 minutes
26 Questions
Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some
questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that
is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by
commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer,
blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
Questions 12
Ms. Smith: I am upset that my sons entire class lost two
days of recess because some of the children
were throwing raisins in the cafeteria. He was
not throwing raisins, and it was clear to
everyone just who the culprits were.
Principal: Im sorry youre upset, Ms. Smith, but your
sons situation is like being caught in a traffic
jam caused by an accident. People who arent
involved in the accident nevertheless have to
suffer by sitting there in the middle of it.
1. If the principal is speaking sincerely, then it can be
inferred from what the principal says that the
principal believes that
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

many children were throwing raisins in the


cafeteria
Ms. Smiths son might not have thrown raisins
in the cafeteria
after an accident the resulting traffic jams are
generally caused by police activity
Ms. Smiths son knows who it was that threw
raisins in the cafeteria
losing two days of recess will deter future
disruptions

2. The principals response to Ms. Smiths complaint is


most vulnerable to criticism on which one of the
following grounds?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

It makes a generalization about all the children


in the class which is not justified by the facts.
It suggests that throwing raisins in the
cafeteria produces as much inconvenience as
does being caught in a traffic jam.
It does not acknowledge the fact that a traffic
jam following an accident is unavoidable
while the mass punishment was avoidable.
It assumes that Ms. Smiths son is guilty when
there is evidence to the contrary which the
principal has disregarded.
It attempts to confuse the point at issue by
introducing irrelevant facts about the
incident.

3. Journalist: Obviously, though some animals are


purely carnivorous, none would survive
without plants. But the dependence is mutual.
Many plant species would never have come to
be had there been no animals to pollinate,
fertilize, and broadcast their seeds. Also,
plants photosynthetic activity would deplete
the carbon dioxide in Earths atmosphere were
it not constantly being replenished by the
exhalation of animals, engine fumes, and
smoke from fires, many set by human beings.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses
the main conclusion of the journalists argument?
(A)

(B)
(C)

(D)

(E)

The photosynthetic activity of plants is


necessary for animal life, but animal life is
also necessary for the occurrence of
photosynthesis in plants.
Some purely carnivorous animals would not
survive without plants.
The chemical composition of Earth and its
atmosphere depends, at least to some extent,
on the existence and activities of the animals
that populate Earth.
Human activity is part of what prevents plants
from depleting the oxygen in Earths
atmosphere on which plants and animals
alike depend.
Just as animals are dependent on plants for
their survival, plants are dependent on
animals for theirs.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

4. The government-owned gas company has begun


selling stoves and other gas appliances to create a
larger market for its gas. Merchants who sell such
products complain that the competition will hurt
their businesses. That may well be; however, the
government-owned gas company is within its rights.
After all, the owner of a private gas company might
well decide to sell such appliances and surely there
would be nothing wrong with that.
Which one of the following principles, if valid, most
helps to justify the reasoning above?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Government-owned companies have the right


to do whatever private businesses have the
right to do.
A government should always take seriously the
complaints of merchants.
Private businesses have no right to compete
with government monopolies.
There is nothing wrong with a governmentowned company selling products so long as
owners of private companies do not complain.
There is nothing wrong with private
companies competing against each other.

Each of the following, if true, strengthens the


toxicologists argument EXCEPT:
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Most oil-refinery workers who do not work


with MBTE do not have serious health
problems involving headaches, fatigue, and
shortness of breath.
Headaches, fatigue, and shortness of breath are
among the symptoms of several medical
conditions that are potentially serious threats
to public health.
Since the time when gasoline containing
MBTE was first introduced in a few
metropolitan areas, those areas reported an
increase in the number of complaints about
headaches, fatigue, and shortness of breath.
Regions in which only gasoline containing
MBTE is used have a much greater incidence
of headaches, fatigue, and shortness of breath
than do similar regions in which only MBTEfree gasoline is used.
The oil-refinery workers surveyed were
carefully selected to be representative of the
broader population in their medical histories
prior to exposure to MBTE, as well as in other
relevant respects.

