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88.352.17
159.942(075)
46

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. 2- . .: , 2013. 783 .: . ( ).

ISBN 978-5-496-00394-0
( 2001 .) .
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16+ ( 29 2010 . 436-.)

ISBN 978-5-496-00394-0

, 2013

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, 192102, -, . (. ), . 3, , . 7.
005-93, 2; 95 3005 .
25.03.13. 70100/16. . . . 63,210. 1500.
CtP .
194044, -, . , 9. / (812) 495-56-10.


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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1. ,
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1.2. . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. (, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . .
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1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
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2.2. . . . . . . . .
2.3. ()
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2.4.
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14
14
16
18
23
25
25
30
32
38
38
41
46
55

3.
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3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.2. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . . . .
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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69
69
69
79

5. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.6. .
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5.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

5.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
5.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
6. . .
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5. - . . . . . . . . .
6.6. . .
6.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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123
123
124
126
138
140
142
144
153

7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.5. , -
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() . . . . . . . . . . . . .

156
156
156
159
163
176
176
176
177
179
180
180
180
181
183
183
185
186
189
191
191
192
195
201
209
210
211
214
218
220
221

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

8.3. ()
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6. . . . .

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227
227
232
232

9. . . . . . . . . .
9.1. . . . . . . . .
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9.2. , . . . . .
9.3. , . . . . . . . . .
9.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.
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9.7.
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9.8. () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9.
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241
241
243
252
257
259
260
261
264
265

10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

276
276
277
280
286
291

11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3. ,
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11.4. ( ) . . . . .
11.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

293
293

12. . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

313
313
316
321
326
329
332
336
337
340
344

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267
269
274
274

299
303
307
311

12.8. () . . .
12.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.11.
12.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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350
351
355
358
360

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362
362
362
363
364
372
373
375

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376
377
379
381
382
387
389
389
395
396
401
401

13. ()
13.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2. () . . . . . . . .
13.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5. () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6. . . . . . . . . .
13.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1. ()
14.2. () .
14.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15.
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15.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2. . . . . . .
15.3. . . . . .
15.4.
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.
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16.1. . . .
,
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. . . . . . .

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16.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.7. () . . . . . . . . . . . . .

402
402
407
410
412
414
414
418
420
421
422
426
427
430
432
433

16.8. . . . 434
16.9. . . . . . . 435
16.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2. . . . . .
17.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7.
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445
445
447
449
453
459
459
464

18. . . . . . . . . . . 467
18.1.
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18.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1.
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2.
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3.
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4. . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.
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8. . . . . . .
9.
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486
486
490
490
493
534
542
557
601
609
628
642
667
667
680

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773

, , . -
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,
; , , , . . (1950), . (1960),
. (1975), . (1979), . (2000), , : . . (1958), . . (1971), . . (1987), . . (1966, 1976, 1981, 1987),
. . (1997), . . (1984, 2004). .
,
, , ( ) (. . , 2000 , *),
( , , , , ,
,
). ,
. ,
,
. , , , , (. , 1894; . . , 1990; . . , 1987; . ,
1980; . . , 1982; . , 1975; . , 1979; . . ,
.). ,
. , . . (1983) : (. . .) , , ,
. , , -,
*

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: , , (
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.

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(. 107).
, . , ,
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, . (1928):
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(1984, . 93). ,
, .
, . , XIX :
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(1991, . 274). . ,
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, (. 273).
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() . -

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(1996, . 255).
. (1930) ,
, . (1934, 1941) ,
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. . (1933),
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49

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1. : 2.
:
,
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1
2

. . III. ., 1949. . 316.


. . I. ., 1954. . 209.

112

5. ,

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.[Collier et al., 1977]; [Grossman, 1970]). , .
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[Thompson, 1985]; [Whalen, 1998]). (Ledoux, 1995, 1996), , , . ()
, 1
2

. . . . . III, . 2. ., 1951. . 230.


. . 243244.

5.12.

113

, ( . . .) , (Ledoux, 1995). , , , ,
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1994, . 134), , , .
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114

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.
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System, BAS).
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., . 2004, . 622

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.
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1.

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. . ., 1992. . 301.

5.12.

115

(, 1957; , 1964; [Bovard, 1961]).


. . . (1938), . . . . (1938) , ,
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. .
. . (1970) , (Bartelt, 1956; Gellhorn, 1964 .)
, : . . (Lacey et al., 1963),

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, , , , . (, 2000).

116

5. ,

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. . . . (1964)
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5.1

-
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. . ,
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5.12.

117

. , ,
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. , . ( , ).
.
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[Tucker, 1981]). . . (1980) :
1) ;

118

5. ,

2) ;
3) , .
, .

. 5.4.
, . , . . (1976) () . . (Gardner et al., 1975)
. , , (Heilman et al.,
1975), (Carmon, Nachson, 1973; Haggard, Parkinson, 1971).
. . (1985, 1988), (. .
) ,
(. . ).
.
, :
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. [Borod et al., 1981]).
, , ,
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(, 1975).

5.12.

119

,
(, 1977; , 1978; . [Davidson et al., 1979]).
, ,
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, 1975). ,
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), ,
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120

5. ,

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1990) () . , ,
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Davidson, 1981),
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- .
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.

(Tomarken et al.,
1992). .
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5.12.

121

, (Wheeler et al., 1993).


(Davidson, 1994).
. . , () () . . (Heller,
1993) :
> = ;
> = .
. (Sperry et al., 1964;
Zaidel, Sperry, 1974)
, .
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Singer, 1962),
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.
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(MacLean, 1949). ,
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1994, . 244). , (, Le Doux, 1996).
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122

5. ,

mon-Jones, Allen, 1998) , ,


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1973). , ,
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.
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1976]; [Lazarus, 1991]; [Bandura, 1997]).

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.
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: , .
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.

124

6.

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1960), , , ,
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6.2. -

125

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126

6.

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(1978, . 46).

.

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6.3.
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1

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6.3.

127

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, , , . : , , ,
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( . . )


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.
, (1984, . 72).
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128

6.

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.
,
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(Leeper, 1948, 1965, 1970; Arnold, Gasson, 1954; Young,
1961; Bindra, 1969; Tomkins, 1970).

6.3.

129

, . , . . (1946) , ():
, . (...) ()
, , , (. 460).
. . (1974):
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(1986), , . . .
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.
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130

6.

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(, 1908), (, 1948; Duffy, 1948; Arnold, Gasson, 1954; Young, 1961; Bindra,
1969; Tomkins, 1970).
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6.3.

131

. (Arnold, 1969), , , , , . ,
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).
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1986) , . .
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132

6.

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6.3.

133

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134

6.

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6.3.

135


() .
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). , - . ()
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1943), , , . , ,
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136

6.

. . . (1971) : , (, 1984, . 164).


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. 4647). , , .
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6.3.

137

. , . , , , . , .
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138

6.

. : ,
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). , . . , .
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,
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.

6.4.
, , (), ,
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, (IQ), (EQ), .

6.4.

139

.
,
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(Emde et al., 1978).
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.

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. . (1984) , , , , .
, , , .

140

6.

. 6.1.
: ,

6.5. -
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() ( ),
, .

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. .
(1948) , , ,
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, -

6.5. -

141

, . .
. . (1987): ,
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, ,

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(, 1986), , ,
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104,1
086,6

93,6 +
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067,4
053,2

57,3 +
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, //

025,7
024,7

25,0 +
26,7 +

, /

044,7
035,7

38,3 +
37,0 +

: + p < 0,5.

142

6.

6.6.

, ,
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(Schwarz, 1990). , ,
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, , . ,
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. , , , , .

6.6.

143

.
, , (
). , . . (1975):
, , . .
, (. . , 1979).
, (Isen et al., 1988).
. . (1966) , ,
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(, 1999),
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1

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144

6.

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(1987). .
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)?
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,

. (...) ,
,
(2000, . 597).
, : , ,
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(Insen et al., 1987; Ziv, 1976).

6.7.

145

. , ,
. .
,
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; , ; ,
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. (1994) .
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.
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: , ,
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146

6.

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(1957, . 264). :
(...) , , ,
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.

. , (Isen, Shalker, Clark, Karp, 1978; Bower, 1981),
, .
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.
(Forgas, 1995).
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Singer, Salovey, 1988). -, . , ,
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Isen, 1982). -, . , (Salovey, 1992).
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(Schwarz, 1990; Schwarz, Clore, 1983, 1996) , , ,
.

6.7.

147

(
) ,
( ).
, , ,
(Schwarz, 1990)
/ (Schwarz, Clore,
1983).
., . 2003, . 449450

, , . ,
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(, 1975; , 1969; ,
1972; , 1976; , 1979, .),
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1

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148

6.

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.

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1

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1866. . 64.

6.7.

149

. .
, , .

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, .
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() 1.
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. , (1)
, , ; (2) , ,
; (3) ,
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.

, VIII . . (1985, . 333). , ( , . 335).

. . : , , (1950 , . 537). , ,
, , .
, (, 1974). , , :
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, , ,
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1

. .; ., 19371969. . 4. . 301.

150

6.

: , ,
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.
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, ()
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. : , , (1995, . 163).
. . (1946) ,
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, (, 1986; , 1987, .).
. . , ,
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6.7.

151

, , , , . .
, , ; ,

, (, 1981).
. . ,
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.
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,
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(1957, . 469). . :
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152

6.

- , . .
. . :
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,
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).
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.

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6.8.

153

(1989 ) , , , , ( , , , , ).
, (, 1989 ).
. . . , , . , ,
. . , , .
, .
, . .
,
. . (Spiegel et al.,
1989), , , , , . , , ,
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.

6.8.
, () . .
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,
. , . :
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; , . , , , ,
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, (1984, . 95).
. , . . (Hebb, 1949). , , . (,
1976; Young, 1961). ,
, (, 1998).
, , , .
-

154

6.

, , (Hebb, 1949; , 1979).


(. 6.2). , ,
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). ,
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1988). , , ,
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.

. 6.2.


. . (Leeper,
1948). ,
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6.8.

155

, , , , , ,

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, .

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7.1.

. , , , . . .
. . , :
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.
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. . (1959)
( ) : , (. 7.1).
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7.1.

157

- ) , . , , , , , .

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, ,
, . . , , . .
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,
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158

7.


(, ).
, , 100 200 . ()
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. . (1971) , , , , . . , , . , , (. . ).
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1983; , 1967, 1970; , 1976), . .
(1975) . .
.
,
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( +3 3)
(). .
39% . 22% , 39% .
,
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7.1.

159

.
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,

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. (Perls, 1969)
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162

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7.1.

163

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166

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174

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178

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180

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182

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184

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190

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204

7.

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205

, ,
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206

7.

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7.4.

207

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208

7.

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7.4.

209

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210

7.

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211

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212

7.

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213

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214

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215

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216

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7.5. , -

217

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218

7.

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7.5. , -

219

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220

7.

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221

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222

7.

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224

8.

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13

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8.1.

225

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- ()

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226

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8.4.

227

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(. . , 1987; . . . . , 1990, .). , ,
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228

8.

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8.4.

229

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230

8.

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), - ( ) - ( ).

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8.4.

231

,
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232

8.

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8.6.

233

(1995, . 141142). ,
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234

8.

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8.6.

235

,
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. (1982) (Kr = 0,598, < 0,01),


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236

8.


. , . (Burt, 1950) , 50% , ,
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( )

0,371
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0,276
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0,202
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0,399
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0,289
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0,229
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0,462
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0,218

0,223
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8.6.

237

8.4

, n = 141

2,4

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2,0

3,0

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3,8

5,7

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3,6

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Watso, Clark, 1997; Watson, Tellegen, 1985). - / ,
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, , / -

238

8.

, . (Green et al.,
1993) , . () , , . (...)
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1995). ,
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.

( 0,01).

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).
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8.6.

239

, , ,
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240

8.

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2002).

9.1.

( ) . ,
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. 4 6 -

242

9.

, , , .
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., . 2004, . 615

. . (2000),
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1988). , -
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() .
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1997).
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9.1.

243

- . . (Tinbergen, 1951)
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(EQ) . . (Salovey, Mayer, 1990)
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244

9.

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245

(Davies, Stankov, Roberts, 1998).


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, , IQ,
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IQ EQ :
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79,5

46,6

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246

9.

9.1 ()

, %

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9.1.

247

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. 9.1.
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248

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9.1.

249

. , .
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250

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251

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252

9.

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253

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254

9.

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9.1.

255

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256

9.

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9.1.

257

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258

9.

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9.1.

259


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260

9.

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261

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262

9.

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263

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296

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264

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9.5.

265

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266

9.

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267

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268

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269

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270

9.

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9.7. ...

271

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272

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9.7. ...

273

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274

9.


. , .

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9.9.

, , .
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9.9.

275

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10.2.

277

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10.2.
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278

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10.2.

279

. , , . (. . . . .)
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1976).
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280

10.

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. .
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10.3.

