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o

122(08)
Nm

2014

Tp ch Khoa hc v Cng ngh

Journal of Science and Technology


CHUYN SAN KHOA HC T NHIN K THUT
Mc lc

Trang

Ng c Minh - Phn tch li in kn v ng dng cng ngh facts cho iu khin dng cng sut

Chu c Ton - ng dng b iu khin m - n ron kt hp FPGA iu khin ng c ng b tuyn tnh

L Thc nh, V Quc Tr, Trn Th Hng - Phn tch dao ng ca tm c c tnh bin thin chu tc
dng ca lc kh ng v nhit

15

Phm Tun Anh, Chu Th Hng, Nguyn Hong Qun, Nguyn Quang Uy, Nguyn Xun Hoi, Nguyn
Vn Trng - Pht hin tn cng phishing s dng lp trnh gen v la chn cc c trng

21

Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh, Nguyn Vn Vng - Nghin cu dch v Web xy dng h thng ng nhp
mt ln

27

Hn Th Thy Hng - Xc nh hm tng quan d bo ch s nn ln t mt s ch tiu c l ca t dnh khu


vc Thi Nguyn

35

Trn Duy Trinh, Trn Trng Minh, Nguyn Vn Lin, Ng c Minh - Gim thiu nh hng ca lm in
p trong h thng in cng nghip bng b khi phc in p ng DVR

39

Hong Th Cnh, Nguyn Hng Tn, Phng Th Hun - Ti u ha s mng theo ch tiu thi gian v chi
ph s dng thut ton di truyn

47

V Vn Tm, Phan Trng Hanh - Nhng vn bn ting Vit trong d liu audio da vo c im ca ch
vit ting Vit

53

L Quang Minh, Triu Xun Ha, Trn Thanh Thng - Pht trin cc phng php d phng nng cao
tin cy ca h thng

59

Dng Vit H, Chu Vn Tm, Ma Vn Ngc - Thit lp quan h gia m un bin dng ca t t kt qu
th nghim trong phng v hin trng

67

Trng Th Tho, Nguyn Th Cc - Nghin cu kh nng c ch n mn thp CT38 trong dung dch HCl 1M
ca dch chit cy thuc l Thi Nguyn

73

Nguyn ng c, Th Nga - Xc nh km v mangan trong ch xanh Thi Nguyn bng phng php
ph hp th nguyn t F -AAS

79

Trng Tun Anh, Trn Hoi Linh, Nguyn c Tho - Kho st trn hp b th nghim CMC -356 kh
nng ci thin sai s ca rle khong cch bng mng n -ron MLP

87

V Nh Ln, Nguyn Tin Duy, Trnh Thy H - D bo chui thi gian m s dng i s gia t

95

Nguyn c Tho, Trn Hoi Linh, Phm Vn Nam, Trng Tun Anh - Thit k thit b thu thp v t
ng nhn dng thng minh tn hiu in tim s dng cc cng ngh vi mch kh trnh

103

Nguyn Thanh Hi - Xy dng c s d liu phc v qun l cht thi rn sinh hot ti thnh ph Thi
Nguyn, tnh Thi Nguyn

111

Trn Th Ph, V Vn Bin, Nguyn Th Ho, Ha Vn o, Vng Vn nh - Kt qu bc u nghin


cu xy dng m hnh chng ct tinh du cam, bi phc v x l rc thi xp

117

Nguyn Ngc Anh, Phan nh Binh - ng dng cng ngh tin hc v my ton c in t xy dng li
khng ch o v phc v cng tc thnh lp bn a chnh x Chi Thit, Sn Dng, Tuyn Quang

123

Nguyn Mnh c - ng dng mu thit k xy dng m hnh gii mt s bi ton hi quy

129

L Th Huyn Linh, ng Ngc Trung - ng dng nhn dng nhiu trn c s mng nron cho bnh phn ng
khuy trn lin tc

137

Li Khc Li - iu khin cng sut tc dng v cng sut phn khng ca bin tn mt pha ni li

143

L Kim Hng, V Phan Hun - Xy dng tp tin comtrade bng Matlab nh gi chc nng nh v s c
trn rle bo v

149

Trn Xun Minh Mt phng php iu khin ti u phn hi trng thi cho h thng t ch ng 4
bc t do rotor cng

155

Nguyn nh Ha Thit k b iu khin LQR dch chuyn c chn lc cc im cc

161

Hong c Qunh, Nguyn nh Ha, Nguyn Don Phc Mt s phng php thit k b iu khin d
bo cho i tng van m nhanh

167

Nguyn Thanh Mai nh l im bt ng s dng mt iu kin co trong khng gian metric c sp th t


b phn

173

Nguyn c Lng im bt ng chung cho cc nh x khng giao hon, khng lin tc trong khng gian
metric nn

179

Ng c Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 3 - 8

PHN TCH LI IN KN V NG DNG CNG NGH FACTS


CHO IU KHIN DNG CNG SUT
Ng c Minh*
Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
N lc ca bi bo l phi hp gia phng php phn tch li in truyn thng vi m phng
bng Matlab trnh by nhng hot hot ng c bn ca h thng in thng qua mt m hnh
nghin cu ti gin nhng vn m bo tnh tng qut, trong c ng dng cng ngh FACTS.
Ni dung chnh gm: Xy dng mt m hnh li in kn in hnh c suy ra t nhng s
chun ca IEEE phc v chung cho nhiu hng nghin cu; Phn tch li, nh gi nhng
yu t nh hng n dng cng sut trong li v xt ring cho mt yu t c th l in p nt;
ng dng cng ngh FACTS vi thit b STATCOM-PWM b cng sut phn khng iu
chnh in p nt v do iu khin dng cng sut trong li; M hnh m phng bng MatlabSimulink li in kn c STATCOM-PWM vi cu hnh nghch lu Multi-level; Phn tch nh
gi cc kt qu nghin cu thu c v xut cc nghin cu tip theo.
T kha: Li in kn, DCS, STATCOM-PWM, in p nt, multi-level, FACTS

T VN *
FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current
Transmission Systems) c xut u tin
vo nm 1988 vin EPRI (Electric Power
Research Institute) ti Hoa K. y l khi
nim v mt h thng in linh hot. C
ngha l cc thng s ca h thng c iu
khin, p ng nhanh chng theo u vo
cng nh khi thay i im lm vic.
Cng ngh FACTS da trn c s cc b bin
i VSI (Voltage Source Inverter), VCS
(Voltage Source Converter) cng sut ln
[1],[2]. Do s pht trin ca cng ngh sn
xut cc thit b in t cng sut ln nh
GTO, IGTO, IGBT, cho php ng dng
vo h thng in nhm nng cao kh nng
iu khin dng cng sut (DCS) c v
ln, phng chiu v cht lng trong li
in kn. y l th mnh chnh gip cho
FACTS ra i v pht trin bn vng. Cho
n nay, FACTS ang ngy cng pht trin
hu ht cc nc trn th gii. V th, vn
tip cn v ng dng cng ngh FACTS l tt
yu cho ging dy, nghin cu v ng dng
trong h thng in Vit Nam.
FACTS l tp hp rt phong ph ca nhiu
thit b. Tuy nhin, c th chia ra thnh cc
*

Tel: 0982 286428

nhm chnh theo hnh thc kt ni: ni tip,


song song, hn hp. c tnh hot ng ca
chng c suy ra t hai kiu b ni tip v
b song song l tng.

Hnh 1. M hnh li in kn 2 ngun, 5 nt

Khi phn tch mt li in kn, gi s theo


mt m hnh c IEEE chun ha nh
trn hnh 1, cc thut ton c p dng
nhm xc nh ch ra ln, phng chiu
dng cng sut trn cc tuyn ng dy v
ti u ha bi ton ny theo mt tiu ch no
nhm p ng yu cu c th trong vn
hnh h thng in [3],[4].
Tuy nhin, nu khng k n ch s c
nng c th gy tan r li (phm vi bi bo
ny khng xt n ch s c nng), trong
thc t cc thng s vn hnh h thng vn c
th vt ra ngoi phm vi cc iu kin u
3

Ng c Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

ca bi ton ti u a trng thi h thng xa


ri ch ti u t ra.

Nu tnh t pha N1:


Hoc tnh t pha N2:
n

Nhng thng s thng b thay i l:


- Tng tr ng dy b thay i trong trng
hp ng hoc ct mt l trong cp i ng
dy song song;
- Thay i ti ti cc nt;
- in p nt thay i do cc thao tc ng
ct trong li: ng ct ti, ng dy, my
bin p, ngun hoc do ngn mch xa.
Cc tc ng trn u lm thay i DCS trn
ng dy, dch chuyn im phn b cng
sut ban u dn n xut hin nhng trng
thi bt thng. V d nh: xut hin nhng
ng dy khng mang ti, hoc ch mang ti
mt thnh phn P hoc Q, hoc i chiu
DCS, hoc DCS P v Q ngc chiu nhau.
Theo cch tip cn ny, tc gi xut hng
nghin cu ca bi bo theo 2 ni dung chnh:
- Phn tch li nhm tng minh ha bn
cht vt l ca hot ng li in, nhng tc
ng lm thay i DCS.
- ng dng cng ngh FACTS iu chnh
dng cng sut trong li theo mong mun.
PHN TCH LI

122(08): 3 - 8

S1 S N1

3U pdm (U N 1 U N 2 )
Z

S Z

i 1

(1)

Z
n

S 4 S N 2

3U pdm (U N 2 U N1 )
Z

S Z '
i 1

(2)

Gi thit, thng s cc ng dy ca s
ghi trong bng 1,
Bng 1. Thng s ng dy
Thng s ng dy
km

ro

jX

14.3

48.4

14.3+48.4i

0.44

2.86

9.68

2.86+9.68i

0.44

2.86

9.68

2.86+9.68i

0.13

0.44

2.86

9.68

2.86+9.68i

0.13

0.44

2.86

9.68

2.86+9.68i

0.13

0.44

2.86

9.68

2.86+9.68i

Tng

110

L1

22

0.13

L2

22

0.13

L3

22

L4

22

L5

22

xo

Xt ch c bit, cc ph ti c gi tr
ging nhau, c th ghi trong bng 2
Bng 2. Ph ti ti cc nt
S
Sa
Sb
Sc

Ph ti ti cc nt
P
Q
S
5
1
5+j1
5
1
5+j1
5
1
5+j1

Trng hp th nht: Thng s ngun ging


nhau c v ln v gc pha.

Hnh 2. S c bn li in kn

Nguyn l chung
Trong li in kn, mt nt ph ti bt k
u c kh nng c cp in t nht l t
hai pha. Thc cht s li trn hnh 1 hay
nhng li phc tp hn u c th c xem
nh l s m rng t mt dng s c bn
nh s trn hnh 2 vi 03 nt A, B, C ; 05
tuyn ng dy L1 L5; 02 ngun cung
cp N1 v N2.Biu thc tng qut tnh dng
cng sut chy trn cc ng dy c xc
nh theo (1) v (2), [3]:
4

p dng (1) v (2) tnh c cng sut chy


trn cc on ng dy v kt qu thu c
th hin trn biu hnh 3. Trong , chiu
DCS quy c theo chiu mi tn trn s
hnh 1. Nu cng sut m s c hiu l
dng cng sut thc trn ng dy ngc
chiu mi tn.

Hnh 3. Biu dng cng sut

Quan st hnh 3 thy hai ng dy L3 v L4


khng mang ti. Nu thay i thng s ng

Ng c Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

dy, DCS trn cc ng dy s thay i


theo. V d:
- Thay i gim mt na chiu di ca
L2=11km, tng ng ch chuyn t mt
sang vn hnh hai ng dy song song. Kt
qu tnh th hin trn biu hnh 4 cho thy
DCS trn L3 v L4 khc khng. DCS c
tng cng t pha ngun N1.

122(08): 3 - 8

T biu hnh 7 cho thy DCS tc dng P


chy t ngun c in p cao sang pha ngun
c in p thp, cn i vi DCS phn khng
Q th ngc li (dng chm sau 900). Trn
ng dy dng cng sut P v Q chy ngc
chiu nhau.
b) Hai ngun khc nhau c v pha v ln,
gi s:
UN1 = 1080.137 kV,
UN2 = 1060.194 kV.
Kt qu tnh ton thu c th hin trn biu
hnh 8.

Hnh 4. Gim L2, DCS trn L3 dng

- Tng gp i chiu di ca L2=44km, kt


qu tnh th hin trn biu hnh 5 cho thy
DCS trn L3 v L4 m (i chiu), DCS c
tng cng t pha ngun N2.

Hnh 5. DCS trn L3 v L4 i chiu

Trng hp th hai: Thng s ngun khc


nhau c v ln v gc pha.
a) Hai ngun chng pha nhng khc nhau v
ln, gi s
UN1=108 kV,
UN2=106 kV.
Theo (1), dng cng sut trn cc ng dy
tnh c th hin trn biu hnh 6.

Hnh 6. DCS trn ng dy khi UN1 UN2


Trong , thnh phn DCS khng cn bng
c th c tch ring v th hin trn biu
hnh 7.

Hnh 8. Dng cng sut P,Q

Nhn xt: Cc biu trn lm r cng


thc (1) v (2). Xt trong trng hp ny,
DCS trn mt on ng dy ph thuc vo
hai yu t, l:
- Tng tr ca ng dy,
- chnh th gia hai u ng dy.
Trong , s khc nhau v gc pha thc cht
l khc nhau v tr s in p xt theo thi
gian tc thi ( chnh th). R rng, DCS
tc dng vn c chiu t pha ngun N2 c
in p 106kV thp hn sang pha ngun N1
c in p 108kV cao hn v N2 c gc pht
sm hn. Hay c th in t iu ny theo
cch khc thng qua m hnh li in kn c
s nh trn hnh 9.

Hnh 9. M hnh li in kn 2 ngun

DCS tc dng P v DCS phn khng Q c


xc nh theo (3) v (4), [4].
(3)
V N1V N 2

N2

Q
Hnh 7. DCS khng cn bng khi UN1 UN2

N2

sin

V N 1V N 2 (cos V N 2 )

(4)

N1

Ng c Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 3 - 8

Trong , ch gi tr in p dng k hiu


l ch V; hiu gc pha ca in p ca hai
ngun l = 1 - 2.

NG DNG STATCOM-PWM IU
CHNH DNG CNG SUT
La chn STATCOM
Thay cho cu hnh STATCOM trc y
thng s dng cc van bn dn Thyristor c
iu khin gc m chm nn DCS phn
khng do STATCOM pht ra c cht lng
thp, mo dng sin cng ln khi gc
cng ln, v d nh trn hnh 10, [5].
Ua

Ua, Ia (pu)

Ia

0
-1
0.78

0.8

0.82

0.84

0.86 0.88
Time (s)

0.9

0.92

0.94

Hnh 10. Dng in ca STATCOMPWM

Trong nhng nm gn y, cc STATCOM


c nhiu tin b v c cu trc mch lc v
h iu khin. Trong bi bo ny, ng dng
STATCOM-PWM c cu hnh cao c m
t trn hnh 11.
Trong :
- Cc Bridge1 v Bridge2 dng van TGBT
lm vic theo nguyn l PWM,
- H iu khin c p dng phng php
iu ch vc t khng gian SVM, nghch lu
multi-level, [5],[6],[7],[8].
6

Hnh 11. Cu trc s khi ca STATCOM-PWM

Thit k s m phng STATCOMPWM trong li in kn


Mc tiu ra cho STATCOM-PWM:
- B in p nt iu chnh DCS trn
ng dy;
- n nh dao ng cng sut trong trng
hp in p b kch ng t pha ngun.
T , cu trc m phng bng Matlab ca
li in kn trn hnh 2 c STATCOMPWM c thit k nh hnh 12.

Hnh 12. Cu trc s m phng bng Matlab


li in kn c STATCOM-PWM

Trn hnh 12, v tr kt ni STATCOM-PWM


c tnh chn ti nt A. Cc mc tiu ca
thit k t c th hin qua cc kt qu m
phng nh sau:
Hnh 13: Khi STATCOM cha hot ng,
ch i xng trong khong t (0-5)s,
ng dy L3 hu nh khng ti.
P3,Q3 (MW,MVAr)

Nh vy, dng cng sut trn ng dy c


th thay i thng qua iu chnh gi tr in
p nt hoc thay i tng tr ng dy. Bi
bo ny la chn gii php iu chnh in p
nt bng thit b b song song l STATCOMPWM. Bi l, vi mt nt xa ngun th vic
iu chnh in p thc hin t my pht l
bt cp (cng ngh c). Mt khc trong mt
li phc tp c nhiu nt, vic la chn v
tr v s lng STATCOM cng l mt bi
ton kh m cc k s nng lng phi i
mt. Tuy nhin, trong thc t li in
thng c cu trc khng qu phc tp. Cc
nghin cu p dng cho s trn hnh 2 l
hon ton m bo tnh tng qut.

2
0
-2
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
Time (s)

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Hnh 13. DCS trn L3

Hnh 14a: Sau thi im 5s, khi ph ti Sb


(hoc Sc) c bin ng (gi thit ng ti
5MVA), in p ti cc nt thay i, tng
ng DCS trn cc ng dy thay i. Khi

Ng c Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

STATCOM s b cng sut phn khng Q


trn ng dy L2 b (tng) p ti nt A,
do s tng thm khong 1,5MW lng
DCS tc dng P truyn ti trn L3 t A n B,
cng nng thit k ca ng dy L3 c
a vo khai thc. Kt qu m phng thy r
khi so snh vi hnh 14b khng c
STATCOM. Tuy nhin, mc b ca
STATCOM c tnh theo gii hn pht
nng ca ng dy L2, ng thi c k ti
s phi hp ca L1.

dng in cm chm sau in p 90 0 sang


dng in dung vt trc in p 900.
Bng 4. Mc dao ng in p v DCS
ng dy L2

Khng c

STATCOM

STATCOM

Dao ng in p
in p max

1,07

1,00

0,94

0,975

0,13

0,025

(pu)
in p min
(pu)
Bin dao
ng

1.1
U2 (pu)

122(08): 3 - 8

Dao ng DCS

1
0.9

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
Time (s)

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

5,67

4.8

DCS min (pu)

4,20

4.3

Bin dao

1,57

0,5

ng

6
4
2
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
Time (s)

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

U,I statcom (pu)

P2, Q2 (MW, MVAr)

Hnh 14a. in p trn L2

DCS max (pu)

0
-1
0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3
Time (s)

0.35

0.4

0.45

Hnh 15. Dng in b ca STACOM-PWM

4
2
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
Time (s)

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Hnh 14c. DCS trn L2 khi khng c STATCOM

Mt khc, STATCOM cn c ngha n nh


in p nt v do n nh DCS khi in p
b kch ng t pha ngun. Gi s in p
ngun N1 thay i nh bng 3

Hnh 16: Dng v p trn L3 thay i lin tc


nhng vn khng mo dng, m tt tiu
chun cht lng in nng trong truyn ti.
u2 (pu), i2 (kA)

P2, Q2 (MW, MVAr)

Hnh 14b. DCS trn L2 khi c STATCOM-PWM

2
0
-2

0.3

0.35

0.4
time (s)

0.45

0.5

Hnh 16. in p v dng in trn L3

Bng 3. in p ngun N1 thay i


Thi gian (s)

0.20

0.30

0.4

KT LUN

in p ngun N1 (pu)

1.0

1.08

0.92

1.0

Ni dung bi bo c ng khi lng kin


thc tng hp rng ri t nhiu ngun ti liu
chuyn ngnh H thng in thng qua vic
phn tch mt s hot ng c bn ca mt li
in kn, nhng ng dng ca FACTS. M hnh
nghin cu n gin nhng li m bo tnh
tng qut, tnh k tha v tnh pht trin.

Kt qu m phng thu c ch ra trn hnh


14a, hnh14b v hnh 14c. S liu c th o
c trn bng 4 cho thy mc dao ng in
p ti im A khi khng c STATCOM ln
hn 5 ln so vi khi c STATCOM
(0,13/0,025), hnh 14a. tng ng so snh
mc dao ng DCS trn ng dy L2 l 3
ln (1,57/0,5) hnh 14b,c.
Hnh 15: Dng in b ca STATCOM lun
c dng sin (khng b mo) k c khi i
chiu dng b ti thi im 0.3s chuyn t

Tc gi hy vng y l sn phm ng gp
thm cho ngun ti liu tham kho i vi cc
sinh vin, hc vin chuyn ngnh h thng
in. Qua y cng c nhiu cu hi c th
7

Ng c Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

c t ra, v d: Trong thc t, nu nhng


on ng dy cao p Um 110 kV vi
chiu di hng trm km (L4 100km), khi
DCS tc dng bng 0 th iu g xy ra? Tnh
kinh t - k thut nh th no?
Phm vi bi bo ny tc gi mi ch cp n
mt yu t nh hng n phn b DCS trong
li in kn l in p nt. Nhng yu t khc
s c cp trong bi bo tip theo.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Xiao-Ping Zhang, Christian Rehtanz, Bikash
Pal. Flexible AC Transmission Systems:
Modelling and Control.
2. Narain G. Hingorani, Laszlo Gyugyi.
Understanding FACTS_ Concepts and Technology
of Flexible AC Transmission Systems.

122(08): 3 - 8

3. Enrique Acha, Claudio R. Fuerte-Esquivel,


Hugo Ambriz-Perez, Cesar Angeles-Camacho.
FACTS Modelling and Simulation in Power
Networks.
4. P.Kundur, Power System Stability and Control.
5. E. Acha, V.G. Agelidis, O. Anaya Lara, T.J.E.
Miller. Power Electronic Control in Electrical
Systems.
6. Ngoducminh, Letienphong. Application of
bidirectional power converters to overcome some
disadvantages of SVC substation. Journal of
Energy and Power Engineering, USA
7. Giroux P., Sybille G., Power System simulation
Laboratory, IREQ Hydro-Quybec.
8. Ph.D. Thesis, M.Sc. Mariusz Malinowski.
Sensorless Control Strategies for Three - Phase
PWM Rectifiers. Warsaw, Poland 2001.

SUMMARY
ANALYSE CLOSED GRID AND APPLY FACTS TECHNOLOGY
TO CONTROL POWER FLOW
Ngo Duc Minh*
College of Technology - TNU

This paper combines the traditional method to analyse grid and Matlab simulation that present
basic operations of power system in a simple model using FACTS technology. Main contents
include: Building a typical closed grid model provided from standard diagram of IEEE to serve
many different researches; Analysing grid, evaluating factors that affect on power flow in grid, and
considering a particular factor being node voltage; Using STACTCOM-PWM in FACTS
technology to compensate reactive power in grid to adjust node voltage and power flow on the
line; Simulating closed grid in Matlab/Simulink having STATCOM-PWM in forming multilevel
inverter; Analysing and evaluating received research results and proposing further researches.
Keywords: Closed grid, DCS, STATCOM-PWM, node voltage, multi-level, FACTS

Ngy nhn bi:01/7/2014; Ngy phn bin:21/7/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. Nguyn c Tng Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip - HTN

Tel: 0982 286428

Chu c Ton

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 9 - 14

NG DNG B IU KHIN M - N RON KT HP FPGA


IU KHIN NG C NG B TUYN TNH
Chu c Ton*
Trng i hc in lc

TM TT
Cng ngh FPGA l cng ngh mng lp trnh c dng trng, mt h thng iu khin m
(FC) kt hp vi mng n ron hm c s xuyn tm (RBF NN) c p dng cho ng c ng
b tuyn tnh nam chm vnh cu (PMLSM) trong bi bo. u tin, m hnh ton hc ca ng
c ng b tuyn tnh nam chm vnh cu c xc nh, tip nng cao cht lng ca h
thng iu khin PMLSM mt b iu khin m cng vi b chnh nh thng s lut m c
thit k cho vng iu chnh v tr h thng iu khin PMLSM chng li s nh hng ca
tnh cht ca h v ti ngoi. FPGA s dng phng php graph trng thi lp trnh thc thi b
iu khin trn v ngn ng m t phn cng dng m t s graph trng thi. Cui cng h
thng thc nghim c xy dng kim nghim tnh hiu qu ca thit k cho kt qu tt.
T kha: Mng cng lp trnh c dng trng (FPGA); b iu khin m - n ron (NFC);
ng c ng b tuyn tnh nam chm vnh cu (PMLSM); graph trng thi (FSM); ngn ng m
t phn cng (VHDL)

M U*
ng c ng b tuyn tnh ngy cng c
s dng ph bin trong lnh vc t ng ha
do chnh xc cao, p ng nhanh. Tuy
nhin do PMLSM khng c vitme v ai c
nn ti trng thay i trong qu trnh chuyn
ng s nh hng ti cht lng v tr iu
chnh. gii quyt vn ny nhiu k
thut iu khin thng minh nh: iu khin
m, iu khin n ron,.. c ng dng.
Mc d b iu khin m - n ron (NFC) hay
b iu khin m (FC) cn rt nhiu php tnh
nhng b x l tn hiu s DSP v mng lp
trnh c dng trng FPGA c th p ng
c. c bit FPGA vi c im lp trnh
cng, kh nng tnh ton nhanh, chu trnh
thit k ngn, cng sut tiu th thp thch
hp hn DSP thc thi h thng s. Trc
y thit k b iu khin m t kim sot
hot ng trn r bt hay b iu khin m
trt cho ng c ng b tuyn tnh u
thc thi trn FPGA. Nhng do c ch suy
lun m x l song song nn tiu tn rt
nhiu ti nguyn ca FPGA, v vy m s lut
hp thnh hu hn s c s dng. gii
*

quyt vn ti nguyn trong FPGA, phng


php biu trng thi FSM cng vi b
nhn, b cng, so snh v thanh ghi,s
c s dng trong bi bo. Do biu trng
thi FSM thuc nhm phng php x l
tun t cho nn ti nguyn s dng s gim
ng k. Bi bo ny s dng mt chip FPGA
l Altera Stratix II EP2S60F672C5 c 48,352
ALUTs, ti a 492 user I/O pins, 36 DSP
blocks, 2.544.192 bt of Ram v mt Nios II
processor c nhng trong FPGA. Sau cng
h thng thc nghim bao gm mt bo mch
FPGA, mt b bin i v mt PMLSM s
c to ra kim nghim tnh chnh xc
ca thit k.
CU TRC B IU KHIN M - N
RON TRN C S FPGA
Kin trc ni ca NFC trn FPGA bao gm
b phn ch nh v tr, NFC cho vng iu
khin v tr, b iu khin t l (P) cho vng
iu chnh tc v b iu khin vc t dng
cho PMLSM tt c thc thi trn mt FPGA.
M hnh ton hc ca PMLSM
M hnh ng ca mt PMLSM in hnh
c m t trn trc ta ng b nh sau:

Tel: 0982 917093, Email: toancd@epu.edu.vn

Chu c Ton

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

did
R
Lq
1
s id
x iq vd
dt
Ld
Ld
Ld
.

(1)
.


Ld
Rs
1

x p id
iq vd f x p (2)
dt
Lq
Lq
Ld
Lq

diq

Trong vd, vq l thnh phn in p trn trc


d v q
Id, iq l thnh phn dng in trn trc d v q
Ld, Lq l thnh phn in cm trn trc d v q

x p l tc dch chuyn
l bc cc
Lc in t c tnh nh sau:

3
[( Ld Lq )id ]iq
2

(3)

Vng iu khin dng ca PMLSM da trn


c s iu ch vc t. Nu chnh nh id = 0
th m hnh PMLSM s c tch bit, lc
iu khin PMLSM s tr ln d dng ging
ng c tuyn tnh mt chiu. Sau khi n
gin ha v xem xet thnh phn ti trng c
kh, m hnh ca PMLSM l:

3
f i q K t i q
2
3
f
Vi K t
2
Fe

(4)
(5)

V phng trnh c tnh c ca PMLSM l:

Fe FL M m

d 2xp
dt

Bm

Cu trc ca NFC bao gm mt FC, b chnh


nh tham s trn c s RBF NN, c m t
chi tit nh sau:
B iu khin m FC:
Sai lnh bm v s thay i sai lnh c
nh ngha l:

e( k ) x m ( k ) x p ( k )

(7)

e(k ) e(k ) e(k 1)

(8)

e, de, uf tng ng l u vo v u ra ca
FC. Thit k ca FC nh sau:\

Fe

122(08): 9 - 14

dx p

(6)

dt

Trong Fe, Kt, Mm, Bm, FL tng ng l lc


in t, hng s lc, tng khi lng ca cc
thnh phn dch chuyn, h s ma st nht v
ngoi lc.
NFC trong vng iu chnh v tr

- Cho e, de l cc bin u vo ca FC v cc
bin ngn ng l E v dE. Tp m ca E v
dE theo th t l {A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6}
v {B0, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6}.Cc hm thuc
ny u l hm tam gic i xng.
- Tnh ton gi tr hm thuc ng vi cc u
vo e v de. Ta thy vi bt k gi tr u vo
no th lun ch c hai hm thuc cho gi tr
khc 0, c tnh nh sau:
e e
; Ai 1 (e) 1 Ai (e)
(9)
Ai (e) i 1
2
- La chn lut m ban u t c tnh p
ng ng hc nh: IF e is Ai and e is B j
THEN uf is cj,i (10). Trong I v j = 0 6,
Ai v Bj l cc s m, cj,i l cc s thc.
- B iu khin FC trong bi bo s dng b
m ha singleton, lut suy lun Prod, phng
php gii m trng tm. Mc d c tng cng
49 lut hp thnh nhng ch c 4 lut c u
ra khc 0. V vy (10) c th thay th bi biu
thc (11).
i 1 j1

u f (e, de)

c
n i m j

m, n

[ A n (e) * Bm (de)

i 1 j1


n 1 m j

An

(e) * Bm (de)

i 1 j1

c m, n d n,m
n i m j

FL
i*q

Fe
Kt
+

1
M m S Bm

Hnh 1. S khi iu khin ca PMLSM

10

1
S

Xp

(11)

Chu c Ton

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 9 - 14

xp(k)
w1 enn

h1

u(k)
h2

w2

xrbf

xp(k-1)

xp(k-2)

hq

Lp u vo

wq

Lp n

Lp u ra

Hnh 2. Mng RBF NN

Mng n ron RBF NN:


Mng RBF trong bi bo gm c 3 lp: 1 lp
vo, 1 lp n v 1 lp u ra. Mng RBF c 3
u vo u(k), xp(k-1) v xp(k-2). Dng vc t:
(12)
X [u(k ), x p (k 1), x p (k 2)]T
Hm a bin Gauss dng lm hm kch hot
trong lp n:

X cr
hr ( x) exp
2

2 r

, r 1,2,3,4...q

(13)

T
q

wr hr (14)

cc trng s v u ra ca n ron th r. Hm
nng lng sai s: J

1
1 2
( x rbf x p ) 2 e nn
2
2

(15)
Theo phng php ngc hng gradient th
trng s, tm hm v b rng hm c hun
luyn bng cng thc:
wr (k 1) wr (k ) enn (k )hr (k ) (16)
X (k ) c rs (k ) (17)
c (k 1) c (k ) e (k )h (k ) w (k ) s
r

r 2 (k )

rs (k 1) rs (k ) enn (k )hr (k )wr (k )

X s (k ) cr (k )

(18)

r 3 (k )

Trong r = 1, 2, 3,q; s = 1, 2, 3; l h s
hun luyn.

x p
u

x rbf
u

w r hr
r 1

J e
(21)
c m,n

c r1 u ( k )
2r

phn ca Je l:

r 1

Trong x rbf l cc gi tr u ra; wr, hr l

nn

Cc tham s cm,n c iu chnh nh sau:

m = j, j+1; n=i, i+1; l h s hiu chnh, vi

u ra ca mng RBF l: x rbf

rs

1
1
J e e 2 ( x m x p ) 2 (20)
2
2

c m, n

cr cr1 , cr 2 , cr 3

rs

B iu chnh thng s cho FC


Phng php ngc hng gradient c s
dng iu chnh FC. Hiu chnh thng s
FC nhm cc tiu ha bnh phng sai lnh
gia v tr dch chuyn v u ra ca m hnh
tham chiu. Hm nng lng sai s:

(19)

Ta c:

x p u f
J e
e
c m , n
u f c m , n

u f (k )
c m , n (k )

d n,m

(22)
(23)

s dng cng thc Jacobi (19) suy ra:


x p
u f

(K p K i )

x rbf
u

( K p K i ) w r hr

c r1 u (k ) (24)

r 1

r2

thay (23), (24) vo (22) ta c cng thc hiu


chnh cc tham s cm,n sau:
q

c m, n (k ) e(k )( K p K i )d n ,m wr hr
r 1

c r1 u (k ) (25)
r2

Vi m = j, j+1; n = i, i+1.
Cu trc ni ca FPGA iu khin PMLSM
c xut l: FPGA l Altera Stratix II
EP2S60F672C5 c 48352 ALUTs, ti a 718
cng vo/ra, mt b x l nhng Nios II to
ln mt SoPC. Trong IP iu khin bao
gm NFC iu chnh v tr, b iu chnh tc
P, b iu khin dng v b bin i ta
, b iu ch vc t khng gian...
11

Chu c Ton

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 9 - 14

Hnh 3. M hnh thc nghim

Mt biu trng thi dng m t NFC v


b iu khin P: s dng cc b cng, b
nhn, cc thanh ghi..., thao tc qua 111 bc
tnh ton tt c cc php ton. Ton b
thut ton c vit bng ngn ng m t
phn cng VHDL. Tt c cc bc tnh ton
t S0 n S5 tnh ton u ra ca m hnh
tham chiu; S6 n S8 tnh ton tc v sai
lnh v tr v s thay i sai lnh; S9 n S22
tnh ton b iu khin m; S23 n S27 tnh
ton tc v dng in ch th; S28 n S104
tnh ton trong RBF NN, cng thc Jacobi;
cui cng S105 n S111 iu chnh cc tham s
ca FC. Mi bc tnh ton thc hin trong
40ns (25MHz). Tng thi gian thc hin 111
bc tnh l 4.44s. B x l nhng Nios II
thc hin tnh ton ch th chuyn ng, bao
gm chng trnh chnh v chng trnh phc
v ngt ISR vi chu k 2ms. Ton b chng
trnh phn mm ny c vit bng ngn ng
C. Ton b ti nguyn thit k l 19225
ALUTs v 301 056 RAM bit, chim 57,3%
ALUTs v 13,6% RAM ca Stratix II
EP2S60F672C5.
KT QU THC NGHIM
S m hnh thc nghim hnh 3 bao gm:
mt chip FPGA, mt b bin i ngun p s
dng IGBT v mt PMLSM c ch to bi
Baldor. Mt s thng s v ng c nh:
Rs = 27 , Ld = Lq=23,3mH, Kt=79,9 N/A.
in p u vo l 220V, dng in lin tc
1,6A, dng in cc i 4,8A v cng sut
54W. Tc v gia tc cc i l 4m/s v 4g.
12

Khi lng dch chuyn 2,5 kg, ti trng ti


a ln 22,5 kg. Cm bin v tr l mt encoder
tuyn tnh vi phn gii 5m c gn
trn PMLSM, bc cc 30,5 mm. B bin i
gm 3 IGBT ln ti 600V; in p cng pht
20V. Mch iu khin cng IGBT s dng
IC toshiba TLP250. Tn hiu vo b bin i
l tn hiu PWM t FPGA. Tn s trch mu
trong vng iu chnh dng in, tc v v
tr theo trnh t l 16KHz, 2KHz, 2KHz. M
hnh tham chiu l mt khu bc hai vi tn
s dao ng ring l 20 rad/s v h s tt dn
l 1. Cc kt qu th hnh 4, 5, 6.