-23-

6. In any field, experience is required for a proficient


person to become an expert. Through experience, a
proficient person gradually develops a repertory of
model situations that allows an immediate, intuitive
response to each new situation. This is the hallmark
of expertise, and for this reason computerized
expert systems cannot be as good as human
experts. Although computers have the ability to store
millions of bits of information, the knowledge of
human experts, who benefit from the experience of
thousands of situations, is not stored within their
brains in the form of rules and facts.
The argument requires the assumption of which one
of the following?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

5. Toxicologist: A survey of oil-refinery workers who


work with MBTE, an ingredient currently used in
some smog-reducing gasolines, found an
alarming incidence of complaints about
headaches, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Since
gasoline containing MBTE will soon be widely
used, we can expect an increased incidence of
headaches, fatigue, and shortness of breath.

(E)

Computers can show no more originality in


responding to a situation than that built into
them by their designers.
The knowledge of human experts cannot be
adequately rendered into the type of
information that a computer can store.
Human experts rely on information that can
be expressed by rules and facts when they
respond to new situations.
Future advances in computer technology will
not render computers capable of sorting
through greater amounts of information.
Human experts rely heavily on intuition while
they are developing a repertory of model
situations.

7. When drivers are deprived of sleep there are definite


behavioral changes, such as slower responses to
stimuli and a reduced ability to concentrate, but
peoples self-awareness of these changes is poor. Most
drivers think they can tell when they are about to fall
asleep, but they cannot.
Each of the following illustrates the principle that the
passage illustrates EXCEPT:
(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)
(E)

People who have been drinking alcohol are not


good judges of whether they are too drunk to
drive.
Elementary school students who dislike
arithmetic are not good judges of whether
multiplication tables should be included in
the schools curriculum.
Industrial workers who have just been exposed
to noxious fumes are not good judges of
whether they should keep working.
People who have just donated blood and have
become faint are not good judges of whether
they are ready to walk out of the facility.
People who are being treated for schizophrenia
are not good judges of whether they should
continue their medical treatments.
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

-24-

8. Politician: My opponent says our zoning laws too


strongly promote suburban single-family
dwellings and should be changed to encourage
other forms of housing like apartment
buildings. Yet he lives in a house in the
country. His lifestyle contradicts his own
argument, which should therefore not be taken
seriously.
The politicians reasoning is most vulnerable to
criticism on the grounds that
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

its characterization of the opponents lifestyle


reveals the politicians own prejudice against
constructing apartment buildings
it neglects the fact that apartment buildings
can be built in the suburbs just as easily as in
the center of the city
it fails to mention the politicians own living
situation
its discussion of the opponents lifestyle is
irrelevant to the merits of the opponents
argument
it ignores the possibility that the opponent
may have previously lived in an apartment
building

9. Consumers are deeply concerned about the quantity


of plastic packaging on the market and have spurred
manufacturers to find ways to recycle plastic
materials. Despite their efforts, however, only 6.5
percent of plastic is now being recycled, as compared
to 33 percent of container glass.
Each of the following, if true, helps to explain the
relatively low rate of plastic recycling EXCEPT:
(A)

(B)
(C)
(D)

(E)

Many factories are set up to accept and make


economical use of recycled glass, whereas
there are few factories that make products out
of recycled plastic.
Many plastic products are incompatible and
cannot be recycled together, whereas most
containers made of glass are compatible.
The manufacture of new plastic depletes oil
reserves, whereas the manufacture of new
glass uses renewable resources.
Unlike glass, which can be heated to thousands
of degrees during the recycling process to
burn off contaminants, recycled plastic
cannot be heated enough to sterilize it.
Plastic polymers tend to break down during
the recycling process and weaken the resulting
product, whereas glass does not break down.

10. Technological progress makes economic growth and


widespread prosperity possible; it also makes a
workers particular skills less crucial to production.
Yet workers satisfaction in their work depends on
their believing that their work is difficult and
requires uncommon skills. Clearly, then,
technological progress _________.
Which one of the following most logically completes
the argument?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

decreases the quality of most products


provides benefits only to those whose work is
not directly affected by it
is generally opposed by the workers whose
work will be directly affected by it
causes workers to feel less satisfaction in their
work
eliminates many workers jobs

11. Environmentalist: The complex ecosystem of the


North American prairie has largely been
destroyed to produce cattle feed. But the prairie
ecosystem once supported 30 to 70 million
bison, whereas North American agriculture now
supports about 50 million cattle. Since bison
yield as much meat as cattle, and the natural
prairie required neither pesticides, machinery,
nor government subsidies, returning as much
land as possible to an uncultivated state could
restore biodiversity without a major decrease in
meat production.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses
the environmentalists main conclusion?
(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)
(E)