281

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282

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10.3.

283

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284

10.

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10.3.

285

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286

10.

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10.4.

287

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288

10.

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10.4.

289

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290

10.

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10.5.

291

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292

10.

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40,38

24,63

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05,88

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09,53

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15,63

18,37

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294

11.

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11.1.

295

,
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296

11.

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. , . .
(. 246). . (1998)
, . , (Donaldson, Westerman, 1986).
. (,
1948; , 1986; , 1998)
, , , , . , , . . , . . .,
. , .
. . . . (1974) , ,
. , . . (1976) :
, . ,
(), (,
.). -

11.1.

297

. . . (1994) , .
, , ,
(. 572). . . ,
, , , .
, . ,
,
. , -,
.
,
, , .
. .
()
, .
. , . ,
. . (1954), , ,
,
(. 210). , .
. . (1980) ,
, , (. 186), , , ,
. , , , .
, .
. . ,
, ( ), , , .
, , . , , ,
.
. . (2000), , :
1) , , , . .
-,
(,
-). , ,
. , (,
), ;

298

11.

2) , ;
3) ,
;
4) , ;
5) , , - .
.
,
. , ,
.
,
. , ,
, .
. . . .
(1996).
. . . . . . . (1957) ,
. . . . , -. ,
,
. , , . ,
, ,
, . , ()
. ,
, , . . (. 26).
. . (1971)
. , , . ,
. , , . .
, . () .
. . . , (,

, ).

11.2. ...

299

. . (1976) ,
. , ,
,
.
, , . , , , , ,
. , ,
, , , . ,
.
, :
,
. ,
.

.

11.2.

( )
,
, . . - .
. . . (1962), (. 17); . . (1970)
, . .
(. 336);
. . , . (1983)
, . . . (1986) ,
, , (. 366).

. , - -, , ,
. . , . . (,
. .),
- , , ,
, (. . ).

300

11.


. .
. . 1957 . ( - -).
, . . , : . , ,
( , , . .).
.
, , : , () .
, , .
( , ,
, . .) (
, , . .).

, . ,
, .
, , ,
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, .
,
. :
(. .
) ? , ,
: , , , , . , ,
, . .
, ,
. - -, .
, () . , , , .
,
. -
, , , :
, , ;
;

11.2. ...

301

( , (, ), , , , . .).

,
. , , , ,
.
. ,
,
,
. , ,
, , , , . ,
() , . . , ,
, . . . . .
.
, , , (, 1970).
. - ,
.

- . ,
( ) ,
.
- . , , . , ,
. (
), , , . , , ,
.
. 11.1.
, , ,
, .

302

11.

, , , .
11.1


()

()

1
, , . , . , ,
.
, , .

.
. - , ,
, . ,
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. , , ,
.
, (, ).
1

. . , , : ,
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- , , , ,
, ,
... (1957, . 262), , , -,
, . . ( ), -,
, , . ., , .

11.3. ,

303

, ;
,
. .

11.3. ,

. , ( ) , () () / /. ,
.
1. . , ,
, , ( ). . .
- ,
. , , , (Bossard, 1932; Burr, 1973; Clarke, 1952; Katz, Hill, 1958).
:
,
, . . (Zajonc, 1968). , , ,
, . ,
( , , ). ,
,
.
,
: (Swap, 1977). , , . ,
, (Mita, Dermer, Knigth, 1977). ( )
, . , , ,
, . . ,
( , -

304

11.

).
, , .
. 2004, . 504
. ,
. , , , . () , . . .

( . . , ).
2. . ,
. , , , (Eagly et al.,
1991; Feingold, 1992). , . . , (Clifford, Walster, 1973).
, . (Bersheid et al.,
1971; Krebs, Adinolfi, 1975; Reis et al., 1980; Walster et al., 1966). ,
( . . .). ? , ? ,
,
? , :
,
(Russell. 1930, . 139).
, , , , .
,
, , . , , (Feingold, 1990 1991; Sprecher et al., 1994). ,
, , , - 90% (Crowley, 1996; Dion et al., 1990). .
. 2004, . 505506

, :
(Dion, 1973; Dion, Berscheid, 1974). ,
,

11.3. ,

305

(Langlois et al., 1987). , .


, ,
(Cash, Janda, 1984; Mack, Raney, 1990; Marvell, Green, 1980). (Umberson, Hughes, 1987; Roszell et al., 1990;
Frieze et al., 1991).

, (Hatfield, Sprecher,
1986).
, .
, , ,
.
, , , , ,
, , ,
, , . ,
. , , (Morse, Grusen, 1976).
,
.
, , , , (Cunningham, 1986: Keating, 1985). ,
, (Sadalla et al., 1987). : :
, , , . ,
, , , (Cunningham et al., 1995).
, (Beck et al., 1976; Graziano et al., 1978; Symons, 1981). ,
, . (
) ,
(Langlois, Roggman, 1994).
. 2004, . 511512

3. , . , , , , ,
, . , (Byrne,
1971; Caspi, Herbener, 1990). ,
. , , -

306

11.

,
(Byrne, Clore, 1970). , , , , .
,
: ,
; ,
(Lee, Bond, 1996). , . , , .
. 2004, . 520

, , , ,
, . , (Rosenbaum, 1986; Hoyle, 1993).
, , .
, ,
, . ,
, , .
, . ,

-
, . ,
,
(Dryer, Horowitz, 1997). , , , .
4. . , ,
, , , .
: , . , ,
(Backman, Secord, 1059; Kenny, La Voie, 1982). , , . , , . , (Lombardo et al., 1972).
- ,
.
(Walster, 1965). , , ,
.
, , , ,
(Kenny, Nasby, 1980).
.

11.4. ( )

307

,
? ,
, (Aron et al.,
1989). , - , . : , , - , , (Berscheid, Walster, 1978).
: ,
, , , ,
(Berscheid et al., 1969). . .
, : ,
, ,
. , , , ,
, (Yzerbyt, Leyens, 1991). ,
, , (Klein, 1991), , , .
. 2004, . 523524

, . .
, (Coleman
et al., 1987).

11.4.
( )

(. 11.1).

. 11.1. ( )
. , , , . ,
, , , ,

308

11.

. , , ,
.
, , : . , . (. .
, ). ,
, - ? ,
?
.
: . , .
, , , . . ( , ).
, , . , . .
(1964) , , , , , , . , ,
, .
, , , .
, . . , , : (...) : ,
. . . , , , , , (1998, . 23). , , ,
.
.
, . . ,
, . . .
. . (1971) , - , (. 150151). , .
.
, ,
. ( , ).
.

11.4. ( )

309

. : .
, ( ), , , , , , , .
, , . , , . , . . , .
,
.
. : . , , , .
, .
I :
: ,
,
, ,
1.

. , , ,
. , ,
, ,
,
.
. , , , , , (. 2930).
. , ,
, , .
, , , , ,
, , , ,
, , , , . .
(, ).
.
, .
. , .
, ,
.
1

. ., 1978. . 132.

310

11.

. , .
, , ,
, . , .
.
. , - ,
: , , ,
, . .
( , , ). , , , .
, , , , , , .
,
-. , , ,

.
,
, , - -.
. ,
. , , . .
, . , , .
. . . . (1996)
.
, , , , . , , ,
( ).
. , . . . . ,
.
, . ,
, . () ,
. () ,

11.5.

311

.

. .
( ) , . . ,
(. 34).
: , .
(. ., , ,
), () .
, , , .
. ( ) ? .

11.5.

, , .
(
, . .).
, , (, , 1978) : , .
,

. , , . , ,
, , , , , ,
. . , , , , , , .
, . . . (1984) , , , , . .
, , , , , . ,
, .
,
, , , , . , , , -

312

11.

. ,
,
.
. . () , , , , , , , , .
, , ( -), .
, . , , . .
- -. , .
, , , , .
, , , , . , - ,
- , , . . .
. . , : ,
,
?, , .
,
.

12

12.1.
( . sympatheia , ) (, ) - - ( , , ),
, , , ,
, ().
.
. , , ,
.
. , , , , . , ,
. . , . . (1975), .
, , , . , , .
,
. , - ,
, (1987) ,
, , ,

.
, (. 96) ,
, . , .
, . ,
tele
. , tele, ,
, . ,
. , , tele, .

314

12.

, , , , ,
. . . , , ,
(1971, . 162). ,
, tele .
.
attraction , , .
(, 1997).
, .
,
, .
( ): ,
, , , , ,
, .
, ,
(Stevenson, 1965).
, .
. . (1974), ,

.
, .
. . (1987), :
;
;
;
;
;
;
( ).
, , ( ), ( , ) .
, . . (1984),

12.1.

315

(-) ,
. .
,
, ,
.
. . (1975) , ,
(), . .
. . (1979) , .
(. 12.1),
, ( , 1974;
, 1978; , 1983), , . , ,
, (, 1976).
, , . , , -

. 12.1. : , ; I , II , III

316

12.

. , , , ,
,
.
, , , : , ; , ; . ,
( , - ).

, , .

, .
. . : , , .

12.2.
, -.
, . ,
- , .
. ,
, . (clinging).
, .
. (Boulby, 1982), ,
, ,
. , , .
, , ,
( , ). , , , , .
, , ,
(, , . .),
(Ainsworth, 1963). ( ),

12.2.

317

( ).
, ;
, (. ).
, . .
: ,
.
,
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) , , ;
5) (, ).
.
(Ainsworth, 1973) ,
.
(, , ), (), , ( , ), , (,
, ).
,
, .

. . , . , , , .
, , , .
. . (Schaffer, Emerson, 1964), ,
:
(06 ): ;
(6 7 ):
- ;
(711 ):
, ().
78- , 89- (. 12.2).

318

12.

. 12.2.
(Schaffer, Emerson, 1964)
. (. 12.1).
12.1

, .

02

27

724

24

,  , , , (, ). , ,
, .
(Spitz, 1965).
.
, , . . : , .
. -

12.2.

319

. , , ,
, -, . (),
, , , .
. . , ,
.

( , ), .
,
(Boulby, 1982; Spitz, 1965).

, .
. . (Ainswort, 1973) : . ,
,
, . , ,
.
,
.
.
: -, -, --.

, ;
(Ainswort et al., 1978).
21% , 65%, 14%.
,
(Ainswort, 1978).
, . , .
(Shaver et al., 1988). , ,
, , . , -

320

12.

. -
, , ,
, . - : , .


( ) (secure attachment) (Baldwin et al., 1996; Jones,
Cunningham, 1996; Mickelson et al., 1997). , , (
), , , , . , , ,
. , (Ainsworth, 1973, 1989).
, ,
, , , , . , , , . , ,
(Feeney, 1996; Feeney, Noller, 1990; Simpson et al., 1992).

(avoidant attachment). ,
, , , , . ,
,
.
. , , ( , ), ,
( ) (Bartholomew, Horowitz, 1991).
, (insecure
attachment). ,
. , , , , . , -
, .
, (Cassigy, 2000; Simpson et al.,
1996).
. , , , , (Aisworth, 1979; Erikson, 1963).
(Conger et al., 2000). -

12.3.

321

,
, (Harris,
1998). ,
( , ),
, ,
.
. 2004, . 540541

. ,
,
, (Bowlby, 1973).
, , , , (Clarke, Clarke, 1976; Kagan, 1976; Rutter, 1976). . (Douglas,
1975), , ,
,
.
. , .
() : ( 55% ), ( 25% ) - ( 20% ) (Hazan, Shaver, 1987; Shaver, Hazan, 1994).
(Tidwell et al., 1996).

12.3.
. .-. , ,
, , 1. . . , :
, ,
; ; , ,
; ; ; ;
( ) .
(. . , 1997). : , , , , , , , (Davis, Todd, 1982).
. (1990) , , ,
. , .
, .
, 1

.-. : 2 . ., 1981. . 1. . 257.

322

12.

. .
. , , , , . .
. 2001, . 62

. . , :
,
, ;
, , (
, );
, , .
. . (1987) : ,
; , ; ,
; (,
, ).
, , , . .
. :
( ) . . . (1987)
, , .
-, (, ,
. .). -, ( ). -, . -, , .
- , .
, , .
- ,
. , , , . .
, . ,
, .
. , -

12.3.

323

. . . (1979) , ,
. . . (1981),
, , , . ,
,
; . , , , ,
.
. . ,
,
, (Hartup, 1970).
. , , , , , .
, . (Newcomb, 1961). - ,
. , , . , , .
, . (Kandel, 1978), 1800
. , - ( ,
, , ), ( ),
. (
)
.
. . . (Argyle, Henderson,
1984) ,
. 27 13
.
:
;
;
;
, ;
. (*)

324

12.

:
.
:
;
; (*)
; (**)
; (**)
. (**)
:
, ; (*)
. (**)
, ,
. , ,
,
. ,
: ,
. , , .
, , . , .
. . . (. :
, 1987), 6 14 , , :
1) ,
, ;
2)
;
3) - : , , .
. . (1981) ,

(. 12.2).
, , , .
. . (1970),
;
20% .
. . . (1993), 69% 67- , , . 84%.