Hnh 4. p ng bc thang trong 3 trng hp:


a) FC khi ph ti 0 kg; b) FC khi ph ti 11 kg; c)
NFC khi ph ti 11 kg.

Chu c Ton

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 9 - 14

hc xu i vi qu iu chnh ln ti
19.5% (hnh 4b). Kt qu ny ci thin nhiu
hn khi s dng b iu khin m - n ron
(hnh 4c).

Hnh 5. p ng ca h vi tn hiu vo hnh sin


khi s dng FC

Hnh 5 v hnh 6 cho thy p ng tn s v


sai lnh bm trong trng hp s dng b
iu khin FC v b iu khin NFC vi ph
ti 11kg. Tn hiu u vo hnh sin vi bin
l 10mm, tn s bin i t 1 Hz ti 3 Hz. So
vi kt qu s dng FC, trng hp s dng
NFC cho sai lnh bm ch bng 0.35 ln.
KT LUN

Hnh 6. p ng ca h vi tn hiu vo hnh


sin khi s dng NFC

Hnh 4 l p ng bc nhy ca h trong


trng hp s dng b iu khin FC v b
iu khin m - n ron (NFC). Tn hiu u
vo l mt xung vung vi tn s 0.5 Hz, bin
0-10mm v 25-35 mm. Khi s dng b
iu khin m, trong trng hp c ph ti 0
kg h thng cho p ng ng hc tt vi thi
gian ln 0.2s, khng c qu iu chnh, sai
lnh tnh gn nh bng 0 (hnh 4a). Khi c
ph ti 11kg, kt qu cho thy p ng ng

Bi bo thit k b iu khin m - n ron


kt hp FPGA ng thi cho vic nhn
dng v iu khin PMLSM. Cc bc thc
hin bao gm: thit k h thng v tch hp
ton b thit k trn mt FPGA. Cc kt qu
thc nghim hnh 4, 5 v 6 cho thy iu
khin PMLSM cho chnh xc cao.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Chin-Teng Lin and C.S. George Lee; Neural
Fuzzy Systems; Prentice-Hall International (1996).
2. Duane Hanselman-Bruce Littlefield, Mastering
Matlab A Comprehensive Tutorial and Refecence
(1996).
3. Nguyn Trng Thun, Trung Hi; ng dng
l thuyt m v mng n ron nhn dng ng
hc h c tnh phi tuyn mnh; Tp ch Khoa hc
v Cng ngh cc Trng i hc K thut, s 60,
trang 21-26 (2007).

13

Chu c Ton

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 9 - 14

SUMMARY
ON APPLICATION OF THE NEURO FUZZY NETWORK WITH FPGA
CONTROL LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Chu Duc Toan*
Electric Power University

Based on the technology of filed programmable gate array FPGA, a realization of fuzzy control
(FC) sytem with radial basis function neural network (RBF NN) tuning is presented to a permanent
magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) drive is defined, then to increase the performatic
model of the PMLSM drive system and FC constructed by a fuzzy basis function and its parameter
adjustable mechanism using RBF NN is applied to the position control loop of the PMLSM drive
system to cope with the effect of the system dynamic uncertainty and the external load. Secondly
FPGA by using finite state machine FSM method is presented to realise the aforementioned
contrillers and VHSIC hardware description language (VHDL) is adopted to describe the circuit of
the FSM. Finally, an experimental system is established to verify the effectiveness of the proposed
FPGA based neural fuzzy control system for PMLSM and some experimental rsults are
confirmed theoretically.
Keywords: field programmable gate array (FPGA); neural fuzzy controller (NFC); permanent
magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM); finite state machine (FSM); VHSIC hardware
descripton language (VHDL)

Ngy nhn bi:31/3/2014; Ngy phn bin:10/4/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS c Gio Trng i hc Cng ngh - H Quc gia H Ni

Tel: 0982 917093, Email: toancd@epu.edu.vn

14

L Thc nh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 15 - 20

PHN TCH DAO NG CA TM C C TNH BIN THIN


CHU TC DNG CA LC KH NG V NHIT
L Thc nh1*, V Quc Tr1, Trn Th Hng2
1Hc

vin K thut Qun s, 2Trng Cao ng K thut L T Trng

TM TT
Bi bo trnh by kt qu phn tch dao ng ca tm c c tnh bin thin chu tc dng ca lc
kh ng v nhit . Theo , h phng trnh vi phn m t dao ng ca tm c cc tc gi
gii trn c s tch phn trc tip Newmark. Chng trnh tnh c th ha thut ton, phn tch bi
ton c cc tc gi vit trong mi trng Matlab. Cc kt qu nghin cu gp phn phc v vic
thit k v sa cha lp v ca thn v cnh ca cc thit b bay.
T kha: vt liu c c tnh bin thin, gm, kim loi, dao ng, lc kh ng, nhit

T VN *
Panel flutter l hin tng dao ng t kch
gy mt n nh cc b ca tm hoc v
mng n hi chu tc dng ca lc kh ng.
i vi cc thit b bay c tc ln, vic
nghin cu hin tng panel flutter l rt cn
thit cho vic thit k, ch to lp v ca chng.
NI DUNG BI TON
Gii thiu vt liu c c tnh bin thin
Vt liu c c tnh bin thin (FGM) thng
gp l loi 2 thnh phn, n l hn hp ca
gm (ceramic) v kim loi (metal) vi t l
th tch ca cc thnh phn bin i trn, lin
tc theo chiu dy thnh kt cu v l hm ly
tha ca bin chiu dy z.
k

z 1
Vc (z)
h 2
Vm (z) 1 Vc (z), (0 k )

(1)

trong : k- ch s m t l th tch; Vc (z) ,


Vm (z) - t l th tch ca thnh phn gm v kim
loi tng ng; h - chiu dy thnh kt cu; z l
trc ta hng theo chiu dy ca tm.
Tnh cht hiu dng ca vt liu c xc
nh theo biu thc sau:
k

z 1
Pe Pc Pm Pm
h 2

(2)

vi Pe, Pc, Pm l tnh cht hiu dng ca vt


liu FGM, gm v kim loi tng ng.
S ph thuc vo nhit ca tnh cht cc vt
liu thnh phn (gm, kim loi) [4] [5] [6]:
*

Tel: 0982 140560, Email: ledinhvhp@gmail.com

P(T) P0 P1T 1 1 P1T P2T 2 P3T 3

(3)

trong : P0, P-1, P1, P2, v P3 l cc h s ca


nhit ; T - nhit (K).
Do , tnh cht hiu dng ca vt liu FGM
theo ta v nhit c xc nh nh sau:
2z h
Pe T,z Pc T Pm T
Pm T
2h
k

(4)

Phn b nhit theo chiu dy ca tm:


T z Tm Tc Tm z

trong z l hm truyn nhit c xc


nh [3] [6]:
k 1
2z h

K cm 2z h


2h k 1 K m 2h

2k 1
2
K
2z

cm

2k 1 K 2 2h

3k

1
K 3cm
2z h
z

3
C 3k 1 K m 2h

4k 1
4
K cm
2z h

4
4k 1 K 2h

5k

K 5cm
2z h

5
5k 1 K m 2h

(5)

vi
C 1

2
K cm
K cm

k 1 K m 2k 1 K m2
4
K 3cm
K cm
K 5cm

3
4
3k 1 K m 4k 1 K m 5k 1 K 5m

(6)

K cm K c K m

M hnh bi ton v cc gi thit


Xt tm vt liu c c tnh bin thin hnh
ch nht, kch thc nh hnh v (hnh 1),
15

L Thc nh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

mt trn ca tm chu tc dng ca dng kh


vt m vi vn tc V hng theo trc x
(trng vi mt cnh tm), mt di chu p
sut khng i bng p sut tnh ca dng kh
t do. B mt giu gm c nhit ln hn
b mt giu kim loi. Kt cu c xt l tm
mng n hi. B qua bin dng ct ngang

122(08): 15 - 20

ca phn t:

u, v, w

N q e

(9)

trong : u,v - chuyn v mng; w - chuyn v


un ( vng); [N] - ma trn hm dng; {q e} vc t chuyn v nt ca phn t.

w4

xz yz 0

v4
x4
u4

y4

w1
y1
Hnh 1. M hnh bi ton

w3

v3

y3

x3
u3

w2
v1
x1
u1

v2
x2
u2

y2

Hnh 2. Phn t tm phng hnh ch nht 4 nt

Lc kh ng

Quan h bin dng - chuyn v

Vi m hnh ca bi ton, tc gi la chn m


hnh lc kh ng theo l thuyt piston bc
nht 0:

Vc t cc thnh phn bin dng v cong


ca phn t:

g D w
D w
Pa a 110
110

t
a 3 x
0

(7)

vi
1

D 2
v2
q a ; M 2 1; 0 1104 ;
2
ha
Ca

2 a a
a v M2 2
2qa 3
;g

;
a
2
3
h0
D110
1 h
2

(8)

2w
u
2

x
x
2
v

w
m ; m
; k 2 (10)
k
y
y
u v
2w

2

xy
y x

trong : m , k tng ng l vc t bin


dng mng, vc t cong.

trong : Pa - lc kh ng, v - vn tc dng


kh, M - s Mach; q - p sut kh ng, a khi lng ring ca dng kh; - p sut
kh ng khng th nguyn ; D110 - cng
tr ca tm; Ca - h s cn kh ng; g a - h s
cn kh ng khng th nguyn; 0 - tn s
quy c; - khi lng ring ca tm; h chiu dy ca tm; a - chiu di ca tm; w chuyn v ca tm theo phng z.

Biu din bin dng theo chuyn v nt:

N
A

B m NT
D k MT

Cc phng trnh c bn

trong :

N Nx , Ny , Nxy - lc mng;

{} [B0 ]{qe}

(11)

vi [B0 ] l ma trn tnh bin dng.


Quan h ng sut - bin dng
Quan h gia ng sut v bin dng c xt
n nh hng ca nhit :
(12)

Quan h chuyn v - chuyn v nt

M Mx ,My ,Mxy - m men un v xon;

Chn loi phn t phng hnh ch nht 4 nt,


mi nt c 5 bc t do (hnh 2). Chuyn v ti
mt im bt k trn mt trung bnh ca phn
t c biu din thng qua chuyn v nt

[A], [B], [D] l ma trn cng mng, ma


trn cng tng tc mng-un-xon v ma
trn cng un tng ng; N T , M T lc
mng v m men un, xon do bin dng nhit.

16

L Thc nh v tg
h

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

mng-un:

A, B, D E 1, z, z 2 dz
2

[K emu ] [B0m ]T [B][B0u ]dS

z
N T ,M T 1, z E z T z dz
h
0
2

- Ma trn cn kh ng ca phn t:
(13)

Aei 0

chun

T0 300K .
Thit lp phng trnh chuyn ng
p dng nguyn l cng kh d i vi cc
lc tc dng ln phn t (lc n hi, lc
nhit, lc kh ng v lc qun tnh), ta c:
(14)
W=Wint Wext 0
Cng kh d ca ni lc:

Wint m N k M dS
T

q e K e q e q e PTe
T

w hw+Pa u hu
Wext
dS

v hv
S

(16)

M q A q A q
ed

ei

Thay (15), (16) vo (14) v bin i ta c


phng trnh dao ng ca phn t tm di tc
dng ca lc kh ng v nhit nh sau:

Me q e

A ei
ga
q e PTe
Aed q e

0
Ke

(17)

(18)

[K em ],[K eu ] - ma trn cng ca trng thi


mng, ma trn cng ca trng thi un:
[K em ] [B0m ]T [A][B0m ]dS
S

[K eu ] [B0u ]T [D][B0u ]dS

M
M e 0em

D11
T
N
N u dS
3 u
a
x
S

; A eiu

(22)

0
M
eu

(23)

vi

Mem h Nm Nm dS; Meu h Nu Nu dS


T

- Vc t ti trng do thay i nhit :


{P }
{PTe } Tem
(20x1)
{PTeu }

(24)

{PTem} [B0m ]T [NT ]dS; {PTeu } [B0u ]T [MT ]dS


S

(19)

[K emu ],[K eum ] - ma trn cng tng tc

(12x1)

- q e , q e : Vc t vn tc, vc t gia tc nt
ca phn t.
Thc hin ghp ni cc ma trn v vc t
phn t M e , K e , A ed , A ei , PTe , q e ,
q e , q e ta c cc ma trn v vc t tng
th tng ng ca ton b tm M , K ,
A d , Ai , PT , q , q , q .
Khi , phng trnh dao ng ca tm FGM
chu tc dng ca ti trng kh ng v nhit
c dng:

Mq

trong :
- Ma trn cng tuyn tnh ca phn t:
[K ] [K ]
Ke [K em ] [Kemu]
eu
eum

Aeiu

- Ma trn khi lng ca phn t [Me]:

(8x1)

Cng kh d ca cc ngoi lc lc (lc kh


ng v lc qun tnh):

(21)

vi
(15)

0
D110
T
; A
N Nu dS
Aedu edu S a 4 u

- Ma trn cng do nh hng kh ng ca


phn t:
k

q e

Aed 0

2z h
E T, z E c T E m T
Em T
2h
T z T z T0 , T0 l nhit

(20)

[K eum ] [B0u ]T [B][B0m ]dS [K emu ]T

1
0
E T, z

E
0
1
1 2
1
0 0

122(08): 15 - 20

ga
Ad q Ai K q PT
0

(25)

Phng php gii bi ton


Vit li phng trnh (25) dng sau:

0 qm ga 0 0 qm
Mu qu 0 0 Adu qu
(26)
0 0 K m K mu q m PTm

0 Aiu

K um K u q u PTu

M m

Khai trin (26) ta c hai phng trnh sau:


(27)
M m q m K m q m K mu q u PTm
17

L Thc nh v tg

M u q u

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

ga
Adu q u Aiu K u q u
0
K um q m PTu

(28)

Thay (29) vo (28) v bin i ta nhn c:


Aiu K u

g
q u
Mu qu a Adu qu
1

0
(30)
K um K m K mu
1
PTu K um K m PTm
Khi xt n nh hng ca cn kt cu,
phng trnh (30) tr thnh:
M u q u Ckc Ckd q u
1
(31)
A iu K u K um K m K mu q u
1

Cc thng s ca dng kh: a = 1.225 kg/m3,


a = 340.3 m/s. Nhit mt giu gm
Tc

Theo Vonmir, do qun tnh mng rt nh nn


c th b qua. Do vy, t (27) ta rt ra c:
1
(29)
qm K m PTm K mu q u

PTu K um K m

122(08): 15 - 20

=320K, nhit mt giu kim loi Tm =


300K. Tm c chia li u 88, nhn
c 64 phn t v 81 nt. T s cn kt cu
0,01 . Bc tch phn t = 1/100000s.
Gii bi ton dao ng ring
Gii bi ton dao ng ring ta thu c 2
dng ring u tin (hnh 3, hnh 4) tng ng
vi 2 tn s ring u tin: 1 = 1,23.103 Hz,
2 = 2,15.103 Hz.

PTm

trong :
Ckd - ma trn cn kh ng;
Ckc - ma trn cn kt cu c xc nh nh
sau:

Ckc M u K u

vi

(32)

2
; 12 ; 1, 2
1 2

Hnh 3. Dng ring th nht


( 1 = 1,23.103 Hz)

l hai tn s

dao ng ring u tin; l t s cn kt cu.


gii phng trnh (31) ta s dng phng
php tch phn trc tip Newmark v lp trnh
bng ngn ng Matlab.
TNH TON S
Xt tm c c tnh bin thin 2 thnh phn l
gm (Si3N4) v thp khng g (SUS304).
Tm
hnh
ch
nht
kch
thc
(0.400.320.002)m, c ngm c 4 cnh.
Kt qu phn tch dao ng ca tm

Hnh 4. Dng ring th hai


( 2 = 1,23.103 Hz)

Hnh 5. Dao ng tt dn ca tm vi = 820 (ti nt 41)

18

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Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 15 - 20

Hnh 6. Dao ng tun hon ca tm vi = 879,5 (ti nt 41)

Hnh 7. Dao ng vi bin tng dn ca tm vi = 882 (ti nt 41)

* Nhn xt:
- Khi nh (hnh 5) lc kh ng cha
ln nn dao ng ca tm l dao ng tt dn.
- Khi tng dn ti ln cn gi tr ti hn
(hnh 6) tm c xu hng dao ng tun hon
do xc lp trng thi cn bng ng lc gia
lc kh ng vi p ng tuyn tnh ca tm.
- Khi vt qu gi tr ti hn (hnh 7), dao
ng ca tm c bin tng dn, tm c kh
nng mt n nh.
Kho st p ng chuyn v ngang ln nht
(wmax/h) theo p sut kh ng khng th
nguyn v nhit

* Nhn xt: Khi nhit tng lm cho


cng un ca tm c c tnh bin thin gim.
Do , lm tng gi tr chuyn v ngang ln
nht (wmax/h). Khi lc kh ng cng ln th
nh hng ca nhit n chuyn v ngang
tng cng mnh.
KT LUN
Bi bo t c cc kt qu nh sau:
- Thit lp v gii h phng trnh vi phn m
t dao ng ca kt cu tm FGM chu tc
dng ca lc kh ng v nhit .
- Xy dng c chng trnh tnh trong mi
trng Matlab.
- p dng tnh ton s xc nh p ng
ng ca kt cu tm c c tnh bin thin
cho 3 trng hp khc nhau ca lc kh ng.
Kt qu cho thy tnh cht dao ng ca tm
ph thuc vo lc kh ng thng qua p sut
kh ng khng th nguyn, trn c s c
th nh gi kh nng n nh ca tm.

Hnh 8. p ng chuyn v ngang wmax/h


theo v Tc

- Kho st nh hng ca chuyn v ngang


ln nht theo lc kh ng (thng qua p sut
19

L Thc nh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

kh ng khng th nguyn) v nhit , cho


thy khi nhit tng lm gim cng un
tuyn tnh ca tm, dn n lm tng gi tr
chuyn v ngang ln nht. S nh hng ca
nhit tng mnh khi p sut kh ng
khng th nguyn tng.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Ibrahim H.H., Tawfik M. (2010), Limit-cycle
Oscillations of Functionally Graded Material
Plates Subject to Aerodynamic and Thermal
Loads, Journal of Vibration and Control, 16(14),
pp. 2147-2166.
2. Lanhe W., Hongjun W., Daobin W. (2007),
Dynamic stability analysis of FGM plates by the
moving least squares differential quadrature
method, Composite Structures, (77), pp. 383-394.

122(08): 15 - 20

3. Lee S. L, Kim J. H (2009), Thermal postbuckling and limit-cycle oscillation of functionally


graded panel with structural damping in
supersonic airow, Composite Structures (91),
pp. 205-211.
4. Lee S.-L., Kim J.-H. (2007), Thermal Stability
Boundary of FG Panel under Aerodynamic Load,
World Academy of Science, Engineering and
Technology, (32), pp. 60-65.
5. Park J.-S., Kim J.-H. (2006), Thermal
postbuckling and
vibration analyses of
functionally graded plates, Journal of Sound and
Vibration (289), pp. 77-93.
6. Prakash T., Ganapathi M. (2006), Supersonic
flutter characteristics of functionally graded flat
panels including thermal effects, Composite
Structures, (72), pp. 10-18.

SUMMARY
VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIAL PLATES
SUBJECT TO AERODYNAMIC LOADS AND TEMPERATURE
Le Thuc Dinh1*, Vu Quoc Tru1, Tran Thi Huong2
1Military

Technical Academy, 2Ly Tu Trong Technical College

This paper represents the result of vibration analysis of functionally graded material plates subject
to aerodynamic loads and temperature based on Finite Element Method (FEM) algorithm in a
Matlab program. The differential equation systems for vibration of functionally graded material
plates are solved by a solution Newmark direct integral. The research results contribute to service
design and repair of body shells and wings of aircraft equipments.
Keywords: functionally graded material, ceramic, metal, vibration, aerodynamic load,
temperature

Ngy nhn bi:14/5/2014; Ngy phn bin:28/5/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 28/5/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. Nguyn Vn Chnh Hc vin K thut Qun s
*

Tel: 0982 140560, Email: ledinhvhp@gmail.com

20

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122(08): 21 - 26

PHISHING ATTACKS DETECTION USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING


WITH FEATURES SELECTION
Tuan Anh Pham1, Thi Huong Chu2, Hoang Quan Nguyen2,
Quang Uy Nguyen2, Xuan Hoai Nguyen3, Van Truong Nguyen4
2The

1Centre of IT, Military Academy of Logistics, Vietnam,


Faculty of Information Technology, Le Quy Don University, Vietnam,
3IT R&D Center, Hanoi University, Vietnam,
4College of Education, TNU, Vietnam

SUMMARY
Phishing is a real threat on the Internet nowadays. Therefore, fighting against phishing attacks is of
great importance. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem by applying Genetic
Programming with features selection methods to phishing detection problem. We conducted the
experiments on a data set including both phishing and legitimate sites collected from the Internet.
We compared the performance of Genetic Programming with a number of other machine learning
techniques and the results showed that Genetic Programming produced the best solutions to
phishing detection problem.
Keywords: Genetic Programming, Phishing Attack, Machine Learning

INTRODUCTION*
Genetic Programming (GP) [2] is an
evolutionary algorithm aimed to provide
solutions to a user-defined task in the form of
computer programs. Since its introduction,
GP has been applied to many practical
problems [2]. GP has also been used as a
learning tool for solving some problems in
network security [3]. However, to the best of
our knowledge, there has not been any
published work on the use of GP for learning
to detect phishing web sites except our
preliminary work in [4].
In the field of network security, phishing
attack is one of the main threat on the Internet
nowadays [5]. Phishing attackers attempt to
acquire confidential information such as
usernames, passwords, and credit card details
by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an
online communication [5]. Due to the
simplicity, phishing attacks are very popular. .
According to a report released by an
American security firm, RSA, there have been
approximately 33,000 phishing attacks
globally each month in 2012, leading to a loss
of $687 million [1]. Therefore, detecting and
*

Tel: 0915 016063, Email: nvtruongtn@gmail.com

eliminating phishing attacks is very important


for not only organizations but also
individuals. One popular and widely-used
solution with most web browsers is to
integrate blacklisted sites into them.
However, this solution, which is unable to
detect a new attack if the database is out of
date, appears to be not effective when there
are a large number of phishing attacks carried
out very day.
In a recent research [4], Pham et al. proposed
a solution to this problem by applying
Genetic Programming to phishing detection
problem. The results showed that GP
outperforms some other machine learning
methods on this important problem. However,
the research in [4] has some drawbacks.
1) The data set for training and testing was
rather small. Therefore, the models created
based on this data set may not generalize well
in the real environment.
2) More important, the number of features
used in [4] seems to be limited. Moreover,
some features may not be relevant for
distinguishing
between
phishing
and
legitimate sites. This may hinder the
performance of machine learning methods in
solving this problem.
21

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In this paper, we extend the work in [4] in


several ways. The main contributions of this
paper are:
1) We enlarged both training and testing data
set by collecting more phishing and legitimate
sites from the Internet.
2) We enriched the features set by adding
some institutive features which may be
beneficial for discriminating normal and
phishing sites.
3) We used a features selection method to
eliminate some irrelevant features which
helps to improve the performance Genetic
Programming.
The remainder of the paper is organized as
follows. In the next section, we briefly review
some previous research on detecting phishing
attacks. In Section III we present our method
using GP for solving the phishing detection
problem. It is followed by a section detailing
our experimental settings. The experimental
results are shown and discussed in Section V.
The last section concludes the paper and
highlights some potential future works.
RELATED WORKS
Since phishing attacks are very popular, there
has been a number of anti-phishing solutions
proposed to date. Some methods aim to solve
the phishing problem at the email level by
preventing users from visiting the phishing
sites. That is, the emails containing phishing
sites are filtered before being able to reach to
the potential victims. Apparently, these
techniques are closely related to anti-spam
research and has been used by both Microsoft
[6] and Yahoo [7]. Other solutions attempt to
protect valuable information from being
exposed to the phishers by replacing
passwords with site-specific tokens, or by
using novel authentication mechanisms.
These methods have been used in some
popular anti-phishing tools such as PwdHash
and AntiPhish.
In PwdHash [8], a domain-specific password,
that is rendered useless if it is submitted to
22

122(08): 21 - 26

another domain, is created (e.g., a password


for www.gmail.com will be different if
submitted to www.attacker.com). Conversely,
AntiPhish [9] takes a different approach by
keeping track of where confidential
information such as a password is being
submitted. That is, if it detects that a
password is being entered into a form on an
untrusted web site, a warning is generated and
the current operation is canceled.
In this paper, we will focus on the approaches
that only use the information available from
the URL and the pages source code.
Currently, there are two main such
approaches for identifying phishpages - based
on URL blacklists; and based on the
properties of the page and (sometimes) the
URL. More detailed description about these
methods can be found in [4].
METHODS
This section presents the methods used in this
paper. The way to extract the features for
each web site is presented first. The method
for features selection is discussed after that.
Finally, the GP system for phishing detection
is described.
Features Extraction
The first step of using GP to tackle the
phishing detection problem is features
extraction/selection. The extracted features
must contain information that helps to
distinguish phishing and legitimate sites. In
this paper, we extend the features set in [4] by
adding some more features that are based on
URL of the sites. Totally, eighteen features
are used in this paper including twelve
content-based features that have been used in
[4] and six new URL-based features. These
six URL-based features are taken from [10]
and are described as follows.
URL1: number of @ in URL (X13).
URL2: number of - in URL (X14).
URL3: number of . in URL (X15).
URL4: number of . in URL (X16).

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Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

URL5: 1 if URL contain word ebayisapi,


otherwise 0 (X17).
URL6: 1 if URL contain word banking,
otherwise 0 (X18).
Features Selection
Feature selection is the process of choosing a
subset of features relevant to a particular
application [11]. There have been a number of
features selection proposed for machine
learning algorithms [12]. Among them,
statistics based methods have shown good
performance on a number of problems [12].
In this paper, we use the mutual information
(MI) concept as the features selection
criterion.
Mutual information (MI) is a basic concept in
information theory. It is a measure of general
interdependence between random variables
[12]. Specifically, given two random
variables X and Y, the mutual information
I(X;Y) is defined as follows:
I (X ; Y ) = H (X ) + H (Y ) H (X ; Y ) (1)
where H() is the entropy of a random variable
and measures the uncertainty associated with
it. If X is a discrete random variable, H(X) is
defined as follows:
H (X ) = P (X )log2 (P (X )) (2)
Calculating exactly mutual information (MI)
between two random variables is not a
straightforward task. Therefore, it is often
necessary that this value is estimated. In this
paper, we estimate MI using the histogram
approach [12]. According to this method, the
probability density function of each variable
is approximated using a histogram. Then, the
MI can be calculated according to the
following equation:

I ( X ;Y ) P( X , Y )log 2
x

P( X , Y )
P( X ) P(Y )

(3)

where the summations are calculated over the


appropriately discretized values of the
random variables X and Y. For each
histogram bin, the joint probability

122(08): 21 - 26

distribution P(X,Y) is estimated by counting


the number of cases that fall into a particular
bin and dividing that number with the total
number of cases. The same technique is
applied for the histogram approximation of
the marginal distributions P(X) and P(Y).
Choosing an appropriate bin is a crucial issue.
In this paper, we follow [19] in choosing the
number of bins based on the Gaussianity rule.
With Gaussian data, the proper number of
bins is log2 N + 1.
System Description
The evolutionary learning process of GP for
solving the problem of phishing detection is
divided into two stages: training and testing.
The objective of training stage is to evolve the
model (the classifier) that can determine a site
as either phishing or legitimate based on its
feature values. In the testing stage, the learnt
model is used to make predictions on the
unseen data. The accuracy of this prediction is
used as an indicator for the quality
(effectiveness) of the model.
In the training stage, a set of training sites
(both phishing and benign) with their labels
(either as phishing or normal) are provided.
The feature extraction process is called to
convert every site to a feature vector. This
vector is then served as the input for an
individual in GP and the output of the
individual is a real value. If this real value is
greater than zero, this site is tagged as a
phishing, otherwise it is considered as benign.
The next step in the training process is to
measure the fitness of an individual in GP. In
this paper, we use a simple way to measure
the fitness of individual where the fitness is
the percentage of sites in the training set that
are correctly classified. This fitness, thought
may not be a good indicator if the data is
imbalance, is intuitive to identify the overall
quality of a model.
EXPERIMENTAL SETTINGS
This section outlines the settings used in our
experiments. First, we present the way that
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data was collected for training and testing the


systems. After that GP configurations for the
experiments are described.
Data Collection
The data used for training and testing the
system in this paper was collected from both
phishing sites and legitimate sites on the
Internet. The process is similar to that in[4]
except the number of pages is larger. In this
paper, we collected 3528 phishing pages and
3965 normal pages.
From the data set, eighteen properties on each
page were extracted to create the set feature
vectors. We retained only one feature vector
in case there is duplication in the data set.
Moreover, if a feature vector presented in
both phishing data and legitimate data, this
vector was removed. As a result, 1800 feature
vectors for phishing and 1200 feature vectors
for legitimate data were retrieved. Totally, we
obtained 1800+1200=3000 feature vectors of
both phishing and legitimate sites. These
vectors are mixed and divided into two sets:
one for training (1000 samples) and the other
for testing (the rest). Finally, feature values
were normalized to the range between (0, 1),
and the vectors extracted from phishing pages
were labeled 1, otherwise labeled 0.
GP Parameters Settings
To tackle a problem with GP, several
elements need to be clarified beforehand.
These elements often depend on the problem
and the experience of practitioners. The first
and important element is the fitness function.
As aforementioned, in this paper we use the
percentage of correct classifications as the
fitness measurement for each individual in the
population. Other factors that strongly affect
the performance of GP are the set of nonterminals and terminals. The terminal sets
include 18 variables (X1, X2,...,X18 )
representing 18 features extracted from the
sites. The non-terminal set include 5 functions
(+, -, *, /, iff). Here, we used the protected
24

122(08): 21 - 26

versions of division (/), meaning that if the


denominator is zero, the returned value is 1.
Other evolutionary parameters are kept the
same as [2].
We divided our experiments into three sets. In
the first, we repeated the experiments in [4]
meaning that we used only twelve features
from X1 to X12. However, the data sets for
both training and testing in this experiment
are much larger than those in [4]. We used
1000 samples for training and 2000 for testing
(compared with only 516 and 288 for training
and testing samples in [4]). The objective of
this experiment is to see if the performance of
GP on a larger data set is still maintained.
In the second set we aimed to examine the
impact of enriching the features set to the
performance of GP in phishing detection
problem. Similar to the experiment in [4], we
also compared the performance of GP with
several well-known machine learning
techniques
including
Support
Vector
Machines, Artificial Neural Networks and
Bayesian Networks.
In the third set, we investigated the impact of
features selection scheme that are based on
the mutual information to the performance of
all tested machine learning methods. This
experimental set aims to see if using the
features selection method help to remove
some irrelevant features and leading to the
better performance of learning methods. The
detail about these experiments are presented
in the following section.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To determine quality of the models produced
by GP, at the end of each run, we selected the
best-of-the-run individual (the individual with
the best fitness on the training set in the entire
run). This model is then tested on the testing
set and the output on the testing set is
considered as the prediction error of the
model. In order to experiment other machine
learning techniques to solve the problem, we

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used their implementations in Weka. We


compare the results produced by these
methods with the results obtained by GP. The
percentage of correct prediction of these
methods in three experiments (Exp) is
presented in Table 1. In this Table, GP is the
results produced by genetic programming.
SVM is shorthanded for Support Vector
Machine while ANN stands for the Artificial
Neuron Network. It should be noted that in all
Figures, the greater values are better.
It can be seen that the results in Table 1 are
consistent with the results in [4]. It confirms
that the best model produced by GP is also
the best model among all models produced by
all learning systems. Overall, the prediction
accuracy of GP learnt model is about 71% in
the first experiment. These values of other
methods ranges from 54% to 67% with the
lowest value is obtained by SVM while the
highest value is obtained by ANN.
Table 1. The Percentage of Correct Prediction
Exp

GP

SVM

ANN

BayesNet

Exp1
Exp2
Exp3

71.6
76.3
78.8

54.3
56.5
58.1

68.2
74.2
73.2

63.6
73.1
73.6

The second experimental set was aimed to


test if by adding more features (that are based
on URL) to the features set, we can obtain
better performance of these learning methods
on this problems. The results of the second
experiment are presented in the second row of
Table 1.
It can be seen that by enriching features set,
the performances of almost all learning
methods were improved. The most
remarkable improvement is achieved with
ANN and BayesNet. The accuracy of these
two methods increased to around 74%. With
AVM, its performance was also enhanced
from 54% to around 57%. However, what is
more important is that the performance of GP
is also improved and it still obtained the best
results amongst all tested techniques. The

122(08): 21 - 26

results obtained by GP with this features set is


about 76%. In general, the results in this
experiment show the beneficial effect of
adding some URL-based features to the
features set in this problem.
The results in the second experimental set
show that enriching features set helps to
improve the performance of learning
algorithms in phishing detection problem.
However, this larger features set may also
contains some irrelevant features that might
hinder the performance of GP and other
learning
methods.
Therefore,
this
experimental set aims to examine if using the
features selection method based on mutual
information helps to eliminate irrelevant
features and leading to the better
performance. We first calculated the mutual
information between each feature and the
label of the whole data set (including both
training and testing set). After that, we sorted,
in ascending order, the features based on its
mutual information with the label. We
omitted X8, X17 and X18 from the features
set due to its loosely related to the label and
we conducted the above experiments with the
new features set. The results are given in the
row 3 of Table 1. It can be seen from these
results that by using the features selection
technique to eliminate some irrelevant
features (X8, X17 and X18 in this paper), we
can achieve better performance for GP. While
the performance of other learning algorithms
is mostly the same with the experiment in the
second set, the performance of GP is keeping
enhanced and it obtains the best result in all
experiments at about 78%. Overall, the
experiments in this paper show the ability of
GP in tackling phishing detecting problem
and if we enrich the features set and using
features selection to eliminate irrelevant
features we can achieve rather good result, up
to approximate 80% of correct prediction.
Comparing to the best result in [4] with only
about 70%, this is a significant improvement.
25

Phm Tun Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK


In this paper, we conducted a more thorough
investigation on the use of Genetic
Programming (GP) for solving the problem of
detecting phishing attacks. We extended the
work in [4] by enriching features set and
using a features selection scheme to eliminate
some irrelevant features.
We compared the results produced by GP with
three other machine learning techniques (AVM,
ANN, Bayesian Networks). The results show
that GP is capable of producing the prediction
models (classifiers) that are more accurate than
other machine learning techniques. This result
inspires us to get GP integrated with blacklistsbased browsers to improve their ability in
detecting phishing attacks.