If earlier North American agricultural


techniques were reintroduced, meat
production would decrease only slightly.
Protecting the habitat of wild animals so that
we can utilize these animals as a food source
is more cost effective than raising
domesticated animals.
The biodiversity of the North American prairie
ecosystem should not be restored if doing so
will have intolerable economic consequences.
Preservation of the remaining North American
bison would be a sensible policy.
The devastation of the North American prairie
ecosystem could be largely reversed without
significantly decreasing meat production.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

12. Morris: Computers, despite some peoples


expectations, will have an inappreciable impact
on education. To be sure, computers are useful
for drills promoting memorization, though
only a small part of education can be
accomplished through drills. But machines
cannot help students with any of the higher
intellectual functions we call understanding;
for that, human teachers are indispensable.
The conclusion of Morriss argument follows
logically if which one of the following is assumed?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Whatever memorization is necessary can be


accomplished as easily without computers as
with them.
Requiring memorization in appreciable
amounts tends to thwart development of
higher intellectual functions in students.
Successful memorization of relevant facts is a
necessary precondition for the development
of higher intellectual functions in students.
Many students become familiar with
computers before encountering them at
school.
Having an appreciable impact on education
involves affecting the higher intellectual
functions of students.

13. A recent study reveals that television advertising does


not significantly affect childrens preferences for
breakfast cereals. The study compared two groups of
children. One group had watched no television, and
the other group had watched average amounts of
television and its advertising. Both groups strongly
preferred the sugary cereals heavily advertised on
television.
Which one of the following statements, if true, most
weakens the argument?
(A)

(B)

(C)
(D)
(E)

The preferences of children who do not watch


television advertising are influenced by the
preferences of children who watch the
advertising.
The preference for sweets is not a universal
trait in humans, and can be influenced by
environmental factors such as television
advertising.
Most of the children in the group that had
watched television were already familiar with
the advertisements for these cereals.
Both groups rejected cereals low in sugar even
when these cereals were heavily advertised on
television.
Cereal preferences of adults who watch
television are known to be significantly
different from the cereal preferences of adults
who do not watch television.

-25-

14. Reducing speed limits neither saves lives nor protects


the environment. This is because the more slowly a
car is driven, the more time it spends on the road
spewing exhaust into the air and running the risk of
colliding with other vehicles.
The arguments reasoning is flawed because the
argument
(A)
(B)
(C)

(D)

(E)

neglects the fact that some motorists


completely ignore speed limits
ignores the possibility of benefits from
lowering speed limits other than
environmental and safety benefits
fails to consider that if speed limits are
reduced, increased driving times will increase
the number of cars on the road at any given
time
presumes, without providing justification, that
total emissions for a given automobile trip are
determined primarily by the amount of time
the trip takes
presumes, without providing justification, that
drivers run a significant risk of collision only
if they spend a lot of time on the road

15. Loggerhead turtles live and breed in distinct groups,


of which some are in the Pacific Ocean and some are
in the Atlantic. New evidence suggests that juvenile
Pacific loggerheads that feed near the Baja peninsula
hatch in Japanese waters 10,000 kilometers away.
Ninety-five percent of the DNA samples taken from
the Baja turtles match those taken from turtles at the
Japanese nesting sites.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously
weakens the reasoning above?
(A)

(B)
(C)

(D)
(E)

Nesting sites of loggerhead turtles have been


found off the Pacific coast of North America
several thousand kilometers north of the Baja
peninsula.
The distance between nesting sites and feeding
sites of Atlantic loggerhead turtles is less than
5,000 kilometers.
Loggerhead hatchlings in Japanese waters have
been declining in number for the last decade
while the number of nesting sites near the
Baja peninsula has remained constant.
Ninety-five percent of the DNA samples taken
from the Baja turtles match those taken from
Atlantic loggerhead turtles.
Commercial aquariums have been successfully
breeding Atlantic loggerheads with Pacific
loggerheads for the last five years.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

-26-

16. People who do not believe that others distrust them


are confident in their own abilities, so people who
tend to trust others think of a difficult task as a
challenge rather than a threat, since this is precisely
how people who are confident in their own abilities
regard such tasks.
The conclusion above follows logically if which one
of the following is assumed?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

People who believe that others distrust them


tend to trust others.
Confidence in ones own abilities gives one
confidence in the trustworthiness of others.
People who tend to trust others do not believe
that others distrust them.
People who are not threatened by difficult
tasks tend to find such tasks challenging.
People tend to distrust those who they believe
lack self-confidence.