12.3.

325

12.2

,
,
37

315

515

- , - . ., 1976

. . 1974

. ., 1976
., 1967

. ., 1978

, ,

. ., 1975

, ,

. ., 1977
. ., 1978, .

: , - . ., 1970
, .
. ., 1977
. ., 1975, .

., 1967

., 1970
., ., 1967

, . , . . (1980) ,
, 15
. - ,
.
. . (Selman, Selman, 1979) . 37
. 49 , - .
612 . 915
, ,
.
12 : .
,
- .
, , - .
.
. . . , .
, . . .

326

12.

,
, . . (1987).

12.4.
, , , ,
. , , .
.
, .
.

, . , ,
. ( : , ).
.
.
.
( ) (
, ), (
).
- VII . . , - , ,
, . ,
, ,
. : ,
, , ,
(1957, . 473). , , .
, :
, - , ,
- , () .
, , (. 489).
.
(VIII ). , , , , . ,
, , .
I , . , . , -

12.4.

327

, , , .
I .
. , , ,
, , , .
, , (, ),
. .
(Murstein, 1988) , -
, , .
(Kelley, 1983).
. (1990) , -
, . , .
: ,
. ,
-.
. , , ,
, , .
, ; , . , . ,
,
, , .
: , ,
, - , , - (1990, . 8283).

. , , . , , ().
, , , - .
,
(. , , ,
(1971, . 156)) (
), , , ,
( , , ).

328

12.

, , . , . . - -.
.
.

. : ,
, , , , ,
(2000, . 411). ,
, (Bowlby, 1973; Ainswort, 1973; Hazan, Shaver, 1997), (warmth) (attachment) . , , , , .
( - , ) , , .
, , , , , ,
.
,
, , , , .
, , - - (, 1975).
:
(10,02
), (5,97 ) - (4,86 ) (Shaver et al., 1988).
- , , , . . ,
(Tennov, 1979),
, , , . , ,
, , ,
, ,
, , , .
, , , ,
(Shaver, Hazan, Bradshaw, 1988).
. . 2004, . 357358

. . . (1966), , -

12.4.

329

,
. ,
, , , (. 10). , , (
),
. , , , , ,
.


. . , .
(, ), (, ),
( ), ( ),
( ), .
.
. .
. , . ,
. , . ,
. ,
.
,
, , .
, , .
, , ,
, , .
.
.
. , , . . (Freud, 1946)
, , ,
. . (Ambrose, 1961) , ,
. (Condon, Sandler, 1974)
,
. . . (1986), , .
. .
: ,

330

12.

, , , , ; , ,
.
: , ; , ; ,
; , .
. (Lee, 1977)
:
1) -,
;
2) -,
;
3) , -;
4) ,
; ;
5) , -,
;
6) -, .
,
, .
, - , . , , , -
, . . (Hendrick et al., 1988;
C. Hendrick, S. Hendrick, 1989; Mallandain, Davies, 1994).
, ,
(Davies, 1996). , ,
, (Dion, Dion, 1985).
()
(Frazier, Esterly, 1990).
() :
1) ; 2) (Swensen, Gilner, 1964). . (Rabin, 1970) , . . (Diener, Pyszczynski, 1978)
,
(Pederson, Shoemaker, 1993) ,
:

12.4.

331

1) , ;
2) () ;
3) ;
4)
, ;
5) .
(Davis, Todd, 1982) ,
(,
).
. (Sternberg, 1986) .
, , . . : ,
; ; ,
; ; .
, .
(, )
, .
. .
, . , .
: , .
, , .
.
- ().
. , , (
).
. , . (. 12.3).
. , , .
, . , -

332

12.

. ,
, -.
.
12.3

: + , .

()
-. .
(Hatfield, 1988),
. . . (1990) ,
, .
,
2 1
. ,

. , (Dion, Dion, 1985; Peplau, Gordon, 1985). . , ,
. , , (Hendrick, Hendrick, 1995).
, , ,
, -, , .
, : , : . , . , . .
storge (), erros () (Meyers, Berscheid, 1997).
. 2004, . 533

. . (1989) . 3 (1

,
30 (Aron, Aron, 1994).

12.4.

333

)
( ) .
78 , .
(1213 ),
,
(
- : , . .).
(1517 ), ,
, .
, -
, , ,
, ? , (Lykken, Tellegen, 1993).
, -, 5% , . , , . , ,
, .
. 2004, . 500

, ,
( - ,
, ). - :
,
,
,
1.
, , :
, , ,
. , ,
(Rubin, 1970). ,
. , ,
. , , :
, .
. 2004, . 533

. (Peel, 1988)
, 1

. ., 1975. . 38.

334

12.

,
.
. , . 1:
, ,
, , ,
, .
, .
, .
, , .
.
, .
, .
, .
.
/

, , . ,
. , , ,
(K. K. Dion, K. L. Dion). ,
, , , , ,

, , ,
. .
: ? .
.

, ,
. , . . , . I , . . 2:
:
.
:
, .

, , .
1
2

. . ., 1946. . 273274.
: . ., 1988. . 261.

12.4.

335


, , .
. (Shaver et al., 1988).
:
, .
.
. 2004, . 540

, .
.
. : , - . .
: ,
(1971, . 160). ,
2 , .

, .

, , , , (Tennov, 1979).
C , ,
, , .
,
,
, . , , , , , . , . .
(Tennov, 1979).
. ,
: , , , , .
. , , , , (Felmlee, 1995).
. . 2004, . 343344

, ,
, , - (Bersheid, Walster, 1978).

336

12.

-
- , -
, . , , .
. :
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
- ,
:
, .

,
, ,
.

.

.
,
,
,
1.

- ,
, . ,
(Kenrick, Trost, 1987). .
, 20 ,
, (Hatfield, Sprecher, 1986).
, ,
.

, , : , , 5 , , ,
(Gupta, Singh, 1982). , , .
: - ?
, , , 1

. ., 1978. . 247.

12.5.

337

. , , ,
, . , .
, . , . .
.
, ,
, () . , , , , .
, , .

12.5.
, . . (Buss, 1961)
, .
. ,
- , ,
.
- . .
, (. . ), . . (),
, . . c
(Spielberger et al., 1985) :
, , ,
.
. , , .
, , .
, , , ,
.
. , , . () ,
, . (
, , . . -,
- . ,
).
. ,
. , -

338

12.

( , , ) .
. (, 1998). , .
.
.

,

. 1.
(Sternberg, 2001), , :
1) () , ;
2) ( );
3) (
).
, , (. 12.4).
12.4

(
/ )

()

()

(
)

,
-
, ( )
( )
( ). , , .
,
, , . 1

. ., 1990. . 165.

12.5.

339

, , . . ,
.
. ,
, , , -
. .
. , ,
, , , , , . (1998), ,
(. 5859). .
, . .
- -, , .
.
,
.
. , . . , ,
. ,
Kynosarges.
.
, ,
. , : , ,
, , . , , .
, ,
, : , . .
, ,
. (Leary, 1957). () (Huston, Levinger, 1978).
. . (, 1981; , , 1984) , -
. : ,
, . ,

, .
, - . ,

340

12.


, , . ,
, , .
, . .
. . ,
. , ,
, .
, , , , , , .
. , , . ,
.
, .
, . , - , . . , ,
.

12.6.
, ,
(, 1995; , 1989; 1990; , 1996) , ,
(, 1997; , , 1991). .
. , , , ( , 1983). , . .
: , , (1978,
. 369). . : , , , , , , , , (1989, . 561). , , , , ,
. . , , - : , ,
(2000, . 571572). , ,
, , ,
.

12.6.

341

. (1932) , . (1971)
, , .
, . . . (1984) , , , , , . . . . . (1998)
- , , ,
, .
, . .
(1990) , - ( , ,
, ) .
, , . . -
, , . . .
, - , , :
, , -
, . . (1997) ,
:
1) ( , , , . [1978, . 370]);
2) - ;
3) , , ;
4) , ;
5) ;
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342

12.

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1.
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:
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. . :
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.
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1

. . ., 1907.

12.6.

343

, ,
. , , , (,
1899), ().
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, ; .

344

12.

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12.7.
. (Salovey, Rodin, 1986), , , . .
(1997), ,
.

12.7.

345

.
. .

, .

(Parrott, 1991; Salovey, 1991; , 1997). . : ; , (1971, . 153). , ,
, , ( ),
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.
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1977) . , . (Salovey, 1991) .

, (Bers, Rodin, 1984; De Steno, Salovey, 1996; Sharpsteen, 1995).
. : , ,
; , - , . . . (Clanton,
Smith, 1977) :
(, .), . , .
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, , , ,
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20 , - (Buss, Larsen, Westen, Semmelroth, 1992), (Bringle,
1991), (Buunk, 1991), (Bryson, 1991; Hupka,
1991) , , -

346

12.

(Salovey, 1991; Salovey, Rothman, 1991).


-
, , /
.
. . 2004, . 363

. , .
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1

. . : . ., 1989. . 205.

12.7.

347

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. . . . 10 . . 2. . 1415.

348

12.

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, .
,
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, .

, .
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, :
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7) - ( , .).
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(Sharpsteen, Kirkpatrick, 1997).

(Andersen et al., 1998), (Guerrero,
Elroy, 1992).
. , . , , , , , ,
. , . .
, , . ,
(Buss et al., 1992; Buunk et al., 1996).
: , , , (, 1978).
, , ,
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,

12.7.

349

, . ,
, , , .
: ( . . ), (
. . ), ( . . ), (
. . - ).
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.
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350

12.

. (1949, 1990) .
9- . . , , , ,
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2,5 5
, ;
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.
.

. (23 )
. , ,
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, .
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12.8. ()
, . (1997), . . (2004,
. 329336). ( ).

12.9.

351

, ,
,
. , ,
.
. , . (Heider, 1958),
, ,
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. . (R. Lazarus, B. Lazarus, 1994)
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,
.
(McCullough et al., 2001) : ) ( / ); )
(
); ) ( ).
,
,
(Tesser et al., 1968). , , (Hegtvedt, 1990).
, (Ortony et al., 1988).
(Graham, 1988) ,
.

12.9.
( )
(, 1976; , 1978; , 1971; , 1989; , 1991; ,
1974; , 1981; , 1977; , 1970; , 1978, .).
,
. , (, 1981), .
- ( ).

352

12.


, . (
. . ) , , , , . , ,
. . (1964), . . . . (1998).
. , . . (1969) , ,
.
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?
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, 1970; , 1978). - .
() () . ,
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1) ;
2) -,
;
3) , ;
4) , .

.
, . ( , , ). , .
,
: , ,
.

12.9.

353

: ,
- .
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,
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, .

, . , .
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, .

354

12.

, ,
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, .
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.
,
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. , , , . , , ( 25
74 ) , (Mroczek, Kolarz, 1998).

.
,
(Suh et al., 1998).
. , (, , 1978). . . (1985) , ; U- : ,
20 ,
12
18 , , .
, ,
, (King, Emmons,
1991).
. . (1970) ,
. , , 94% . . . (1987):
, ,
, (, 50 19%).
,

12.10.

355

, , (, 58% 12%). , , , . ,
, .

12.10.
(Yensen, 1975). (1985) ,
(1983) -
, , , , , . , - , ,
, .
. , , , , , , , - :
,
:

.

(2000, . 468).
: , , , , ,
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, . : ,
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356

12.

, , ,
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(, 2000).
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. (Eysenck, 1990).
, : , , .
. .

, , . , :
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,
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. (Freedman, 1978) , . , ,
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(Myers, 1992), .
.
,
- .
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, .

12.10.

357

, . , , , . , , , ,
.
, , , ( 72 28%). ,
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(1990)
, . (Reiss,
2001) : ,
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, , , 14 , (Fordyce, 1977): 1)
; 2) ; 3)
; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ;
7) , ; 8) , ; 9) ; 10) ; 11)

358

12.

; 12) ; 13)
; 14) .
. . 2004, . 379

. . (1994) . () , . , ,
.
, . ,
. .
,
.
, .
,
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, - , .

12.11.

, , . . .
, . , , , .
:
, . .
,
. . (1896), , :
,
.
, , .
(...) , ,
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: , (1956, . 378).
. , ,
,
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12.11.

359

. ,
, (, , , , , ; , :
) , ( : , ). (,
), .
,
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.
, .
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5 . , : , , .
.
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( . patris , ). , . . (, ),
.
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360

12.

:
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.

12.12.
. . (1985) :
1) , ;
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.

y y. r y y x x , ,
y x , y,
1

. : . .: . . , 1976. . 27.

12.12.

361

x x x, x y yy ( ). y y y
y .
y y uu n . y x x, y: , , y y x
y x , . . K
, y,
y y y y , . , , , , (. . ).
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13


()

13.1.