122(08): 21 - 26

REFERENCES
1. RSA, Phishing in season: A look at online
fraud in 2012, 2012.
2. R. Poli, W. Langdonand, and N. McPhee, A
Field
Guide to
Genetic
Programming.
http://lulu.com, 2008.
3. S. Mabu, C. Chen, N. Lu, K. Shimada, and K.
Hirasawa, An intrusion-detection model based on
fuzzy class-association-rule mining using genetic
network programming, IEEE Trans. on Systems,
Man, and Cybernetics, Part C, 41(2011), 130139.
4. P. T. Anh, N. Q. Uy, and N. X. Hoai, phishing
attacks detection using genetic programming, in
The 5th Inter. Conf. on Knowledge and Systems
Eng., KSE, 2013.
5. C. Ludl, S. McAllister, E. Kirda, and C.
Kruegel, On the effectiveness of techniques to
detect phishing sites, in DIMVA. Springer, 2007.
6. Microsoft, Sender id home page, Website,
2007, http://www.microsoft.com
7. Yahoo, Yahoo! antispam resource center,
2007, http://antispam.yahoo.com
8. B. Ross, C. Jackson, N. Miyake, D. Boneh, and J.
C. Mitchell, Stronger password authentication using
browser extensions, in Pro. of the 14th USENIX
Security Symposium. USENIX, Aug. 2005.
9. H. Liu and H. Motoda, Feature Selection for
Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 1998.
10. M. Verleysen, F. Rossi, and D. Franois,
Advances in feature selection with mutual
information, 2009.
11. Scrapy, Scrapy: web crawling framework,
http://scrapy. Org.

In the future, we are planning to extend the


work in this paper in a number of ways. First,
we want to continue enriching features set to
see if this helps to further improve the results.
Second, we want to give GP more
computational time (by increasing the
population size) to see if it can help GP to
find better models. Last but not least, we want
to make a more thorough analysis on the
obtained models to get better understanding of
the factors that affect the prediction accuracy.
TM TT
PHT HIN TN CNG PHISHING S DNG LP TRNH GEN V LA
CHN CC C TRNG

Phm Tun Anh1, Chu Th Hng2, Nguyn Hong Qun2,


Nguyn Quang Uy2, Nguyn Xun Hoi3, Nguyn Vn Trng4*
1Hc vin Hu Cn Qun i,2i hc K Thut L Qu n
,3i hc H Ni,4Trng i hc S phm - H Thi Nguyn

Phishing l mt mi nguy him tht s trn Internet ngy nay. V vy, cuc chin chng li tn
cng phishing c ngha quan trng. Trong bi bo ny, chng ti xut mt gii php gii
quyt vn ny bng ng dng phng php lp trnh Gen (GP) kt hp vi cc phng php
la chn c trng pht hin phishing. Chng ti tin hnh cc th nghim trn tp d liu bao
gm c phishing v cc trang web hp php c thu thp t Internet, sau so snh hiu qu
thc hin ca GP vi mt s phng php hc my khc. Kt qu cho thy GP l gii php tt
nht trong vn pht hin phishing.
T kha: Lp trnh di truyn, tn cng phishing, hc my
Ngy nhn bi:29/4/2014; Ngy phn bin:13/5/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. V Vit V Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip - HTN
*

Tel: 0915 016063, Email: nvtruongtn@gmail.com

26

Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 27 - 33

NGHIN CU DCH V WEB XY DNG


H THNG NG NHP MT LN
Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh1*, Nguyn Vn Vng2
1

Trng i hc S phm, i hc Nng


2Trng i hc Kinh t, i hc Nng

TM TT
Vic mi t chc s hu v vn hnh nhiu website ngy cng ph bin trn th gii. Tuy nhin,
n thng dn n vn mt ngi dng cn phi ghi nh nhiu ti khon ng nhp v mt
khu ng nhp vo cc website khc nhau ca cng mt t chc do c s d liu tn ti c
lp vi nhau. T , vn ng nhp mt ln cho cc website trong cng mt t chc l mt yu
cu ph bin. Tc gi nghin cu xy dng gii php v xy dng h thng ng nhp mt ln
hon ton mi, cung cp cc dch v xc thc ngi dng da trn c s d liu ngi dng tp
trung. H thng c xy dng da trn vic khai thc tnh c lp i vi nn tng ca dch v
web, kh nng chia s cookie gia cc trnh duyt cng nh ng dng web. Nghin cu cng tin
hnh trin khai ng dng th nghim trn h thng c xy dng.
T kha: Xc thc ngi dng; ng nhp mt ln; website; cookie; dch v web.

T VN *
Ngy nay, vic s hu v vn hnh nhiu ng
dng web tr nn ph bin, c bit l cc
t chc ln. Cc ng dng hot ng c lp
vi nhau, c th c pht trin trn nhng
nn tng khc nhau. Ngi dng phi thc
hin ng k thng tin v ng nhp li khi
chuyn sang s dng ng dng khc.
T chc cng nhiu ng dng, ngi dng
cng phi nh mt lng ln tn ng nhp
v mt khu khc nhau. Cng vic ny chim
mt khon thi gian ln ca ngi dng, lm
gim hiu sut phc v ca ton h thng.
Cc nh pht trin phi gii quyt hng lot
vn lin quan n qun l c s d liu
ngi dng v bo mt cc h thng khc
nhau. gim bt thao tc ca ngi dng,
tng tnh chuyn nghip cho h thng, xy
dng h thng ng nhp mt ln (NML,
Single Sign On SSO) c nh gi l gii
php tt nht hin nay.
ng nhp mt ln l qu trnh xc thc
phin lm vic ca ngi dng, cho php s
dng mt tn ng nhp v mt khu truy
cp vo nhiu ng dng [1]. Sau khi c xc
thc, ngi dng c th truy cp cc ng
*

Tel: 0914 780898, Email: ntquocvinh@gmail.com

dng khc m khng phi ng nhp li, cc


quyn c trao v thng tin ngi dng
c lu gi trong sut phin lm vic. Nh
vy, h thng NML va m bo tnh thun
tin va tng bo mt khi s dng. Hn
na, vic qun l ti khon tp trung s lm
cho nh qun tr chuyn tm vo pht trin
ng dng, cng vic bo mt s do h thng
NML m nhn. i vi ngi dng, h ch
cn mt ti khon cho tt c cc ng dng.
Tuy nhin, h thng NML gp phi vn
l c ch bo mt c lp vi nn ca ng
dng, hot ng trn kin trc ring bit [2].
iu ny t ra vn cc ng dng phi
hiu c v chp nhn cc thng tin xc
thc do NML cung cp. ng thi phi
kim tra c tnh chnh xc ca thng tin
xc thc.
CC H THNG NML TRN TH GII
Trn th gii, c nhiu gii php NML vi
nhiu phin bn min ph v thng mi. Ni
bt nht l h thng Central Authentication
Service (CAS) v Oracle Enterprise Single
Sign-on (Oracle ESSO).
H thng CAS do c c th l m ngun m
nn cung cp kh nng m rng cho nh pht
trin v c cng ng khng ngng b
sung cc tnh nng mi. CAS client h tr cc
27

Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

ng dng c pht trin bng nhiu ngn


ng nh PHP, Java, .NET. Tuy nhin, tt c
ng dng phi c pht trin bng mt ngn
ng chung nht, y chnh l hn ch ln ca
h thng CAS.
Khi ngi dng cha ng nhp, i) ng dng
s yu cu CAS xc thc ti khon do ngi
dng cung cp; ii) sau khi xc thc thnh
cng, CAS tr v cho trnh duyt cc chui k
t ngu nhin cha d liu bo mt v bt u
bng tin t nht nh gi l cc v (Ticket).
Mi v c mt ngha ring, CAS s dng v
y quyn (Ticket-Granting Ticket - TGT) lm
c s cho CAS thc hin NML. Ngoi ra,
CAS s dng v dch v (Service Ticket - ST)
c to duy nht cho mi ng dng. V dch
v c dng mt ln trong mt phin lm vic
ca ngi dng; iii) ng dng gi v dch v
cho CAS nhn v m ngi dng v t ng
to phin lm vic cho ngi dng [3].
Trng hp ngi dng truy cp vo ng
dng khi c CAS xc thc, i) ng dng
s gi v y quyn c ly t trnh duyt
cho CAS xc thc; ii) khi xc thc thnh
cng, CAS s gi cho ng dng v dch v;
iii) ng dng gi v dch v cho CAS ly v
thng tin m ngi dng v t ng to phin
lm vic cho ngi dng [3]. Tt c c x l
thng qua cc lin kt (URL) c trao i gia
cc ng dng web v my ch CAS.
Khc vi h thng CAS, h thng Oracle
ESSO l bn thng mi do Oracle pht trin.
H thng ny l mt gii php trn gi cho
vic xc thc v qun l ngi dng i vi
tt c cc ng dng do Oracle cung cp. Tuy
nhin, vic trin khai h thng ny khng h
n gin, tc ng ln n h thng s dng
do phi thay i phng thc truy cp h
thng [4]. Bn cnh , kinh ph trin khai
h thng ny l kh ln, ch ph hp vi s t
cc doanh nghip sn sng chi mt s tin ln
trin khai.
Oracle ESSO c c ch xc thc rt phc tp,
da trn cc cng ngh qun l ng nhp
(Logon Manager), khi phc mt khu
28

122(08): 27 - 33

(Password Reset), qun l khi to xc thc


ngi dng v t ng to ch k tt ca
ngi dng (Kiosk Manager), qun l xc
thc (Authentication Manager), cc cng c
dnh cho qun tr vin (Provisioning
Gateway). Oracle ESSO khng ch cung cp
xc thc mt ln cho ng dng nn web m
cn cho cc loi ng dng khc [5].
Ti Vit Nam, nhu cu v vic trin khai h
thng qun l NML ngy cng tr nn cp
thit v c trin khai ng dng nhiu
ni, ch yu l da trn cc h thng c sn.
Chng hn, i hc Nng xy dng v
trin khai h thng qun l ng nhp tp
trung, c cng b trong cng trnh [6]. Tuy
nhin, cng trnh ny cng mi ch yu tp
trung gii thiu tng quan v NML, gii
thiu m hnh h thng tng quan v cc kt
qu trin khai ng dng, cha ch ra c cc
cng ngh c ng dng cng nh cch thc
ng dng cc cng ngh, k thut khc nhau
xy dng h thng ngoi thng tin v giao
thc LDAP.
Nghin cu ny ch r kin trc ca h thng,
c th cch thc ng dng cng ngh dch v
web [7, 8] cng vi k thut chia s cookie
gia cc ng dng web xy dng h thng
NML. Vic phn chia r rng gia qun l
xc thc v qun l phn quyn cng l yu
cu ph bin, nghin cu ch quan n kha
cnh qun l xc thc ngi dng.
XY DNG H THNG NML
Cc cng ngh c s dng
Dch v web
Dch v web (web service) l mt tp cc
chun c t m rng kh nng ca cc chun
c sn nh XML, URL v HTTP nhm cung
cp chun truyn thng gia cc h thng vi
nhau. Dch v web cung cp cc phng thc
gip ng dng ti my khch truy cp v s
dng cc dch v nh l mt ng dng web
thc s. V bn cht, dch v web da trn
XML v HTTP, trong XML lm nhim v
m ha v gii m d liu v dng SOAP

Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

truyn ti d liu. Mt c trng quan trng


ca dch v web l khng ph thuc vo
nn tng cng ngh no, iu ny c tc
gi ng dng truyn d liu gia cc ng
dng khc nhau.
Trong h thng NML c tc gi xy
dng, dch v web ng vai tr trung tm ca
vic x l ng nhp v qun l d liu ti
khon ngi dng. Nhm m bo cc yu
cu t ra, h thng NML cn cung cp cc
dch v c bn nh: i) Dch v LogOn cung
cp cc phng thc truy cp thng tin ti
khon ngi dng da trn tn ng nhp v
mt khu; ii) dch v VerifySessionKey dng
xc thc thng tin phin lm vic ca
ngi dng c gi km yu cu ca ng
dng; iii) dch v AutoLogin tr v thng tin
ngi dng da vo thng tin phin lm vic;
iv) dch v LogOut h tr ng xut ngi
dng tt c cc ng dng; v) dch v
ChangePassword gip ngi dng thay i
mt khu. Tt nhin, c th s dng cc
dch v web ny, ngi dng hoc trnh ng
dng triu gi chng phi cung cp thng tin
xc thc quyn s dng.
Cookie v vn truyn d liu gia cc
ng dng
Cookie l mt phn d liu c lu tr trn
trnh duyt ca my khch v tn ti trong mt
khong thi gian nht nh do ng dng web
quy nh. Cookie c trnh duyt t ng gi
theo mi khi truy cp n my ch web.
Cookie ca cc ng dng khc nhau s khc
nhau. Vic ly thng tin cookie t mt ng
dng web khc l rt kh khn, nht l khi hai
ng dng khc tn min (domain). Trong
nghin cu ny, tc gi tin hnh to
cookie theo cch thay i ng dn mc
nh cookie c to ra c th dng chung
cho cc ng dng c nhu cu. y chnh l c
s quan trng cho vic xy dng h thng
NML cho nhiu ng dng vi tn min
khc nhau.
SSL v kt ni HTTPS
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) l cng ngh bo
mt tiu chun thit lp mt kt ni

122(08): 27 - 33

c m ha gia mt my ch v mt my
khch [9]. Thng thng, d liu c truyn
qua li gia my khch v my ch di dng
khng c m ha, d liu c truyn ti
gia hai nt mng c th c c v hiu
c bi mt bn th ba quan st nt trung
gian. Nu d liu c truyn qua knh SSL,
n s c m ho v bn th ba nm nt
trung gian s khng th hiu c ni dung
thng ip.
HTTPS l giao thc HTTP trn nn SSL/TSL.
Tt c dch v ca h thng NML c xy
dng trong phm vi nghin cu c yu cu
s dng SSL. Mi kt ni t my khch n
h thng NML u c thit lp bng giao
thc HTTPS. Vic m ho v gii m c
thc hin theo chng ch s SSL. Nu chng
ch c cp bi mt t chc c uy tn v
c chp nhn rng ri trn th gii, chng
ch s c trnh duyt web cng nh cc ng
dng t ng chp nhn. Nu chng ch SSL
c to ra bi cc c nhn hoc t chc cha
c cng nhn rng ri trn th gii, ngi
dng phi thc hin thao tc xc nhn chng
ch s ny khi duyt web. Tuy nhin, vi ng
dng web truy cp n dch v web, cn phi
lp trnh x l mc nh n lun lun t
ng xc nhn chng ch SSL ca my ch
dch v web m khng ch i vo thao tc
th cng ca con ngi.
Thit k h thng
M hnh xc thc ngi dng
H thng NML dng mt chui k t c
sinh ra ngu nhin v khng trng nhau gia
cc phin lm vic ca ngi dng, gi l
SessionKey, nhn bit phin lm vic ca
ngi dng. Khi ngi dng truy cp vo cc
trang c yu cu xc thc, ng dng s gi
cc dch v ca h thng NML. Trong
trng hp SessionKey khng tn ti, hoc
khng hp l, ng dng s chuyn ngi
dng n trang ng nhp. Vy, c xc
thc, ngi dng cn phi c ti khon v mt
khu hp l hoc l SessionKey hp l. Hnh
1 m t qu trnh xc thc ngi dng.
29

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh v tg

ng dng
domain1.udn.vn

Browser

H thng SSO
sso.udn.vn

122(08): 27 - 33
H thng Qun l ngi dng
UserManager

Gi thng tin ng nhp


Gi dch v kim tra
thng tin ng nhp

Kim tra ti khon vi


thng tin ng nhp

[ti khon khng tn ti]


Thng bo
ng nhp khng thnh cng
[ti khon tn ti]
To SessionKey
Lu SessionKey vo
c s d liu

Lu SessionKey vo cookie
ca trnh duyt

Yu cu SessionKey
Gi SessionKey thng qua cookie

[Tn ti SessionKey]
Gi dch v
xc thc SessionKey

Kim tra ti khon vi


gi tr SessionKey
[SessionKey khng tn ti]

Chuyn n trang ng nhp

Xa cookie
[SessionKey tn ti]
Gi dch v ly thng tin ngi dng

Chuyn v trang ngi dng yu cu

To phin lm vic cho


ngi dng

Cp nht thi hn SessionKey


ca phin lm vic
Tm kim ngi dng
vi SessionKey

Hnh 1: S m t qu trnh xc thc ngi dng

Ban u, trnh duyt khng c bt k cookie


no dng cho vic xc thc vi dch v
NML. V vy, khi ngi dng truy cp vo
trang web c yu cu xc thc bt k h
thng domain1.udn.vn hoc domain2.udn.vn
u c yu cu nhp thng tin ngi dng
ti trang ng nhp ca mi h thng. Mt khi
ngi dng ng nhp thnh cng vo h
thng, cookie cha thng tin xc thc cho
ngi dng s c to v c gi n trnh
duyt web.
By gi, nu ngi dng truy cp vo bt c
h
thng
domain1.udn.vn
hoc
domain2.udn.vn, trnh duyt s gi cookie
xc thc n ng dng web. Cc ng dng
web s nhn cookie v gi SessionKey n h
thng sso.udn.vn. N s kim tra v gi thng
tin ngi dng v cho ng dng web yu cu,
30

gia hn thi gian cho phin lm vic nu


SessionKey hp l. ng dng web s cp
nht v gi cookie mi cho trnh duyt web
n gi n my ch web trong ln truy cp
sau ca ngi dng.
M hnh ng xut mt ln (Single Sign Out).
kt thc phin lm vic, ngi dng cn
yu cu chc nng ng xut t mt h thng
bt k. Dch v NML s c gi hy
SessionKey v xa phin lm vic ca ngi
dng. Hnh 2 m t chc nng ng xut mt
ln. Ngi dng khi ng xut ti mt h
thng bt k th cc h thng khc cng t
ng hy phin lm vic ca ngi dng. Lc
ny, mi thng tin ng nhp ca s b xa,
ngi dng s phi ng nhp li bt u
phin lm vic mi.

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh v tg

Trnh duyt
Browser

ng dng
domain1.udn.vn

H thng SSO
sso.udn.vn

122(08): 27 - 33

H thng Qun l ngi dng


UserManager

Yu cu ng xut
Ly gi tr SessionKey

Gi SessionKey
thng qua cookie
Kim tra
SessionKey
[Tn ti SessionKey]
Gi yu cu ng xut

Xa SessionKey
trn trnh duyt

Xa SessionKey trong
CSDL

Chuyn n trang ng nhp

Hnh 2: M hnh ng xut mt ln

ng dng
asp.udn.vn

H thng
SSO
sso.udn.vn

IP: 192.168.20.9

IP: 192.168.8.30

IP: 192.168.7.10
ng dng
php1.udn.vn
php2.udn.vn
IP: 192.168.3.3

Hnh 3: S th nghim h thng NML

CI T TH NGHIM V NH GI
KT QU
H thng NML c xy dng trong phm
vi nghin cu c trin khai ng dng
thnh cng ti Trng i hc Kinh t - i
hc Nng t thng 5/2013 cho cc ng
dng web trn cc my ch web ring bit,
l cc website c xy dng da trn nn
tng Apache/PHP tapchikhkt.due.udn.vn,
hoithao.due.udn.vn v kh.due.udn.vn v ti
Trng i hc S phm i hc Nng
t thng 11/2013 cho cc website
scv.ued.udn.vn,
conf.ued.udn.vn
v
jse.ued.udn.vn. kim tra kh nng thch
ng vi cc nn tng lp trnh khc nhau, cc
tc gi xy dng, th nghim kt hp

thnh cng mt ng dng trn nn tng .NET.


S cc ng dng th nghim h thng nh
hnh 3. ng dng .NET gm hai trang chnh:
Trang ng nhp v trang hin th thng tin
ngi dng. Kch bn th nghim c m t
nh sau: Khi truy cp vo trang hin th thng
tin ngi dng, nu cha ng nhp th s
chuyn v trang ng nhp. Nu ngi dng
ng nhp th s c chuyn t ng n
trang thng tin ngi dng. Sau , ngi
dng c th truy cp cc ng dng cn li
m khng cn ng nhp.
H thng NML c xy dng hon
chnh cc chc nng v gii quyt cc vn
xc thc ngi dng tp trung v NML cho
cc ng dng. Ngoi ra, h thng cn m
31

Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

bo c tnh bo mt trong qu trnh truyn


d liu gia NML v cc ng dng.
H thng NML do cc tc gi xut v c
bn gii quyt c cc hn ch m cc h
thng NML hin c. Cc dch v do h
thng NML cung cp c th c s dng
trn nhiu nn tng khc nhau vi cc ngn
ng lp trnh nh .NET, Java, PHP, Vic
trin khai h thng NML cng tr nn n
gin bi v mi th c thc hin qua dch
v web. Nh pht trin ch cn triu gi cc
dch v ca NML trong ng dng ca mnh,
vic cn li do NML thc hin.
Trong phm vi bi vit ny, tc gi i su v
gii php my ch NML khng cung cp
giao din ng nhp. Vic ng nhp c
thc hin trn giao din ca cc ng dng
web s dng dch v NML. Tuy nhin, h
thng cng cung cp kh nng cu hnh
vic ng nhp c thc hin ch trn giao
din ca my ch NML bng cch chuyn
ngi dng n giao din ng nhp trn my
ch NML. Vi cu hnh ny, cc ng dng
web s dng dch v s khng c c mt
khu ca ngi dng. Trong mi trng hp,
my ch NML ch qun l v vic xc thc
ngi dng. Cc ng dng t qun l v vic
phn quyn s dng h thng ca mnh.
KT LUN
Trong phm vi nghin cu, tc gi xy
dng h thng NML hon ton c lp vi
cc h thng v cc cng b trc y bng
ngn ng PHP v dch v web. H thng
cung cp cc dch v xc thc ngi dng v
NML cho nhiu ng dng trong cng mt t
chc. Tc gi cng xy dng thnh cng
gii php da trn vic s dng dch v web
v chia s cookie gia cc ng dng web khc
nhau c xy dng trn cc nn tng khc
nhau, cng nh xy dng thnh cng h thng
qun l NML v trin khai ng dng thnh
cng trn nhiu ng dng web ti Trng i

32

122(08): 27 - 33

hc Kinh t - i hc Nng t thng


5/2013 v Trng i hc Kinh t - i hc
Nng t thng 11/2013. H thng hot
ng hon ton c lp vi nn tng cng
ngh dung xy dng cc ng dng. Tuy
nhin, tc gi cha thc hin nghin cu so
snh gia h thng xy dng c vi cc h
thng khc v mt hiu nng.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Chris Waynforth, Definition single sign-on
(SSO), Information Security Magazine Online,
<http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/si
ngle-sign-on> (truy cp ngy 11/2/2014).
2. H Vn Hng, o Th Ngc, ng dng h
thng kim sot truy nhp mng theo m hnh truy
nhp mt ln, Tp ch An ton thng tin,
<http://antoanthongtin.vn/Detail.aspx?
CatID=8ab90f49-a562-4157-a607d2474bf129a9&NewsID =1caffb79-e759-485591fc-76840dfc 5424> (truy cp ngy 11/2/2014)..
3. Trn Nghi Ph, C ch Single Sign On phn
2,
<http://tacchienmang.blogspot.
com/2013/06/portal-co-che-single-sign-on2.html> (truy cp ngy 11/2/2014)..
4. Dch v v gii php chng thc mt ln
Oracle
Single
Sign
On
(SSO),
http://www.vietpace.com/oracle_dichvu_xacthuc_
sso.html (truy cp ngy 11/2/2014).
5. Oracle Corporation, Oracle Enterprise Single
Sign-on Technical Guide, USA, June 2009.
6. Mai Trn Trung Hiu*, Trnh Cng Duy, H
Phan Hiu, Nghin cu kin trc v xy dng h
thng chng thc tp trung cho i hc
Nng, Tp ch Khoa hc v Cng ngh i hc
Nng, s 1(74).2014.
7. Robert Daigneau, Service Design Patterns:
Fundamental Design Solutions for SOAP/WSDL
and RESTful Web Services, Pearson Education,
2012.
8. V Trung Hng, Nguyn Th Qunh Lm,
Nghin cu ng dng web service xy dng h
thng
mt
ca
in
t,
http://tailieuso.udn.vn/handle/TTHL_125/2878
(truy cp ngy 11/03/2014).
9. Hng Phc, Nguyn Ngc Tun, Cng ngh
bo mt, Nh xut bn Thng k, 2005.

Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 27 - 33

SUMMARY
BUILDING A SYSTEM FOR SINGLE SIGN ON
BASED ON THE WEB SERVICE
Nguyen Tran Quoc Vinh1*, Nguyen Van Vuong2
1College

of Education Da Nang University,


of Economy Da Nang University

2College

There is an increasing trend around the world that one organization owns and operates several
websites. However, it often leads to problem that a user needs to remember multiple login
accounts and passwords to log into different sites within the same organization due to database
existing independently from each other. Thus, one single sign-on to websites within the same
organization is commonly requested. Within the scope of the article, the authors propose solutions
and building system of single sign-on services based that provide services of user authentication
based on concentrated user database. The system is built based on the exploitation of the
independence of the foundation of web services, the ability to share cookies between browsers and
web applications. The paper also conducts application testing for the sign-on system that has
already been built.
Key words: User authentication; single sign on; website; cookie; web service.

Ngy nhn bi:30/5/2014; Ngy phn bin:12/6/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. Hunh Cng Php i hc Nng
*

Tel: 0914 780898, Email: ntquocvinh@gmail.com

33

Nguyn Trn Quc Vinh v tg

34

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 27 - 33

Hn Th Thy Hng v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 35 - 38

XC NH HM TNG QUAN D BO CH S NN LN T MT S CH
TIU C L CA T DNH KHU VC THI NGUYN
Hn Th Thy Hng*
Trng i hc K thut cng nghip - H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Bi bo so snh gia mt s hm tng quan d bo ch s nn (C c) t cc ch tiu c l nh gii
hn chy (wL), h s rng ban u (e0) v m ban u (wn) trn c s b d liu th nghim ca
200 mu t dnh khu vc Thi Nguyn. Kt qu cho thy cc hm d bo ch s nn (C c) t gii
hn chy (wL) cho nn t Thi Nguyn c chnh xc thp. Hai hm tng quan d bo ch s
nn (Cc) t m ban u (wn) ca t c chnh xc cao nht l: Azzouz v cng s (1976), v
Yoon & cng s (2004). ng thi vi vic nh gi s ph hp ca cc hm tm c vi b s
liu thu thp c, nhm tc gi cn tin hnh phn tch hi quy n bin v xut cc hm d
bo ch s nn Cc gia s liu d bo v th nghim l kh cao (R2 = 0,61% n 85%).
T kha: t Thi Nguyn, gii hn chy, m ban u, h s rng ban u, hm tng quan
d bo ch s nn

T VN *
i vi nn mng cng trnh, cc nhn t a
cht ng vai tr quyt nh trong nhiu vn
ln t vic xc nh tnh kh thi n gi
thnh cng trnh.Trong cng tc kho st a
cht cng trnh th cng tc th nghim
thng mt nhiu thi gian v tn km chi
ph. Do vy, vic s dng nhng ch tiu c l
c th xc nh c mt cch d dng d
bo cc ch tiu nn ln ca t l mt vic
ht sc cn thit [3, 9]. Ch s nn Cc c
cp trong rt nhiu tiu chun, quy phm ca
Vit Nam v th gii nh l nhng ch tiu c
bn nht dng trong tnh ton ln ca nn
mng cng trnh. V vy, vic nh gi v xy
dng cc hm dng d bo cc ch s nn
ln ca t t cc ch tiu c l c bn c
ngha v cng quan trng.

nh gi tin cy ca mt s hm d bo
ch s nn c s dng rng ri trn th gii
i vi t nn Thi Nguyn. Bn cnh vic
kim nghim cc hm tng quan c, bi
bo xut cc hm d bo da trn phng
php hi quy tuyn tnh n v a bin cho
ph hp vi t dnh khu vc Thi Nguyn.
HM TNG QUAN D BO CH S
NN LN CC CA T DNH.
Hin nay, trn th gii c rt nhiu hm tng
quan dng d bo ch s nn Cc t e0, WL
thng qua vic phn tch hi quy n bin.

i vi t dnh, m ban u (wn) v h s


rng ban u (e0) c nh hng rt ln n
tnh cht ca t, c bit l trng thi t.
Bn cnh , rt nhiu nghin cu cng cho
thy ch s nn ca t ph thuc vo gii
hn chy (WL) v gii hn do (Wd) ca t
[1;2;4;5;6;8].
Trong bi bo ny, nhm tc gi tin hnh
th nghim kt hp vi thu thp s liu
*

Tel: 0987 615167,Email: hanthuyhang@gmail.com

Hnh 1. Biu d bo ch s nn (Cc) t gii hn


chy (WL)

35

Hn Th Thy Hng v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 35 - 38

nh gi s tng quan: H s tng quan


mu R l i lng bin thin t -1 n +1
c nh gia theo Kalomexki nh sau:
Nu 0< R 0,5mc tng quan rt yu.
Nu 0,5 < R 0,7mc tng quan yu.
Nu 0,7 < R 0,9mc tng quan cht.
Nu 0,9< R 1mc tng quan rt cht.
KIM NGHIM CC M HNH C CHO
S LIU A CHT TI THI NGUYN
Kt qu nh gi cc m hnh d bo ch s
nn Cc t wL,e0, wn da trn b s liu th
nghim [3,9].
D bo ch s nn Cc t WL:
Hnh 2. Biu d bo ch s nn (Cc) t h s
rng ban u (e0)

Kt qu cho thy m hnh Yoon & cng s


(2004) c h s tng quan cao nht ng vi
tng quan R2 = 0,41. Vi tng quan ni
trn cho thy nhng m hnh c xut
trong hnh 1 l khng ph hp vi nn t ti
khu vc Thi Nguyn.
Bng 2. So snh gia ch s nn Cc d bo t WL
v s liu th nghim
Tc gi

Hnh 3. Biu d bo ch s nn (Cc) t m


ban u (wn)
Bng 1. Mt s m hnh d bo ch s nn (Cc) t
nhiu ch tiu (wn);(e0);( wL)
Tc gi

Cng thc

Azzouz v cng Cc = 0,37(e0 +


s (1976)
0,003WL + 0,0004
w0 0,34)
Koppula (1986) Cc = 0,009 w0 +
0,005WL
Yoon v cng s Cc = 0,0038 w0 +
0,12 e0 + 0,0065 WL
(2004)

0,248

36

Ghi ch
Tt c t
st
Tt c t
st
Ty Hn
Quc

lch
lch
chun
chun tuyt i
%
%

Azzouz (1976)

32,0

45,2

Cozzolino (1961)

13,2

42,5

Skempton (1944)

28,3

43,5

Terzaghi & Peck (1967)

7,2

39,7

Yoon v cng s (2004)

29,7

49,6

Tng
quan R2

Rt thp

0,41

D bo ch s nn Cc t e0:
Kt qu cho thy m hnh Yoon & cng s
(2004) cho kt qu d bo l tt nht vi h
s tng quan gia s liu th nghim v d
bo R2 = 0,69. Nhng m hnh khc cho h s
tng quan l rt thp.
D bo ch s nn Cc t wn:
Kt qu cho thy 2 m hnh: Azzouz v cng
s (1976) v Yoon & cng s (2004) d bo
ch s nn Cc l tt nht vi h s tng quan
gia s liu th nghim v d bo ln lt l
R2 = 0,76 v 0,82. Nhng m hnh khc cho
h s tng quan thp hn nhiu.

