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A B C D E a b c d e 5!

(1) A a
5! A a 1 4! 5! 4!

A~~~~
(2) A a B b
A a 1 4! B b 1 4!5! 4! 4!

A~~~~

~B~~~

A a B b

AB~~~
A a B b
5! 2 4! + 3!

n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B)


n(A B) = 1 + 2 + 3
1

n(A) = 1 + 2

n(B) =
A

n(A B) =

n(A B) =

n(A) + n(B) n(A B)

1 + 2 + 3 = (1 + 2) + (2 + 3)

2+3
2

A a B b
{
}
A A a
{
}
B B b
{
}
S

n(S ) n(A B)

n(S ) n(A B) = n(S ) n(A) n(B) + n(A B)


n(S ) = 5! , n(A) = 4! = n(B) , n(A B) = 3!
5! 2 4! + 3!

(3) A a B b C c
{
}
C C c

n(S ) n(A B C)
A

n(S ) n(A) n(B) n(C) + n(A B) + n(B C) + n(C A) n(A B C)


{
}
A B C A a B b C c
n(A B C) = 2!
5! 3 4! + 3 3! 2!

1 5! 3 4! + 3 3! 1 2!

1.
2 3 A, B, C C13
2.
3 3 A B, B C, C A C23

n n k

C0k n! C1k (n 1)! + C2k (n 2)! C3k (n 3)! + + (1)kCkk (n k)!


C0k , C1k , , Ckk
C00
C01 C11
C02 C12 C22
C03 C13 C23 C33
C04 C14 C24 C34 C44
..
.