,
(Tomkins, 1962; Lazarus, 1991; Weiner, 1992). , , , .
. . : , .

.
, ,
.
, .
.
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13.2.
()
,
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, .
.
. . (1987) . -

13.3.

363

, . , ,
.
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.
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13.3.
, , ( . hedone ).
,
. ,
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.
,
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. .). , ( ), ().
, , .
,
. ( . utilitas
, ), . ( ) , .

.
( .
asketes ; ), . . ,
, . ( ), .

364

13. ()

13.4.
. ,
() : , . , ( ). ,
. , , , ,
. , , , .
: , .
, , , .
, .

, , ,
. , .
. . (1973) . . (1976),
( 50% ) () , ()
(27%) (23%). , .
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().
. . (1998), , .
. . (1997) , , , . , . , ,
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- :
,
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:
1) ;
2) ( . (Barker, Dembo, Lewin,
1941) );

13.4.

365

3) ;
4) ;
5) , , ,
(Sarnoff, 1962), (Child, Waterhous,
1952).
.
. . .
. . (2000), , -
, .
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. (Berkowitz, 1962) : , . ,
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.
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, . (Bandura, 1973) , , . , , (. . ). , .
(, XIX ;
). - , .
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,
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366

13. ()

, ( , , ;
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); -, , ,
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. . - : . . . . . ., 1996. . 16.

13.4.

367

(
). . . (1995, 2000),
- . , , , .
,
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, ), , , . .

( , ),
. . . (1996),
, ,
(. 13.1).
, .
, .
13.1

, ,
.
. . (1992)
, ( 74%), ( 68%),
( 34%), ( 33%).
. , . . (1996), (), . , .
, . , , , -

368

13. ()

, , .
.
, . . ,
, . ,
, .
. (MacDougall, 1926) , , . (Murrey, 1938) ,
. . (1994) , . ,
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()
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, ,
.
, . . (Levin, Fleischman, 1968)
.
,
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, , . () , . :

13.4.

369

, , ,
, , .
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, ,
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, .
, . . (Buss, 1961) ,
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Baumeister, Phillips, 2001) 1 , ,
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. (Hokanson,
Burgess, 1962; Hokanson, Edelman, 1966).
. ,
,
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(. 13.1).
1

. . (2004. 111119).

370

13. ()

. 13.1.
(Hokanson, Burgess, 1962)
- .
, . . (Hokanson, 1970) , , . .
, .
,
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. ,
,
. (Richter, 1991). , . ,
. .
,
, .
, .
. . ( . egredior , ) , , .
: , , , , . .

13.4.

371

(,
, 1977):
1) ;
2) ;
3) , ( );
4) , , ;
5) .

, , , , , .
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.
.
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372

13. ()

. . .
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) ,
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.
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, ,
. ,
(Stroebe et al., 1992). , , ,
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, .
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.

13.6.

373

: ,
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.
:
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. .
, , . .
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, .
, , , .

.
. , , .

,
, . . ,
(Aries, 1981).

13.6.

,
- . ,
.
. . (1922) , : ,
, , ,
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374

13. ()

, ,
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, .
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) (
).
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.
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.
1

: . ., 1982. . 262263.

13.7.

375

. . (Barnett, Brian, 1974) , 7 ( ), 10- .

13.7.
, . , . , , , . .
. , . . ,
.
.
. . (1988) , .
1. . , ,
. , , , , , ,
.
2.
. , . , , ,
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, .
3. , - .
(
). , ,
.

14

- .
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. .
. ,
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3 .

. ,
, , , , .
., . 2003, . 403
1
2

. . . . 4. . 31.
: . , , . ., 1963. . 411.

14.1. ()

377

14.1.
()

, ().
(, , 1988).
: (+ ), (+ ) ( ).
, .
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- .
. . .
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.

378

14.

, ,
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,
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, ,
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.
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, .
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.
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.
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1

. . ., 1990. . 125.

14.2. ()

379

-, .
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, .
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. . . , .
.
() ( 14.9).
. . (, , 1984),
. , , ,
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.

14.2. ()

. . . (1983) 13 (. 14.1), : -

. 14.1. ( . . ). , , , (, , ); , ,

380

14.

, , , ,
, .

(. 14.1).
14.1

, %

10

11

12

13

18

10

12

18

14

14

15

15

12

10

11

. . ,
,
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.
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. .
(1970, 1972, 1974).
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), , ( ).
, : , (. 14.2). ,
,
, .
. . . : (
) , , .

14.3.

381

14.2

- . .

14.3.

. dyscholos () eucholos (). , , - - ,
; , ,
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.
:

:
,
;
,

,
, .

. . ,
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.
.

:

382

14.

, !
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:
,

.
,
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( . optimus pessimus ) , , . .
.
, , .

14.4.
. (1991), :
, .
, 1000 . .
. . (Henderson, Zimbardo, 1996)
, . , , . . .
, . . . (Jones, Carpenter, 1986), , ,
, , .
(Miller, 1995).
. . ,
80% , 1

. ., 1978. . 65.

14.4.

383

. . . . (1995),
(30% 23% ). 25 35%.
. , . , , . , . , , ,
, , .
. XIX
. (Campbell, 1896).
. (Cattell, 1946) , . ,
. . (1984) , 40% .
, .
. . (Daniels, Plomin, 1985) ,
, . 2
,
.
.
, .
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,
(. . ). ,
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,
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(Kagan, Reznick, Snidmann, 1984). ,
21 5,5 .
.
,
. , -

384

14.

(Edelman, 1985), (Leary,


Meadows, 1991; Miller, 1995). . . (Pilkonis, Zimbardo,
1979) , ,
,
. , , . ,
. . . (1989) , ,
. , ?
(2000),

, : (66% ),
(77% ) . , ,
, , : , .
. . (1998)
. ( < 0,01) , , , ,
, , ; ( < 0,05) , , , , , , , .
.
, .
, .
- . , . .
. , , . ,
.

, . . (2000) : .
. . . . . (1983).
,
, . , , . , , , , .

14.4.

385

,
, .
, ,
; - .
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, .
. ,
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-,
. -,
,
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. -, , ,
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. ,
. . .
. 46- 42% , . 78- 54%, .
, , - .
. . (1977) (50
- ) ,

386

14.

.
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5- , 6 7 .
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4 ,
4 .
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.
1517- . . (Zazzo, 1966) ,
? 8% ( : ,
30% ). , ,
( 10% ).
, , . . , . . , 13%. , , , .
, , . -

14.5.

387

, . ,
(, , , , ) .
() . , , . ,
. , , , . , , , .
, , . , .
. ; , , , .

14.5.
. , ,
, , ,
, .
,
.
. . , 511- , , , (. 14.2). , , ,
(. 14.3).

. 14.2.

388

14.

14.3

,
11

12

13

1415

1617

0,39
= 0,05

0,50
= 0,05

0,12
= 0,05

0,43

0,19

0,56
= 0,01

0,62
= 0,05

0,61
= 0,01

0,51
= 0,05

0,32

, . .
. . . 5
11- , , -, , , -,
12 1415 (. 14.3). .
, ,
, (. 14.4).

. 14.3.
14.4

,
11

12

13

1415

1617

0,41
p < 0,05

0,35

0,54
p < 0,01

0,26

0,52
p < 0,05

0,46
p < 0,05

0,56
p < 0,05

0,40
p < 0,05

0,76
p < 0,01

0,32

14.7.

389

(2000) , , .

14.6.
. , ,
- - ,
- , . . , . . , - .
(Spielberger et. al., 1995) , -
, (Kopper,
Eppersohn, 1996). ,
, -.
(Kring, 2000), ,
, , , , .
, ; ,
, .

14.7.
, 1, (
. pathos , ,
, ). , , , . , ,
. ( ), (Feshbach, 1987; Eisenberg et al., 1989).
. . , ,
, . .
, ,
.
, .
(, 1895; , 1876; ,
1

. . (2004, . 260) . ; . , , , .
.

390

14.

1896), (, 1907). . . . ,
. : ( ) (). .
,
. . .
. .
.
, .
, .
, , . , ( ).
. .
. (1925) ,
.
() . (Scheler, 1923). () , , .
, Einsfuhlung
, , a Mitgefuhl
.
XIX
. . (1897),
( ), , . .
, , .
, , .
, .
B. (1922) , . (, ) (, ).
.
, .
. (1889)
, . ,

14.7.

391

. , .
(Allport, 1924; Asch, 1952). , . , . 50% ,
. ,
, .
C. . .
. , .
.
. (Titchener, 1909),
. , ,
, .
,
, , ,
(Cotrell, Dymond, 1949; Bronfenbrenner et al., 1958).
,
. (Beres, Harlow, 1953),
, (Mahoney, 1960; Speroff, 1953), (Wilmer, 1968)
, (, 1969).
. ,
, . ,
. , , -.
. . -- ,
.
,
. , . ,
, ,
( ).
:
-- -

392

14.

, , , (. 117). ,
, .
: , . , , , , .
.
, . , , .

,
, , , , .
, .
(Aderman et al., 1974; Berger, 1962; Mehrabian, Epstein, 1972; Stotland et al., 1971).
, , , . . . . (1924) , .
, ,
, . . .
, . . (1981), , .
. . . . (1981) , , .
. . .
(1999), , , , , , , .
. . (Sulzer, Burglass, 1968),
, . .
. . . (Martin, Toomey, 1973) , .
, . . (Murphy, 1937) ,
(
), ( ), , (, ), -

14.7.

393

. , ,
, .
.
,
, . , , , (Moor et al., 1984).
XIX
:
,
?
,
?
, ,
?
,
?

?1

. . . . (1975), .
. (Stotland, 1971),
.
() , , , ,
.
, . () , , , . .
. . (1993)
: . , -, . ,
, .
, . , . , , .
,
, (,
, , ). , : , 1

. 1979. 10. . 106.

394

14.

,
. , . . ,
, .
. . ,
.
, , , ;
.
, .
, . (,
) , , . : , , .

, . (Hoffman, 1978) ( ). .
( )
, . , , ,
,
, ,
, .
( 23 ) , , .
,
.
( 6 9 )
.
(Hoffman, 1982 a, )
: ,
, . (Straier, 1987),
, , ( ) ,
( ) , .
, . , , , , (Feshbach,
1987).
- . , , (Sidman, 1969). . . (1977) ,
- . -

14.8.

395

, (. 14.4).

. 14.4. , () ()
, . :
, . , .

14.8.
,
( . sentiment ). , , . ,
, , , , . . , .
.
, , , . . . (), , , - ,
,
, - .
, , , ,
( ) , ,
(1995, . 146).

396

14.

14.9.
, . .
, () , , (Spilberger, 1966). . . (1973)
. . ,
: , .
. , , .
, ,
, , , . , .
, , ,
(Endler et al., 1962; Martens, 1977, .). ,
. (Sarason, 1972) ,
, . , , , , ,
. .

. , , ( , ) .
. -
.
.
. . (1979) , ( . ), ( ),
( ) , ( Q4). . .
. . (2000),
, , , , , , .
, . . . (1966) , , . . (, 1970;
, 1976; ., 1979), -

14.9.

397

(. 14.5), , ,
, , . , , ( ., 1979).
14.5

(. . , 1976)

(n = 171)

22,8

19,3

57,9

(n = 146)

28,0

24,8

47,2

. ,
. . . (1979) . (1953). 86% 64% . 14 36% .
, ,
. . . (1981) -, .
, ( . ) (. 14.5).

. 14.5.

. . . (Cattell, Scheier, 1961) ,

398

14.

,
, .
- . . . . (1976) , (16 . ) 7
8- , 910- .
(. 14.6).

. 14.6.
, , ,
, , , .
. . . (2000) , 11
. ,
: , , , ,
, . ,
. . . , 45% .
.
. (Cattell, Scheier, 1961),
: , , . , ,
, . . . (1997) , 1011- , .

14.9.

399

. , .
. . (1983) , , (. 14.7).

. 14.7. : ;

. . ,
. , . . (1979),
- .
(, 1970) , , , .
, ( ,
) ,
, . , . . (1981),
, .

. , , ,
. , . . (1979),
- , , , ,
, (
, ).

, (. 14.6).
,
. , , -

400

14.

(
, ).
14.6

, %

45,4
65,0

55,5
15,0

20,0

45,5
50,0

55,5
28,5

21,5

36,4
38,5

59,1
38,5

4,5
33,0

, , . , ,
, .
. . (1988) . , - . , 80%
. 52% ( 74% ). , , : , . .
,
, ( ,
).
. . . (1987) ,
( 83% ), (58%) , . . (43%). . . (, , , 1974), ()
, () .
, , .
,
, , ,

14.11.

401

(, 1970; , 1975), ( ., 1974).


,
( 10%). , ( ),
, , . . . , ( 20%), (
., 1974). ,

, .

14.10.
.
. . (Whiting, Child, 1953). ,
.
. , ,
(Benedict, 1934; Meade, 1956; Izard, 1971).
,
, ,
. , ,
, : , . , : 4,7 , 7,2 .