Hn Th Thy Hng v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Bng 3. So snh gia ch s nn Cc d bo t e0


v s liu th nghim
Tc gi

lch
lch
chun
chun tuyt i
%
%

Tng
quan R2

122(08): 35 - 38

Bng 5. So snh gia ch s nn Cc d bo t m


hnh a bin v gi tr th nghim
Tc gi

lch
lch
chun
chun tuyt i
%
%

Nishida (1956)

31,7

39,7

Azzouz v cng s (1976) 23, 1

Cozzolino (1961)

35,8

37,8

Koppula (1986)

96,9

Hough (1957)

11,5

30,1

Yoon v cng s (2004)

3.1

Azzouz (1976)

76,7

74,0

Sowers (1970)

70,5

69,5

Yoon v cng s (2004)

13,1

26,5

Rt thp

0,69

Tng
quan R2

28,8
97,5
25,2

Rt thp
0,53

XY DNG M HNH D BO CH S
NN DA TRN B S LIU TH NGHIM
T kt qu trn cho thy cc m hnh d bo
ch s nn Cc u cho tng quan vi s liu
th nghim thc l rt thp ngoi tr cc m
hnh: Azzouz v cng s (1976) v Yoon &
cng s (2004). Trn c s phng php hi
quy tuyn tnh n bin [7], tc gi tin
hnh phn tch hi quy cho b s liu 200
mu th nghim nhm tm ra quan h gia ch
s nn (Cc) vi: wL; e0 v wn. Kt qu ca cc
phn tch hi quy c trnh by trong hnh 4
n 5 v bng 6 di y.

Hnh 4. Quan h gia ch s nn (Cc) v gii hn


chy (wL) cho 200 mu t th nghim
Bng 4. So snh gia ch s nn Cc d bo t wn
v s liu th nghim
Tc gi

lch
lch
chun
chun tuyt i
%
%

Tng
quan R2

Azzouz v cng s (1976) 16,1

26,6

0,76

Herrero (1983)

24,8

30,3

0,51

Moh v cng s (1989)

71,2

72,2

Rt thp

Dayal v cng s (2006) 49,9

52,1

Yoon v cng s (2004)

23,1

11,9

Hnh 5. Quan h gia ch s nn (Cc) v h s


rng ban u e0 cho 200 mu t th nghim

0,82

D bo ch s nn Cc bng m hnh a
bin t wL, e0 , wn:
Kt qu cho thy c 4 m hnh u d bo ra
cc ch s nn Cc c mi tng quan vi gi
tr thc l rt thp (cha n 60%). Do vy,
nhng m hnh ny l khng ph hp vi nn
t khu vc Thi Nguyn.

Hnh 6. Quan h gia ch s nn (Cc) v m


ban u (wn) cho 200 mu t th nghim

37

Hn Th Thy Hng v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Bng 6. Bng xut hm d bo ch s nn Cc


trn c s phn tch hi quy 200 mu t
Tng
quan R2
Phng trnh d bo
Cc = 0,015 wL 0,298
Cc = 0,462 e0 0,2
Cc = 0,0109 wn 0,163

0,61
0,87
0,85

KT LUN
Qua phn tch v so snh gia s liu d bo
ch s nn C c t cc m hnh v s liu th
nghim thu thp c, nhm tc gi c mt
vi kt lun sau:
- Hu ht cc m hnh d bo ch s nn C c
qua gii hn chy wL m nhm tc gi tm
c l khng ph hp vi b s liu a cht
thu c ca khu vc Thi Nguyn.
- Trong nhng m hnh d bo Cc t h s
rng ban u (e0) v m ban u (wn) th
c 2 m hnh: Azzouz v cng s (1976) v
Yoon & cng s (2004) c h s tng quan
(R2) gia s liu d bo v s liu th nghim
l kh tt ln hn 0,6.
- Nhm tc gi s dng phng php hi
quy n bin xy dng c 3 hm d bo
ch s nn Cc vi tng quan R2 gia s liu
th nghim v s liu d bo u trn 0,6. Vi
kt qu nh vy nhm tc gi xut nn

122(08): 35 - 38

dng 3 hm trn d bo ch s nn cho t


khu vc Thi Nguyn.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1.Azzouz, A., R.J.Krizek, and R.B.Corotis (1976),
Regression Analysis of Soil Compressibility, Soils
Found. Tokyo.
2.Cozzolino VM (1961), Statistical forecasting of
compression index, In: Proceedings of the 5th
International Conference on Soil Mechanics and
Foundation Engineering Paris .
3. Cng ty t vn Xy dng Thi nguyn, 2012,
Cc bo co kho st a cht cng trnh xy dng.
4. Dng Dip Thy, Phm Quang Hng (2012),
Tng quan gia ch s nn v mt s ch tiu
vt l ca t dnh mt vi khu vc H Ni,
Tp ch khoa hc v cng ngh xy dng 2012.
5. Gil Lim Yoon, Byung Tak Kim and Sang Soo
Jeon (2004),
Empirical
Correlations
of
Compression Index for Marine Clay from Regression
Analysis, Canadian Geotechnical Journal.
6.Herrero OR (1983), Universal compression
index equation; Discussion. J. Geotech. Eng.
7.Schneider A, Hommel G, Blettner M (2010).
Linear regression analysis: part 14 of a eries on
evaluation of scientific publications.
8. Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R. B. (1967). Soil
Mechanics in Engineering Practice, 2nd ed.,
Wiley, New York.
9. Trung tm Kim nh cht lng Xy dng
Thi Nguyn, 2011, Cc bo co kho st a cht
cng trnh xy dng.

SUMMARY
ESTABLISHING THE COMPATIBLY PREDICTABLE FUNCTIONS OF
COMPRESSION INDEX FROM PHYSICAL MACHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
SOIL IN THAI NGUYEN
Han Thi Thuy Hang*
College of Technology TNU

The paper presents a comparison between some published models for predirection of compression
index (Cc) from some soil physical properties such as liquid limit (w L), initial void ratio (e0) and
initial water content (wn) based on the test results of 200 soil samples in Thai Nguyen city. The
comparison shows that the models for prediction of compression index (C c) from liquid limit (wL)
do not work well for soils in Thai Nguyen city. The three best models for prediction of (Cc) from
initial water content (wn) are: Azzouz (1976) v Yoon (2004). Concurrently, the verification of the
models, the author did both single and multiple regression analyses to propose several equations
for prediction of virgin and recompression indices with quite high relations (R2 = 0,61 to 0,85).
Keywords: soils in Thai Nguyen, liquid limit, initial void ratio, initial water content, models for
prediction of compression index
Ngy nhn bi:15/4/2014; Ngy phn bin:29/4/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: ThS. Li Ngc Hng Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip - HTN
*

Tel: 0987 615167,Email: hanthuyhang@gmail.com

38

Trn Duy Trinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 39 - 46

GIM THIU NH HNG CA LM IN P TRONG H THNG IN


CNG NGHIP BNG B KHI PHC IN P NG DVR
Trn Duy Trinh1, Trn Trng Minh1,
Nguyn Vn Lin1, Ng c Minh2*
2Trng

1Trng H Bch khoa H Ni


i hc K thut Cng nghip H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Trong vn hnh, mt s li in thng xuyn xy hin tng Lm in p lm xu cht lng
in p mt cch nghim trng, c bit i vi nhng x nghip cng nghip c th gy nn gin
on lm vic ca mt s my cng xut ln hay nhng trung tm iu khin c s dng thit b
in t. khc phc lm in p tc gi xut gii php ng dng thit b b in p ng
(DVR) c xy dng trn c s b bin i in t cng sut vi h iu khin nhm m bo
tc ng chnh xc vi ng hc cao. Ni dung bi bo gm: Tnh ton thit k DVR p dng cho
nhng ph ti quan trng m bo lm vic n nh trc cc tc ng ca lm in p. Thit k
mt DVR cho h truyn ng cng sut ln 1975 kW ca nh my xi mng Hong Mai-VN. M
hnh ha m phng hot ng ca DVR trong li in 6,3kV. nh gi kt qu v bn lun.
T kha: Gim thiu lm in p; lm in p; DVR; B khi phc in p ng; Lm in p

LM IN P V NH HNG CA N
TRONG MI TRNG CNG NGHIP *
Lm in p l hin tng suy gim, mt cn
bng in p, nhy gc pha hoc qu in
p, gin on ngun in trong ngn hn. Dng
sng ca lm in p th hin trn hnh 1.a.
Theo kt qu kho st [1,3], th hin trn hnh
1.b, lm in p c t l xy ra cao nht vi
31% trong s cc bin c in p trn li in.

nh my ln ti Vit nam vi cng sut 4000


tn klinker/ngy, thit b gim st t ti
thanh ci trm 110kV ca nh my ghi li
nhiu dng bin c in p, nhng ni bt c
ba dng trc tip gy ngng hot ng ca
cc thit b, l:
- Thay i in p trn li.
- Dao ng v mo dng in p ti thi im
ng hoc ct h thng t b ti Trm 220kV
Nghi Sn Thanh Ha.
- Lm in p.
Mt bn ghi s c lm in p dn ti phi
ngng my c th hin trn hnh 2.

Hnh 1: a) Lm in p ba pha; b)T l phn trm


bin c in p

Nguyn nhn dn n lm in p l cc s
c ngn mch trong h thng in, suy gim
in p do cc ng c cng sut ln khi
ng, hoc cc tc ng do ng ct my bin
p hoc ng ct cc h thng t b v c th
do cc li vn hnh t xa,[2].
Trong mi trng cng nghip cc bin c v
in p xy ra kh thng xuyn. Ti nh
my Xi mng Hong Mai, mt trong nhng
*

Tel: 0982 286428

110,55kV

85,8kV

Hnh 2: Lm in p ghi nhn trn thanh ci


110kV ngy 2/10/2010 lm dng cc thit b trong
nh my. in p dao ng t 110,55kV xung
85,8kV, chnh lch in p 24,75kV

gim thiu cc bin c in p ti nh my


xi mng Hong Mai c th ra cc gii php
nh sau:
39

Trn Duy Trinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 39 - 46

- Yu cu Tng Cng ty Truyn ti nng cng


sut ca trm ngun 220kV Thanh Ha.

c huy ng bi thit b trong khi gim


thiu lm in p bng,[1,5].

- Thay i h thng t b qu trnh iu


khin ng vo hoc ct t in trn li qua
cc cp nh hn, trnh s thay i in p t
ngt v dao ng in p trn li.
- Vn hnh h thng hp l v gim thiu cc
li trn h thng in.

S inj U inj I l (U l U g .sag ) I i* (1 U g .sag e j )

C th thy rng nhng gii php trn y c


ngha k thut r rng nhng li khng th
thc hin c v cng rt tn km. Gii
php kh thi hn chnh l s dng b b lm
in p ng DVR.
GIM THIU LM IN P BNG DVR
DVR l h thng b in p ni tip nh th
hin trong hnh 3 trong DVR l ngun p
vi ln, gc pha v tn s iu chnh c,
ug l in p li, uinj l in p thm vo t
DVR, v uL l in p trn ti,[5].

(1)

cos j sin (U g .sag cos( ) jU g .sag sin( )

Cng sut hp th bi ti cho bi,[1,5]:


S load Pload jQload U l I l* e j cos j sin

(2)

Cng sut tc dng v cng sut phn khng


c bm vo tnh theo n v pu,[1,5].
U g .sag cos( )
Pinj 1
Pload
cos

U g .sag sin( )
Qinj 1
Qload
sin

(3)
(4)

Nh vy DVR phi b c cng sut tc


dng v cng sut phn khng, khc vi cc
b b khc nh SVC (Static Var
Compensation), ch b cng sut phn khng.
Cu hnh v ch lm vic ca DVR
Cu trc ca DVR c th hin trn hnh 5,
bao gm cc thnh phn chnh sau y,[8]:
- My bin p ni tip (MBA_NT), cch ly
gia DVR v li, phi hp mc in p.

Hnh 3. S m t nguyn tc hot ng ca DVR

th vector trn hnh 4 th hin yu cu i


vi in p cn to ra bi DVR b vo lm
in p, Il l dng in ti, l gc lch pha
gia in p ti v dng in ti.
Gi s, mt lm in p xy ra vi ln v
mt gc nhy pha c xc nh, biu th
bng vector ug,sag. Khi , duy tr
ln ca in p ti v ngn chn nhy pha,
DVR s tnh ton to ra mt vector in p
uinj vi ln, gc pha c xc nh v thm
vo li. Theo th vector, in p trn ti
khi s l: uL=ug,sag + uinj,[5].

Hnh 4. Nguyn l b lm ca DVR.

T s trn hnh 3, khi phc c ln


v gc pha ca in p ti nh iu kin trc
li. Gi s in p v dng in ti trong iu
kin trc khi li c hai bng 1pu, cng sut
40

- B lc tn s chuyn mch (Lf,Cf), gim nh


hng ca qu trnh ng ct van do iu ch
PWM, ci thin dng sng in p thm vo
ca DVR.
- B bin i (VSC): l b nghch lu ngun
p ba pha dng IGBT iu ch PWM.
- DC-link v b lu tr nng lng: C kh
nng lu tr nng lng v kt ni vi VSC
c th to ra in p xoay chiu cn thit
b cho mt bin c lm in p khi n xy ra.
- Thit b by-pass: Bo v cho cc li qu ti
ca DVR, thng dng thyristor.
- Thit b ngt kt ni: ng ct c kh
cch ly hon ton DVR nhng vn cp in
cho ti hoc khi c cc trng hp khn cp
cn phi ngt mch m bo an ton cho
h thng DVR.
Cc ch hot ng ca DVR:
- Ch Bypass: DVR c ni tt bng
kho c kh hoc in t, khi c dng ti cao
hoc dng ngn mch pha ti. Trong ch
ny DVR phi c cch ly khi li.

Trn Duy Trinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

- Ch ch (Standby mode): Ngun in p


cung cp mc nh mc v DVR sn
sng b cho mt lm in p.
- Ch hot ng tch cc: Khi lm in p
c pht hin DVR ngay lp tc thc hin
chn vo in p thiu. y l ch hot
ng chnh.

122(08): 39 - 46

U DVR
(7)
100%
U sup ply,m
Kh nng chn in p nn c la chn
thp hn mc cn thit gim tn tht, trong
cc tn tht trong DVR gm tn tht trong
bin p, b lc v b bin i.
+ Kh nng iu chnh dng in ca DVR
c xc nh bi h s chn dng in:
I
(8)
iDVR,% DVR 100%
I load,m
Tiu hao nng lng cho mt lm in p i
xng trong trng hp mt ti i xng c
th c tnh qua h s huy ng tiu hao
nng lng,[5]:
EDVR,% 3 U sup ply, Pr e U sag I load cos(load ).tsag (9)
U DVR,%

trong , tsag l thi gian tn ti lm, Usag l


in p ngun trong khi lm, Usupply,Pre l in
p ngun trc khi lm, IDVR-dng in DVR.
Hnh 5: S cu trc mt pha gm cc thnh
phn chnh ca DVR

Xc nh cng sut ca DVR


V tr ca DVR
Ty theo cng sut v h thng cp ngun
cho ph ti, c th chn v tr lp t DVR
bn pha cao p, thng l trung th MV,
hoc pha h p LV. Tuy nhin do cc van
bn dn xy dng ch yu trn IGBT vi in
p ng ct thp v in p chn vo gia
ngun v ti phi thng qua bin p cch ly
nn c th gi thit phn b bin i ca DVR
lun nm bn pha h th.
Cng sut ca DVR.
Xc nh cng sut ca DVR thng qua h s
suy gim in p,[5]:
(5)
U
UT
rated
U rated
T h s suy gim in p (5) cng sut ca
DVR c xc nh,[5]:
SDVR = SVSC = Uinj.Iinj = SLoad
(6)
Cc tham s thit k chnh cho DVR
Cc tham s thit k chnh bao gm: kh
nng chn in p, kh nng iu chnh dng
v kch c ca b lu tr nng lng.
+ Kh nng chn in p c th c th hin
qua h s chn in p,[5]:

THIT K CC THNH PHN DVR


Thit k my bin p b
+ Xc nh in p danh nh pha s cp.
Do DVR phi b c hon ton phn in
p b st gim nn in p chn vo li l ln
nht c xc nh da trn h s gim su
tng i cc i, c th c xc nh trc
thng qua h s suy gim c la chn.
Trong trng hp p dng phng php b
''Pre-sag'', gi tr danh nh cc i c xc
nh bi cng thc,[1,5]:
(10)
U dm1 U L2 (1 D) 2 U s2 2U L' (1 D)U s cos
D

(11)

US
U sag

trong , Us l in p ngun danh nh, U'L


l in p m h thng DVR s n nh trn
ti (thng thng l bng in p danh nh
trn ti), D l su lm cc i, cos l h
s cng sut ti.
+ Xc nh dng in danh nh pha s
cp bin p ni tip.
Dng danh nh qua cun dy s cp l ton
b dng ti, ILdm. Nu b lc tn s chuyn
mch t pha li, dng danh nh phi tng
thm cc thnh phn hi bc cao ca dng
in b bin i,[1].
M

2
I dm1 I Ldm
I L2 max, ( h)

(12)

n l

41

Trn Duy Trinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

trong , ILdm l dng in ti danh nh hi


c bn, ILmax(h) l thnh phn cc i h trong
ph dng in ti.
+ Cng sut danh nh ca bin p.
(13)
S dm1 k qtU dm1 I dm1
trong , kqt l h s qu ti chp nhn c.
+ H s ca bin p.
Tham s ny c th c xc nh theo kh
nng chn vo ca VSC v mc mong mun
chn vo h thng. T l ny c th c xc
nh theo:
U
U
(14)
n dm1 DVR
U dm2 U conv
+ Tr khng ngn mch my bin p.
Tr khng MBA c nh hng trc ht n
st p gy ra bi dng in li chy qua my
bin p. Gi tr ny cng ph thuc vo cc
tham s ca b lc tn s chuyn mch. Nu
b lc LfCf t pha b bin i (pha cun
th cp bin p) gi tr gim in p mt
chiu Ud cho php c tha mn khi ,[1,7]:
Lf
U d
2
(15)
Rnm
2 ( Lnm
)2
2
I dm1
1 Lf C f
trong , Rnm, Lnm l cc tham s ngn mch
ca bin p. Tng in tr v in cm cun
s cp v th cp Rnm = Rnm1+ Rnm2, Lnm =
Lnm1+Lnm2. Khi s dng b lc LfCf pha li
(pha s cp bin p) t in Cf mc song
song vi h thng ni tip v nh hng ca
n ti in p ngun c th b qua. iu kin
gim in p mt chiu cho php c n
gin nh sau,[9]:
2
Rnm
2 L2nm

U d
I dm1

Thit k b bin i
Hnh 6 m t mt pha ca VSC vi mt b
lc LC v bin p b,[6].
+ in p ra ca b bin i xc nh tng
ng khi xt vi hi bc 1:
4U DC
sin t U1m sin

(17)

4U DC
(18)
2
+ Cc dng in i qua b chuyn i l tng
ca cc sng dng in to ra bi cc chuyn

+ in p RMS ti a l: U conv

42

mch, dng t ha ca my bin p v ti


dng in ,[6].

Hnh 6: S tng ng mt pha i vi


DVR s dng BB na cu.

iVSC iCf (t ) imagnitization (t ) niL (t )

(19)

+ Dng in trung bnh qua cc van:

I1m
(1 cos )d
2

(20)

1
I
1
ID
I m sin( )d 1m (1 cos )d

2
2

(21)

ITr

1
2

sin( )d

trong , l gc pha ti, U1m, I1m in p,


dng in cc i ca hi bc 1, U DC-in p
pha mt chiu
Thit k b lc LC
Thit k b lc LC cho in p u ra ca
DVR c xem xt ti [9]. Gi s b lc
LC pha b bin i, dn n s tng
ng mt pha ca h thng c s dng
tnh chn tham s b lc cho trn hnh 7,[9].

(16)

trong tt c cc thng s c nh ngha


nh cc cng thc trn.

U conv (t )

122(08): 39 - 46

Hnh 7: S tng ng chn cc phn t


b lc LC pha b bin i.

Trn s b bin i c biu din nh


ngun in p dng xung Uinv, cn m hnh
ti c m t dng ni tip vi hai thnh
phn in tr v in cm RL, LL. in cm
li Ls c th lu cng thm n vi in
cm ti LL. Nhim v ca t in l to iu
kin thot i vi cc hi cao tn, tc l phi
tha mn iu kin:
Z 0,( nmin ) K f Z c ,( nmin )

(22)

Trn Duy Trinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

trong Zo,(n) l tr khng ca ti i vi


thnh phn n, cn Zc,(n) l tr khng t in
bng j/(n (1)Cf). H s Kf>> 1 tng ng
t s tr khng b lc v h thng i vi
thnh phn nmin, trong nmin l bc thnh
phn hi bc thp nht suy hao bi b lc. H
s ny trc tip lin quan n cc thng s
cng sut ca b bin i cng vi nh hng
ca ti. Gi tr ca n c th xc nh ty
chn v theo [9] c th cho Kf xp x 300.
H s truyn t i vi thnh phn hi bc n
c m t bi cng thc,[9]:
K (n)

U inj,( n )
U conv,( n )

1
L f C f 1
2
(n)

(23)

Bit gi tr cho php cc i nmax, c th xc


nh suy hao KN v tip tnh in cm
Lf t cng thc,[9]:

Lf

1 1/ K N
(n) C f

122(08): 39 - 46

(24)

p dng cng thc (22) n (24) c th a


vn chn cc phn t b lc n vic xc
nh h s Kf v KN. Cc thng s ny c th
chp nhn ty chn nhng chng cng c nh
hng n cc tham s ca h thng DVR
nh cng sut, s suy gim in p i vi
hi c bn v s n nh ca h thng iu
khin. Trong nghin cu [9] c xut th
tc chn cc h s Kf v KN.
V d p dng tnh ton thit k
Th tc tnh ton thit k trong mc 3.3 c
p dng cho thit k DVR bo v cho ph ti
l h truyn ng bin tn cng sut ln 1975
kW ti nh my xi mng Hong Mai. Cc
tham s ca h thng in cung cp v thit
k DVR cho trong bng 1.

Bng 1. Tng hp tham s ca DVR v h thng


Tham s
Gi tr
Tham s ngun: Trm bin pT1_110/6,3kV nh my xi mng Hong Mai
Cng sut ngun cp:
S,m = 25MVA
in p nh mc li:Um1/Um2 =110/6,3 kV
Dng in nh mc: Im1/Im2=131,2/2107,1A
in tr in cm ngun: Rs=0,05;Ls=0,001H
Tham s ti nhy cm: Chnh l tham s ca bin p T2_6,3/0,705kV, cp ngun cho t hp Bin tnng c qut cng ngh 142-FN1-M01
Tham s MBA:----------------------MBA 04-TF.02
Cng sut nh mc:
ST1= 2800kVA
in p nh mc: UT1,cao/UT1,ha=6,3/(0,63)kV
Dng in nh mc: IT1,cao/IT1,ha=257/2570A
Tham s bin tn:----SVTL 2K4 (ITALYA)
Cng sut nh mc:
SINV142= 2400kVA
in p dy nh mc:
UINV142= 0,690kV
Van bn dn IGBT-FF600 R16KF4 600A-1600V
Tham s ng c: ---CT560Y6 (YTALYA)
Cng sut nh mc:
Pdc142= 1975kW
in p dy nh mc:
Udc142= 0,610kV
Dng in ti:
Idc142=2264A
Tc nh mc: ndc142 = 1000v/p;Cosm=0,86
Tham s DVR
Cng sut danh nh:
SDVR=1400kVA
in p nh mc:
UDVR= 3,15kV
Dng in DVR: IDVR = 257A
B Bin i Cng Sut
Cng sut danh nh:
Sconv=1400kVA
in p dy:
Uconv=560V
Dng in dy:
Iconv=2570A
iu ch: iu ch vector khng gian.
Tn s iu ch:
fC = 5kHz

43

Trn Duy Trinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 39 - 46

Tn s chuyn mch:
fsw =5kHz
T in pha mt chiu:
Cdc = 26mF
in p pha mt chiu:
Vdc = 700V
B lc u ra LC
in cm b lc: Lf = 7,109mH
T in b lc:
Cf = 6,942F
Tn s cng hng:
fres = 717,27Hz
Tham s my bin p ni tip
Cng sut nh mc:
Str = 1400kVA
in p dy s cp nh mc:
U1 = 3,15kV
Dng in nh mc s cp:
Itr1 = 257A
H s bin p :
n = 10
in p th cp nh mc: U2 = 0,63kV
Dng in nh mc th cp:
I2 = 2570A
in tr, in cm mba: LMBA=0,007058H;RMBA=0,00120

M PHNG
M hnh m phng c xy dng cho ton
b h thng tnh ton mc 3.3. Mc tiu
ca m phng l kim tra kh nng khi phc
in p ca DVR bo v cho ph ti l h
truyn ng bin tn-ng c 142 trc cc
bin c lm in p sau y:

.
Hnh 9.a

- in p thm vo ca DVR (uinj), hnh 9.b

- Lm in p cn bng.
- Lm in p khng cn bng.
- Dao ng kt hp mo dng in p do
ng ct h thng t b ti trm Nghi sn
Thanh Ha.

.
Hnh 9.b

- in p ti c phc hi (u'L), hnh 9.c

M hnh m phng Matlab/Simulink ca h


thng c xy dng nh trn hnh 8.
..
Hnh 9.c

Trng hp 2. Kim kh nng ca DVR


trc lm in p khng cn bng.in p
trn cc pha: phaA lm=30%, PhaB
lm=30%, PhaC lm=0%, tsag=(2s3s), ng
c mang ti 50%(7000N/m).
Hnh 8. M hnh h thng DVR kt ni li

Trng hp 1: Kim tra kh nng ca DVR


trc bin c lm in p cn bng. in p
lm trn c ba pha=50%, tsag=(2s3s), ng
c mang ti 50% (7000N/m):
- in p li ug ti thi im bt u v kt
thc lm in p xem hnh 9a.
44

- in p li ug ti thi im bt u v kt
thc lm in p khng cn bng, hnh 10.a

..
Hnh 10.a

- in p thm vo ca DVR (uinj), hnh 10.b

Trn Duy Trinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

.
Hnh 10.b

- in p ti c phc hi (u'L), hnh 10.c

.
Hnh 10.c

Trng hp 3. Kim tra kh nng ca DVR


trc bin c lm in p kt hp dao ng
do ng hoc ct h thng t b c cng sut
57,8 MVAR/110kV, ti trm Nghi sn Thanh
Ha. Thi im ng t 2s, thi im ct t
3s. tbu=2s3s.
- in p ngun ug ti PCC khi thi im
ng v ct t b, xem hnh 11.a

.
Hnh 11.a

- in p thm vo ca DVR ti thi im


ng v ct t b (uinj), xem hnh 11.b

.
Hnh 11.b

- in p ti c phc hi ti thi im ng
v ct t b (u'L), xem hnh 11.c

.
Hnh 11.c

KT LUN
Bi vit ny trnh by gii php p dng h
thng phc hi in p ng gim thiu

122(08): 39 - 46

nh hng ca lm in p, l b lm in
p cn bng, lm in p khng cn bng v
lm in p kt hp dao ng do ng ct h
thng t b. Kt qu cho thy kh nng p
ng ca DVR trc cc bin c bo v cho
ti nhy cm (ti ng) l tt, thi gian phc
hi in p rt nhanh, t 0.002s n 0.005s
vi cc lm in p t 10%-50%. Nh vy
vi gii php ny c th p dng tt cho cc
ph ti nhy cm, hoc mt nhm ph ti
cc x nghip cng nghip, c bit i vi
nhng ni cht lng in p khng c
m bo.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Angelo Baggini (2008) Handbook of Power
Quality. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium,
Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ,
England.
2. JovicaV.Milanovi (2006) Voltage Sags. School of
Electrical & Electronic Engineering
3. Yan Zhang, B.Sc., M.Sc (2008) Techno-economic
Assessment of Voltage Sag Performance and
Mitigation. Thesis submitted to The University of
Manchester for the degree of PhD
4. Marian P. Kazmierkowski; R. Krishnan; Frede
Blaabjerg: Control in Power Electronics.
Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science
5. Ryszard Strzelecki, Grzegorz Benysek, "Power
Electronics in Smart Electrical Energy Networks",
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data,
Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2008.
6. Simone Buso; Paolo Mattavelli:Digital Control
in Power Electronics. Copyright 2006 by
Morgan & Claypool.
7. M. Bobrowska-Rafal, K. Rafal, G. Abad, and
M. Jasinski: Control of PWM rectifier under grid
voltage dips. Bull. Pol. Ac. Tech. 2009
8. Trn Duy Trinh, Nguyn Vn Lin, Trn Trng
Minh: B iu khin vector hai mch vong ni
tng cho h thng phc hi in p ng gim
thiu lm in p trn li in phn phi. S 91,
Tp ch khoa hc v cng ngh, Trng HBK
H Ni, thng 8 nm 2013.
9. A. Ghosh, A. K. Jindal, and A. Joshi, Design of a
capacitor-supported dynamic voltage restorer (DVR)
for unbalanced and distorted loads, IEEE Trans. on
Power Delivery, vol. 19, no. 1, Jan. 2004

45

Trn Duy Trinh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 39 - 46

SUMMARY
MITIGATION OF VOLTAGE SAG IN INDUSTRIAL GRID
BY USING DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER
Tran Duy Trinh1, Tran Trong Minh1,
Nguyen Van Lien1, Ngo DucMinh2*
1Ha

Noi University of Science and Technology


2College of Technology - TNU

In operation, some grids often occur voltage sag making bad voltage quality in serious problem,
and in special occasion as industry enterprises, it causes discontinously the operation of some large
power enterpises or controled centers using electronic devices. To overcome voltage sag, authors
propose a solution applied dynamic voltage regulation (DVR) based on electronic power
conversion and controled system to ensure action exactly with high dynamic. Main contents
include: Caculating a DVR applying in important load to ensure stable operation in voltage sag
phenomenon; Designing a DVR for a large driven system 1975 kW in Hoang Mai cement factory
in Viet Nam; Simulating the operation of DVR in 6,3 kV grid; Evaluating results and discussion.
Keywords: minimum voltage sag, voltage sag, DVR, dynamic restored assembly

Ngy nhn bi:01/7/2014; Ngy phn bin:21/7/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. Trung Hi Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip - HTN
*

Tel: 0982 286428

46

Hong Th Cnh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 47 - 52

TI U HA S MNG THEO CH TIU


THI GIAN V CHI PH S DNG THUT TON DI TRUYN
Hong Th Cnh*, Nguyn Hng Tn, Phng Th Hun
Trng i hc Cng ngh Thng tin v Truyn thng H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Ti u ho theo ch tiu thi gian v chi ph trn s mng l mt trong nhng gii php tng
i hu hiu nhm rt ngn thi gian thc hin tng danh mc cng vic hay ton b d n vi
tng chi ph thp nht. y l phng php c ngha v cn thit nhm mang li hiu qu kinh t
cao trong vic t chc, ln k hoch v thc hin d n trong nn kinh t th trng lun c s
cnh tranh v gi thnh. Bi bo ny trnh by phng php ti u ha theo ch tiu thi gian, chi
ph trn s mng s dng thut ton di truyn kt hp vi phng php chi ph pht tm ra
phng n ti u.
T kha: Ti u ha s mng, ti u thi gian, ti u chi ph, thut ton di truyn, hm pht

GII THIU*
Phng php ti u ha, l thuyt th l
mt lnh vc nghin cu rng ln, c nhiu
ng dng v ang c quan tm nghin cu
nhiu trn th gii. Cc bi ton ti u v thi
gian, chi ph da trn c s l thuyt thv
cc chng trnh phn mm h tr vic qun
l d n lin quan n lp k hoch, iu
chnh v ti u ho tin thc hin k hoch
c [1,3,5]. Tiu biu l phn mm
Microsoft Project, nhng phn mm ch gii
quyt c vn ti u ho trn tng lnh
vc [1,7]. Trong khi , bi ton ti u ho
theo ch tiu thi gian v chi ph trn s
mng ang l vn ng quan tm trong nn
kinh t th trng c tnh cnh tranh khc lit
v gi thnh [1]. Vi chng trnh WinQSB
bc u gii quyt c bi ton ti u
ho theo ch tiu thi gian - chi ph, tuy nhin
cn tim n nhiu mt hn ch, nh: qu trnh
ti u ha lm xut hin nhiu ng gng
mi y l vn bt cp trong cng tc t
chc thc hin d n [4,7].
Ch tiu v mt thi gian v chi ph thc hin
d n l mt vn rt quan trng. Hon
thnh d n ng thi hn vi chi ph nh
nht s mang li nhng kt qu to ln v kinh
t v chnh tr. y l mt vn quan trng
*

Tel: 01682 324556, Email: htcanh@ictu.edu.vn

m ngi lm cng tc t chc, qun l cc


d n cng nhiu nh khoa hc quan tm. V
vy bi bo ny xut mt gii php s
dng thut ton di truyn v phng php chi
ph pht tm ra phng n ti u kh thi.
PHNG PHP S MNG
S mng (SM) l mt th bao gm
ton b khi lng ca c d n, n n nh
mt cch logic trnh t k thut v mi quan
h v t chc gia cc cng vic, n nh thi
gian thc hin cc cng vic v ti u ha k
hoch ra [2].
Cc thng s chnh trn SM[2,4]:

EO (Earliest Occurrence of an Event): l thi


im sm nht cho s kin xy ra khi tt c
cc cng vic trc s kin u hon thnh.
LO (Lastest Occurrence of an Event): l thi
im mun nht cho s kin xy ra m
khng lm nh hng n s hon thnh ca
d n trong thi gian nh.
ES (Earliest Start of an activity): l thi im
sm nht cho cng vic bt u.
ES ca cng vic ij = EO ca s kin i
LS (Lastest Start of an activity): l thi im
mun nht cho cng vic bt u m
47

Hong Th Cnh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 47 - 52

khng lm nh hng n s hon thnh ca


d n trong thi gian nh.