17. Mullen has proposed to raise taxes on the rich, who


made so much money during the past decade. Yet
Mullens tax records show heavy investment in
business during that time and large profits; so
Mullens proposal does not deserve our
consideration.
The flawed reasoning in the argument above is most
similar to the flawed reasoning in which one of the
following?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(E)

Do not vote for Smiths proposed legislation to


subsidize child care for working parents;
Smith is a working parent.
Do not put any credence in Dr. Hans recent
proposal to ban smoking in all public places;
Dr. Han is a heavy smoker.
The previous witnesss testimony ought to be
ignored; he has been convicted of both
forgery and mail fraud.
Board member Timms proposal to raise the
salaries of the companys middle managers
does not deserve to be considered; Timms
daughter is a middle manager at the
companys headquarters.
Dr. Wasows analysis of the design of this
bridge should not be taken seriously; after all,
Dr. Wasow has previously only designed
factory buildings.

Questions 1819
Anders: The physical structure of the brain plays an
important role in thinking. So researchers developing
thinking machinescomputers that can make
decisions based on both common sense and factual
knowledgeshould closely model those machines on
the structure of the brain.
Yang: Important does not mean essential. After all, no
flying machine closely modeled on birds has worked;
workable aircraft are structurally very different from
birds. So thinking machines closely modeled on the
brain are also likely to fail. In developing a workable
thinking machine, researchers would therefore increase
their chances of success if they focus on the brains
function and simply ignore its physical structure.
18. The statement thinking machines closely modeled
on the brain are also likely to fail serves which one
of the following roles in Yangs argument?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

the main conclusion of the argument


a subsidiary conclusion used in support of the
main conclusion
a principle of research invoked in support of
the conclusion
a particular example illustrating a general
claim
background information providing a context
for the argument

19. In evaluating Yangs argument it would be most


helpful to know whether
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

studies of the physical structure of birds


provided information crucial to the
development of workable aircraft
researchers currently working on thinking
machines take all thinking to involve both
common sense and factual knowledge
as much time has been spent trying to develop
a workable thinking machine as had been
spent in developing the first workable aircraft
researchers who specialize in the structure of
the brain are among those who are trying to
develop thinking machines
some flying machines that were not closely
modeled on birds failed to work

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

20. Shy adolescents often devote themselves totally to a


hobby to help distract them from the loneliness
brought on by their shyness. Sometimes they are able
to become friends with others who share their hobby.
But if they lose interest in that hobby, their loneliness
may be exacerbated. So developing an all-consuming
hobby is not a successful strategy for overcoming
adolescent loneliness.
Which one of the following assumptions does the
argument depend on?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Eventually, shy adolescents are going to want a


wider circle of friends than is provided by
their hobby.
No successful strategy for overcoming
adolescent loneliness ever intensifies that
loneliness.
Shy adolescents will lose interest in their
hobbies if they do not make friends through
their engagement in those hobbies.
Some other strategy for overcoming adolescent
loneliness is generally more successful than is
developing an all-consuming hobby.
Shy adolescents devote themselves to hobbies
mainly because they want to make friends.

21. Political scientist: As a political system, democracy


does not promote political freedom. There are
historical examples of democracies that
ultimately resulted in some of the most
oppressive societies. Likewise, there have been
enlightened despotisms and oligarchies that
have provided a remarkable level of political
freedom to their subjects.
The reasoning in the political scientists argument is
flawed because it
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

confuses the conditions necessary for political


freedom with the conditions sufficient to
bring it about
fails to consider that a substantial increase in
the level of political freedom might cause a
society to become more democratic
appeals to historical examples that are
irrelevant to the causal claim being made
overlooks the possibility that democracy
promotes political freedom without being
necessary or sufficient by itself to produce it
bases its historical case on a personal point of
view

-27-

22. In humans, ingested protein is broken down into


amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the
brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the
production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down
the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual
amino acids, except for tryptophan. Tryptophan then
slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed
into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brains
serotonin level. Thus, sugars can play a major role in
mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and
anxiety-free.
Which one of the following is an assumption on
which the argument depends?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety


require increasing the level of serotonin in the
brain.
Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results
in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
Serotonin can be produced naturally only if
tryptophan is present in the bloodstream.
Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain
promotes relaxation and freedom from
anxiety.
The consumption of protein-rich foods results
in anxiety and a lowering of mood.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