14.11.

. . . , .
, .
,
.
. 45 , ,
. ,
, .
,
, , - .

15

,
. , . . . . (1985) ,
, ,

;
,
.
. . (1986), 23% , .
: , , . . 1.
, . , .

15.1.

. . (1979), - ;
, , , .
- (
) . . (1997) , . . , .
.
1

. . . .: 6 . ., 1957. . 2. . 507.

15.1.

403


, , .
: , . . , ,
, , , , . , .
. , ,
: , , ,
, ,
.
,
, .
. . (1988), .
-. , , , .
. . , . . , , - ( ), (
) ( ) .
( 64% ) ,
. , (, 21, 21 18% ).
(, 22, 19
14% ).
, , .
, , , . . .
(1995) .
( ). 75% . .
(. . ). -

404

15.

, , . 15.1.
15.1

,
, %

11

16

31

63

60

56

54

24

33

65

52

50

74

40

22

39

28

07


.
, , (. 15.2).
15.2

, , %

74

67

48

52

17

96

79

44

60

52

. ,
, .
,
. . (1993), ,
. 5
. 6 , .
. , . ( 20 ) , ,
( 5 ).
. -

15.1.

405

,
. , ,
. ,
. , , .
. . (1996), , ,
() . , , .
, . . : .
, , , . : ,
, ,
, . , , -! . , , ?..1
, ,
,
.
. . . (2000), - , , -, , (. 15.1).
, , , -. .
.
. . (1982) ,
. , (, , ),
, ,
, . ,
. . ,
.
, . . , , . . , ,
. (. 15.2).
1

. . . .: 2 . . 2. . 13.

406

15.

. 15.1.

. 15.2.

15.2.

407

(. 15.3). , .

. 15.3.

, . , . (Busch, 1973),
, . c, . , .
, . .
, (Zaborowski, 1973). , , , , . ,
, .

15.2.

.
, , .
. . . (1976) ,
-
. ,
. -

408

15.

(). . .
(1986) , -
.
. (Seashore, 1990) ,
, , .
, , . ,
. . . . (2000). , , , . . ,
.
. ,
,

.
, ,
. , , ,
(, . . (1993) :
, ). , , , .
( ) . ,
(5 27), .
. . . (1979) , ,
(. 15.3).
. . (1994) 84,4% . . ,
. . . (1980) ,
.
, .
. . : . , , .

. . -

15.2.

409

, . . ,
.
15.3

4,25

3,70

0,01

4,12

3,60

0,05

3,99

3,60

3,84

3,51

4,02

3,50

0,05

4,20

3,72

0,05


, .

, . , , ,
, (, 1991).
. . (1988), - , , - .
. . ,
, , . . (1968), , -
. , , ,
.
. . (1983) , ,
, (
)
. ,
. , .

410

15.

. . (1986)
. .
.
.
. . (2000),
 ( G,
. ), , ( I),
, , , ( F).
. . (1999) (). , . ,
.
. . (1988),
. ,
, , ; , .

15.3.

, . , , . ,
, ,
(, 1997). , (Keef, 1973). , . . (1925), .
, , , , , (, 1988). , ,

. , -, - (, 2000). ,
.

15.3.

411

, , .
. , ( , 1989).
?
. , . - , . , . , , ,
. . ,
: .
, , : .
. , . . ,
(, 2000), . ,
(, 2000) (, 2000).
, , , . , ,
. , (, 2000; , 2000).
, , (, 2000).
, . .
(1999), : , ,
, . ,
, -
. , ,
, , ,
50%
(, 2000).
. . (1997)
- (. 15.4).
, -
, -.
. 15.4
, . .
(1993).

412

15.

15.4

-
,

4,58

4,80

4,51

4,77

4,36

4,61

4,24

4,57

4,20

4,46

. 15.4.

15.4.
(
)
. . (1999)
. -

15.4.

413

. . (1973),
, .
. . , , ,
.
,
- , ,
, ,
, .
.
( , ).
, , , .
. . . (1984) , , . . . (1981),
, , . . . (1990) , , , .
. . , ,
, , . , ,
.
, . .
.
,
. . . ,
, .
.

. ,
. , , , . .
-, , . , -.
.

16

, . . . (1999) ,
,
, , .
,
, , , , . ,
.
.

.

16.1.

. . . (1971) , 56- .
, .
: . , , ;
, ,
, , , (1997, . 201).
. . : () ,
: , , ;
, , ,
.

16.1.

415

, ,
(. 503504).
. (2000), , . , 3- ,
.
3- ,
13- ,
13- , ,
.
. , . . , ,
. 23 , . , , . . , , ,
. , 9 .
. (1930) , . :
.
, . .
. , , , ,
(, , , ).
() .
. , ,
.

(Field et al., 1982; Mayo, La France, 1978).
. . (Shennum, Bugenthal, 1982), . . (Kilbrite, Jarczower, 1980), . . (Malatesta, Haviland, 1982) .
(2,55 )
. , . .
, . . . - (Lenard, Forrai-Banlaki, 1960), 717 . ,
1113 -

416

16.

. ,
, (Edwards et al., 1984).
, , .
, .
. . (2000)
. ,
, 9- . 10- .
, . (Goodenough, 1931).
7 7
10 , , ,
, , , (, -), (. 16.1).

. 16.1.
, a epo xapaepyec ocoeoc
poe o yc. . :
, , ,
...
, ,
...
, ,
...1
1

. . ., 1990. . 161.

16.1.

417

(, 1994; Bormann-Kischkel, Hildebrand-Pascher, 1990; Donaldson, Westerman, 1986;


Harris, 1983). ,
( ), .
; , , . ,
; , ,
. . (Devitz, 1969). 5
,

, .
. (Belsky et al., 1991).
3 9 .
. 16.1, .
16.1



; ;

;
;
,

. . (1961), :
1) - ;
2) , ;
3) , , , ,
. , . .
, .

418

16.

, , , , ,
, , ,
(Dunn, Brown, Beardsall, 1991).

,

,
(): , , , . .
. . (2005), , 1011
. , 1113 .
(36 ), .
. , ; (, ); 1213 ( , ), 1314
.
, . -,
, , , .

: (,
), (,
).
, :
, ( 1213 );
( 1314 );
,
, , . . ( , ), ( ).
1314 .
, ,
. , , , 1314 . (, -

16.1.

419

, ), 15
, : . 910
1314 . 1011
1314 .
, ,
:
, , . , , ,
-, , -, ( ) .
, :
910 ,
;
;
1314 , , ,
.
1314 .
.
910 , 1112
- .
, : 1314 (, ) 13
14 ( , ).
1617 . . .
. -,
, , ;
, , , 1617 .
-,
( ),
.
,
, , .
(, ), ,

420

16.

910 . , ( ),
. 1011 ; , , ( , ), .
1415 . , -,
,
, .
1617 , 1516 . , , , ,

, . .
, :
(910 );
(1011 ), 1415
;
1517 .
1516 .



(Strayer, 1986), 5 6 . ,
,
, , 78 .
(Lewine, 1995), 56
. . ( ), ( ).
7
(Yirmiya, Weiner, 1986).
. . (2005) . . 910 .

16.1.

421

. 910 , 1011 , 1112


( ), 13
14 (, , ).
1112 . ,
, .
1011 ,
( , - )
. 1314 , (, ), (
). ,
. , , ( )
. ,
, , .
, , ,
. 1314 , .
, , ,
, .
, , ,
(, . .)
( 1011 1315 ).
, , ,
.
, 1, .



. . (2005) , . ,
,
1

. . (1981), , , , . . (. 194).

422

16.

(, , , ).

, , , (, , , ). 1314
( 10, , ).
, 1213 .

1214 . ,
.

1112 , 14
15 .
( ,
, ), 15
17 . , ,
, , .
. , , (, ).
,
, .
( , ,
, . .), ( , , , , ,
.

16.2.
. (1959) , :
( ), , ,
, .
, .
, . ,
, .
10 , , - .
, . . . (1946) ,
34-
, 56-

16.2.

423

, , ,
, , ,
.
. . . . (1949) ,
. ()

.
, , -, (Emde et al., 1976). , ,
(Fraiberg, 1971). 2,5 , .
. ,
- . , .
. , .
.
,
.
, ,
(-, 1966). , , 59 (Church, 1966; Maior, 1906; Wolff, 1966). , , .
1012 , . . (Sroufe, Wunsch, 1972), ,
79 . , .
6,5 , 7 ,
( ) 8 , 10,5 .
3- , ,
. ,
, , , . ,
. ,
(Tronic et al., 1978).
4 - (, , , ) (Montague, Walker-Andrews, 2001).
, , , . . (Stern, 1984) ,

424

16.

. , (Basch, 1976; Call, 1984).


-
( ,
. .). , ; : ,
.
,
(Mahler et al., 1975), ,
, . (Emde, Sorce,
1983).
-
, ( , ,
. .). , , .

( ). ,
, .
. . . (Bronson, 1978), 9- ,
, , . 2 .
. (Ainsworth, 1967), . .
(Maccoby, Feldman, 1972), , , , ,
. . (Jacobson, Wille, 1984). , , ,
.
. (Hoffman, 1974). , ; , (. ). ,
, , , . ,
(. , . : Haith, Campos, 1977). . (Spitz, 1965),
, .

16.2.

425

. (Kaltenbach et al., 1980) , ,


, ,
.
.
, .
. . (1974), . . (Morgan,
Ricciuti, 1969) , , , , , . .
, ,
. . . , . ,
. , ,
.
- - , , .
. . (Spitz, 1962, 1963),
, ,
. ,
.

(. , 2000).
. (Young, 1961) . (Bridges,
1932), 2 (. 16.2).
, .
, , , , , , . , ,
- . , ,
, . , , , ,
5 .

( , ), . . . (Jersild, Holms, 1935) , ,

426

16.

1 6 (, , ) , , , ( , , ).
16.2

12

18

24

(Feinman, Lewis, 1983; Walden, 1991)


, , .
, ,
, ,
.

16.3.

, . . (1966)
. . (1971),
, (,
1975), ()
(. . , 1961).
, , . , .
. - (Radtke-Yarrow, Zahn-Waxler,
Chapman, 1983) , .
21 .
.
. - (Zahn-Waxler et al., 1992) (Kagan,
Lamb, 1987) ,
18- 24- . , , .

16.4.

427

,
(Bretherton et al., 1986), , . , (Saarni, 1999),
.
23 .
, .
. 35 , ,
, .
. . (1976), 23 , , ,
, , , . , ,
, , ,
(Harris, 1989).
24 , (Wellman et al., 1995).
3-
, (Wellman, Wooley, 1990).
3 (. . , 1980).
. ,
. , , .
. . . . (1987) , 23 , .

(. . , 1980). ,
, , . 2 . .
, .

16.4.
,
. () ,
,
. . . . . (1974). , , ,
, (, 1976, . 124).

428

16.

. . .
(1984) 45 67 .
, .
. , (, , ).
- . , , (, , ). .
- . , , ( ).
. . ,
.
. , , ( , ).
- . ( , ).
(. 16.3).
16.3

, %

45

67

20

50

27

03

27

33

40

. . ,
, . 45
. 45- -
67 . 45 - , 67 .
, 45
, .
() 45 , 67
, .

16.4.

429

45 .
, : , , . . ?
: , .
(Carrol,
Steward, 1984).
, - , , . ., (Wellman, Banerjee, 1991).
56
(, 1993).
,
(, ). , ,
, .
.
( . (Niebrzydowski,
1983), 67 ) ,
;
.
-, 45- , . , ,
,
(Gottman, 1983).
. . .
(1990) :
1) ( , );
2) (
, );
3) ( , (
) ).
. . (1959), . . (1995)
- ,
. ,
, .
. . (1997)
. . , , . .
, , . -

430

16.

, .
, , , , , ,
.
, . ( 4,5 67 ) ,
, , .
. .
:
1) ,
: , , ,
;
2)
: , , , , ;
3) : ( ).
,
.

16.5.

. , , . ,
(,
1968; . . , 1966).
, : , , .
. . (1988) , 1011 : 34% 26%
. 70% , . , .
, ooaa cepa ax oo xapaepyec:
1) ooc a pocxoe co opaeoc ocp, oopae, yceo eco ee ;
2) eocpeceoc opoeoc pae cox epea
paoc, ea, cpaxa, yooc eyooc;

16.5.

431

3) ; , , , ; , ;
4) oo ooao eycooc, aco ceo acpoe (a
epaococ, opoc, eceoc, eaooc),
cooc paopee yp aea;
5) ooe aopa ax oo c e oo
cepca, o ycex yee x yee ooacca;
6) o yca ca ocoac oac; a
pyrx ocpaec ac eepo, a e a cooae yc opya, o po eaea oe ax oo;
, , ,
, (, 1985, 1986).
, . . (1998), , , . , . .
.
, , (, 1968).
. . , , , (
). , . , .
. K accy y oo poec ocopeoe epo, ac copcea. B opace aa oppoac o Poe, yco aoao opoc, oppyec oap.
. (Selman, 1981),
, 712 , . ( 7 ) : , , , .
.
( 7 9 ) .
.