M HNH BI TON TI U HA THEO


CH TIU THI GIAN - CHI PH

Cch xc nh cc thng s trn SM [2,7]:

Trong thc t, nhiu d n mun y nhanh


thi gian thc hin, lm c iu ny ta
phi tm cch rt ngn thi gian ng gng,
m cc bin php rt ngn thi gian ng
gng thng lm cho chi ph ca d n tng
ln. Bi ton c t ra l: tm phng n rt
ngn thi gian thc hin cc cng vic vi chi
ph tng ln l nh nht.

Xc nh EO v ES:
EO ca s kin u tin: EO1 = 0
Ti cc s kin j ch c mt cng vic n:

EO j EOi tij

Ti cc s kin j c nhiu cng vic n:

EO j Max EOi tij


i

Vi cc cng vic gi th cng tnh nh trn


nhng tij=0
Xc nh LO v LS:
Ti s kin cui cng ta c:
EOCui LOCui
LSij LO j tij
Nu ch c mt cng vic ij xut pht t s
kin i ta c: LOi LSij
Nu c nhiu cng vic xut pht t s kin i

ta c: LOi Min LSij Min LOj tij


i

Phn tch kt qu trn s mng: Thi gian


ti thiu hon thnh d n chnh bng
EOcui.Thi gian d tr ca cc cng vic
(Float): F l khong thi gian ti a m mt
cng vic c th chm ch so vi k hoch
nh m khng lm nh hng ti thi gian
ti thiu hon thnh d n.
F LSij ESij hay F LSij EOi
Cng vic gng l cng vic c F=0. ng
gng: l ng ni lin t s kin u tin
n s kin cui cng vi iu kin tt c cc
cng vic nm trn l cc cng vic gng
[2,8].
Nhn xt: Mi SM c t nht mt ng
gng. Tng thi gian ca cc cng vic nm
trn ng gng chnh l thi gian ti thiu
hon thnh d n. Nu 1 cng vic trn ng
gng b tr th ton b cng vic s b tr theo.
Do vy mun rt ngn thi gian hon thnh
d n th nh qun l phi tp trung cc gii
php lm gim thi gian cc cng vic trn
ng gng.
48

Thit lp cc mi lin h cho bi ton:


c lng tij ta dng cc loi thi gian sau:
a l thi gian hon thnh cng vic trong
iu kin tt nht; b l thi gian hon thnh
cng vic trong iu kin xu nht; m l thi
gian hon thnh cng vic trong iu kin
bnh thng. a m b .
Ta c: K vng thi gian:

a 4m b
Nu khng xc nh c m:
6
2a 3b
te
tij te
6
te

Phng sai ca thi gian thc hin cng

ba
victij:

2
ij

Theo l thuyt xc sut thng k, phng sai


ca ton b d n: 2 ij2

THUT TON DI TRUYN


Thut ton di truyn (TTDT) thc hin tm
kim li gii ti u da trn c ch chn lc
v di truyn t nhin. Qun th tri qua qu
trnh tin ha: mi th h li ti sinh cc li
gii tng i tt, trong khi cc li gii tng
i xu b mt dn i. phn bit cc li
gii thch nghi khc nhau, hm mc tiu c
dng ng vai tr thch nghi mi trng.
Mt c th trong gii thut di truyn biu din
mt gii php ca bi ton. Qun th l mt
tp hp cc c th c cng mt s c im
no . Trong TTDT qun th l mt tp cc
li gii ca mt bi ton.
Cc ton t di truyn trong TTDT bao
gm[8]:

Hong Th Cnh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Lai ghp l s kt hp cc tnh trng ca b


m sinh ra cc th h con. y c coi l
mt s t hp li cc tnh cht (thnh phn)
trong hai li gii cha m no sinh ra
mt li gii mi m c c tnh mong mun l
tt hn th h cha m.

122(08): 47 - 52

trong phng php hm pht (Penalty


Function) l phng php c s dng ph
bin do c kh nng ty bin v thch hp vi
nhiu thut ton tm kim [6].

Chn lc l qu trnh chn lc cc c th


trong qun th. y chnh l cch chn cc c
th c thch nghi tt a vo th h tip
theo hoc lai ghp, vi mc ch l sinh ra
cc c th mi tt hn.
t bin l mt s bin i ti mt (hay mt
s) gen ca nhim sc th ban u to ra
mt nhim sc th mi. t bin c th to ra
mt c th mi tt hn hoc xu hn c th
ban u. Tuy nhin, trong TTDT th ta lun
mun to ra nhng php t bin cho php ci
thin li gii qua tng th h.
Cc tham s trong TTDT bao gm [8]:
Xc sut lai ghp: Nu xc sut lai ghp l
Pc, khi kh nng mt c th c lai
ghp l Pc.
Xc sut t bin: Nu xc sut t bin l
Pm, khi kh nng mi gen ca mt
nhim sc th bt k b t bin l Pm. Tc
dng ca ton t t bin l ngn nga gii
thut di truyn ri vo tnh trng cc tr a
phng, tuy nhin nu thc hin t bin vi
xc sut qu cao s bin gii thut di truyn
thnh gii thut tmkim ngu nhin.
Kch thc qun th cho bit c bao nhiu c
th trong mt qun th. Nu c qu t c th
th s lm gim khng gian tm kim ca thut
gii v d ri vo cc cc b a phng, nh
vy s d xy ra trng hp b qua nhng li
gii tt.
HM PHT
TTDT l phng php thch hp vi cc bi
ton ti u vi iu kin khng rng buc.
Tuy nhin thc t vic gii cc bi ton ti u
thng cha mt hay nhiu rng buc, vic p
dng TTDT vo cc bi ton ti u c rng
buc thng dn n ti u cc b. Nhiu
phng php c xut gii quyt

Hnh 1. M hnh thut ton di truyn

Hm pht l phng php bin i t bi ton


c rng buc thnh bi ton khng rng buc
thng qua vic bin i hm mc tiu nh sau:

f ( x)
xF

f p ( x)
f ( x) p( x) x F
Trong : F: min kh thi; fp(x): hm pht;
f(x): hm mc tiu; p(x): gi tr pht.
Trong cng thc trn, nu khng c vi phm
iu kin xy ra, p(x)=0 v fp(x)= f(x). Ngc
li, nu c vi phm iu kin xy ra, p(x)>0.
Khi p(x) cng ln dn n fp(x) cng c gi tr
ln theo tng ng, khi fp(x)c khong cch
rt xa so vi f(x) dn n d dng loi b.
LP TRNH TNH TON
Hm mc tiu c xut:

Min (C C t C p )
49

Hong Th Cnh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 47 - 52

Trong Ct l chi ph thc c xc nh theo


cng thc: Ct

Cij

; Cp l Chi ph pht

i , j 1

c xc nh theo cng thc:


C p CPRNDV

CPRN CPC
CPGT

TGRN TGC TGCGT

(c th: CPRNDV: Chi ph rt ngn n v;


CPRN: Chi ph rt ngn; CPC: Chi ph chun;
CPGT: Chi ph gia tng; TGRN: Thi gian rt
ngn; TGC: Thi gian chun; TGCGT: Thi
gian ct gim ti a).
Cc bc rt ngn thi gian hon thnh d
n s dng thut ton di truynnh sau:
Bc 1: Khi to bi ton. Lp s mng.
Xc nh ng gng chun v cc cng
vic gng. To qun th t hp cc ng
gng ban u.
Bc 2: Tnh ton chi ph ng vi mi t hp.
Tnh chi ph thc, chi ph pht, tng chi ph.
Bc 3: nh gi thch nghi kim tra
iu kin dng: La chn cc cng vic trn
ng gng m c chi ph rt ngn n v nh
nht v ct gim thi gian thc hin cng vic
ny theo yu cu v trong phm vi ti a cho
php. Sp xp cc t hp theo chi ph, nu
tha mn iu kin dng: Dng chng trnh,
xut kt qu; nu khng tha iu kin dng
thc hin tip bc 4.
Bc 4: To qun th t hp mi bng TTDT.
Thc hin c ch chn lc, lai ghp, t bin.
To ra qun th t hp Pt+1 t qun th t
hp Pt. Kim tra li ng gng: Nu ng
gng c vn tn ti th lp li bc 2, nu
khng th tm ng gng mi v lp li cho
n khi t c mc tiu rt ngn cho trc.

Hnh 2. Lu thut ton xut

Thc hin bi ton vi xc sut lai ghp:1;


xc sut t bin: 0,1; t l loi b sau mi
vng lp: 10%; t l hi t li gii: 10%.Cc
thng s ca d n trn s mng c th
hin nh sau:

Kim nghim chng trnh:


Bng 1. Bng s liu u vo

Hnh 3. S mng d n trc v sau khi rt ngn

50

Hong Th Cnh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Kt qu tnh ton th nghim khi thc hin


rt ngn ti a thi gian thc hin d n trn:

122(08): 47 - 52

cho nh qun l d n c nhng quyt nh


ng n trong ch o thc hin d n.
KT LUN

Hnh 4. Kt qu tnh ton th nghim

Thc hin ti u SM bng m hnh lp


vi mc tiu rt ngn ti a thi gian thc
hin v chi ph gia tng l nh nht, chng
trnh phn b li thi gian v chi ph ti u
thc hin d n, kt qu trong bng 2.
Bng 2. So snh thi gian - chi ph thc hin bnh
thng v trng hp ti u theo m hnh lp

nh gi kt qu: Chi ph trin khai d n


ban u c lng l: 45.000.000 VN v
hon thnh trong vng 10 tun. Sau khi
c ti u ha th thi gian hon thnh d
n cn 6 tun (gim 40%), vi tng chi ph l:
49.000.000 VN, chi ph gia tng nh nht
sau khi rt ngn thi gian thc hin l
4.000.000 VN (tng 8,9%). Kt qu tnh
ton ny rt c ngha v mt thc tin gip

Vic ng dng thut ton di truyn gip


tm c kt qu tng i ti u ch t mt
s lng hu hn cc t hp ban u, gim
thiu thi gian tnh ton ca bi ton. Phng
php chi ph pht ngoi vic gip gia tng tc
hi t cn gip gia tng khng gian tm
kim li gii cho bi ton, trnh ri vo li
gii ti u cc b. Chng trnh tnh ton m
phng khng lm xut hin thm ng
gng mi, nn t lm nh hng n thi gian
d tr ca ton b d n. Kt qu thc
nghim cho thy gii php xut l kh thi
v c trin vng, m bo vic thc hin d n
bm st vi thc t, kt qu tnh ton ti u hn
v mt chi ph to th mnh cnh tranh trong
hot ng kinh doanh cho doanh nghip.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Barry Benatorand Albert Thumann (2003),
Project Management and Leadership Skills for
Engineering and Construction Projects, The
Fairmont Press, the United States of America.
2. Murray B.Woolf (2007), Faster Construction
Projects with CPM Scheduling, The McGraw-Hill
Companies, the United States of America.
3. Flavio Cozzi (2008), Industrial Project
Management: Planning, Design, and Construction,
Stefano Tonchia University of Udine.
4. Thomas Euher (2003), Programming and
scheduling techniques, Unsw Press,the United
States of America.
5. Keith Potts (2008), Construction Cost
Management: Learning from case studies, by
Taylor & Francis Group, in the USA and Canada.
6. Ozgur Yeniay (2005), Penalty Function
methods for contrained optimizaion with genetic
algorithms,
Mathematicaland
Computation
Application, vol 10, NO.1, pp 45-56, 2005.
7. Kathy Schwalbe (2002), Information
Technology Project Management, 4th ed., Course
Technology, ISBN 0-619-03528-5.
8. Nguyn nh Thc (2002), lp trnh tin ha,
Nxb Gio dc, 2002

51

Hong Th Cnh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 47 - 52

SUMMARY
NETWORK DIAGRAM OPTIMIZATION UNDER STANDARD
OF TIME AND COST BY USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS
Hoang Thi Canh*, Nguyen Hong Tan, Phung The Huan
College of Information and Communication Technology TNU

Optimizing the network diagram under standard of time and costisone of the effective solutions to
shortening the execution time of each task list or an entire project with the lowest total cost. This
method is meaningful and necessary in order to bring high economic efficiency in the
organization, planning and implementation of projects in the market economy, which always has
highly competition on price. This paper presents optimization methods according to criteria of
time, cost on network diagrams using genetic algorithms combined with penalty cost method to
find the optimal and feasible alternative.
Keywords: Optimizing network diagrams, optimizing time, optimizing cost, genetic algorithms,
penalty function

Ngy nhn bi:11/7/2014; Ngy phn bin:21/7/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. V Vinh Quang Trng i hc Cng ngh Thng tin & Truyn thng - HTN

Tel: 01682 324556, Email: htcanh@ictu.edu.vn

52

V Vn Tm v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 53 - 58

NHNG VN BN TING VIT TRONG D LIU AUDIO


DA VO C IM CA CH VIT TING VIT
V Vn Tm1*, Phan Trng Hanh2
1i

hc K thut Hu cn CAND (B Cng an),


2Hc vin K thut Qun s (B Quc phng)

TM TT
Cc bi ton nhng vn bn ting Vit trong d liu audio u phi gii quyt hai vn lin quan,
l tng hiu qu nhng v bo mt ni dung tin nhng. Chng ti gii quyt bi ton ny bng
cch phn tch c im ca ch vit ting Vit; t xy dng kha m, dng m ha v nn
vn bn ting Vit trc khi thc hin nhng. Kt qu th nghim vi cc vn bn ting Vit
thng dng, cho thy s bit tin cn nhng gim ng k so vi phng php nhng thng thng;
ng thi ni dung vn bn nhng c bo mt.
T kha: Nhng vn bn; nhng d liu; m ha vn bn; nn vn bn; nhng audio

T VN *
Nhng vn bn ting Vit trong d liu audio
l mt trong nhng bi ton c bn nht ca
k thut giu tn hiu trong d liu s. Hin
nay, c nhiu phng php tip cn khc
nhau nh: Phng php nhng LSB (Least
Significant Bit) [2], [4], [5]; M ha Parity
(Parity Coding) [2], [4]; M ha Phase (Phase
Coding) [2], [5]; ng dng k thut tri ph
[1], [2]; K thut m ha echo [2], [6]. Cc
phng php nu trn tp trung ch yu vo
xy dng thut ton nhng tin nhm bo m
tin nhng c n nh.
Vic kt hp gia nhng tin vi nn v m
ha tin c th s tng c hiu qu nhng v
bo mt c tin cn nhng. Trn c s
nghin cu v c im ca ch vit ting
Vit, t xy dng cc kha m dng
nn v m ha ch vit ting Vit trc khi
thc hin nhng vo d liu audio.
Vi cch tip cn nh trn, bi bo c trnh
by theo th t sau: c im ch vit ting
Vit; Xy dng m hnh; Xy dng cc thut
ton; Th nghim v nh gi v cui cng l
phn kt lun.
C IM CH VIT TING VIT
B ch vit ting Vit c chia lm 2 loi:
Ch s (t 0 n 9), l loi khng c du,
*

Tel: 0168975888;, Email: tamt36bca@gmail.com

chng c th kt hp vi nhau to thnh cc


gi tr s ln hn; Ch ci bao gm 3 thnh
phn chnh, l: Thnh phn ph m (b c t v
d s w x g r f z y j h q p n m l k tr qu ch th kh
nh gi ng ngh gh ph); Thnh phn nguyn m (a
an n n am m m au u ai ao ac c c at
t t ach anh ang ng ng ap p p ay y o
on n n om m m oc c owc ot t t op p
p oat ot oen oam oan on oanh oap oc oa
oet oac oai oi i i oe oach ng c oang ong
ng oay u ut t uc c n uy ua a uyt
uch unh ng ung um m un n ng uya
m um uen un uyn uyt n ui i u e
en n em m et t ep p ec c u eo eng ng
nh ch i it in im ip iu ia inh ing ing ip ic it
in im iu ich yt yu yn ; / . = ? % ~ ! @ # $
^ & * ( ) - + | \ [ ] { }) v thnh phn du
(khng du, nng, huyn, sc, hi v ng).
Nu coi ch s l ph m th tng s ph m
l 10 + 33 = 43, tng s nguyn m l 185 v
tng s du l 6. Do vy, s ph m, nguyn
m v du l hu hn v chng ta hon ton
c th bit trc.
Vi phng php nhng vn bn ting Vit
thng thng, mi k t s c m ha
thnh 8 bit, v d ch Nguyn gm 6 k t
s c m ha thnh 6 8 48 [bit]. Nu
chng ta thc hin tch ring ph m, nguyn
m v du; sau m ha th s bit s l: Ph
m Ng = a [bit], nguyn m uyn =
b [bit] v du = c [bit], khi tng s
53

V Vn Tm v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

bit s l d a b c [bit]. Nu d 48 th s
bit gim c so vi trng hp nhng thng
thng l 48 d e [bit]. Ngoi ra, vi vic
m ha nh trn th ni dung vn bn cn
nhng c bo mt (bn nhn phi c cc
tham s ca b m mi gii m c ni
dung tn hiu nhng).

122(08): 53 - 58

lu kha m di dng file text c tn l


phu_am.txt (Hnh 2b).
+ Thut ton m ha: l ph m cn m
ha, [i] l cc thnh phn ca file
phu_am.txt, l 6 bt sau khi m ha.

XY DNG M HNH
S m hnh

Text

Gii m
ph m Text

M ha
ph m

(a) Ma trn kha m phn ph m

(b) Cu trc file


Tch Kha
ch m

Ghp
bit

Nhng

Gii Tch Kha Ghp


nhng bit
ch
m

phu_am.txt

000000 b
000001 c
000010 t
101001 ngh
........
111001 8

Hnh 2. Kha m phn ph m


M ha
nguyn
m

Gii m
nguyn
m

Hnh 1. M hnh nhng ting Vit trong d liu Audio

Cc ch ca vn bn ting Vit c a vo
b tch ch, thnh phn ph m s c m
ha thnh a [bit] bi b m ha ph m,
thnh phn nguyn m v du c m ha
thnh ( b c ) [bit] bi b m ha nguyn m.
Sau b ghp bit chng ta c d [bit] (vi
d a b c . S dng phng php nhng
LSB nhng v gii nhng cc bit tin vi d
liu gc audio. Pha bn nhn s thc hin
ngc li vi bn pht nhn c ni dung
vn bn nhng.
Xy dng thut ton
- Thnh phn ph m:
+ Kha m: S dng phng php ma trn,
cc thuc hng 1 v cc thuc ct 1 ca
ma trn dng ghi cc t hp bit kha m
(Hnh 2a).
Cc cn trng trn ma trn c dng m
ha cc gin cch hoc d phng. m ha
cho mt ph m chng ta ly t hp bit ca
hng v ct tng ng vi cha ph m, v
d ph m gh s c m l = 110000.
+ Ci t trn my tnh: n gin ha
vic ci t trn my tnh, chng ta thc hin
54

For i 1,...,length() do
[i] [i] + 32
end for
Open file phu_am.txt
For i 1,2,...,48 do
[i] line[i] of phu_am.txt
copy([i],7,4)
For j 1,...,length() do
[j] [j] + 32
end for
if == then
copy([i],1,6)
exit for
end if
end for
close phu_am.txt
+ Thut ton gii m: Thc hin ngc li
qu trnh m ha.
Open file phu_am.txt
For i 1,2,...,48 do
[i] line[i] of phu_am.txt
copy([i],1,6)
if == then
copy([i],7,4)
exit for
end if
end for
close phu_am.txt
- Thnh phn nguyn m v du:

V Vn Tm v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

+ Kha m: Tng t nh phn ph m, kha


m phn nguyn m v du c xy dng
nh sau (Hnh 3a).
+ Ci t trn my tnh: Cc nguyn m lin
quan n du, do vy mi mt nguyn m s
c lu trn file thnh 6 dng tng ng vi
6 trng hp: Khng c du, c du nng, c
du huyn, c du sc, c du hi v c du
ng (Hnh 3b).
+ Thut ton m ha: l nguyn m cn m
ha, [i] l cc thnh phn ca file
nguyen_am.txt, l 11 bt sau khi m ha.
For i 1,...,length() do
[i] [i] + 32
end for
Open file nguyen_am.txt
For i 1,2,...,992 do
[i] line[i] of nguyen_am.txt
copy ([i],12,4)
For j 1,...,length() do
[j] [j] + 32
end for
if == then
copy([i],1,11)
exit for
end if
end for
close nguyen_am.txt

(a) Ma trn kha m phn


nguyn m v du
(b) Cu trc file
Nguyen_am.txt

00000000000 a
00000000001
00000000010
......................
11111001000 yn
11111001001 yn
.......................
10001011000 }

Hnh 3. Kha m phn nguyn m v du

122(08): 53 - 58

+ Thut ton gii m:


Open file nguyen_am.txt
For i 1,2,...,992 do
[i] line[i] of nguyen_am.txt
copy ([i],1,11)
if == then
copy([i],12,4)
exit for
end if
end for
close nguyen_am.txt
- Nhng v gii nhng:
+ Thut ton nhng: l chui tin cn
nhng dng nh phn, c chia ra thnh
cc on 4 bit thay th 4 bit thp ca cc
mu d liu audio.
"bit start" + + "bit end"
Open file audio1
Open file audio2
For i 1,2,...,44 do
data[i] for file audio1
data[i] to file audio2 B
end for
C data[41..44] for file audio1
C C/2
For j 1,2,...,C do
i j + 44
B data[i] for file audio1
selected Dau 1
If B < 0 Then selected Dau -1
B |B|
selected ST ""
For K 1,2,...,20 do
ST Str(B mod 2) + ST
BB\2
If B == 0 Then Exit For
end for
If Length(ST) < 16 Then
For K 1,2,...,(16 - Length(ST)) do
ST = "0"+ ST
end for
End If
ST copy(ST, 1, 12)
Tin copy(, ((i - 1) * 4) + 1, 4)
ST ST + Tin
selected B 0
selected H 1
For M 16,15,...,1 do
Tin copy(ST, M, 1)
G Val(Tin)
B B + (H * G)
55

V Vn Tm v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

HH+H
end for
B B * Dau
data[i] to file audio2 B
end for
Close file audio1
Close file audio2
+ Thut ton gii nhng: Chui bit tin ()
c hnh thnh t vic ly 4 bit thp ca cc
mu audio lin tip nhau cho n khi gp
chui bit nh du kt thc nhng.
Open file audio2
C data[41..44] for file audio2
C C/2
selected Giai 0
For j 1,2,...,C do
i j + 44
B data[i] for file audio2
B |B|
selected ST ""
For K 1,2,...,20 do
ST (B Mod 2) + ST
BB\2
If B == 0 Then Exit For
end for
If Length(ST) < 16 Then
For K 1,2,..., (16 - Length(ST)) do
ST "0" + ST
end for
End If
ST copy(ST, 13, 4)
If Giai == 0 Then
Chuoi Chuoi + ST
Else
+ ST
End If
If Length(Chuoi) >= 8 Then
ST copy(Chuoi, Length(Chuoi) - 7, 8)
If ST == "00110011" Then Giai 1
End If
If Length() >= 8 Then
ST copy(, Length( ) - 7, 8)
If ST == "11001100" Then Giai 2
copy(, 1, Length() - 8)
End If
End If
If Giai == 2 Then Exit For
End for
Close file audio2
56

122(08): 53 - 58

THC NGHIM V NH GI
D liu audio c s dng th nghim l
file m thanh chimes.wav trong Windows c
kch thc phn data l Sa = 35380 [byte] v
cc tham s khc nh hnh 4. Tin cn nhng
l cc on vn bn ting Vit c di (s
k t) khc nhau. Ngoi ra, s dng phng
php nhng LSB khng nn [2], [4], [5] so
snh hiu qu nhng, bo mt ca tin
nhng. T l nhng (B) s t 100% khi s bit
tin nhng = Sa / 4 . Giao din th nghim
c lp trnh bng ngn ng Visual Basic
(Hnh 4). Ln th 1, tin cn nhng l 1 on
vn bng ting Vit thng dng bao gm ch
ci (ph m v nguyn m) v ch s; Ln
th 2, vn bn cn nhng hon ton l cc
ph m; Ln th 3, vn bn cn nhng hon
ton l 160 nguyn m v cc gin cch gia
chng. Kt qu th nghim v so snh c
trnh by trong bng 1a, 1b.
Bng 1a. Kt qu th nghim nhng thng thng
Ln
th
1
2
3
TB

di
vn
bn
(Te)
8.000
k t
7.700
k t
554
k t
5.418
k t

Khng m ha, khng nn


Dung
lng
tin (M2)

T l
nhng
(B2)

Bo mt

64.000
bit
61.600
bit
18.240
bit
47.95
bit

90,45 %

Khng

87,055
%
25,78 %

Khng

67,76 %

Khng

Khng

Bng 1b. Kt qu th nghim nhng


theo m hnh xut
Ln
th
1
2
3
TB

di
vn
bn
(Te)
8.000
k t
7.700
k t
554
k t
5.418
k t

C m ha, c nn
Dung
lng
tin (M1)

T l
nhng
(B1)

Bo mt

38.400
bit
56.462
bit
2.720
bit
32.527
bit

54,27 %

79,79 %

3,84 %

45,97 %

V Vn Tm v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 53 - 58

nhng gim t gim mc nh hng


n cht lng ca d liu audio gc (Hnh
5); th thut ton cn cho php bo mt c
ni dung vn bn cn nhng (bn nhn phi
c kha m ging bn pht mi gii m c
tin nhng). c bit, khi nhng cc vn bn
thng thng (c nhiu thnh phn nguyn
m) th dung lng tin cn nhng gim ng
k v bo mt cng cao.

Hnh 4. Giao din th nghim theo m hnh

T cu trc ca hai ma trn kha m, chng


ta c th nh gi bo mt nh sau:
- bo mt ca kha m ph m:
KA = 16! 4 !

- bo mt ca kha m nguyn m:
K Ng = 16! 16!

(a) D liu audio trc khi nhng

- bo mt ca h thng:
K HT = K A

(b) D liu audio sau nhng theo m hnh

K Ng = (16!

4 !) (16! 16!)

Nh vy, gi tr ca K HT l rt ln; Ngoi ra,


vic sp xp li cc t hp bit hng 1 v ct
1 ca cc ma trn kha m trn s to ra mt
kha m mi.
KT LUN

(c) D liu audio sau nhng thng thng


Hnh 5. Dng sng d liu audio thc nghim

Dung lng tin cn nhng (M) v t l nhng


(B) c tnh theo cng thc sau:
- Trng hp nhng thng thng:
M2 = Te
B2 = (M2

8 [bit];
100) / (Sa / 4) [%];

- Trng hp c m ha, nn:


M1 = (Pa

6)

Nga

B1 = (M1

100) / (Sa / 4) [%];

11 [bit];

Trong , Pa , Nga l s ph m v nguyn


m ca vn bn cn nhng.
Kt qu th nghim vi 3 dng vn bn khc
nhau (Bng 1) u cho kt qu tt hn so vi
phng php nhng thng thng. Ngoi vic
gim dung lng tin cn nhng dn ti t l

Vic kt hp m ha, nn vn bn ting Vit


khi thc hin nhng vo d liu audio l mt
hng tip cn mi trong x l tn hiu s.
Qua phn tch c im ca ch vit ting
Vit, chng ti a ra m hnh, xy dng
cc thut ton thc hin ni dung trn. Qua
th nghim m hnh vi cc loi vn bn khc
nhau cho thy dung lng tin cn nhng M1 ,
t l nhng B1 c gim ng k so vi
phng php nhng thng thng; ng thi
bo mt c ni dung vn bn ting Vit cn
nhng. Kt qu nghin cu ny rt c ngha
cho hng nghin cu v nhng vn bn ting
Vit trong cc d liu s khc.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. V nh Ba, Giu thng tin trong c s d
liu khng gian, Tp ch Nghin cu khoa hc k
thut v cng ngh Qun s, s 4, 30-37.
2. Nguyn Xun Huy, Hunh B Diu, Nghin
cu k thut giu tin trong audio h tr xc thc,
Tp ch Khoa hc HQGHN, Khoa hc T.nhin
v Cng ngh, s 1 (25), 69-74.

57

V Vn Tm v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

3. F. Siebenhaar, C. Neubauer, R. Bauml, and J.


Herre, New High Data Rate Audio Watermarking
based on SCS (Scalar Costa Scheme), in 113th
Convention of the AES, Los Angeles, USA,
October 5-8 2002, preprint 5645.
4. R. Z. WANG,C.F. LIN, AND J. C. LIN. Image
Hiding
by
LSB
Substitution
and
GeneticAlgorithm,Proceedings of International
Symposium
on
Multimedia
Information
Processing, Chung-Li,Taiwan, R.O.C, December
1998, 671-683.

122(08): 53 - 58

5. I.J.COX ET. AL. Secure Spread Spectrum


Watermarking of Images, Audio and Video, Proc
IEEE International Conf on Image Processing,
ICIP-96, Vol.3, pp 243-246.
6. DICKINSON B., TAO B., Adaptive
Watermarking in DCT Domain, Proc. of IEEE
International Conf. on Acoustics Speech and
Signal Processing, ICASSP-97,Vol.4, p19852988, 1997

SUMMARY
EMBEDDING VIETNAMESE TEXT IN AUDIO DATA BASED
ON THE CHARACTERISTICS
OF THE VIETNAMESE WRITING
Vu Van Tam1*, Phan Trong Hanh2
1Institute

of Engineering - Logistics People's Public Security (Ministry of Public Security),


Quy Don University of Science and Technology (Ministry of National Defence)

2Le

The problems of embedded Vietnamese text in audio data must solve two related problems, such
as increased efficiency and security of embedded information content. We solve this problem by
analyzing characteristics of Vietnamese letters; from which to build code key, used for encrypting
and compressing Vietnamese text before performing embedded. Test results with the popular
Vietnamese text show that the number of information bits needed to embed significantly reduced
compared with conventional embedded methods and confidential embedded text content.
Keywords: Embedded text; embedded data; text encoding; text compression; embedded audio

Ngy nhn bi:02/6/2014; Ngy phn bin:16/6/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. Lu c Khm Trng i hc K thut Hu cn Cng an nhn dn
*

Tel: 0168975888;, Email: tamt36bca@gmail.com

58

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Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 59 - 66

PHT TRIN CC PHNG PHP D PHNG NNG CAO


TIN CY CA H THNG
L Quang Minh1, Triu Xun Ha2*, Trn Thanh Thng3
1Vin

Cng ngh thng tin Trng i hc Cng ngh - i hc Quc gia H Ni


2Trng i hc Nng Lm H Thi Nguyn, 3i hc Thi Nguyn

TM TT
tin cy c vai tr then cht trong s pht trin k thut, nng cao tin cy gip trnh c cc
s c c th xy i vi h thng. Trong l thuyt v tin cy ca h thng c nhiu phng
php khc nhau c a ra nhm gii mt bi ton duy nht tng tin cy ca mt h thng t
nhng thnh phn khng tin cy: d phng truyn thng, d phng bo v tch cc Trong bi
bo ny, chng ti a ra gii php kt hp hai cu trc d phng em li tin cy cao hn
ca h thng.
T kha: tin cy, d phng truyn thng, bo v ch ng tch cc.