-28-

23. If an act of civil disobediencewillfully breaking a


specific law in order to bring about legal reformis
done out of self-interest alone and not out of a
concern for others, it cannot be justified. But one is
justified in performing an act of civil disobedience if
ones conscience requires one to do so.
Which one of the following judgments most closely
conforms to the principles stated above?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

Keishas protest against what she perceived to


be a brutal and repressive dictatorship in
another country was an act of justified civil
disobedience, because in organizing an illegal
but peaceful demonstration calling for a
return to democratic leadership in that
country, she acted purely out of concern for
the people of that country.
Janices protest against a law that forbade labor
strikes was motivated solely by a desire to
help local mine workers obtain fair wages. But
her conscience did not require her to protest
this law, so Janice did not perform an act of
justified civil disobedience.
In organizing an illegal protest against the
practice in her country of having prison
inmates work eighteen hours per day,
Georgette performed an act of justified civil
disobedience: she acted out of concern for her
fellow inmates rather than out of concern for
herself.
Marias deliberate violation of a law requiring
prepublication government approval of all
printed materials was an act of justified civil
disobedience: though her interest as an owner
of a publishing company would be served by
repeal of the law, she violated the law because
her conscience required doing so on behalf of
all publishers.
In organizing a parade of motorcyclists riding
without helmets through the capital city,
Louises act was not one of justified civil
disobedience: she was willfully challenging a
specific law requiring motorcyclists to wear
helmets, but her conscience did not require
her to organize the parade.

24. Most land-dwelling vertebrates have rotating limbs


terminating in digits, a characteristic useful for land
movement. Biologists who assume that this
characteristic evolved only after animals abandoned
aquatic environments must consider the
Acanthostega, a newly discovered ancestor of all land
vertebrates. It possessed rotating limbs terminating
in digits, but its skeleton was too feeble for land
movement. It also breathed using only internal gills,
indicating that it and its predecessors were
exclusively aquatic.
The statements above, if true, most strongly support
which one of the following?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(E)

Many anatomical characteristics common to


most land animals represent a disadvantage
for survival underwater.
None of the anatomical characteristics
common to most aquatic animals represent
an advantage for survival on land.
Acanthostega originated as a land-dwelling
species, but evolved gills only after moving to
an underwater environment.
All anatomical characteristics not useful for
land movement but common to most land
animals represent an advantage for survival
underwater.
Certain anatomical characteristics common to
some aquatic animals represent an advantage
for survival on land.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

25. One reason why European music has had such a


strong influence throughout the world, and why it is
a sophisticated achievement, is that over time the
original function of the musicwhether ritual,
dance, or worshipgradually became an aspect of its
style, not its defining force. Dance music could stand
independent of dance, for example, and sacred music
independent of religious worship, because each
composition has so much internal coherence that the
music ultimately depends on nothing but itself.

(B)
(C)
(D)

(E)

Raoul: Life consists not of a linear process of


personality development, but rather of a series
of completely disjointed vignettes, from many
of which the discerning observer may catch
glimpses of character. Thus, the short story
depicts human lives more faithfully than does
the novel.

African music has had a more powerful impact


on the world than European music has had.
European military and economic
expansionism partially explains the global
influence of European music.
The original functions of many types of
Chinese music are no longer their defining
forces.
Music that is unintelligible when it is
presented independently of its original
function tends to be the most sophisticated
music.
Some works of art lose their appeal when they
are presented to serve a function other than
their original one.

-29-

26. Tony: A short story is little more than a novelists


sketch pad. Only novels have narrative
structures that allow writers to depict human
lives accurately by portraying characters whose
personalities gradually develop through life
experience.

The claims made above are compatible with each of


the following EXCEPT:
(A)

The dialogue most supports the claim that Tony and


Raoul disagree about whether
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

human lives are best understood as series of


completely disjointed vignettes
novels and short stories employ the same
strategies to depict human lives
novels usually depict gradual changes in
characters personalities
only short stories are used as novelists sketch
pads
short stories provide glimpses of facets of
character that are usually kept hidden

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.
DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.