432

16.

( 9 12 ) . .
, , , , .
(1112 ), , ,
, , ,
.
. , .
. (Rizzo, Corsaro, 1988) ,
, . . (Berndt, 1983)
, . ,
, , .
: . , , . - , ,
(Rubin, 1980).
.
. , .

16.6.
. - , . , . . (1973),
()
, , ,
.
.

.

. , , 67 (. . ).
, (. , . . , . . ).
ooao cep opoco xapaep:
1) , , , :
, r, ;
2) ; , ;

16.7. ()

433

3) ,
(. . (1972) , );
- , ,
;
4) : , , ; , , , ;
5) , ,
;
6) , ,
; ;
7) ,
, , , ; , ; , ,
; ;
8) .

16.7.
()
. , ,
(, 1966).
:
1) , -;
2) , , ;
3) , . .
, ;
4) , .
, , . , ,
, , , , , . , . H, , , ;
5) ; , , , -

434

16.

; - (Hrtu,
1989);
6) ; , , , , , , , .
, , ,
; .

16.8.

. , . . (. . , . . , 2001)
, , , (. 16.2). , , .

. 16.2.
, , , 12
13 , . . .
: .
. . (1974 ), , .
. . . (1996)
( 5- 11- ) : ( ), -

16.9.

435

. , (. 16.3).

. 16.3.
13 , 12 , 1415 .
,
:
1) , ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) .

16.9.

. . (1987)
. . (1999),
.
. .
: , , ;
, ; , ,
. (, , ),
, .

436

16.

. .
: , , .
, ,
.
,
. , ,
, -
, . ,
, , . , , , (Levy, 1978).
,
.
. . (1996), , ,
, ,
- , .
, ,
(Cherlin, Furstenberg, 1986).
, . -
, (, 1995),
( , 1996),
( , , ).
(, 1997). ( ), .
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
,
. , , (Kalish, 1979).
,
.
, , (, 1997; , 1996).

16.10.

437

, . ,
, ,
. , , ( ., 1989). , , .
, ,
, (, , 1989). . , ,
.
, (Kastenbaum, 1986), ,
. 10% , (Jeffers, Verwoerdt, 1977).
, .

16.10.

. , (
, ). (, ) (, , , , ) (Fischer, 1993; Siegel, Alloy, 1990). ,
, , (Vingerhoets, Scheirs, 2000).
, , (Ferguson, Eyre, 2000). , :
, . , , c , , (Zahn-Waxler et al., 1991).
. ,
, (Rosen et al., 1992).
(Hall, 1984; Fujita et al.,
1991; Gross, John, 1995; Fisher, Manstead, 2000). , ,
( ) (Hall et al., 2000)1. (Thomas, 1996),
(Fivush, Buckner, 2000).
(,
1

, (, , . .),
, (Bischoping, 1993).

438

16.

, (Dindia, Allen, 1992). ,


. (Levant, 1995)
,
. ,
- ,
,
(ONeil et al., 1995; Saurer, Eisler,
1990). . (2001), .
. . (1997) , , .
. , ,
.
. . (E. Maccoby, C. Jacklin, 1974) ,
, , . , ,
, , -
,
. ,
- , (Cole, 1986; Davis, 1995).
. (1993) ,
,
. . : ! (. . .) 1.
. , . . (1998) ,
, , .

. . (1996) , ,
, .
.
. . ,
, .
B . ,
1

. . , 1979. . 329.

16.10.

439

(, , ) (Block, 1984), (Malatesta et al., 1989), (Radke-Yarrow et al., 1988).


, , , , ,
, ,
(Brody, 1999).
,
, (Custrini, Feldman, 1989).
. (., .,
[Madden et al., 2000]), . , . . (1996), , : ,
. , . ( ). 79 , 10
. , , , , , , , , , , . 7
,
89- . 9 .

, , .
. . (2000) , 12- .
(1415 ) , 16
17 .
. . (1975)
14% , 21% . (, 26 43%).
(39 35%).
(. 16.4 16.5).
, , , ,
(, 34 12%).
-, - (, 34 13%).
. . .
, .
-

440

16.

, . . , ,
, (. 16.6).

. 16.4.

. 16.5.
. . (. . ,
. . , 2001) .
, , ,
(. 16.7).
: 89,
1213 1617 ,
1011 1415 .
. . (2001),
, (60% 40%)
(100 60%).
(80% 30%). (60% 40%). , .

16.10.

441

. 16.6.

. 16.7. :
,
.
, (Rubin, 1983).
,
(Sharabany, Gershony, Hoffman, 1981).

442

16.

.
. . .
,
( . .
), , (. 16.8).

. 16.8.
. . , . , 1012 (Eisenberg, 1989;
Eisenberg et al., 1987), , , , .
. . (1996),
( ).
, , , . . (2007),
.

16.10.

443

. . , , , .
, ,
, , .
(, 1996, .).

. (1980), , ,
(,
, , . . , ). , , , (, 1969; , 1981).
:
.
. , : .
,
, , .
, , , (, 1996; Berg, 1986; Barling, 1990), .
(, ,
)
, , .
. . ,
, , ,
. .
,
. .
, ,
, .
, , .
, . , , , , . ,
, . . (Borman et al., 1984) ,

444

16.

,
, .
.
, . , , ,
, , .
.
,
, ( ) .
. . . (Horner,
1968) ( ) .
, , , .
(, ) . , , .
, .
(Breedlove, Cicirelly, 1974; Bremer, Witting, 1980; Monahan et al., 1974). , ,
,
. . . , , (, ), , ( , ). - . , .
, ,

(Kanter, 1977) .

(, 1998).
, (Yamauchi, 1989), , .

17

17.1.

, .
. , , ,
. ,
. . . . (1999), (. 17.1) , , , . ,
,
. , , , (Eaton, Weil, 1955 , ; Parker, 1962; ,
1997). , ,
.
, , , . 30% , ,
, , , . . , , .
, ,
, .
. (1993 ), ,
, . , , .

( , , ).
1

:
/ . . . . ., 2000; . .
: . ., 1996; . ., . .
: . ., 1998.

446

17.

17.1

,
-

, ,


,

,
, ,


( ),
,


()

, ,
. .

,
- ,
, ,

, - ,

- , ,
-

, ,
- , . . .

17.2.

447

, . .
. . . .
. . 17.2.
17.2

, %

54

62

67

87,5

74

57

88

75,0

40

60

82

71,0

44

48

71

37,5

, , ,
. . . ( ), ( ).
,
, .
, , - .
,

(1999, . 64).

17.2.

. , .
, , , , , .
, , , , .
, ; .
, , , , -

448

17.

. , , , .
.
, .
(, , , )

( - , - , ).
.
() . : , ,
. . . .
.
(
, - , ). .
, . .
, - .
, -
. .
. (, )
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,
. , , , .

(, ) .
, , , .
(, , , . .), -

17.3.

449

.
.
,
. :
.
.

(, . .), .
.

17.3.
. . , (. 17.1).

. 17.1.
()
, . . , .
, , , , . .
. (, , , )
, -

450

17.

. , , , , (), .

, . .
, ,
.
, ,
. . ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
- .
,
. . .

. , . . , , .
.
. .
. . ,
.
,
.
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. ,
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. , , , ,
, , . .
.
, , .
, . -

17.3.

451

.
,
.
.
.
, , . ,

, . , . , ,
, ,
. ; .
() , :
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.
,
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. , , .
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, ,
, , , - , .

452

17.

- ,
.
, .
, , , , . , , .
, . . . , , , , .
, . ,
(, , ).
, (
, ) , , . ,
, , . . , , , , , .
. .

, , .
, .
, . , . .
, , ( , ).
, , .
, , ( ), , .

. . (Preyer, 1884) : ,
, , ,
, ; ; ; (. : , 1995, . 159).

17.4.

453

. . ,
. , , , , , , , , . .

, , , . , , . .
, , , , .
,
. , . , .
.
(: ) . , .
.
1968 ,
. :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ,
, ;
4) , .
. . , : ,
, , . , , .
(. . , 2001).

17.4.
. , . .
, , , .
,
. , -

454

17.

. . (1904) , , , , . , , ,
, , (Kraepelin, 1899).
. . (1894), , ,
, , .
, , , . , , . , ,
. () .
(1915)
, ; , .
().
, , .
,
.
, . :
;
;
;
. .
. ,
.
( )
(, , ,
. .). ( ), .
.
() , . , - (, , . .).
, , -

17.4.

455

( , ). , , . , .
( 5 ) . , ,
, .

,
. ,
.
.
. .
. . (1991), , , , - ,
.
- - . . . .
:
. - , . ?
, ,
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. , , ... . . ,
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, . , ,
, ,
... , , ... , , ,
, ... ,
! , . , , ,
: , , , , ?1
. (1991): , , . , , . , , ,
(. : , 2000, . 95).
1

. . . . ., 1955. . 6. . 317318.

456

17.

,
. , .
. :

;

;

;

.
: !
, !
: !
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: !
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: !
- .

: !

, . (1902), , , , - , ,
(, . .).
, ,
, , . .
. , , , (. 17.2).

. 17.2.
,
, , , , .

17.4.

457

. ,
, ,
, , ,
, . , .
, . . , , , , .
.
- ,
.
. , .

, , . , ,
, - ,
. .
, , , . .
(. 17.3).
, (. . ), , , .

. 17.3.
, , .
, , .
, . , , , , . , -
.

458

17.

(), 5% . ,
, , ,
. (Ostrov, Offer, Howard, 1989),
,
-,
, . , , , . - ,
( ).
, ,
, . . , , .
, ,
(Horowitz et al., 1991, . : , 2000, . 633).
:
1) , ;
2) , ;
3) ;
4) .
13 19 ,
16 19 . (Peterson et al., 1993; . : , 2000, . 631).
,
. .
. , , , . , ,
( , ),
, . ,
. . .
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17.6.

459

, Unlust-. .
,
, , .
:
. ;
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: , , ;
; ; .
. ( . asteneia , ) , , .
, , .
, , , . , , .
.

17.5.
. . . . (1970) .
- (); , , , ( ). ,
,
.
; - , (, , , ).
. , .
; , , .
,
, .

17.6.

()
. ,

460

17.

(), .
( , ),
, . , . , , , .
. . (1998), 7 70%
40% . ,
. . . (1998) , 89
, , .
. . (2000). ,
, : ,
, , . , , ,
.

.

,
. ,
(, 1995; , 1996).
- : , , .
.
, , .
, .
, - . (, 1996).
. . (2001),
;
, .
. . . (2001) , ,
. , .
.
. . (1974), (

17.6.

461

), () , , , , .
, , ; - .
.
, - .
- , . . , , .
.
, .
.
. . (1969) - ( , , , .)
.
. , , ; 15 ,
1980 , 3000 (Bradshaw, 1980). .
. .
(1948). , ,
, .
. . (1971), . . . . (1977)
. , ,
. ,
(, 1970; , 1971; , 1970).
, . . . (1974),

.
( ) .

, , , , .
. . (1979).
,
-

462

17.

, (Bowers et al., 1985; ., 1984).


. . . . (1998), ( ) .

, ,
. .
(. 17.4 17.5).

. 17.4.
( ): I , II :
,
. (Sackeim et al., 1982) , -

17.6.

463

, .
.
, , (Borod et al., 1986).
(Wechsler, 1973).

. 17.5. ,
( )
. . , , .
. . (1975, 1987), . . . . (1975), .
(1959) , .
. . . (Vanderberg, Mattisson, 1961) ,
. , , .

464

17.

.
, (, 1913; , 1912). , ,
(, , 1971; , 1979; Glatt, 1967).
. . (1987) . .
( ). , .
,
( , ) (
, , ). (, , , , , )
, .

17.7.


, . . . . . (1979).
- . , (, , . .), ,
, , . , , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, , .
, , . .
, ,
.
, , ,
.
, ,
.
, .
, ( ) , . .

17.7. ...

465

, , ,
. , , .

: .
, , . . ,
, , . . .
, . , , . , .
, . , .
, , .

, .
.
. ,
, , . , .
. . , , , . 80% , ,
, () .
( ) :
, , , , , , . M. (Seligman, 1974),
, ,
.
, , , . , , . , , (1979, . : .,
1997) , . ,
( ), ,
( ), ,

466

17.

, ( ).
, ,
, , . ,
( ,
, , , ).
, - . ,
() .


, .
, ,
.
. . ,
. ,
. , ,
. , , 2000 , -
, , .
. . . , , , , , .

(1970, . 72).

18

18.1.