T VN *
tin cy l c tnh then cht trong s pht
trin k thut, c bit l khi xut hin nhng
h thng phc tp nhm hon thnh nhng
chc nng quan trng trong cc lnh vc khc
nhau. Da vo tin cy ca h thng gip
chng ta c c k hoch bo tr, d phng,
nng cao tin cy trnh c cc s c c
th xy ra.
Hin nay, cc h thng tnh ton k thut
ang dn c ng dng rng ri trong cc
lnh vc hot ng khc nhau ca i sngx
hi.Cc h thngny c bit n trong
nhiu lnh vc: h thng kim sot nh my
in ht nhn, h thng my tnh trong h
thng ngn hng, cc cng ty chng khon,
h thng my tnh trn my bay, h thng
thng tin lin lc v tinh,.. Nhng h thng
trn cn phi c kh nng phc hi v kh
nng tn ti trong sut thi gian hot ng
ca h thng. L do l v nhng tht bi ca
h thng c th gy tn tht ln v kinh t,
li nhng hu qu nghim trng..
Trong l thuyt v tin cy ca h thng
c nhiu phng php khc nhau c a ra
nhm gii mt bi ton duy nht tng tin
cy ca mt h thng t nhng thnh phn
khng tin cy. Ti liu [3] v [4] xt n

Tel: 0944 550007

cc cu trc khc nhau ca h thng vi cc


thnh phn d phng, nhm b sung tin
cy nh: cu trc d phng truyn thng; cu
trc d phng bo v tch cc cn gi l cu
trc d phng bo v ch ng. Trong ni
dung bi bo ny, chng ti nghin cu a
ra gii php kt hp hai cu trc d phng
em li tin cy ca h thng cao hn
vic s dng cu trc d phng truyn thng.
NI DUNG
Xt mt m hnh h thng mng my tnh c
cu trc dng cy gm 3 cp: cp u tin
c mt b vi x l kim sot, cp th hai c
hai b vi x l iu khin, cp th ba c nm
b vi x l d liu nh trong hnh 1.

Hnh 1: M hnh h thng mng my tnh

thun li cho vic quan st m hnh my


tnh trn, gi nh mi v tr b vi x l d
phng c coi l mt node trn m hnh
thc nghim. K hiu:
: node gc (vi x l ca h thng)
: node d phng (vi x l d phng)
Chng ta xem xt ba phng php la chn
ci thin tin cy ca h thng khng phc
hi [2] trong khi duy tr hiu qu ca n:
59

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Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 59 - 66

1) S dng mt bin th ca phn cng theo


phng php d phng truyn thng.

1: kh nng pht hin chnh xc xc sut tht


bi ca cc cp.

2) La chn vi s ra i ca chi nhnh b


sung trong cu trc ca h thng cho vic t
chc hot ng bo v: D phng bo v tch
cc (Actice Protection - AP).

Theo nh ngha tin cy ca h thng [1] ta


c: p = p(t); q = 1-p.
Vi k hiu trn biu hin cho kh nng ca
h thng, do mi cp c th coi l mt h
thng gm hai phn t c lp mc song song
X1, X2 vi xc sut hot ng an ton cng l
p. Khi ta c tin cy (s cp v sao lu)
[5] ca mt cp vi x l s l Ps:

3) S dng phng php la chn kt hp.


M hnh bi ton s dng d phng truyn
thng
Vi m hnh bi ton h thng my tnh c
trnh by trn chng ta s s dng cc m
hnh d phng nh gi mc tin cy ca
h thng my tnh.
Cu hnh h thng tng ng vi ty chn
nghin cu phng php d phng truyn
thng [5] th hin trong hnh 2.
Gi nh rng tt c cc b vi x l ca kim
sot v x l h thng l ng nht, trng lp
c tt c cc ti:

P(X1vX2) = P(X1) + Q(X1).P(X2) = p + (1 p).p = 2p - p2 = 2p(1 - p) + p2 = 2pq + p2


Vi 1 l xc sut tht bi ca mi cp nn ta
c:
Ps=21pq + p2

(1)

Sau khi chuyn i (1) ta c:


T cc cu hnh h thng vi b vi x l d
phng biu th cho kh nng hot ng khng
c s tht bi h thng vit nh sau:

K hiu:
p: kh nng hot ng khng c s tht bi
ca mi b x l.
q: xc sut tht bi ca mt b x l.

8
Hnh 2: Cu hnh h thng vi d phng
1: Cu hnh ban u; 2-9: Cu hnh vi d phng

60

L Quang Minh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Trong :
Pi - xc sut tht bi ca phn t th i (b x
l) trong h thng
N - s lng cc b vi x l trong h thng
d - s lng cc cp vi x l bn sao trong h
thng.
T biu thc (2), chng ta s nhn c biu
thc xc sut hot ng khng c s tht bi
ca mi mt cu hnh ca h thng cho trn
hnh 2.
;

122(08): 59 - 66

khng c bo v ch ng l 5. Do , xc
sut tht bi ca h thng phn ny p5.
Tnh ton xc sut hot ng khng tht bi
cho phn b bt bi lp AP v bao gm bn
b vi x l. Nguyn tc linh hot nht ca AP
- tc l bng cch AP xc nh li b vi x l
kim sot v kim sot u tin thp c s
dng. R rng kh nng hot ng khng c
s tht bi ny l mt phn ca h thng h
bng tng xc sut hot ng ca c bn b vi
x l (4) v xc sut hot ng ca ba trong
s bn b vi x l.
Trong : 1AP - pht hin xc sut tht bi
mt tng AP khi xy ra. Biu thc cui cng
biu th cho kh nng hot ng khng c s
tht bi ca h thng vi cu hnh s 10 c
th vit nh sau:

Tng t nh vy, biu thc th hin cho kh


nng hot ng khng c s tht bi ca h
thng vi cu hnh s 11:
M hnh bi ton d phng bo v tch cc
Cng vi m hnh bi ton h thng my tnh
trn, chng ta s s dng phng n th hai
p dng d phng bo v tch cc (AP) [5]
cho h thng. Cc cu hnh h thng khi p
dng APc th hin trong hnh 3.
Chng ta xem xt mt cu hnh th hin cho
kh nng hot ng khng c s tht bi ca
cu hnh s 10, nh th hin trong hnh 3. S
b x l khng d phng trong h thng m

11

10

14

Gi nh 2P - kh nng pht hin xc sut


tht bi cho hai cp AP. H thng sau khi tht
bi hai cp u tin AP s c chuyn
thnh n cp AP. Ngoi ra, gi nh rng n
cp AP l mt h qu ca s bin i trong
hai cp AP v ban u hai cp AP c to ra
vi vic s dng cc nguyn tc linh hot nht
ca AP - tc l AP xc nh li b vi x l kim
sot v kim sot u tin thp.

12

15

13

16

Hnh 3: Cu hnh h thng vi AP

61

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Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 59 - 66

Cho cc gi nh v k hiu chng ta nhn c biu thc tnh xc sut ca kh nng hot ng
ca h thng khng c s tht bi vi cu hnh s 12, 13 nh sau:

Gi nh 3P - kh nng pht hin xc sut tht bi cho ba cp AP. H thng sau khi tht bi ba
cp u tin AP s c chuyn thnh hai cp AP, khi tht bi hai cp AP s c
chuyn thnh n cp AP. Vi cc gi nh v k hiu nh trn, ta nhn c biu thc tnh xc
sut ca kh nng hot ng ca h thng khng c s tht bi cu hnh 14-16 nh sau:

Vi
;
xut m hnh bi ton kt hp d phng truyn thng v d phng bo v tch cc
Cu hnh tng ng vi kt hp xy dng phng n chu li h thng c hin th trong hnh 4.

17

20

18

21

19

22

Hnh 4: Cu hnh h thng vi AP v nhn bn

Cho cc gi nh v k hiu vit biu thc tnh xc sut ca kh nng hot ng h thng khng
c s tht bi vi cu hnh s 17-23:

Vi

62

L Quang Minh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 59 - 66

Tng ng vi cc cu hnh h thng s 1-22, ta xc nh ccc biu thc xc sut hot


ng khng c s tht bi ca h thng P [1] P[22]. Vi P[1] P[9]: biu thc xc sut hot ng
khng c s tht bi ca mi mt cu hnh h thng khi p dng phng php d phng truyn
thng; P[10] P[16]: biu thc xc sut hot ng khng c s tht bi ca mi mt cu hnh h
thng khi p dng AP. P[17] P[22]: biu thc xc sut hot ng khng c s tht bi ca mi mt
cu hnh h thng khi p dng kt hp d phng truyn thng v AP.
Khi tnh ton xc sut P[i] (i = 1 .. 22) c s dng cc u vo sau: thi gian hot ng phn
phi xc sut ca mi b vi x l trong h thng tng ng vi theo cp s nhn P(t) = exp(-t);
t l tht bi = 7*10-7 h-1 [2]; 1P =0,8; 2P =1-(1- 1P)2=0,96; 3P =1-(1- 1P)3= 0,992;
1=0,8; thi gian hot ng h thng - 61.320 gi (7 nm).
Vi cc u vo nh trn, ta c bng xc sut hot ng khng c s tht bi ca h thng tng
ng vi mi mt cu hnh nh sau.
Cu hnh

1 nm

2 nm

3 nm

4 nm

5 nm

6 nm

7 nm

S 1

0,9521

0,9065

0,8631

0,8218

0,7825

0,7450

0,7094

S 2

0,9556

0,9133

0,8728

0,8341

0,7971

0,7618

0,7280

S 3

0,9592

0,9200

0,8825

0,8465

0,8120

0,7789

0,7472

S 4

0,9627

0,9268

0,8923

0,8591

0,8272

0,7964

0,7668

S 5

0,9663

0,9337

0,9023

0,8719

0,8426

0,8143

0,7870

S 6

0,9698

0,9406

0,9123

0,8849

0,8584

0,8326

0,8077

S 7

0,9734

0,9476

0,9225

0,8981

0,8744

0,8514

0,8290

S 8

0,9770

0,9546

0,9327

0,9115

0,8907

0,8705

0,8508

S 9

0,9806

0,9617

0,9431

0,9250

0,9074

0,8901

0,8732

S 10

0,9649

0,9309

0,8978

0,8656

0,8345

0,8042

0,7749

S 11

0,9732

0,9467

0,9207

0,8950

0,8697

0,8449

0,8205

S 12

0,9769

0,9541

0,9316

0,9094

0,8876

0,8662

0,8450

S 13

0,9795

0,9594

0,9395

0,9198

0,9005

0,8814

0,8625

S 14

0,9805

0,9613

0,9424

0,9237

0,9054

0,8873

0,8696

S 15

0,9764

0,9524

0,9280

0,9035

0,8788

0,8540

0,8294

S 16

0,9901

0,9797

0,9686

0,9568

0,9444

0,9313

0,9177

S 17

0,9758

0,9500

0,9230

0,8951

0,8666

0,8378

0,8089

S 18

0,9805

0,9611

0,9420

0,9230

0,9042

0,8856

0,8673

S 19

0,9841

0,9684

0,9529

0,9375

0,9223

0,9073

0,8924

S 20

0,9877

0,9754

0,9631

0,9507

0,9383

0,9259

0,9135

S 21

0,9800

0,9594

0,9384

0,9169

0,8952

0,8732

0,8512

S 22

0,9938

0,9869

0,9794

0,9711

0,9620

0,9523

0,9418

Phn tch cc gi tr trong bng cho thy u im ca vic s dng AP so vi d phng truyn
thng vi cng mt s b vi x l cn thit. V d: cu hnh 4 v cu hnh 12 u s dng 3 b vi
x l d phng, tin cy ca cu hnh 4 sau 7 nm l 0,7668 trong khi cu hnh 12 t tin
cy l 0,8450.
C th nhn thy, vi cng mt s lng thit b d phng, AP kim sot bao gm hu ht cc
phn ca h thng (hoc pht hin li nhiu kh nng), do lm tng kh nng quan st ca h
63

L Quang Minh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 59 - 66

thng v cung cp ci gi l phng o - phng b vi x l chnh vi t nht mt phn t d phng


nng cao kh nng kim sot ca h thng.
Vi cu hnh s 12, khi ta p dng kt hp c d phng truyn thng v AP, ta c cc cu hnh
18, 20 vi tin cy c tng ln ln lt l 0,8673 v 0,9135.
Hnh 5 cho thy th ca xc sut kh nng hot ng khng c s tht bi h thng vi cu
hnh s 1, s 4, s 12, s 18, s 20 theo thi gian.

Hnh 5: th xc sut kh nng hot ng khng c s tht bi ca h thng vi cu hnh s 1, s 4, s


12, s 18, s 20 theo thi gian

Tip tc xem xt cc trng hp nhn bn ba cu hnh s 20,th hin trong hnh 6.

22

23

24

Hnh 6: Cu hnh h thng vi AP v nhn bn d phng chp ba

Biu th - xc sut ca cc b vi x l ba trong trng hp d phng chp ba; 2- pht hin


xc sut tht bi trong 3 b vi x l trong trng hp d phngchp ba. Chng ti tin rng sau
khi pht hin s tht bi ca mt b x l trong d phng chp ba s c chuyn n trng lp
vi kh nng pht hin chnh xc ca s tht bi trong mt cp 1.
Cho cc gi nh v k hiu, tng t:
Biu hin cho kh nng hot ng khng c s tht bi ca h thng vi cu hnh s 23-24 s
tnh nh sau:

Cu hnh s 23, 24 cung cp kh nng hot ng khng c s tht bi ca h thng l 0,9222 v


0,9390. Hnh 7 cho thy th ca xc sut hot ng khng c s tht bi h thng vi cu hnh
s 1, s 20, s 23, s 24.

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Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 59 - 66

Hnh 7: th xc sut kh nng hot ng khng c s tht bi ca h thng vi cu hnh s 1, s 20, s


23, s 24 theo thi gian

So vi cu hnh ban u, h thng sau khi d


phng vi AP kt hp nhn bn (cu hnh s
20, s 22, s 23, s 24) c tin cy tng t
28,78% - 32,77%. Hiu qu hn so vi vic
ch p dng d phng truyn thng hoc d
phng bo v tch cc.
KT LUN
Bi bo a ra phng php tip cn hp
l nht nng cao tin cy ca h thng l
s dng phng php d phng truyn thng
v phng php d phng tch cc (nhn bn
ba) b vi x l kim sot kt hp vi b vi
x l bo mt d liu hot ng cp cao.
Kt qu nh gi cho thy xc sut tin cy
ca h thng trong sut 7 nm khng nh hn
0,9 m bo tin cy h thng:So vi cu
hnh ban u (cu hnh 1, tin cy ca h
thng sau 7 nm ch t: 0,7094), h thng
sau khi d phng (cu hnh s 16, s 20, s
23, s 24, s 22) c tin cy t trong
khong 0,9177 0,9418 (tng t 28,78% 32,77%). Hiu qu hn so vi vic ch p
dng d phng truyn thng hoc d phng
bo v tch cc. Vic phn tch hiu qu

tin cy ca h thng v ng dng phng


php bo v ch ng nhm chng li nhng
tht bi trong vic kim sot phn cp cc h
thng tnh ton thi gian thc - th hin cho
kh nng hot ng khng c s tht bi ca
h thng vi cc cu hnh khc nhau.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Phan Vn Khi (2001), C s nh gi tin
cy, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut.
2. Nguyn Duy Vit (4/2011), Tnh tin cy
ca h thng khng phc hi, tp ch Khoa hc
Giao thng Vn ti, tr2-4.
3. .. .

//.:, 1993,
-284.
4.

..


// .: ,
1978, - 55.
5. Le Quang Minh, .., ...,
, (2007)

65

L Quang Minh v tg

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122(08): 59 - 66

SUMMARY
DEVELOPMENT OF PROVISION METHOD
TO ENHANCE SYSTEM RELIABILITY
Le Quang Minh1, Trieu Xuan Hoa2*, Tran Thanh Thuong3
2College

1College of Engineering and Technology VNU,


of Agriculture and Forestry TNU, 3Thai Nguyen University

Reality plays an important role in technical development, enhancing reality can prevent some
problems in the system. In theory of system reality, lots of solutions have been proposed to
enhance reality of a system from unreality components: traditional standby, active protection
standby... In this article, both standby solutions are combined to get an optimal reality system.
Keywords: Reliability, Traditional Standby, Active Protection

Ngy nhn bi:12/7/2014; Ngy phn bin:26/7/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. V c Thi Trng i hc Cng ngh Thng tin & Truyn thng - HTN
*

Tel: 0944 550007

66

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Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 67 - 71

THIT LP QUAN H GIA M UN BIN DNG CA T T KT QU


TH NGHIM TRONG PHNG V HIN TRNG
Dng Vit H*, Chu Vn Tm, Ma Vn Ngc
Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip - H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Hin nay, tnh ton bin dng ca nn t di tc dng ca ti trng cng trnh hu ht da vo
kt qu th nghim trong phng khng xt n s n hng ca t. Do , kt qu tnh ton d bo
ln ca cng trnh cn nhiu tranh lun v chnh xc. c nhng s liu tin cy, nhm tc gi
tin hnh th nghim hin trng mt s cng trnh ti Thi Nguyn theo phng php th
nghim bn nn xc nh m un bin dng hin trng s dng tnh ton bin dng ca nn
t di mng cng trnh. Kt qu nghin cu thit lp c mi quan h gia m un bin
dng ca t t th nghim trong phng v hin trng. t st pha trng thi do cng vi h s
rng trung bnh e = 0,85 th kE = 3 3,8. t st pha trng thi na cng vi h s rng trung bnh
e = 0,75 th kE = 2,7 4,5 .
T kha: m un bin dng, th nghim, hin trng, ln, t st pha

T VN *
Ngy nay, nhiu cng trnh nh cao tng c
xy dng khu vc thnh ph Thi Nguyn
nn cn phi tnh ton chnh xc bin dng
ca t nn m bo cng , n nh
cho cng trnh. Trong giai on thit k ban
u ch c s liu t kt qu th nghim trong
phng cho nn qu trnh tnh ton bin
dng s khc bit rt nhiu so vi thc t. V
vy, vic xy dng mi quan h gia m un
bin dng t kt qu th nghim trong phng
v hin trng l ht sc cn thit. T ,
gip cho ngi thit k c th da vo kt qu
th nghim trong phng iu chnh v tnh
ton bin dng ca nn mng cng trnh c
chnh xc v ph hp vi thc t nn t cng
trnh ti Thi Nguyn.
PHNG PHP TH NGHIM.
Th nghim nn c kt
Nguyn l th nghim v thit b

gy ra chuyn v ng. Chuyn v ng c


o bng ng h bin dng c chnh xc
n 0,01mm gn trc tip ln np gia ti.
Cch th nghim
Ty theo ti trng ca cng trnh m cc cp
ti tc dng s c chn khc nhau, theo
chiu su c th da vo ti trng bn thn
ca ct t. Ti trng nn th nghim P c
tng dn tng cp, cp sau gp i cp trc
. Theo di bin dng nn trn ng h bin
dng di mi cp ti trng ngay sau 15 giy
tng ti. Di mi cp ti trng, ln c
theo di cho ti khi t n s n nh quy
c ( thng sau 24h ln khng qu 0,01mm)
Thi gian theo di bin dng khi phc ca
t ct pha v st pha c php gim bt hai
ln so vi lc tng ti. i vi t st th tiu
chun n nh v bin dng khi phc cng
c ly nh bin dng nn ln.

Mu t lm th nghim c dng hnh tr vi


chiu cao ln hn gp 1,5 - 2,0 ln ung
knh. i vi t loi st v t loi ct,
ng knh mu cho php khng nh hn
50mm. i vi t c ln si sn, ng knh
mu khng nn nh hn 70mm. Ti trng nn
1 chiu phn b u trn mu t ch c
*

Tel: 0982 096160, Email: hami.hakien@gmail.com

Hnh 1. S th nghim nn c kt

67

Dng Vit H v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Kt qu:
H s nn : a

en 1 en
Pn Pn 1

(1)

en-1 ,en: H s rng cp ti trng th n-1 v


n. P n-1 ,P n: p lc nn cp th n-1 v
n(KN/m2). : h s Poisson.
M un bin dng:

En 1, n (1

2 2 1 en 1
)(
)
1 an , n 1

(2)

Th nghim hin trng bng bn nn


Nguyn l th nghim v thit b
S dng tm nn (tm cng y phng hnh
vung) t ti v tr d nh t mng v
truyn qua tm nn vo t bn di nhng
ti trng thay i tng dn cho n khi t
c mc ch. Th nghim nhm xc nh
m un bin dng ca t nn trong phm vi
chiu dy gp 2-3 ln ng kch tm nn.
M un bin dng E c xc nh theo biu
lin h gia ln tm nn vi p lc tc
dng ln tm nn.
Thit b th nghim bn nn tnh chnh gm
bn nn hay tm nn, thit b cht ti, neo gi,
kch thy lc, ng h o bin dng c m
t nh Hnh 2.
Cch th nghim: y tm nn tht kht
vi t, phi xoay tm nn khng t hn 2
vng theo cc hng quanh trc thng ng.
Sau khi t phi kim tra mc nm ngang
ca tm nn. Mt t trong phm vi t tm
nn phi san phng. H o c su ti
thiu l 40cm, kch thc ngang phi ln hn
ng kch hoc cnh ca tm nn khng qu
10cm. Khi cn phi gia c vch h o ny.
Sau khi t tm nn, tin hnh lp thit b
cht ti, thit b neo v h thng neo. Vng k
kim tra c lp trn h mc chun. Dy ca
vng k kim tra c gn vo mc khng di
ng t ngoi thnh th nghim.
Tng ti trng ln tm nn thnh tng cp P
ty theo loi t th nghim v trng thi t.
Tng s cc cp gia ti c chn ph thuc
vo loi ti trng d kin ca cng trnh
truyn xung, khng c t hn 4 ln k t
gi tr tng ng vi cp p lc do trng
68

122(08): 67 - 71

lng bn thn ca t ti cao trnh th


nghim. Gi tr ti trng ln nht c th chn
l Pmax = (1.5 2) sc chu ti thit k cho
mng nng. Gi mi cp gia ti n khi n
nh bin dng quy c ca t theo
TCXDVN. Thi gian gi mi cp gia ti tip
sau khng t hn thi gian gi cp trc. Ghi
s c cc bin dng k ti mi cp ti. Duy
tr th nghim cho n khi t thi ln.
Kt qu: H ng cong quan h ln
thi gian mi cp gia ti v ng cong
quan h ti trng ln cui cng

E (1 2 )d

P
S

(3)

P: Gia s p lc ln tm nn (Mpa). S: Gia


s ln ca tm nn(cm); d: kch thc
cnh bn nn vung hoc ng knh bn nn
trn; : h s Poisson; =0,42 i vi t st;
: h s hnh dng bn nn; = 0,88 bn nn
vung; = 0,79 bn nn trn.

1.Tm nn; 2.Kch thy lc; Dm nh v dc; 3.


cc cc neo vt
Hnh 2. S thit b th nghim t trong h
o bng gia ti tnh

THIT LP MI QUAN H M UN
BIN DNG T TH NGHIM HIN
TRNG V TRONG PHNG.
Nhm tc gi tin hnh th nghim ti 5 cng
trnh thuc khu vc thnh ph Thi Nguyn
nhn thy t st pha gp c 5 cng trnh.
Kt qu th nghim trong phng
Thc hin th nghim nn c kt c cc ch
tiu c l ca mu t nn trong phng. Kt
qu th nghim ca cng trnh c tng hp
theo bng 1, v cc biu quan h ng sut
p lc nn th hin trn hnh 3.

Dng Vit H v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 67 - 71

Bng 1. Kt qu th nghim trong phng cc ch tiu c l ca t mt s cng trnh khu trung tm TPTN
W

Wch

Wd

Id

Is

g/cm3

g/cm3

g/cm3

kG/cm2

30.2

1.88

1.44

2.70

0.875

47

39.9

24.5

15.4

0.4

12o08'

0.180

30.2

1.88

1.44

2.70

0.873

47

39.9

24.5

15.4

0.4

14o10'

0.190

30.3

1.89

1.47

2.68

0.811

45

37.1

21.2

16.0

0.4

11o51'

0.196

28.0

1.90

1.48

2.70

0.828

45

37.7

23.2

14.5

0.3

13o47'

0.204

Trng C
KT-Ti
chnh

25.2

1.91

1.52

2.71

0.773

44

35.6

22.4

13.2

0.2

18o05'

0.230

24.2

1.91

1.53

2.71

0.732

43

37.3

24.0

13.3

0.0

19o35'

0.237

S Ti
nguyn mi
trng

24.5

1.91

1.54

2.71

0.751

43

37.4

23.4

13.9

0.1

17o06'

0.223

22.2

1.84

1.51

2.70

0.775

44

32.7

18.8

13.9

0.2

16o23

0.256

Trng
Chnh
tr TN

26.6

1.90

1.50

2.71

0.809

44

35.7

22.3

13.4

0.3

14o17'

0.201

28.1

1.91

1.49

2.72

0.822

45

36.0

20.9

15.1

0.5

17o38

0.219

Cng trnh
TT thng
mi TN

Ban QLDA
S GTVT

eo

0,85

H s rng e

H s rng e

0,9
0,85
0,8

0,75
0,7

0.7

0.65
5

10
20 40
p lc P(T/m2)

0,8

80

10
20 40
p lc P(T/m2)

0,7
0.65

10
20 40
p lc P(T/m2)

80

H s rng e

0,75

80

0,85

0,85
H s rng e

H s rng e

0,8

0,75
0

0.6

Loi
t
St pha
do
cng
do
cng
do
cng
do
cng
na
cng
na
cng
na
cng
na
cng
do
cng
do
cng

0,8
0,75

0,8
0,75

0,7

0,7

0.65

0.65
0

10
20 40
p lc P(T/m2)

80

10
20 40
p lc P(T/m2)

80

Hnh 3. Quan h e-P trong th nghim nn c kt

Kt qu th nghim hin trng


Kt qu th nghim bn nn tnh hin trng
c biu din thng qua cc cp p lc nn
v ln tng ng hnh 4.
Mi quan h m un bin dng t th
nghim hin trng v trong phng
Xc nh bin dng ca cng trnh i hi
chnh xc cao bi bin dng ca nn v mng
nh hng n n nh ca cng trnh.
Chnh v th phi tin hnh xy dng mi
quan h m un bin dng hin trng v m
un bin dng trong phng kE = Etp/Eht xc
nh bin dng thc t cng trnh mt cch

chnh xc.Kt qu xy dng mi quan h gia


m un bin dng hin trng v m un bin
dng trong phng kE c tng hp trong
bng 2,3,4,5 v 6 ng vi mi cp p lc nn
cho 5 cng trnh thc hin nghin cu. Kt
qu m un bin dng t th nghim trong
phng v hin trng c s khc bit ln
nguyn nhn chnh l mu t hin trng
c hin tng n hng trong qu trnh nn
cn mu t trong phng th nghim nn c
kt th khng n hng. Tng hp kt qu thu
nhn c khi so snh m un bin dng thu
c t th nghim nn c kt v th nghim
hin trng ng vi st pha, trng thi do
69

Dng Vit H v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

cng e = (0,8090,875) th kE = 33,8 v st


pha, trng thi na cng e = (0,7320,775)
th kE = 2,7 4,5.
p lc P(T/m2)
0

40

20

60

80

122(08): 67 - 71

Bng 4. Mi quan h kE ti cng trnh:


Trng Cao ng Kinh t - Ti chnh
Cp
nn
P

M un bin dng(T/m2)
Nn c
Bn
kt(Etp)
nn(Eht)

kE

Etp
Eht

0,01

0
5
10
20
40
80

ln S(m)

0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06

20

p lc P(T/m2)
40

80

0,01

0,01

0,02

0,02

0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06

p lc P(T/m2)
40

Cp
nn
P

0,04
0,05

p lc P(T/m2)
40
20

80

p lc P(T/m2)
40
20

80

0
0,01
0,02

ln S(m)

0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06

0,03
0,04

M un bin dng(T/m2)
Nn c kt
Bn nn
(Etp)
(Eht)

Cp
nn
P

kE

Etp
Eht

M un bin dng(T/m2)
Nn c
Bn
kt(Etp)
nn(Eht)

kE

Etp
Eht

0
5
10
20
40
80

M un bin dng(T/m2)
Nn c
Bn
kt(Etp)
nn(Eht)
900
1523
2970
6182
7934
10845

3393
5666
10841
21142
26420
34704

kE

Etp
Eht

3.77
3.72
3.65
3.42
3.33
3.2

1100
2470
3678
5754
8935
13668

4774
10226
13020
18701
26805
37450

4.34
4.14
3.54
3.25
3.0
2.74

Bng 6. Mi quan h kE ti cng trnh:


Trng Chnh tr Thi Nguyn

0,06

0
1200
4488
3.74
5
1723
6341
3.68
10
2170
7465
3.44
20
3182
9896
3.11
40
6934
21357
3.08
80
9845
29732
3.02
Bng 3. Mi quan h kE ti cng trnh: Ban qun
l d n S Giao thng vn ti
Cp
nn
P

0
5
10
20
40
80

0,05

Hnh 4. Kt qu th nghim bn nn tnh hin trng


Bng 2. Mi quan h kE ti cng trnh: Trung tm
thng mi Thi Nguyn

70

4.5
4.24
4.36
4
3.75
2.7

Bng 5. Mi quan h kE ti cng trnh:


S Ti nguyn Mi trng

80

0,03

8100
10854
14728
22936
37256
31503

0,06

ln S(m)

20

ln S(m)

ln S(m)

1800
2560
3378
5734
9935
11668

Cp
nn
P

M un bin dng(T/m2)
Nn c
Bn
kt(Etp)
nn(Eht)

0
5
10
20
40
80

1570
2580
3478
5634
9845
12578

5966
9469
12347
18254
29732
37734

kE

Etp
Eht

3.8
3.67
3.55
3.24
3.02
3.0

KT LUN
- i vi st pha trng thi do cng vi h
s rng trung bnh e = 0,85 chnh lch v m
un bin dng t th nghim hin trng v
th nghim trong phng kE t 3 n 3,8 ln.
- i vi st pha trng thi na cng vi h
s rng trung bnh e = 0,75 chnh lch v m
un bin dng t th nghim hin trng v
th nghim trong phng kE t 2,7 n 4,5 ln.
- i vi cp p lc cng ln th s chnh
lch ny cng gim.

Dng Vit H v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Cng ty t vn Xy dng Thi nguyn, 2012,
Cc bo co kho st a cht cng trnh xy dng.
2. John Willey & Sons, 1997, Basic soil
mechanics, New York
3. K yu hi ngh khoa hc v cng ngh ln
th 12.

122(08): 67 - 71

4. Phan Hng Qun, 2006, C hc t, nh xut


bn xy dng
5. Trung tm Kim nh cht lng Xy dng
Thi Nguyn, 2011, Cc bo co kho st a cht
cng trnh xy dng
6. TCVN 9354:2012, t xy dng Phng
php xc nh m un bin dng ti hin trng
bng tm nn phng, Nxb Xy dng, H ni.

SUMMARY
ESTABLISHING A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFORMATION MODULE
OF SOILS FROM THE RESULTS OF LABORATORY AND FIELD- TEST
Duong Viet Ha*, Chu Van Tam, Ma Van Ngoc
College of Technology TNU

Currently, most designs are usually based on the results of laboratory experiments to calculate the
deformation of the soil. Therefore, the calculated results have much trouble accuracy. The authors
carried out a field - test in a number of works in Thai Nguyen, the authors use a static compression
test method for determining the deformation field module. The research results have established
the relationship between soil deformation modulus from laboratory experiments and field-test.
Clay, hard plastic state, with e = 0.85 3.8 kE = 3 3,8. Clay, semi-hard state, with e = 0,75
kE = 2,7 4,5.
Keywords: deformation module, laboratory, field-test, subsidence, clay

Ngy nhn bi:16/7/2014; Ngy phn bin:30/7/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: ThS. Li Ngc Hng Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip - HTN
*

Tel: 0982 096160, Email: hami.hakien@gmail.com

71

Dng Vit H v tg

72

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 67 - 71

Trng Th Tho v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 73 - 77

NGHIN CU KH NNG C CH N MN THP CT38 TRONG DUNG


DCH HCl 1M CA DCH CHIT CY THUC L THI NGUYN
Trng Th Tho*, Nguyn Th Cc
Trng i hc Khoa hc - H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Dch chit nc l cy thuc l trng ti Thi Nguyn c chit li bng mt h cc dung mi
c phn cc tng dn v dch nc cui cng c s dng lm cht c ch n mn cho thp
CT38 trong dung dch HCl 1M. Th nghim n mn thc hin bng cc php o in ha v
phng php quan st vi m. Kt qu thc nghim cho thy hiu qu c ch n mn tng ng k
so vi s dng dch chit nc l thuc l lm cht c ch n mn m khng chit li qua h thng
dung mi, t khong 64% ln khong 77% . Tnh ton nhit ng hc cho thy, c ch c ch n
mn l c ch hp ph, qu tnh hp ph thuc hp ph vt l, t din bin v tun theo m hnh
hp ph ng nhit Langmuir.
T kha: c ch n mn, dch chit thuc l, thp

M U*
Qu trnh n mn kim loi hu ht lm suy
gim tnh cht v kh nng ng dng ca vt
liu kim loi ni chung, dn n nhiu tn
tht cho nn kinh t cng nh nh hng n
sc khe con ngi v mi trng. S dng
cht c ch l mt trong nhng bin php n
gin m li hiu qu nhm hn ch qu trnh
n mn kim loi xy ra. Mt trong nhng xu
hng hin nay l tm kim cc cht c ch
thn thin mi trng v con ngi. Nhiu
nghin cu chng minh dch chit cy
trng c th s dng lm cht c ch xanh [19].

phn b sau c ngm tip 15h ri em


lc. Gom c 3 phn dch lc, em c cch
thu cho n khi thu c dch chit c
snh. Dch chit ny tip tc c chit ln
lt bng cc dung mi: n-hexan, iclometan,
etylaxetat, n-butanol theo t l 250ml dch
chit: 50ml dung mi trn trong my khuy t
30 pht, chuyn vo phu chit lng phn
pha 30 pht v chit ly phn dch nc. Mi
dung mi tin hnh ba ln. Dch chit cui
cng sau khi chit bng n-butanol c dng
lm cht c ch n mn cho thp CT38 trong
dung dch HCl 1M cc nng 0,25 n
5,00g/l.