Acknowledgment is made to the following sources from which material has been adapted for use in this test booklet:
Charles W. Collier, Intellectual Authority and Institutional Authority. 1992 by the Association of American Law
Schools.
Bruce Curtis, Mapping the Social: Notes from Jacob Keefers Educational Tours, 1845 1993 by Bruce Curtis.
Adapted from William M. Denevan, The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492. 1992 by Association of
American Geographers.
Hubert L. Dreyfus, What Computers Cant Do. 1994 by the Phi Beta Kappa Society.
John OToole, The Story of Ethics: Narrative as a Means for Ethical Understanding and Action. 1995 by the American
Medical Association.
Edward Rothstein, Emblems of Mind. 1995 by Edward Rothstein.

-31-

SIGNATURE

/
DATE

LSAT WRITING SAMPLE TOPIC


Due to declining student enrollment, the school board of the Winterdale School District has decided to close either Brookhaven Elementary or
Oakwood Elementary. The district will need to renovate the school it leaves open. Write an essay in favor of closing one school over the other
based on the following considerations:
The school board wants to minimize renovation costs.
The school board wants to minimize the impact of a school closing on students and staff.
Brookhaven was built in 1925, and although it is a solid building, its plumbing and heating systems are outdated, and its classroom layout will
need to be reconfigured to accord with current trends in school design. The renovations required to bring Brookhaven up to date will be extensive,
and architects estimate that the project will take a year to complete. The contractors chosen for the Brookhaven renovation will be able to do the
most disruptive work over the summer, however. They anticipate that all classrooms will be available by the start of the school year. Only half of the
administrative offices will be available, so administrators plan to share these offices until the rest can be finished. After Brookhaven is renovated, the
209 students enrolled at Oakwood will be bused to Brookhaven. All but a handful of them already take the bus to school.
Oakwood was built in the 1950s but underwent limited renovation in the 1990s. Because the plumbing and heating systems do not now require
replacement, architects estimate that renovations will consist mainly of reconfiguring the administrative offices and updating the buildings facade.
These renovations are expected to take six months. Due to an irresolvable scheduling conflict, the contractors chosen for the Oakwood renovation
will have to do all the work while school is in session. During construction, Oakwoods administrative offices will be housed in trailers located on the
schools athletic fields. which will consequently be unavailable for student use. After Oakwood is renovated, the 215 students enrolled at Brookhaven
will be bused to Oakwood. About half of them currently live close enough to Brookhaven to walk to school.

-32-

DIRECTIONS:

CONVERSION CHART

1. Use the Answer Key on the next page to check your


answers.
2. Use the Scoring Worksheet below to compute your
Raw Score.
3. Use the Score Conversion Chart to convert your
Raw Score into the 120-180 scale.

SCORING WORKSHEET
1. Enter the number of questions you answered
correctly in each section
NUMBER
CORRECT

SECTION I. . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION II . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION III . . . . . . . . .
SECTION IV . . . . . . . . .
2. Enter the sum here:

THIS IS YOUR
RAW SCORE.

For Converting Raw Score to the 120-180 LSAT


Scaled Score
LSAT Prep Test XXXVIII
REPORTED
SCORE

LOWEST

HIGHEST

180
179
178
177
176
175
174
173
172
171
170
169
168
167
166
165
164
163
162
161
160
159
158
157
156
155
154
153
152
151
150
149
148
147
146
145
144
143
142
141
140
139
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
131
130
129
128
127
126
125
124
123
122
121
120

98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
84
83
82
80
79
77
75
74
72
71
69
67
66
64
62
60
59
57
55
54
52
50
48
47
45
44
42
40
39
37
36
34
33
31
30
29
27
26
25
23
22
21
20
18
17
16
15
0

100
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
83
82
81
79
78
76
74
73
71
70
68
66
65
63
61
59
58
56
54
53
51
49
47
46
44
43
41
39
38
36
35
33
32
30
29
28
26
25
24
22
21
20
19
17
16
15
14

RAW SCORE

-33-

SECTION I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

A
C
E
C
E
E
D

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

E
E
A
E
D
B
D

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

C
D
B
B
C
C
D

22. C
23. A
24. A

D
C
B
B
C
D
A

22. A
23. B
24. D

D
E
B
A
E
C
A

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

D
E
D
E
C
E

D
C
B
B
A
B
D

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

D
D
E
D
A

SECTION II
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

E
D
C
D
D
E
E

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

C
A
B
A
D
E
E

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
SECTION III

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

C
A
E
B
D
A
D

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

A
D
A
E
B
D
C

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
SECTION IV

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

B
C
E
A
B
B
B

* Item removed from scoring.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

D
C
D
E
*
A
D

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

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