.
, , , .
(), () -
(), (, 1929; -, 1965; , 1967, , 1979, .). . . - , , .
,
(, , . .) (, 1929; Lacey, 1956).
. . . . (1968) . , , : ,
. , ,
, :
,
(, 1981).
(Luria, 1932; Berrien, 1939; , 1970 , ; , 1970), (
) (, 1959; , 1972), (
),
() (, 1960; ,
1962).
. . (1989)
. : , :

468

18.

S O
,
O
, S
, ( s), . .
.
, s, : ,
. s . s ,
s .
( ).
. . (Ekman, Friesen, 1978) ,
FACS (Facial Action Coding System)
. 10
. 41 ,
24 20 , , , , .
, . .
. 18.1.
, (,
, , ) 41% .
. , :
, ,
.

: (m. zygomaticus) (m. corrugator), , .
: m. zygomaticus (Z), m. corrugator (C) m. masseter ( ) . : (Z , C
); (Z , , ); (Z
, ); (Z , ,
). , , . .

.
n=

18.1.

469

. 18.1. : 1 Ground; 2 Lateral Frontalis; 3 Medial Frontalis; 4 Corrugator Supercilii; 5


Depressor Supercilii / Procesus; 6 Orbicularis Oculi (Pars orbital); 7 Levator Labii Superioris;
8 Orbicularis Oris Inferior; 9 Depressor Anguli Oris; 10 Mentalis; 11 Zygomaticus Major;
12 Masseter
. (Fridlund et al., 1984)
,
.
, , .
. , .
. , (, , . .),
. ()
. . . -

470

18.

. . . : , , ,
. . . . (1978) ,
10.2.
, () , . ,
(, 1970; Leeper, 1965; , 1969). . . (1972), , , . , ,
, (. 6). . . (1970).

. . . , (, ) , () . . . (1966)
, . , :
, . ,
,
. . . (1972)
:
, . . . (1975) , . .
, .
. . (1970), , ,
, , . . . . , , , . . . (1987)
Na . (, , )
.
,
, , -

18.1.

471

,
.
. . .
(1973),
. . , .
. ,
,
. , .
.
. . (1975) ,
. ,
( ), (
). ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
. (1970),
. , .

, , ,
, (, 1966, . 9). , , .
.
.
,
(. 18.2).

472

18.

. 18.2.
: ,
. , . K
, , .
H . ,
(, 1962; Brg,
1961) (, 1967). (, 1968;
, 1969; Mrtns d Wilmrs, 1965) ,
( , , ) .
( ., 1974; , 1974; , 1975; ,
1972, 1974), , , .
. . , , , .
- ,
- (1927, . 141).

18.1.

473

, . . , ,
. ,
, . - (, , , . .) .
, . B-, , (, M. .
, . . M ,
, ,
).
B-, , . H,
( . .), (,
) ().
-, , ,
. , apep,
oceca caooea coco ece cocoe1. . . ,
. . . . (1981),
, ( )
39% . 22% , 39% .
( , ,
),
. 19 ,
.

, .
, (. 18.1).
,
, , , .
( ) .
, .
1

: - . ., 1965. . 206.

474

18.

(0,8 1,4 ) ,
.
.
18.1

0,5

1,5

4,4

2,8

, ./

85

72

(, , 1981) ,
( ) . (6,3 ), (5,4 ).
(0,60, < 0,01) (0,20), ,
.
, , , , , , , .
. , ,
, :
(, 1974, . 81). H , . H,
. . M 49 , . B : 1) ; 2)
. , , .
, , ,
( , ,
). , (), , , .
, ,
.
:
, () -

18.2.

475

.
. . . , , uu
: ,
, , . B ,
(, , ) ,
, . ,
, : -
( ).
B . H - , . , , ,
() .
, ,
( , , ).
. K ,
: ,
. , ,
, , .
. . (1974),
, , , .
T , , ,
, .
H, , ,
, , , .
, , , , .

18.2.

.
( ,
).

476

18.

B . . () : ()
(). . B
. . (1978) , . . T. , .
, . H . . . . . (1982). B . . , B. B.
. M. (1977), , . . . . .
B. B. (1981) . . (1982) .
,
(. . , . . ) ( ), ,
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, , (. . ). B
, , (. B. ).
T , , , . . , :
( );
- ;
-,
;
.
.
, , . . (2004).
. . . , , 1859 . (.

18.2.

477

: Woodworth, Schlosberg, 1955, . 113). , , 360


, .
26 57%.
1970- .
, FAST (Facial Affect Scoring
Technique).
: , , , , , . : , . .
, , .
CARAT , . (R. Buck et al., 1972),
, , . , , .
, 30
( , , ), ,
, .
PONS ( ) 220 , (
, . .). ,
. , . . .
, . (D. Archer, R. Akert, 1984)
SIT (- ), ,
. , 24 .
IPT (Interpersonal Percepcion Task ), , . ,
, .

FMST (The Facial Meaning Sensitiv Test) .
(G. Dale, 1992).
, , , . ,
, , . (- ) , (, ). , .

478

18.

. . . , . , ,
.
: , , , ,
, . ,
.
, , .
, ,
.

, . .

.
. , , , .
B . B ,
( ), ,
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- .
B ,
. B
, : , , , , , . 10 .
( ) , . ,
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.
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,
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18.2.

479

, . . ,
.
, ( )
( ) , , ,
, .
,
. ,
, . , : ,
,
. B
:
. B

, - .
K - ,

(- ).
pep paecx aoo cpecc pee a pc. 18.3.
T , , , . , , .
, (100% ). , , ,
, . (60%), (40%).
.
, . . ,
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, , ,
. .

480

18.

, . . ,
, .

.

. 18.3. : , , ,
, ,

( ), ( ,
), .
, , .

18.2.

481

, , ,
, ( )
.

.
, , . . (1958), ,
.
.
. (R. Emde, K. Izard, 1980) I feel pictures.
, 30 , .
, , .
, , , .
,
. 4 +4.
, , . : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) (); 6) (); 7) (); 8) -; 9) ; 10) ; 11) (); 12) .
, ,
.
. ( ., 1967; , 1968; , 1974; , 1948).
. . - - . (. . , . . ) . ,
: , .
. . (1974)
. ,
,
, . -

482

18.

.
. . . . (1980), -
- . - - . - , . ,
,
, . . . , .

(, )
, . .
(Frank, 1976) ,
. , .
. . ,
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, : (,
) .
, , . , , .
. , . (Kaiser et al., 1994)
, , , , , , , .
. . (Johnstone, 1997) ,
.
: , , .


, , , ( ) , ,
, , . (Klingr, 1993)
.
( ) (
, ),
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.
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). ,
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, ()
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.
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484

, . , , ,
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.
. . . . (, , 2001), , ,
- . (. 78).
. . , , .
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),
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,
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485

+
+

+ ,

+
()

, , . . , , . .,
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: , , , , (), ,
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, .
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.

.
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.

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.
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.

487

.

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; .

.
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.
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.

488

,
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.

( ) .
.
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.
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489

.
.
.
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, .
.

.
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.

.
.
, .
.

.
- ( );
,
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.
.



1.


- (. . , 1978)
. ,
, . ,

. .

. ,
. ( ) . ,
.
, .
, - .
. ( )
, , .

, ( (), - () ).
( 1 2).
: 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 1,0. ( .
) .
4050, .
, : -,
,
-, (. . ) - .

491

*



()
0,25

1,0

. . (
)

* ,
.

(
)

1,0

0,25

R-,

, 2

0,50
0,75
1,00
3,0

0,25
. .

I. . , , (, :
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19

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60

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20

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61

83

21

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63

84

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: +1(2), +13(3),
+25(2), 37(3), +49(10); +61(5), 73(5);
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+62(5), +74(3);
: +3(10), +15(5), +27(2), +39(2), +51(5), +63(1),
75(5);
: +4(2), +16(3), +28(5), +40(5), +52(10), +64(2),
+76(3).

530

2. :
: +5(5),
17(3), +29(10), +41(2), +53(2), +65(3), +77(5);
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: +7(2), +19(10). 31(2), +43(5),
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: +8(5), +20(5), +32(2),
44(2), +56(3), +68(3), +80(10).
3. :

: +9(3), +21(2), +33(5), 45(5), +57(3),


69(10), +81(2);
: +10(2), +22(3), 34(2), +46(3), +58(5),
+70(5), +82(10);
(): +11(5), +23(3),
+35(3), +47(5), +59(5), +72(2), +83(10);
: +12(3), +24(2),
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536
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538

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539

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540

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1, 41;
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34.
K : , 4, , 3,
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22

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541


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542

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543

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12

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544


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545

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. 12 48 .
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. . () (1987). : . ., . . . . ., 1998.
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546

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547

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548

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549

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551

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554

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555

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558

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560

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= 22

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= 11

1, 3,6, 11, 17, 19,25, 29, 32, 35, 38, 41, 43


= 13

27, 31, 34, 37, 40, 45

2, 7, 12, 16, 21, 26

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690

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// . , 1977.
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. 4046.
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. .
// . ., 1981.

708

. . (- ).
, 1986.
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. . . ., 1995.
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. . . ., 1890.
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. .
// . ., 1948. . 8595.
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. ., . ., . ., . . . ., 1990.
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6. . 168173.
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., 1999. . 5152.
. . ., 1989.
. ., . .
// . ., 1973.
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. 140.
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. . ? ., 1978.

709

. . // : . .,
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. . ., .
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. . . ., 1986.
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: . , , / .
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. . //
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. ( ). ., 1994.
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. . . ., 1982.
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. ., . ., . ., . . - // VII - : -. ., 1975.
. . . ., 1969.
. . . ., 1988.
. . ., 1973.
. . : . ., 1971.
. . :
// , , . ., 1996.
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. . . ., 1972.
. . . ., 1983.
. . ., 2004.
. . : , 1976 . . ., 1976.
. . . ., 1980.

710

. ., . ., . ., . ., . ., . . //
(
). ., 1975. . 7172.
. . // . ., 1968.
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. // : . .,
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. . //
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- ., ., - . . ., 1997.
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. . . ., 1996.
. (1975). : . . . : // . 1977. 3. . 155157.
. .
: . . . . ., 1975.
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. 147 53.
. . - : . . - . ., 1993.
. . : . . . . ,
1961.
. . -
: . . . . ., 1964.
. . // . ., 1967. . 2529.
. . // . .,
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. . : . . - . ., 1982.
. ., . .
. ., 2001.

711

. ., . ., . . . .; .,
1969.
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. . ., 1997.
. . ., 1998.
. ., . ., . . // . 1987. 3. . 9496.
. ., . ., . .
// . 1999. 1. . 2030;
2. . 2938.
. ., . . // : . , 1975. . 1623.
. ., . . // .
1988. 6. . 130133.
. . // . ., 1986. . 507525.
. . // . ., 1979. . 4953.
. . . , 1973.
. (1991). . : . . : // . 2000. 2. . 95.
. . //
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. .
: . . . . ., 1997.
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. ., . ., . ., . ., . . . ., 1996.
. . ., 1973.
. . //
. ., 1983. . 2446.
. . //
. 1987. 6.
. . // . 1975. 3.
. . - // -98: - . ., 1998. . 193194.

712

. . // , . ., 1982. . 2, . XV.
. . // : . .,
1971. . 511.
. .
: . .
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. ., . . //
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. . , ., 1966. . 120.
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. . // . ., 1991.
. ., . ., . ., . ., . .
//
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. ., . ., . .
- // . ., 1991.
. ., . ., . . - // : . ., 1994.
. ., . . // : . ., 1994.
. // . ., 1975. . 1. . 144
154.
. . // . 1988. 6.
. . ( ): . . . . ., 1990.
. ., . .
( ) // . 1975. . 11.
. . // . ., 1983.
. 107125.
. . ., 1995.
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713

. .
: . . . . ., 1977.
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., 1976. . 1. . 88105.
. . . ., 1997.
. . ., 1924.
. . ., 1997.
. ., . . //
. 1964. . 5. . 242.
. . -
//
. .; ., 1929. . 3. . 233.
. . . ., 1976.
. . // . ., 1983. . 189204.
. . . .,
1970.
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: . , 1973. . 4950.
.
: . . . . ., 2000.
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. . . ., 1966.
. . //
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. . // XXI . ., 1976. . 209211.
. . // : V
. ., 1977. . 73.
. . //
. ., 1986.
. .
// . ., 1961.
- . . ., 2000.
. . . ., 1994. . 1.

714

. . - . ., 1983.
., . : // -. 1977.
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. ., . . ( ) //
-2004: - .
., 2004. . 6268.
. . //
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. ., . . //
. . . . 1988. 12. . 8285.
. ., . . // . -,
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. 5153.
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. . , : . .
- . ., 2001.
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. . . , 1976.
. .
// XVIII . ., 1985.
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. . .
, 1975.
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. . //
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// . 1977. 3. . 4656.