Nhm tng kh nng c ch n mn thp


trong dung dch HCl 1M ca dch chit cy
thuc l, chng ti tin hnh loi tr cc
thnh phn km hot ng in ha trong
dch chit nc l thuc l bng nhiu dung
mi v tip tc nh gi kh nng c ch n
mn ca sn phm ny.
THC NGHIM
iu ch cht c ch n mn
L cy thuc l thu hi ti La Hin, V Nhai,
Thi Nguyn vo thng 10 c ra sch,
phi kh ri xay nh, ngm trong nc ct ti
nhit phng, sau 15h em lc chit ln 1,
phn b em ngm tip 15h ri lc ln 2,
*

Tel: 0915 216469, Email: thao.truong671@gmail.com

Hnh 1: Mu nghin cu

Chun b mu
Mu thp Thi Nguyn c thnh phn 97,5%
Fe; 0,021%C; 0,652%Si; 1,630%Mn; 0,197%
(P,S,Co,Cu,Al,Nb,Sn) c ch to thnh
mu trn ng knh 1cm (hnh 1) dng lm
in cc lm vic trong cc php th nghim
in ho v chp nh hin vi quang hc SEM.
73

Trng Th Tho v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Cc in cc trc khi lm vic c mi


bng giy nhm t th n mn, ra sch, ty
du m thm t hon ton ri lm kh trc
khi t vo dung dch nghin cu.
o c
Cc php o in ho c thc hin trn
thit b o tng tr Par star 2273, vi h 3
in cc: Cc lm vic WE l in cc ch
to t thp Thi Nguyn, in cc so snh l
in cc Ag/AgCl trong KCl bo ho, in
cc ph l in cc Pt ti phng n mn,
vin Khoa hc Vt liu, Vin Hn lm Khoa
hc v Cng ngh Vit Nam. Cc php o
bao gm o in th mch h (Ur), o in
tr phn cc (xung quanh khong th
Ur25mV, tc qut 0,5mV/s), o tng tr
in ho EIS c tin hnh theo ch o:
thi gian n nh 10 pht, o trong di tn s
10kHz n 5mHz v 7 im/decade, o
ng cong phn cc (khong th -730mV
n -200mV, tc qut 3mV/s). nh hin vi
in t qut SEM c tin hnh trn my
JEOL 6490 ca Trung tm nh gi h hng
vt liu, Vin Khoa hc Vt liu, Vin Hn
lm Khoa hc v Cng ngh Vit Nam.
Cc th nghim c tin hnh sau khi ngm
mu trong dung dch nghin cu 60 pht. Mi
php th nghim gm 3 mu v ly kt qu
trung bnh.

122(08): 73 - 77

KT QU V THO LUN
Kt qu o in ha in ha
Hnh 2 cho ta thy cc ng cong phn cc
dng log v ph tng tr Nyquist ca thp
CT38 trong dung dch HCl 1M khi c v
khng c mt cht c ch.
Ph tng tr (Hnh 2a) thu c u c dng
bn nguyt hi b nn chng t qu trnh n
mn v dch chit thuc l c th to ra
mt lp sn phm trn b mt mu nhng
khng bm chc v ng u m c th dng
xp nn ph c dng nn. Gi tr tng tr
in cc trong dung dch nghin cu khi c
mt cht c ch tng mnh so vi khi khng
c cht c ch v khc nhau khng nhiu khi
nng cht c ch tng t 0,25 ti 5g/l .
ng cong phn cc dng log (Hnh 2b) cho
thy, khi nng dch chit thuc l tng dn
t 0,25 g/l 5,00 g/l th mt dng anot
gim dn, mt dng catot nng dch
chit thuc l nh 0,25g/l th khng thay i
so vi ng o trong dung dch nn, khi
nng dch chit thuc l tng t 0,5g/l 5
g/l th mt dng catot gim; Cng nng
cht c ch 0,25g/l th th n mn dch
sang pha dng hn so vi khi khng c cht
c ch, nhng khi nng dch chit thuc l
tng ln ( 0,5 g/l) th th n mn gim dn.
Nh vy, c th xem dch chit thuc l hot
ng nh cht c ch hn hp.

a. Ph tng tr Nyquist
b. ng cong phn cc dng log
Hnh 2: nh ph cc php o in ha tho CT38 trong dung dch Hcl 1M khi c v khng c mt dch
chit thuc l

74

Trng Th Tho v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 73 - 77

Kt qu tnh ton t ph Nyquist v cc php o phn cc th hin trong bng 1.


Bng 1: Cc thng s in ha ca thp CT38 trong mi trng HCl 1M c mt dch chit thuc l ti
cc nng khc nhau
Dung dch

Eam
(mV)

RP
()

HCl 1M 0g/l
HCl 1M - 0,25 g/l
HCl 1M 0,50g/l
HCl 1M 0,75g/l
HCl 1M 1,00g/l
HCl 1M 2,00g/l
HCl 1M 5,00g/l

-444
-462
-469
-471
-473
-475
-463

244
653
754
952
963
1018
1006

Hiu
sut bo
v (theo
RP)

79,53
31,75
27,71
18,53
17,96
17,72
17,08

62,63
67,64
74,37
74,63
76,03
75,74

D liu tnh ton t ba php o in ha cho


kt qu kh ph hp vi nhau: Ngay t nng
cht c ch 0,25g/l hiu qu c ch t
khong trn 60% v tng dn khi nng
dch chit tng dn; hiu qu bo v cao nht
t khong 75-77% ti nng 2,00g/l trong
khi hiu qu bo v ca dch chit thuc l
bng nc khng chit li qua cc dung mi
nng tng ng thp hn nhiu: nng
0,5g/l c hiu qu c ch khong 25%;
nng 1,00g/l l khong 47% v nng
5,00g/l mi l khong 64% [7]. iu cho
thy vic chit dch chit thu c qua cc
dung mi c phn cc tng dn lm
tng ng k hiu qu c ch n mn ca dch
chit l thuc l, c th do qu trnh chit
loi b bt cc cht km phn cc, cng l
cc cht km hot ng in ha v c d
on l hiu qu c ch n mn km.
Kt qu chp nh hin vi in t qut
SEM
Theo kt qu thu c t phng php in
ha cho thy nng 2,00g/l cht c ch c
hiu qu bo v thp cao nht. V vy, chng
ti tin hnh chp nh hin vi in t qut
SEM b mt mu thp CT38 ngm trong HCl
1M + 2,00g/l dch chit thuc l so snh
hnh thi hc vi mu trc khi ngm v mu
trong dung dch khng c dch chit thuc l.
nh hin vi quang hc thp CT38 sau khi ngm
trong dung dch nghin cu 60 pht vi
phng i 500 ln trnh by trn hnh 3.
T nh SEM nhn thy b mt ca thp CT38
trc khi ngm trong dung dch axit HCl 1M

iam
(A/
cm2)

Hiu
sut bo
v (theo
iam)
60,01
65,16
76,70
77,42
77,72
77,52

Tng
tr
(EIS)
()
174
530
630
550
630
710
670

Hiu sut
bo v
(theo
tng tr)
66,89
72,22
68,18
72,22
75,35
73,88

tng i ng u, b mt sng mn khng


b n mn. S xut hin ca nhng chm en
rt nh trn b mt l do khuyt tt ca vt
liu. Sau khi ngm trong dung dch HCl 1M
xut hin rt nhiu l v m mu nu trn b
mt chng t thp CT38 b n mn im
(pitting). Khi thm 2,00g/l dch chit thuc l
vo dung dch HCl 1M, b mt mu thay i
khng ng k so vi mu thp CT38 trc
khi ngm. Mc d qu trnh n mn c xy ra
nhng b mt mu xut hin rt t im n
mn so vi mu trong dung dch HCl 1M khi
khng c mt dch chit thuc l. iu ny
chng t s c mt dch chit thuc l 2 g/l
th kh nng hn ch n mn cho thp CT38
rt tt.
Tho lun v c ch c ch n mn v tnh
ton nhit ng hc qu trnh.
Theo mt s tc gi [2,3,4,6,8], c ch c ch
n mn ca cc cht c ch xanh c ngun
gc cy trng u l c ch hp ph. V kt
qu o in ha cho thy dch chit thuc l
hot ng nh mt cht c ch hn hp cng
cho php d on n s hp ph ln ton b
mt kim loi.
V mt l thuyt c rt nhiu m hnh hp
ph khc nhau, y chng ti gi s qu
trnh hp ph xy ra theo m hnh hp ph
ng nhit Langmuir, theo phng trnh:

KC
hay dng tuyn tnh l
1 KC

75

Trng Th Tho v tg

a, b mt thp CT38 trc khi


ngm

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

b, B mt thp CT38 sau khi ngm


trong dung dch HCl 1M 1h

122(08): 73 - 77

c, B mt thp CT38 sau khi


ngm trong dung dch HCl
+ 2,00g/l dch chit thuc l 1h

Hnh 3: nh hin vi in t qut SEM b mt thp CT38 trong cc iu kin khc nhau

Vi K l hng s cn bng hp ph, C l


nng cht b hp ph (cht c ch), l
phn b mt b che ph (coi lp hp ph l
n lp, coi qu trnh n mn l ng u
trn ton b mt kim loi, hiu qu bo v n
mn gi thit tng ng vi phn b mt
c ngn cch vi mi trng, tc phn b
mt b che ph, kim loi ch b n mn phn
b mt khng che ph, khi = Hiu sut
bo v/100)
Da vo bng 1 dng th biu din mi
quan h gia C/ v C ta c th hnh 4.

Hnh 4: ng hp ph ng nhit Langmuir ca


dch chit thuc l ln thp CT38 trong dung dch
HCl 1M

th dng c c h s tng quan R2 =


0,999 chng t s hp ph ca dch chit
thuc l (trong khong nng t 0,25g/l n
5,00g/l) ln b mt thp CT38 trong mi
trng HCl 1M tun theo m hnh hp ph
ng nhit Langmuir. Tuy nhin gi tr dc
(h s gc) khc 1 cho thy phng trnh
ng nhit hp ph khng c tun th
76

nghim ngt. S hp ph khng hon ton l


n lp. C th s dng mt phng trnh
hiu chnh c nhiu tc gi chp phn
[3,4,8] trong trng hp ny nh sau:

nC

n
K

Trong n l lch ca h s gc. Khi ,


d dng tnh c hng s cn bng hp ph
K = 26,14. T hng s cn bng thu ta tnh
c th ng nhit ng p qu trnh hp
ph Go theo phng trnh:
Go = -2.303RTlog(55.5xK)
Vi R l hng s kh, T l nhit thc
nghim = 298K, 55,5 l nng mol/l ca
dung mi nc.
Thay s thu c Go = -17,94kJ/mol. Kt
qu ny cho thy qu trnh hp ph ca dch
chit thuc l ln b mt thp CT38 trong
dung dch HCl 1M l qu trnh t din bin.
Hn na, theo cc tc gi [3,4,8], khi gi tr
tuyt i ca Go nh hn 40kJ/mol th qu
trnh hp ph xy ra l theo c ch hp ph
vt l. Nh vy qu trnh hp ph xy ra
thun li v hn ch c s n mn ca
thp CT38 trong mi trng ny.
KT LUN
1. Dch chit thuc l chit bng nc sau khi
chit li bng mt h thng dung mi vi
phn cc tng dn tng ng k kh nng
bo v thp CT38 khi n mn trong mi
trng HCl 1M.

Trng Th Tho v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

2. Hiu qu bo v kim loi kh cao, khong


60% ngay t nng dch chit nh (0,25g/l)
v tng dn khi nng dch chit tng dn.
3. C ch hot ng ca cht c ch l cht
c ch hn hp, hot ng theo c ch hp
ph v tun theo m hnh hp ph ng nhit
Langmuir. Qu trnh hp ph thuc loi hp
ph vt l, t xy ra.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. A.M. Abdel-Gaber, B.A Abd-El Nabey, E.
Khamis, and D.E. Abd El-khalek (2005), Novel
Environmentally Friendly Plant Extract as Antiscale and Corrosion, The 24th Annual Conference
Corrosion Problems In Industry 5-8 December
2005, Egyp Inhibitor.
2.
A.Y.El-Etr,
M.Ab.Dallah,
Z.E.lTantawy((2005), Corrosion inhibition of some
metals using lawsonia extract, Corrosion Scince
47, 385-395.
3. Ambrish Singh, V. K. Singh, and M. A.
Quraishi(2010), Water Extract of Kalmegh
(Andrographis paniculata ) Leaves as Green Inhibitor
forMild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution,
International Journal of Corrosion, V 2010.
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijc/2010/275983/

122(08): 73 - 77

4. K.O.Orubite, N.C.Oforka (2004), Inhibition of


the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid
solutions by the extracts of leaves of Nypa
fruticans Wurb, Materials Letters, vol. 58, no. 11,
pp 1768-1772.
5. P.T.Giang, V.T.T.Ha and L.Q.Hung (2009),
Screening Vietnamese natural products for new
environmentally friendly materials for corrosion
protection, International scientific conference on
Chemistry for Developmant and Integration,
September, HaNoi, 977-985.
6. Sheyreese M. Vincent et Cyril B, Okhio (2005),
Inhibiting corrosion with green tea, The Journal
of Corrosion Science and Engineering, Vol. 7.
7. Trng Th Tho, Ng T Uyn, V Th Thu
H, L Quc Hng (2009), Kh nng c ch n
mn mt s kim loi ca dch chit cy thuc l
trng Thi Nguyn
Tp ch Ha hc,
T.47(5A), 146 150.
8.
V.K
P.Kumar,
M.S.N.Pillai,
R.G.Thusnavis(2011), Green corrosion inhibitor
from seed extract Areca catechu for mild steel in
hydrochloric acid medium, J.materials science,
Vol. 46(15), 5208-5215.
9. Von Fraunhofer, J. Anthony (2000), Inhibiting
Corrosion with Tobacco, Advanced Meterials
and Processes, Vol.56, 33 36.

SUMMARY
STUDY THE CORROSION INHIBITION ABILITY OF THAI NGUYEN TOBACO
LEAVES EXTRACT FOR CT38 STEEL IN 1M HCL THE SOLUTION
Truong Thi Thao*, Nguyen Thi Cuc
College of Science - TNU

Extracts from Thai Nguyen Tobacco were prepared by extracting dried leave powder using
distilled water. After that, extracts were extracted respectively by solvents which increased
polarization. The final water extract is used as corrosion inhibitor for CT38 steel in 1M HCl
solution. The corrosion inhibition has been studied using electrochemical methods and
microscopic observation. The obtained results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency
increases significantly compare with using water extract of tobacco leaves which were not
extracted by solvents, from approximately 64% to 77%. Thermodynamic consideration reveals that
adsorption of Thai Nguyn tobaco extract on mild steel surface is spontaneous and occurs
according to Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Physical adsorption mechanism has been proposed for
the adsorption of the inhibitor from the values of thermodynamic parameter.
Keywords: Corrosion inhibitor, Thai Nguyen tobacco extract

Ngy nhn bi:04/6/2014; Ngy phn bin:18/6/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS Tr Hng Trng i hc S phm - HTN
*

Tel: 0915 216469, Email: thao.truong671@gmail.com

77

Trng Th Tho v tg

78

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 73 - 77

Nguyn ng c v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 79 - 86

XC NH KM V MANGAN TRONG CH XANH THI NGUYN


BNG PHNG PHP PH HP TH NGUYN T F-AAS
Nguyn ng c1*, Th Nga2
1Trng

2Trng

i hc Khoa hc H Thi Nguyn,


i hc Cng ngh Thng tin & Truyn thng H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Thi Nguyn l khu vc sn xut ch v c nhiu khu cng nghip, khai thc khong sn, do
ngun t, nc sn xut nng nghip gn khu cng nghip, khai thc khong sn thng b
nhim kim loi nng [1]. Hin nay vic xc nh hm lng cc ion kim loi nng trong ch xanh
Thi Nguyn cn t c nghin cu. Nhu cu kim tra mc nhim ch xanh bi cc kim
loi nng l rt cn thit. V vy vic nghin cu xc nh hm lng Zn v Mn trong ch xanh
c tin hnh nh phn tch ph hp th nguyn t. T kt qu thc nghim, chng ti thy mc
nhim ca Zn v Mn u di gii hn cho php theo tiu chun Vit Nam.
T kho: Zn, Mn, xc nh, kim loi nng, nhim, tiu chun Vit Nam.

T VN *
Hin nay vic xc nh hm lng cc ion
kim loi nng c trong ch xanh Thi
Nguyn cn t c nghin cu. Nhu cu
kim tra mc nhim ch xanh bi cc
kim loi nng l rt cn thit. V vy, sn
xut ch an ton cn kho st nh gi hin
trng mt s ch tiu kim loi nng trong ch
trn khu vc ny. Chng ti nghin cu
Phng php ph hp th nguyn t FAAS xc nh hm lng Km v Mangan
trong ch xanh Thi Nguyn. Trong bi
bo ny chng ti gii thiu cc kt qu
nghin cu Zn, Mn trong ch xanh thuc 20
x ca 7 khu vc tnh Thi Nguyn.
THC NGHIM
Ho cht
- Dung dch chun Zn2+; Mn2+ dng cho AAS
(1000ppm, Merck).
- Axit c HCl 36%; HNO3 65%; H2O2 30%
(Merck).
- Dung dch cc cation kim loi tinh khit
(PA).
- Dung dch ra sufocromic (hn hp H 2SO4
c v K2Cr2O7).
Dng c
- Cc thu tinh loi 50; 100; 150; 500 ml.
*

Tel: 0912 477836, Email: ducpt1989@gmail.com

- Bnh nh mc: 10; 25; 50; 100; 250; 500;


1000 ml.
- Pipetman: 0,5; 1; 2; 5; 10 l.
- Bnh Kendal; l ng mu 25 ml.
Trang thit b
- My quang ph hp th nguyn t
Shimadzu AA 6300.
- My xay; t sy; t ht.
- My ct nc hai ln Aquatron A4000D.
- Cn phn tch.
Cc trang thit b ny u c thc hin
phng th nghim Khoa Ho hc- Trng i
hc Khoa hc HTN.
KT QU V THO LUN
Kho st cc iu kin o ph F AAS ca
Zn v Mn, chng ti thu c bng 1.
Kho st cc yu t nh hng n php
o F-AAS
Kho st nh hng ca nng axit v
loi axit
Kho st nh hng ca axit i vi Km:
Chng ti tin hnh kho st i vi dung
dch Zn2+ 1ppm trong axit HCl v HNO 3 vi
nng bin thin t 1 n 3%. Cc kt
qu c ch ra, nng HCl, HNO 3 trong
dung dch mu <3% khng nh hng ti
php o ph ca Zn. Trong nng
HNO3 2% v HCl 1% cho kt qu c lp
li cao, n nh nht.
79

Nguyn ng c v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 79 - 86

Bng 1. Tng kt cc iu kin o ph F-AAS ca Zn v Mn


Nguyn t
Cc yu t
Vch ph hp th (nm)
Khe o (nm)
Thng Cng dng n (mA)
s my Kh mi trng
Chiu cao burner (mm)
Tc dn kh axetylen
Thnh Nng HNO3 (%)
phn Nn mu (Modiffy)
Lng mu np (l)
Gii hn pht hin (ppm)
Gii hn nh hng (ppm)
Vng tuyn tnh (ppm)
Chng trnh nguyn t ha
1. Sy mu

Zn
213,9
0,7
8(80%Imax)
Argon
7mm
2 lt/pht
2
Mg(NO3)2 0,01%
20
0,0465
0,1554
0,5-2,5
T(0C)
t(s)
120
20
250
10

2. Tro ha c RAMP

Kho st nh hng ca axit i vi


Mangan: Chng ti tin hnh kho st i vi
dung dch Mn2+ 1ppm trong cc axit HCl v
HNO3 vi nng bin thin t 1 n 3%.
Cc kt qu ch ra nng HCl, HNO3 trong
dung dch mu < 3% khng nh hng ti
php o ph ca Mn. Trong nng
HNO3 2% v HCl 1% cho kt qu c lp
li cao, n nh nht.
Tip theo chng ti tin hnh kho st
chn ra trong hai loi axit HCl 1% v HNO 3
2% th loi axit no t nh hng ti php o
ca Mn nht bng cch pha cc dung dch
vi nng bin thin ca Mn trong cc
nng axit chn. Kt qu cho thy
HNO3 2% cho hp th ca nguyn t cao
v cho kt qu n nh trong php o Mn
(ng vi th c thng v dc cao).
V vy trong qu trnh phn tch mu cc
nguyn t v Mn chng ti chn nn l
HNO3 2%.
Kho st nh hng ca cc cation
kim tra nh hng, vi mi nhm cation
chng ti chun b 5 mu bao gm Zn2+ 1ppm
hoc Mn2+ 1ppm v hm lng cc cation K+,
Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+ Pb2+, Cd2+,, Al3+,
80

Mn

400

22 -10

279,5
0,2
12 (60% Imax)
Argon
7mm
2 lt /pht
2
Mg(NO3)2 0,01%
20
0,1263
0,4209
5-10
T(0C)
t(s)
120
20
250
10
500

22-10

Cr3vi nng tng dn, nh mc v tin


hnh o ph thu c cho thy vi nng
K+ (1500ppm, Na+ (1200ppm), Mg2+
(200ppm), Ca2+ (200ppm), Ba2+ (50ppm),
Al3+ (50ppm), Cr3+(10ppm), Pb2+ (10ppm),
Cd2+ (10ppm), u khng nh hng n ph
F-AAS ca Zn2+ v Mn2+
Kho st s b thnh phn mu
Trong ch xanh c rt nhiu nguyn t tn ti
di dng caion v anion. Cn phi loi b
nh hng ca cc nguyn t n cng
vch ph hp th ca Zn2+ v Mn2+. Tc
gi ng Quc Trung [2] kho st thnh
phn mu vi ba mu ch xanh i din cho 8
nguyn t bng phng php ICP MS, kt
qu c dn ra bng 2.
Xy dng ng chun i vi php o
F-AAS
Kho st khong tuyn tnh
xc nh khong tuyn tnh ca Km v
Mangan, chng ti chun b mt dy mu
chun c nng bin thin t 0,05ppm
5ppm i vi Km v 0,5ppm 10ppm trong
HNO3 2%. Kt qu thu c trong bng 2, 3
v hnh 1, 2.

Nguyn ng c v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 79 - 86

Bng 2: Kt qu kho st khong nng tuyn tnh ca Km


Nng (ppm)

Ln 1
0,0173
0,0333
0,0624
0,2957
0,5224
0,6730
0,8989

0,05
0,1
0,2
1
2
2,5
5

Ln 2
0,0171
0,0326
0,0631
0,2953
0,5197
0,6692
0,8997

Abs - Zn
Ln 3
0,0172
0,0322
0,0605
0,2940
0,5137
0,6762
0,8999

%RSD

Trung bnh
0,0172
0,0327
0,0620
0,2950
0,5686
0,6728
0,8995

0,5814
1,7027
2,1699
0,3013
0,8587
0,5209
0,0588

Bng 3: Kt qu kho st khong nng tuyn tnh ca Mangan


Nng
(ppm)
0,5
1
2
4
5
10
12

Abs - Mn
Ln 2
0,0394
0,0781
0,1526
0,2868
0,3520
0,6578
0,7135

Ln 1
0,0391
0,0782
0,1484
0,2856
0,3550
0,6562
0,7024

B
1.0

Ln 3
0,0390
0,0763
0,1493
0,2873
0,3534
0,6597
0,7019

Trung bnh
0,0392
0,0775
0,1501
0,2866
0,3535
0,6579
0,7059

%RSD
0,5412
1,3807
1,4732
0,3052
0,4248
0,2663
0,9290

Qua th ta thy khong nng tuyn tnh


ca Mn l 0,5 10 ppm

0.8

Abs_Zn

B
Data1B

0.40

0.6

0.35
0.4

0.30

Linear Regression for Data1_B:


Y=A+B*X
Parameter
Value
Error
-----------------------------------------------------------A
0.00739
0.0023
B
0.0696
7.56422E-4
-----------------------------------------------------------R
SD
N
P
-----------------------------------------------------------0.99982 0.00293 5
<0.0001
------------------------------------------------------------

0.2

Abs_Mn

0.25
0.0

0.20
0.15

Conc_Zn
0.10

Hnh 1: th kho st khong nng tuyn


tnh khi xc nh Zn

Qua th ta thy khong nng tuyn tnh


ca Zn l 0,05 2,5ppm

0.05
0.00
0

Conc_Mn

Hnh 3: ng chun xc nh hm lng Zn


B
0.8

B
Data1B

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.4

Linear Regression for Data1_B:


Y=A+B*X
Parameter
Value
Error
-----------------------------------------------------------A
0.00538
0.00263
B
0.28317
0.00262
-----------------------------------------------------------R
SD
N
P
-----------------------------------------------------------0.99987 0.00439
5
<0.0001
------------------------------------------------------------

0.4

0.3

Abs_Zn

Abs_Mn

0.5

0.2

0.3

0.2
0.1

0.1

0.0
0

10

12

0.0

Conc_Mn(ppm)
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Conc_Zn

Hnh 2: th kho st khong nng tuyn


tnh khi xc nh Mn

Hnh 4: ng chun xc nh hm lng Mn

81

Nguyn ng c v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Xy dng ng chun
xc nh hm lng cc nguyn t Km
v Mangan trong mu phn tch bng phng
php ng chun, chng ti chun b cc
dung dch xy dng ng chun c nng
trong khong tuyn tnh cng mi trng
axit vi dung dch mu phn tch. Kt qu xy
dng thu c trn hnh 3 v 4, ngc li khi
nng cht phn tch qu nh th ta phi lm
giu mu trc khi o.

122(08): 79 - 86

nh gi sai s v lp li ca php o
nh gi sai s v lp li ca php o,
chng ti dng ng chun, pha 3 mu c
nng im u, im gia, im cui
ca ng chun trong cc iu kin v thnh
phn ging nh mu chun. Thc hin o mi
mu 7 ln. Kt qu thu c biu din trong
bng 4 v bng 5.

Bng 4: Kt qu sai s v lp li ca php o Km


Mu
CZn (ppm)
At (Abs)
Ln o
Ln 1
Ln 2
Ln 3
Ln 4
Ln 5
Ln 6
Ln 7
Atb (Abs)
SD
%RSD

1
0,05
0,0172
Ai
0,0173
0,0171
0,0170
0,0171
0,0170
0,0173
0,0171
0,0171

2
1,0
0,2950
%X
0,5814
0,5814
1,1628
0,5814
1,1628
0,5814
0,5814

Ai
0,2952
0,2953
0,2949
0,2948
0,2951
0,2952
0,2949
0,2951

1,29.10-4
0,7549

3
2,5
0,6728
%X
0,0678
0,1017
0,0339
0,0678
0,0339
0,0678
0,0339

1,91.10-4
0,0649

Ai
%X
0,6723
0,0743
0,6698
0,4459
0,6729
0,0149
0,6726
0,0297
0,6730
0,0297
0,6729
0,0149
0,6726
0,0297
0,6723
1,13.10-3
0,1678

Nh vy, theo kt qu kho st cho thy lch chun v h s bin ng (sai s tng i) ca
php o Km nh v nm trong gii hn cho php (10%).
Bng 5: Kt qu sai s v lp li ca php o Mangan
Mu
CMn(ppm)
At (Abs)
Ln o
Ln 1
Ln 2
Ln 3
Ln 4
Ln 5
Ln 6
Ln 7
Atb (Abs)
SD
%RSD

1
0,5
0,0392
Ai
0,0391
0,0393
0,0390
0,0391
0,0393
0,0390
0,0391
0,0391

2
2
0,1501
%X
0,2551
0,2551
0,5102
0,2551
0,2551
0,5102
0,2551

1,29.10-4
0,3302

Ai
0,1506
0,1500
0,1503
0,1504
0,1500
0,1504
0,1502
0,1503

3
5
0,3535
%X
0,3331
0,0666
0,1332
0,0665
0,1332
0,1998
0,0665

2,24.10-4
0,1488

Ai
%X
0,3540
0,1414
0,3531
0,1132
0,3534
0,0283
0,3538
0,0849
0,3532
0,0849
0,3534
0,0283
0,3540
0,1414
0,3536
3,76.10-4
0,1064

Nh vy, theo kt qu kho st cho thy lch chun v h s bin ng (sai s tng i) ca
php o Mangan nh v nm trong gii hn cho php (10%).
82

Nguyn ng c v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Xc nh Zn v Mn trong ch xanh
a im thi gian ly mu v k hiu mu
Cc mu ch xanh c ly ti 20 khu vc
thuc 7 huyn trong tnh Thi Nguyn.
Chun b mu phn tch [3]
Ch xanh c ly 20 khu vc khc nhau
ca tnh Thi Nguyn. L ch xanh ti ra
sch, c phi di nh sng mt tri v sau
sy kh 400C, xay nh thu c bt l
ch xanh kh.
Cn chnh xc 2,0 gam mu ch kh xay
nh vo bnh Kendan, y bnh bng phu
lc c ui di, thm 15 ml HNO 3 c un

122(08): 79 - 86

si nh trong vng 2 gi mu phn hu.


Sau , thm tip 10ml HNO 3 c v 5 ml
H2O2 30% v un si thm 2 gi na. Thm
tip H2O2 30% ui HNO3 d, un si
cho n khi dung dch trong sut. Chuyn
ton b dung dch vo cc 50ml v nh
mc bng dung dch HNO 3 2% trong bnh
nh mc 25ml. Sau em o ph hp th
ca Km bc sng 213,9 nm v o ph
hp th nguyn t Mangan bc sng
279,5 nm. Kt qu phn tch thu c
bng 7.

Bng 6: a im v thi gian ly mu ch


TT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

a im ly mu

K hiu

Nh ng: Phm Vn Xut, xm Hng Thi 2 x Tn Cng


Nh ng: Nguyn Vn Tnh, xm Nam Thi Tn Cng
Nh b: Hong Th Nguyn, xm Nam Tn Tn Cng
Nh ng: Lng Vn Ho, x Phc Tru TP Thi Nguyn
Nh b: Phm Th Nguyn, xm Tn Sn, x Vnh Sn
T.X.Sng Cng
Nh b: H Th Xun, xm Trung Tm, x Bnh Sn
T.X.Sng Cng
Nh ng: inh Trung Ngha, xm 3 Thun c, x Minh c
Ph Yn
Nh ng: Ha Vn D, xm An Bnh, x Thnh Cng huyn
Ph Yn
Nh ng: on Trung, xm Yn M, x Hng Tin huyn Ph
Yn
Nh b: ng Th Thu, xm Chi, x M Yn huyn i T
Nh ng: L Hin, xm C, x K Ph huyn i T
Nh b: inh Th Nhn, xm Hin Bnh, x La Hin huyn
V Nhai
Nh ng: Nguyn Ch Dng, xm Cao Bin, x Ph Thng
huyn V Nhai
Nh ng: V Thun, xm B anh I, x Minh Lp huyn
ng H
Nh b: Trng Minh Hin, xm Tam Thi, x Ho Thng
huyn ng H
Nh ng: Nguyn Vn Tin, xm ng Tm, x ng Bm
huyn ng H
Nh b: H Vn, xm Vn Lng 1, x Trung Lng huyn
nh Ho
Nh b: Triu Th Chin, xm Sn Thng, x Sn Ph huyn
nh Ho
Nh ng: Huy Bnh, x Xun Trng, x n Lng huyn
Ph Lng
Nh ng: L Xun Hi, xm ng Sang, x C Lng huyn
Ph Lng

HT TC
NT TC
NT TC
PT TN

Thi gian
ly mu
22/11/2012
22/11/2012
22/11/2012
22/11/2012

VS SC

5/12/2012

BS SC

5/12/2012

M PY

5/12/2012

TC PY

5/12/2012

HT PY

5/12/2012

MY T
KP T

15/12/2012
15/12/2012

LH - VN

15/12/2012

PT VN

15/12/2012

ML H

20/11/2012

HT H

20/11/2012

TC H

20/11/2012

TL H

18/12/2012

SP H

18/12/2012

OL PL

18/12/2012

CL PL

18/12/2012

83

Nguyn ng c v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 79 - 86

Kt qu phn tch cc mu ch xanh


Sau khi x l 20 mu ch xanh thuc 7 khu vc ca tnh Thi Nguyn, chng ti tin hnh o
ph hp th F AAS i vi Zn v Mn trongnhng iu kin chn [4]. Hm lng Km v
Mangan thu c trong bng 8.
Bng 7: Kt qu o ph hp th nguyn t ca Km v Mangan
TT

Mu
ch xanh

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

HT-TC
NT-TC
NT
PT-TN
VS-SC
BS-SC
M-PY
TC-PY
HT-PY
MY-T
KP-T
LH-VN
PT-VN
ML-H
HT-H
B-H
TL-H
SP-H
OL-PL
CL-PL

hp th
Zn
0,2368
0,2310
0,2105
0,1442
0,1245
0,1531
0,1359
0,1428
0,1298
0,1762
0,1773
0,2450
0,2331
0,1536
0,2408
0,1543
0,2333
0,1069
0,1967
0,2038

Mn
0,1391
0,1167
0,0997
0,1104
0,1065
0,1216
0,0886
0,1307
0,1482
0,1269
0,0739
0,0956
0,1168
0,1460
0,1328
0,0792
0,0985
0,1290
0,1373
0,1232

Nng (ppm)
Zn
0,8003
0,7671
0,7652
0,4830
0,4155
0,5020
0,4842
0,4857
0,4377
0,6012
0,6219
0,8120
0,7956
0,4978
0,9021
0,5209
0,7883
0,3552
0,7053
0,7107

Mn
2,0978
1,7523
1,2050
1,6006
1,5947
1,7668
0,9857
2,0021
2,3145
1,8142
0,8683
1,0052
1,6380
2,2251
2,0046
0,8795
1,1036
1,8423
2,0878
1,8283

Hm lng
(mg/kg)
Zn
Mn
10,0038
26,2225
9,5888
21,9038
9,5650
15,0625
6,0375
20,0075
5,1938
19,9338
6,2750
22,0850
6,0525
12,3438
6,0713
25,0263
5,4713
28,9313
7,5150
22,6775
7,7738
10,8538
10,1500
12,5650
9,9450
20,4750
6,2225
27,8175
11,2763
25,0575
6,5113
10,9938
9,8538
13,7950
4,4400
23,0375
8,8163
26,0975
8,8838
22,8538

Bng 8: Kt qu o mu ch an ton
TT
1
2

Mu ch xanh
Hng Thi 2 Tn Cng
Nam Thi Tn Cng

hp th
0,1391
0,1167

T kt qu hm lng ca Zn trong bng 7,


chng ti em so snh vi tiu chun ti
Quyt nh s 46/2007/Q BYT ngy 19
thng 12 nm 2007 (tiu chun ti a cho
php Km trong ch l 40mg/kg ). Hm lng
Km trong 20 mu ch xanh u nh hn gii
hn ti a cho php. V cha c tiu chun
no quy nh v gii hn hm lng cho php
ca Mangan trong ch xanh, do chng ti
chn 2 mu ch an ton so snh vi cc
mu ch khc ca khu vc Thi Nguyn.
Xm Hng Thi 2 x Tn Cng, Xm
Nam Thi x Tn Cng. y l hai n v
u tin ca c nc c t chc IFOAM
(International
Federation
of
Organic
Agriculture Movements) v t chc ICEA
84

Nng (ppm)
2,0978
1,7523

Hm lng (mg/kg)
26,2225
21,9038

(Insulated Cable Engineers Association) cp


giy chng nhn sn phm ch sch theo tiu
chun chu u. Kt qu phn tch thu c
bng 8.
Kt qu hai mu ch an ton c hm lng
Mangan l 26,2225 (mg/kg) v 21,9038
(mg/kg). Chng ti chn hm lng Mangan
l 26,2225 (mg/kg) ca xm Hng Thi 2
x Tn Cng so snh th thy a s cc
a im m chng ti ly mu u c hm
lng Mangan nh hn so vi mu ch an
ton. Nhng a im Hng Tin Ph Yn;
Minh Lp ng H c hm lng Mangan
ln hn so vi mu ch an ton l 1,10 v 1,06
ln cao hn khng ng k nn khng nh
hng n sc kho ngi s dng.