715

. . . ; , 1986.
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. . -
// . , 1982.
. . . ., 1979.
. . , . ., 1997. ()
. . ?: . ., 1997. ()
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: . , 1983.
: . ., 1998.
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. . ., 1998.
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// . 1974. 1(9). . 6062.
. . //
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. . // . ., 1981.
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. . . ., 1983.
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. 1981. 1. . 7081.
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. 6574.
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) // . 1976. 5. . 103113.
. ., . .
( ) // . ., 1977. . 155164.

716

. . -
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. .
-
// . , 1976.
. ., . ., . . . , 1989.
. . // . 1991. 9.
. . // . 1999. 2.
. 221237.
: . / .
. . . , 2000.
. . : //
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. .
// . ., 1969. . 6367.
. . //
. ., 1973. . 206217.
. ., . . // XXI : - . ., 2000. . 178179.
. . . . ., 1951.
. . . ., 1954. . 1.
. . // . ., 1968. . 1418.
. . //
. ., 1979. . 5258.
. . //
. 1982. 1. . 118126.
. . : . .
. . ., 1983.
. ., . . . , 1981.

717

. . : ? // . 1996. 1. . 7086.
. . - . ., 1971.
. : . . . . ., 1981.
. . : - ., ., - . 1997.
. .
// . 1991. 1. . 8895.
. . // . 1991. 3. . 108116.
. . // .
1992. 3. . 7683.
. . :
// . 1994. 3.
. .
// . 1995. 2. . 4250.
. ., . .
// . 1993. 1. . 4452.
. ., . .
// . 1999. 1.
. 109115.
. . // . ,
1983. . 7692.
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. . - : . .
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. .
// . 1980. 2. . 6573.
. . //
. ., 1981. . . . 137146.
. .
: . . . . ., 1986.
. .
// .
1989. 1. . 113117.

718

. -. ., 1998.
. ., . . // .
1987. 14: . 3. . 7083.
. . // : . ., 1986.
. . // . ., 1973. . 6978.
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. . . . ., 1999.
. . // -2001: - . ., 2001.
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. . : . . . . ., 1982.
. .
// . ., 1964. . 5168.
. .
// . ., 1970.
() . 239244.
. . //
1968 . ., 1970. () . 310.
. . // . 1986. () 1. . 6272.
. . // . 1986. () 5.
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. . // -98: - . ., 1998.
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. ., . . . ., 1948.
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. . . ., 1984.
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. . . . . . . ., 1983.
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. . // -98: - . ., 1998. . 201203.
. . // . , 1972.

719

. ., . . - , // . 14: . 1988. 2. . 4855.


. ., . ., . .
// .
. . . 1986. 2.
. . // . 1960. 3.
. . - 917 : . . . . .,
2005.
. . : . . . . ., 1963.
. . .
// . . . . 1966. . 6.
. . . // . . . . 1971. . 1. . 104110.
. .
// : V
. ., 1977.
. ., . ., . . //
. 1977. 2. . 2427.
. ., . . . ., 1971.
. ., . . -
// : . , 1984.
. ., . . // . 1974. . 4. 23.
. 9197.
/ . . . . ., 1977.
. .
// . ., 1984.
. . //
. ., 1987.
. . :
. ., 2000.
. . . ., 1976.
. . . , 1991.

720

/ . . . . , 1966.
. 145146.
: . ., 1990.
: . ., 1984.
. . . ., 1959.
. . // . 1979. 1. . 28.
. . - : . . . . ., 1974.
. . // . ., 1969. . 192197.
/ . . . , . . . ., 1986.
. .
// : . , 1973. . 2527.
. . //
: .
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. . . , 1976.
. . -
// . 1981. 5.
. . . ., 1968, 1972.
. . // . 1986. 1. . 137145.
. ., . . // :
. . , 1994.
. .

: . . . . ., 1996.
. . -
// . ., 1983. . 125135.
. . . ., 1996.
. ., . . // . ., 1998. . 194202.
. . ., 1979.
: . ., 1975.
, , :
. ., 1978.

721

. . , 1895.
. . , 1897.
. . . ., 1899.
. . , 1912.
. . . ., 1987.
. . // . . . . 1970. . 12.
. .
// . ., 1967. . 3844.
. . . ., 1971.
. . -
// : . , 1975. . 2330.
. // : . ., 1984. . 235237.
. . // . ., 1980. . 5767.
. . : -
. , 1999.
. . // . 1979. 2. . 117
125.
. . // : .
, 1973. . 5355.
., . //
XXI : - . ., 2001. . 311312.
. .
// . 1974. 3. . 7183.
. . . ., 1946; ., 1999.
. . . . ., 1957.
. . : . ., 1976.
. ., . .
// . 1983. 4. . 96103.
. ., . . // . ., 1989. . 512551.
. . : // . . . ; - . ., 1998.
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722

. . . ., 1979.
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. . // . , 1987. ()
. . //
. 1987. () 6. . 940947.
. . ? ., 1990.
. . // -
:
. , 1989. . 4953.
. . 38 // . ., 1964.
. . // .
, 1977.
. . : . . . . , 1972.
. . ., 1999.
. , // . ., 1996. . 1. . 177191.
. .
// . 1987. 3.
. . // : . , 1975. . 5354.
. . - // . 1982. 2.
. 109115.
. . //
. 1984. 3. . 124128.
. . .
// . 1977. 2.
.-. // : . ., 1984.
. . // -99: - . ., 1999. . 325326.
. . , :
. . . . ., 1990.
. . ., 1960.
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723

. . //
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. . //
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. . : . . . . ., 1982.
. . . // - . .,
1987.
. . . ., 1991.
. . // :
: - . ., 1996.
. 3839.
. . : . . . . ., 1983.
. ., . ., . .
//
. . . . 1978. 2.
. . . . . ., 1962.
. . ? ., 1962.
. . // . 1968.
. 5. . 836849.
. . . M., 1970.
. . : - . ., 1975.
. . . ., 1981.
. . ( ) // . 1981. 5. . 3948.
. . . . ( - ) // . 1983.
4. . 119133.
. . . . , , . ., 1984.
. . . ., 1987.
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724

. . : . . . . ., 1972.
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. . // . 1974. 1/9.
. 6265.
. .
//
. .,
1972.
. . // . ., 1972.
. . // . ., 1974. ()
. . // C
. ., 1974. ()
. . // . ., 1975. . 131138.
. . . ., 1966.
. . , , . , 1966.
. ., 1983.
. ., . ., . . // III . , 1970.
. .
// : - . . . . ., 1967. . 43. . 6772.
. . . .
// . 1977. . 2. . 433.
. ., . . , // . . . , , . ., 1974.
. . : . . . . ., 1980.
. . : //
. 1995. 3. . 139150.
. . : . . . . ., 1981.
. . ., 1895.
. . . ., 1995.
. . - // . . 1989. 8. . 3141.

725

. . // :
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. . //
. , 1983.
. ., . . //
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. . //
. , 1978. . 5263.
. .
: . . . . ., 1979.
. .
. ., 1987.
. .
: . . . . ., 1977.
. . , . , 1975.
. ., . . // . ., 1986. 6. . 1. . 125127.
. . ., 1876. . 34.
. . ., 1881.
. .
// . ., 1983.
. . ., 1957. . 1.
. . . . . 2.
. .
: . . . . ., 1985.
. ., . . // . 1986. 3. . 121127.
. .
// . 1988. 3. . 815.
. . - // . 1981. 3.
. 104112.
. ., . .
// . 1982. 2.
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. .
- // . ., 1981. . 123130.

726

. .
. ., 1976.
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. ., . . // :
. , 1975. . 5657.
. ., . ., . . - // . 1995. 3.
. 8790.
. .
// -98: - .
, 1998. . 209210.
. . // XXI :
- . .,
2001. . 257258.
. . . ., 1966.
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: ,
60- . , 1982.
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. ., . . // : - . , 1983.
. 6668.
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// :
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727

., . . . , 1998.
. . - : . . . . ., 1973.
. ( ). ., 1907.
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1977.
. . // . ., 1982.
. . . .; ., 1947.
. . . ., 1898.
. . . ., 1969.
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186.
. ., . . // . ., 1969.
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. .
// III . ., 1970.
. .
// - : . ., 1970.
. .
// . .; , 1986.
. . // . .,
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. . //
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. .
// .
.; , 1986.
. ., . ., . . //
. ., 1975. . 140150.
. . : // . ., 1988.

728

. . // . 1970. 5.
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. . // . 1975. 2. . 4143.
. . : // . 1982. 5. . 144147.
. . . ., 1984.
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. ., . . : // . 1998. 4. . 4148.
. . : . . . . ., 2000.
. . .; ., 1926.
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. . . . 11 . ., 1950. () . 9.
. . . . 11 . ., 1950. () . 10.
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., 1996. . 5657.
. . . ., 1977.
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. . . ., 1993.
. . ., 2000.
. . // . , 1976.
. . // . ., 1979. . 3538.
. . // . , 1982. . 6173.
. . // . ., 1987. . 110114.
. . // : .
. ., 1990. . 1.
. . //

729

: - . , 1991. . 1.
. . // . 1991. 2.
. ., . ., . . , // . ., 1974.
. . // . 1981. 2.
. . // : / . . . . . . ., 1994.
. ., . .
. ., 1949.

. ., 1972.
. . : . . . . -, 2000.
. . // . 1994. 6. . 5764.
. . // : . ., 1970.
. . ., 1972.
. . ., 1925.
. . ., 1925.
. . .; ., 1997.
. // . ., 1975. . V. . 111
195.
. . . ., 1975.
. . . ., 1990.
. // : . , 1998. ()
. . ., 1998. ()
, , // . 1991. 1.
. . : . .
. . ., 1978.
. // . ., 1983. . 222237.
. . . . . ., 1976.
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. 94104.
. . // . ., 1983. . 146156.

730

. ., . .
// . ., 1983.
. 261267.
. , , . . , 1988.
. ., . . : . , 1995.
. //
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. : // : . ., 2001.
. 5980.
. ., . . . ., 1978.
. . ., 1981.
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368. . 7479.
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// . 1964. 5.
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. ., . . , // . 1999. 2. . 6174.
. // . 1986. 1.
. . . ., 1987.
. ., . . : .
., 1998.
. . - //
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. . ., 1993. ()
. . ., 1993. ()
. . 30 // . 1935. . 13. 10. . 14211434.
. ., . ., . . ,
. ., 1991.
. . // -1997: - . ., 1997.
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. . //
. , 1977.
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. .
// . , 1979.

731

. .
//
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. .
// . 1981. . 189214.
. . . ., 1998.
. ., . ., . . // . . . . 1984. 3.
. . ., 1909.
. . // . .; , 1986. . 248.
. . // : : - . ., 1996. . 5051.
. . . . 27 1878 .
. . -
- // . ., 1986. . 39.
. . - // . 1987. () 6. . 4247.
. . // . ., 1987. () . 266268.
. . , //
. 1989. () 4. . 135141.
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. . - .
, 1992.
. . . . //
. 1984. 4. . 8389.
. . // . 1937. 3. . 269275.
. .
// . ., 1959. . 203214.
. . // .
., 1959. . 215232.
. .
// . ., 1960. . 199212.
. . . ., 1961.

732

. . // . ., 1962. . 4965.
. . //
. ., 1967. . 313.
. . : .
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. . // . ., 1973. . 190206.
. . , , . ., 1980.
. ., . . . . 1968.
. ., . . . ., 1971.
. // . 1984. 7 (1232). . 19.
. ., . ., . ., . // -98: . ., 1998. . 1920.
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. . // :
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. . 1820- // . 1980. 6. . 1067
1075.
. .
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. ., 2001. . 463464.
. . // . 2000. 3. . 102116.
. . - : . . . . .,
1990.
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. . // . .,
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. . // . , 1977. . 6978.
. . . ., 1996.
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733

. . // . .; ., 1948. . 6. . 314320.
. . // . ., 2001. . 304
341.
. .
. ., 1976.
. . ., 1969.
. . -
: // . . . ; - . ., 2000. 615.
. . // -98: - .
., 1998. . 181182.
. . //
. 1970. . 6. . 1320.
. . . .,
1971.
. . . ., 1974.
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. . // -97: -
. ., 1997.
. ., . .
// . - /., 1983.
. . ., 1896.
. . ., 2000.
. -, -. ., 1994.
. : 30 3 . ., 1993.
. . // XXI : - . .,
2001. . 287288.
. . ., 1922.
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. . . ., 1971.
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// . 1974. 8. . 1304.

734

. . // . 1990. 5.
. 94106.
. .
// XIX :
. ., 1960. . 2.
. . // . 1984. 3. . 6166.
. . : . . . . ., 1998.
. : . .,
1981.
. ., 1972.
. . . ., 1962.
: . ., 1987, 1988.
. ., 1986.
/ . . . . ., 1990.
. . . .,
1979.
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445
180, 233, 365, 367
337
365
369
454
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373
374
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260
156
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170, 282, 369
363
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386
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267
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293
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295
299,
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