Nguyn ng c v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 79 - 86

Bng 9: Kt qu phn tch mu thm chun ca Km


T
T

Mu ch

Nng
(ppm)

Tn Cng

0,8003

Ph Yn

0,4842

Nng
thm vo
(ppm)
0,5
2
0,5
2

Nng thm
vo thu c
(ppm)
1,2886
2,7912
0,9535
2,4671

Nng thu c
theo PP thm chun
(ppm)
0,7886
0,7912
0,4535
0,4671

Sai s
(%)
1,4619
1,1371
6,3404
3,5316

Bng 10: Kt qu phn tch mu thm chun ca Mangan


T
T

Mu ch

Nng

(ppm)

Phc Tru

1,6006

La Hin

1,0052

Nng
thm vo
(ppm)

Nng thm
vo thu c
(ppm)

Nng thu c
theo phng php
thm chun (ppm)

Sai s
(%)

0,5
2
0,5
2

2,0520
3,4983
1,4302
2,9720

1,5520
1,4983
0,9302
0,9720

3,0364
6,3914
7,4612
3,3028

Mu thm chun
Chn hai mu ch i din tin hnh lm
bng phng php thm chun. i vi Km
chng ti chn Hng Thi Tn Cng;
Minh c Ph Yn. i vi Mangan chng
ti chn Phc Tru Thi Nguyn; La Hin
V Nhai. i vi mi mu th chng ti thm
nhng lng Km v Mangan nht nh im
u, im gia v im cui ca ng chun.
Kt qu c dn ra bng 9 v bng 10.
Nh vy, qua kt qu thu c bng 9 v
bng 10 cho thy sai s gia hai php o xc
nh Zn v Mn nh hn 10%.
V vy, php o F AAS cho kt qu
nghin cu l ng tin cy.
KT LUN
Bng phng php ph hp th nguyn t F
AAS xc nh hm lng Km v Mangan
trong ch xanh ca 7 khu vc thuc tnh Thi
Nguyn, hm lng Km u nh hn gii
hn cho php l 40mg/kg ca Quyt nh s
46 /2007/Q - BYT ngy 19 thng 12 nm

2007. Hm lng Mangan trong cc mu ch


xanh u nh hn so vi mu ch an ton vi
hm lng Mangan l 26,2225 (mg/kg), ring
a im Hng Tin Ph Yn; Minh Lp
ng H c hm lng Mangan trong ch ln
hn so vi mu ch an ton l 1,10 v 1,06
ln, nhng vn khng nh hng n sc
khe ngi s dng.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Trnh Th Thanh (2003). c hc mi trng v
sc khe con ngi Nxb DDHQG H Ni
2. ng Quc Trung (2011), Lun vn thc s, Xc
inh Asen trong ch xanh Thi Nguyn bng
phng php ph hp th nguyn t, Trng i
hc S phm HTN.
3. Phm Lun (1998), S tay hng dn v cc k
thut x l mu phn tch cho php o AES + AAS
+ ICP AES+ ICP MS xc nh kim loi v
mt s phi kim, Trng i hc Khoa hc T
nhin HQGHN.
4. Phm Lun (2003), V d v iu kin xc nh
mt s kim loi bng k thut phn tch ph hp
th nguyn t, Trng i hc Khoa hc T nhin
HQGHN

85

Nguyn ng c v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 79 - 86

SUMMARY
DETERMINATION ZN AND MN CONTENTS IN GREEN TEA IN THAI
NGUYEN BY ANALYZING ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY
Nguyen Dang Duc1*, Do Thi Nga2
2College

1College of Science TNU,


of Information and Communication Technology - TNU

At present, the determination of heavy metan ions in green tea in Thai Nguyen has not been
studied much. The demand for cheking pollution level made by above heavy metals in carried out
and reseach to determinate contents of Zn and Mn in green tea in Thai Nguyen. So the study of the
determination of Zn and Mn in green tea have been conducted by analyzing atomic absorption
spectrometry. From the result of experiment, the pollution of Zn and Mn there belover than more
compared with Viet Nam Standars.
Key words: Zn, Mn determination, heavy metal, pollution, Viet Nam standars

Ngy nhn bi:01/3/2014; Ngy phn bin:15/3/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS Nguyn Duy Lng LHH KHKT tnh Thi Nguyn
*

Tel: 0912 477836, Email: ducpt1989@gmail.com

86

Trng Tun Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 87 - 93

KHO ST TRN HP B TH NGHIM CMC-356 KH NNG CI THIN


SAI S CA RLE KHONG CCH BNG MNG N-RON MLP
Trng Tun Anh1*, Trn Hoi Linh2, Nguyn c Tho2
1Trng

i hc K thut Cng nghip - H Thi Nguyn,


2Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni

TM TT
Bi bo trnh by mt s kt qu nghin cu ng dng hp b th nghim CMC-356 ca
OMICRON kho st kt qu hot ng ca rle khong cch, ng thi cng ng dng mng
n-rn MLP b sai s v v tr s c ca rle khong cch trn ng dy thc t khi xy ra cc
s c ngn mch thng qua vic phn tch cc tn hiu dng in v in p o c u ng
dy. Cc kt qu tnh ton m phng s c thc hin cho ng dy ti in 3 pha c mt ngun
cung cp, in p 110kV, tuyn Yn Bi Khnh Ha v s cho thy kh nng b sai s tt ca
MLP cho cc thit b nh v s c trn ng dy.
T kha: R le khong cch, s c ngn mch, CMC-356, mng n-rn, b sai s.

T VN *

C S L THUYT

Rle khong cch ngoi chc nng bo v


cho ng dy cn c trang b thm chc
nng nh v khong cch s c. R le khong
cch s cung cp mt ch dn v vng xy ra
s c v v tr im xy ra s c. Sai s v v
tr s c thay i ty theo tng trng hp c
th (v d nh r-le khong cch c chnh
xc c thng k dao ng trong khong t
1% n 5%) [4,5,6,7,8,9]. Trong cc m hnh
c th nghim, ng dy truyn ti c
m hnh ha di dng ng dy di vi cc
thng s c trng cho qu trnh truyn sng.
Tuy nhin hin nay cc kt qu vn cn c
nhiu hn ch. Vic pht trin ca cc thit b
o mi cng nh cc thut ton x l tn hiu
mi ng dng tr tu nhn to c kh nng
tip tc ci thin c cc kt qu phn tch.
Trong bi bo ny tc gi s ng dng hp b
m phng CMC-356 ca OMICRON th
nghim cht lng hot ng ca rle khong
cch, ng thi xut phng php s dng
mt mng MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron)
b sai s do rle khong cch to ra. Rle
khong cch c s dng l rle 7SA611
ca Siemens, cc tn hiu dng v p c
m phng t phn mm ATP/EMTP. Cc kt
qu tnh ton v m phng minh chng v
cht lng tt ca phng php.

tng v m hnh th nghim rle thc t


v b sai s khong cch bng mng MLP
tng s dng mng MLP b sai s cho
r le khong cch c th hin trn hnh 1.
Trn mt ng dy di truyn ti, r le
khong cch c lp u ng dy, nhn
cc tn hiu u(t) v i(t) (thng l 3 pha) t
cc thit b o pht hin cc trng hp s
c trn ng dy.

6 tn hiu
(u, i)

Rle
khong cch

lrle

l kq = lrle +lMLP
Trch
chn c
tnh

X1,...,XN

Mng MLP

lMLP

Hnh 1. tng s dng song song mt mng


MLP b sai s cho r le khong cch

Ngoi vic tc ng ct cc phn t cn c


bo v cch ly khi ng dy c s c, r le
khong cch cn c lng v tr (tnh theo
khong cch ti v tr lp t ca rle) s c
phc v cc cng tc sa cha. Vic xc
nh chnh xc v tr s rt ngn c thi
gian khc phc s c v gim c chi ph
pht sinh. Tuy nhin cc rle khong cch
thng ch s dng thnh phn c bn (50Hz)
trong tn hiu o c tnh ton v tr s c
theo nguyn l tng tr nn vn cn gy ra sai
s c lng, ng thi chnh xc ca rle
cn ph thuc rt ln vo gi tr ci t trc

Tel: 0973 143888, Email: ttanhhtd@gmail.com

87

Trng Tun Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

ca tng tr th t khng [5,6,9], tuy nhin


gi tr tng tr ny li ph thuc ln vo cc
thng s thc t ca ng dy v vo in
dn sut ca cc vng t xung quanh ng
dy. Chnh v vy m sai s thc t ca rle
tng tr thng kh cao (thm ch ti trn
10%). Trong bi bo ny ta s s dng song
song mt mng n-rn MLP b gim bt
sai s ca rle khong cch, c ngha l mng
MLP s a ra lng b cng vo p ng
ca rle sao cho:
lchnhxc lrle lMLP lchnhxc lrle

Do vic thu thp c cc tn hiu thc t l


kh khn, c bit l cc tn hiu trong cc
trng thi s c (do cc s c trong thc t
xy ra ti cc thi im kh xc nh trc,
ng thi thng s v tr s c cng kh xc
nh, mt khc phc v cc nhim v
thng k th cc ghi chp s c cng khng
c hon chnh, nhiu trng hp s c ch
c cc bn ghi ca r-le nhng khng c cc
thng tin v v tr thc t xy ra s c) v vy
bi bo ny chn gii php to ra cc tn
hiu c m t nh hnh 2. Theo , s xy
dng mt m hnh ng dy cn xt bng
phn mm ATP/EMTP [2,3] vi cc thng s
s c (nh v tr s c, in tr s c, thi
im s c) c ngi s dng nhp vo
theo cc kch bn chn trc. S dng phn
mm ATP/EMTP m phng s thu c
cc tn hiu dng v p (ba pha) trc v sau
thi im s c. Sau s a cc tn hiu
ny vo hp b th nghim CMC-356 ca
OMICRON ti to li cc tn hiu u-i nh
m phng a vo rle thc t. Do thit
b CMC-356 nhn tn hiu u vo theo chun
file WAV trong khi phn mm ATP/EMTP
c th xut ra cc file theo chun MAT hoc
Excel, v vy s s dng phn mm Matlab
chuyn i cc file t chun MAT sang chun
WAV. Vic truyn cc file WAV xung thit
b CMC-356 s c thc hin bi phn mm
Test Universe, cc kt qu hot ng ca r le
s c c v PC bng phn mm DIGSI.
88

122(08): 87 - 93

(a)
ls c, Rs c, Ts c
dng s c, ph ti

M hnh ng
dy trong EMTP

Cc tn hiu
ua, ub, uc, ia, ib, ic

Phn mm
Matlab

WAV file cha ua, ub, uc, ia, ib, ic

Hp b th nghim
CMC-356 (Omicron)
+ Phn mm Test
Universe V2.30/
TransPlay

Rle khong cch +


phn mm DIGSI 4.82

Cc bn ghi kt qu
tc ng ca rle

(b)
Hnh 2. Thit b CMC-356 (a) v m hnh xut
phng php phi hp cc tn hiu m phng
vi r-le thc t

Rle khong cch c s dng trong bi bo


l rle 7SA611 ca Siemens. Cc thng s
cho rle 7SA611 c ci t theo ng
phiu chnh nh rle v thit b t ng do
Trung tm iu HT min Bc tnh ton
v ci t cho rle thc t s dng trn ng
dy 110kV Yn Bi - Khnh Ha.
Mng MLP v ng dng trong vic b sai s
v v tr s c ca rle khong cch 7SA611
Mng MLP (MultiLayer Perceptron) l mt
mng truyn thng vi cc khi c bn l cc
n-rn McCulloch Pitts. Cu trc mt mng
MLP vi 1 lp n v cc k hiu tn hiu
c th hin trn hnh 3, trong mng c N
u vo, M n-rn trn lp n v K u ra.
Nh trn hnh 3, nu k hiu chung cc trng
s ghp ni gia lp u vo v lp n l Wij
(vi i - ch s ca n-rn ch, j - ch s ca
n-rn
gc)
th
ta
c
i 1,2, ,M ; j = 0,1,2, , N . Tng t nu k
hiu cc trng s ghp ni gia lp n v lp
u
ra
l
Vij
th
ta
c
i 1,2, ,K; j = 0,1,2, ,M . Tng hp li c
th coi cc gi tr Wij to thnh W M ( N 1) l
ma trn cc trng s kt ni gia lp u vo
v lp n, cc gi tr Vij to thnh
V K ( M 1) l ma trn cc trng s kt ni
gia lp n v lp u ra.

Trng Tun Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 87 - 93

truyn t) v cc thng s ghp ni ( Wij ,Vij )


[1,10]. Thut ton hc c s dng cho
mng MLP trong bi bo ny l thut ton
Levenberg Marquadrt [10].

M PHNG S C NGN MCH


TRN NG DY

Hnh 3. Cu trc mng MLP vi mt lp vo, mt


lp n v mt lp ra

Khi

vi

vc-t
u
vo
x x1 , x2 , , xN
(u vo phn cc c
nh x0 1 ) ta c u ra c xc nh tun
t theo chiu lan truyn thun (forward
propagation) nh sau:
Tnh tng cc kch thch u vo ca n-rn
n th i bng:
N

Thng s u vo s dng cho m phng


M hnh ng dy ti in 3 pha c mt
ngun cung cp, in p 110kV, chiu di
118,5km c m phng vi cc trng hp
s c ngn mch trn ng dy c xy
dng nh trn hnh 4.

ui

x jWij

cho i

1, 2,

,M

j 0

Tnh u ra ca n-rn n th i: vi f1 ui
cho i 1, 2, , M ( thun tin cho vic biu
din cc cng thc, ta coi u vo phn cc
cho cc n-rn lp ra l v0 1 c nh).
Tnh tng cc kch thch u vo ca n-rn
u ra th i:
M

gi

v jVij

cho i

1, 2,

, K.

j 0

V cui cng ta c u ra th i ca mng s


bng:
yi f 2 gi
cho i 1, 2, , K .
Tng hp li ta c hm truyn t ca mng
MLP l mt hm phi tuyn cho theo cng
thc ph thuc sau:
M

yi

f 2 gi

f2

v jVij
j 0

f2

f1 u j Vij
j 0

f1
j 0

f2

xkW jk Vij
k 0

c c mt mng MLP ng dng cho


mt bi ton cho trc, cn c mt b s liu
mu v trn c s cc s liu mu tin
hnh cc qu trnh hc theo cc thut ton
thch nghi cho trc xc nh cu trc ca
mng MLP (s n-rn trn lp n, cc hm

Hnh 4. M hnh m phng ng dy ti in 3


pha khi xy ra s c ngn mch trn ng dy

u ng dy s dng mt ngun in p 3
pha 220kV xoay chiu, mt h thng m t
tng tr trong ca ngun. Mt my bin p h
p 225/115/23kV. Cc khi o lng c
t u ng dy thu thp tn hiu dng
in v in p. ng dy ti in 3 pha
c m phng bng 12 on ng dy theo
m hnh LCC[2]. S c c m phng bng
vic ng 1 tng tr Rshort vo mch in.
m phng cc s c ti cc v tr khc nhau ta
s iu chnh chiu di ca hai on lin
trc v lin sau v tr s c sau cho vn m
bo c tng chiu di ca ng dy l
khng thay i. Cui ng dy c mt ti
c m t bi tng tr tng ng ca ti
ng vi cc trng hp ph ti khc nhau
(30%, 50% v 100% ti).
ng dy trn khng trong ATP c m t
theo m hnh LCC (Model type: JMarti)[2],
cc thng s hnh hc ca ct in c s
dng trong m hnh m phng nh trn hnh 5
v bng 1.
89

Trng Tun Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Bng 1: Cc thng s hnh hc ca ng dy


truyn ti c xt trong bi bo
STT

Pha

1
2
3

A
B
C
Chng
st

Pha Ct
(m)
2,5
2,5
2,5

Pha t
(m)
23
18,5
14

vng
Pha - t
(m)
22
17,5
13

26

25

Dy chng st
(DCS)

Pha-t

DCS-t

Pha-ct

Pha-pha

Dy dn pha

Hnh 5. Cu trc ct in

- Chiu di ng dy: l = 118,5 km; Tit


din dy dn: AC - 185/29 , in tr n v: r0
= 0,162 (/km), bn knh phn li Thp:
0,345 (cm), bn knh phn Nhm: 0,94 (cm).

122(08): 87 - 93

M phng vi cc thi im s c khc nhau


xy ra trong mt chu k kho st kh nng
xc nh thi im s c khng ph thuc vo
pha ca cc tn hiu khi xy ra s c. Thi
im s c c la chn trong tp M [0, T ]
vi T 20ms l 1 chu k ca tn hiu 50Hz.

CC KT QU TNH TON V M
PHNG
Cc tn hiu mu cho rle v mng MLP
M hnh trn hnh 2 c trin khai thc t
nh trn hnh 6 v c s dng m
phng (bng m hnh trong ATP/EMTP nh
hnh 4) vi cc thng s sau y ca s c
ngn mch:
V tr s c l [10km, 20km, ,110km] : tng
cng N = 11 gi tr khc nhau ca v tr s c.
in tr s c Rsc 0,1, 2,5 : tng cng c
K = 4 gi tr khc nhau ca in tr s c.
Loi s c: P = 4 loi (Ngn mch 1 pha,
ngn mch 2 pha, ngn mch 2 pha chm t
v ngn mch 3 pha).
Ph ti cui ng dy: Q [30%,50%,100%] :
tng cng 3 trng hp ph ti.

- Thng s ti 3 pha: U = 110 kV, Sti = 99,1


(MVA); cos = 0,85
- Thng s my bin p t ngu: Cng sut
nh mc Sm = 125/125/25 MVA;
in
p nh mc Um = 225/115/23 kV; S u
dy: Y0 TN/-11; in p ngn mch: UNC-T
= 10,7%; UNC-H = 33,8%; UNT-H = 19,9%;
Tn tht cng sut khng ti Um: P0 = 38
kW; Dng in khng ti Um: I0 = 0,03%.Im;
Tn tht khi y ti PNC-H = 297 kW.
- in p u ngun: Um = 225 kV.
M phng ch ngn mch trn ng dy
m phng s c ngn mch, ng mt
in tr Rshort vo ng dy vi cc trng
hp: ngn mch l tng ( Rshort 0 ) v
ngn
mch
khng
l
tng
( Rshort 1 , 2 ,3 , 4 ,5 ).
V tr s c c gi thit c mi 10km li c
s c ngn mch xy ra trn ng dy cho
n ht chiu di ca ng dy l 118,5km .
90

Hnh 6. Kt ni my tnh vi hp b th nghim


CMC-356 v rle khong cch 7SA522

Tng hp li, s cc trng hp m phng


ng vi v tr s c, in tr s c, dng s c
v ph ti l N K P Q 11 4 4 3 528
trng hp. ng thi kho st nh hng
ca thi im s c (tnh tng i theo mc
pha ca tn hiu) s xt thm M 10 trng
hp pha (bt u t khi ng thit b chuyn
mch to ngn mch tnh t 0,04 ti 0,06
(s) vi khong cch u 2ms) khi ngn mch
ti cc v tr l [10km, 40km,80km,110km ] vi
gi tr in tr s c Rsc 1 , nh vy s c
thm N K P Q M 4 1 4 3 10 480

Trng Tun Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

trng hp. Khi ta c: 528 + 480 = 1008


b d liu dng in v in p u ng
dy m phng trong ATP cho cc trng hp
ngn mch c lu li di nh dng chun
ca Matlab l cc file *.MAT. Cc file ny s
c chuyn thnh nh dng WAV v truyn
xung thit b Omicron CMC-356 bng phn
mm Test Universe. CMC-356 s to li ng
cc tn hiu dng in v in p s c thng
qua chc nng TransPlay v truyn vo rle
khong cch 7SA611. Cc tc ng ca r-le
khong cch s c lu li trong cc bn ghi
ca rle (i vi loi 7SA611 ta c th ghi
nh ti a 8 s kin cui cng). Cc bn ghi
s c c c trn my tnh bng phn mm
DIGSI 4.82 nh trn hnh 8.

122(08): 87 - 93

v tnh ton tip theo. Trong bi bo ny s


quan tm ti thng tin v tr s c do r-le
c lng t cc tn hiu o lng. Trn hnh
9 th hin thng tin v v tr s c "Trip Log"
trong bn ghi ca r-le.

Hnh 9. Kt qu tc ng ca rle khong cch


7SA522 c c t chc nng Trip log

Sau khi c cc kt qu v c lng v tr ca


rle, tip tc to cc mu tn hiu cho mng
MLP. Cc gi tr dng v p ca u ng
dy s c phn tch to ra vc-t c
tnh phc v cho nhim v nhn dng
[5,6,7,8]. Qua kho st cc ng c tnh
thi gian ta nhn thy:
- Tn hiu t trng thi xc lp mi sau
khong t 3 n 6 chu k ca tn s c bn.
Hnh 7. Giao din phn mm Test Universe V2.30
truyn cc file cha tn hiu u-i xung hp b th
nghim CMC-356

Hnh 8. Giao din phn mm DIGSI 4.82


v cc bn ghi s c

DIGSI cho php chng ta chn tng bn ghi


v lit k cc trng thng tin chi tit bn
trong bn ghi phc v cho vic so snh

- Mi trng hp s c s c cc gi tr ca bin
thnh phn qu cng nh bin ca cc
thnh phn giao ng sau qu khc nhau.
V vy, i vi mi trng hp s c, t tn
hiu u1 (t ), i1 (t ) u ng dy ta s to vct c tnh bao gm 14 gi tr c trng l: 4
gi tr tnh t ph FFT l t l gia tng mc
nng lng ca cc hi bc 2, 3, 4 v 5 so vi
nng lng ca tn s c bn 50Hz, 10 gi tr
tc thi t thi im chuyn mch vi chu k
ly mu 2ms. Tng cng s c 14 6 84 c
tnh c s dng a vo khi tnh ton
tip theo l mng MLP. Nhim v ca m
hnh cn xy dng l da trn c s 84 gi tr
c tnh ny ta cn xc nh ngc li thng
s v tr im s c (tnh t u ng dy).
Kt qu tc ng ca rle khong cch
7SA611
91

Trng Tun Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Tng hp kt qu v v tr s c c thng
k t phn mm DIGSI ta c sai s trung bnh
v v tr ca 4 dng s c ngn mch: 1 pha
(AG0), 2 pha (AB0), 2 pha chm t (ABG)
v ngn mch 3 pha (ABC) l ltb 4,14 km
tng ng 3,49%
Kt qu tc ng ca mng MLP
Vi b s liu 1008 mu ta s chia lm hai b
s liu con: mt phn ca b s liu gm 672
mu (2/3 tng s mu c c) xy dng
m hnh (iu chnh thch nghi cc tham s
ca mng n-rn ti u ha sai s u ra),
phn cn li (336 mu) c dng kim tra
cht lng ca qu trnh hc.
T cc kt qu tc ng v v tr s c ca
rle khong cch 7SA611 cho 1008 file s c.
Cc gi tr sai s l lchnhxc lrle s c s
dng trong qu trnh hun luyn mng MLP
b sai s cho rle khong cch.
Vi b s liu cho, cc mng MLP cn xy
dng s c 84 u vo v 1 u ra ng vi gi
tr cn c lng l lng cn b sai s v tr
s c ca rle khong cch. Hm truyn t
ca lp n c la chn l hm tansig, hm
truyn t ca lp u ra c la chn l
hm tuyn tnh do gi tr ca v tr s c tnh
theo km c th vt qu gii gi tr (-1, 1) ca
cc n-rn tansig hay (0,1) ca cc n-rn
logsig. Thng s cn phi xc nh chnh cn
li l s lp n v s n-ron trong mi lp n.
Trong bi bo tc gi tin hnh th nghim
nhiu cu trc khc nhau cho cc mng mt
lp n, ng thi s n-ron n tng dn t 1,
2,... cho ti khi thu c mng c cc sai s
nh.
Kt qu chi tit mng MLP cho pht hin
dng s c c th hin trn hnh 5.
Sai s trung bnh khi hc v v tr s c:
ltb 1,62 km tng ng: 1,37%.
Sai s trung bnh khi kim tra v v tr s c:
ltb 2, 43 km tng ng: 2,05%.
Tng hp cc kt qu s dng rle khong
cch thc t v dng mng MLP gim cc
sai s v v tr s c ca rle khong cch
thc t khi xy ra ngn mch 1 pha, ngn
92

122(08): 87 - 93

mch 2 pha, ngn mch 2 pha chm t v


ngn mch ba pha nh sau:
Bng 2: Cc sai s hc v sai s kim tra ca mng
MLP khi b sai s khong cch cho 4 dng s c
Loi
S
c
AB0
ABG
ABC
AG0

Sai s
trung
bnh ca
Rle
thc t
(m)
2946,8
4577,4
4998,4
4037,3
4140,0

Sai s hc
trung
bnh ca
MLP +
Rle thc
t (m)
743,7
2437,4
2611,1
699,5
1622,9

Sai s kim
tra trung
bnh ca
MLP + Rle
thc t (m)
1179,1
3601,0
3467,7
1477,0
2413,2

T bng trn ta thy vic s dng mng MLP


b sai s khong cch ci thin ng k
sai s ca rle (sai s trung bnh gim t
4140m xung 2413,2m, tng ng vi hn
40% lng sai s).

KT LUN
Bi bo nghin cu v pht trin c mt
m hnh ng dng mng MLP b sai s v
v tr s c cho rle khong cch thc t trn
ng dy. Gii php c th nghim vi
cc hot ng ca rle thc t 7SA611 vi
cc tn hiu dng p c to ra t thit b
CMC-356 trn c s cc tn hiu m phng
s c bng phn mm ATP/EMTP.
Cng trnh c th c cc hng pht trin tip
theo nh: Trin khai cc thit b o lng v
x l tn hiu thc t kim tra kh nng
hot ng ti hin trng ca cc gii php...
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Kolmogorov A. N., On the representation of
continuous functions of several variables by
superposition of continuous functions of one variable
and addition, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 114, p.
953 956
2. ATP DRAW User Manual, version 3.5 for
Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP, 2002
3. H. Dommel, Electro-Magnetic Transients
Program, BPA, Portland, Oregon, 1986.
4. Glencoe Science: Electricity and Magnetism,
McGraw-Hill, 2001.
5. S. Brahma, Fault location scheme for a multiterminal transmission line using synchronized

Trng Tun Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

voltage measurements, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery,


20(2), 2005, 1325-1331.
6. Brahma S, Girgis A, Fault Location on a
Transmission Line Using Synchronized Voltage
Measurements, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, 19(4),
2004, 1619-1622.
7. Djuric M, Radojevic Z, Terzija V, Distance
protection and fault location utilizing only phase
current phasors, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, 13(4),
1998, 1020-1026.

122(08): 87 - 93

8. Zamora I, Minambres J, Mazon A, Alvarez-Isasi


R,
Lazaro J, Fault location on two-terminal
transmission lines based on voltages, IEE
Proceedings: Generation, Transmission and
distribution, 143(1), 1996, 1-6.
9. S.H., Horowitz, A.G. Phadke (2008), Power
System Relaying, 3rd edition, Wiley.
10. D Nigrin A., Neural Networks For Pattern
Recognition, Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1993

SUMMARY
TESTING THE CAPABILITY OF MLP NEURAL NETWORK IN DISTANCE
RELAY ERROR CORRECTION USING CMC-356
Truong Tuan Anh1*, Tran Hoai Linh2, Nguyen Duc Thao2
2Hanoi

1College of Technology TNU,


University of Science and Technology

This paper presents the results of the application of Omicron CMC-356 testing device to examine
the performance of the distance relay, and also to check the capability of MLP neural networks to
compensate short-circuit fault location error of distance relays on the transmission line. The input
signals to the relay are the current and voltage signals at the beginning of the line. The simulations
will be performed for 3-phase transmission line Yen Bai - Khanh Hoa with 110 kV supply voltage
and will shown the good capability of MLP neural network in error compensations.
Keywords: Distance relay, short-circuit faults, CMC-356, neural networks, error corrections

Ngy nhn bi:04/6/2014; Ngy phn bin:23/6/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS Nguyn Thanh H i hc Thi Nguyn
*

Tel: 0973 143888, Email: ttanhhtd@gmail.com

93

Trng Tun Anh v tg

94

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 87 - 93

V Nh Ln v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 95 - 101

D BO CHUI THI GIAN M S DNG I S GIA T


V Nh Ln1*, Nguyn Tin Duy2, Trnh Thy H3
1Vin

cng ngh thng tin, Vin Hn lm Khoa hc v Cng ngh Vit Nam
2i hc K thut cng nghip - H Thi Nguyn,
3i hc Cng ngh thng tin &Truyn thng -H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Song, Chissom [1, 2] ln u tin a ra khi nim mi v chui thi gian m. Tuy nhin m
hnh tnh ton nhm quan h m trong m hnh d bo chui thi gian m qu phc tp v do
chnh xc ca d bo khng cao. Chen [3] thay i cch tnh ton nhm quan h m bng
cc php tnh s hc n gin c c kt qu d bo tt hn. i s gia t (SGT) l mt tip
cn mi c cc tc gi N.C.Ho v W. Wechler xy dng vo nhng nm 1990, 1992[6,7] khi
a ra mt m hnh x l cc gi tr ngn ng ca bin ngn ng hon ton khc bit so vi tip
cn m. Bi bo l s tip tc nhng nghin cu ng dng SGT trong lnh vc d bo chui thi
gian m, mt lnh vc mi ang c nhiu nh khoa hc trn th gii i su nghin cu. Trn c
s chui d liu v s lng sinh vin nhp hc ti trng i hc Alabama qua cc nm 1971
n 1992, bi bo xut phng php d bo hon ton mi da trn SGT v so snh vi kt
qu ca Song, Chissom [1,2], Chen [3], Hwang [5]v Huarng [4]. Qua thy rng: sai s d bo
c nh gi qua tiu chun bnh phng trung bnh (MSE) theo tip cn SGT nh hn nhiu
so vi MSE trong m hnh d bo chui thi gian m cacc tc gi nu trn.
T kho: Tp m, Chui thi gian m, Quan h logic m, i s gia t

M U*
Trong nhng nm gn y, c rt nhiu tc
gi trn th gii quan tm nghin cu m hnh
d bo chui thi gian m do Song, Chissom
a ra u tin [1,2] v c Chen [3] ci
tin. Tuy nhin, chnh xc d bo cn ph
thuc vo qu nhiu yu t. V vy cho n
nay, m hnh d bo chui thi gian m lun
c nhiu chuyn gia trn th gii ci tin
c c kt qu tt hn.
Tip cn SGT l tip cn khc bit so vi
tip cn m v c mt s ng dng th
hin r tnh t ph trong mt s lnh vc
cng ngh ca tip cn ny so vi tip cn m
truyn thng. C th k n mt s lnh vc
ng dng c hiu qu nh iu khin v, cng
ngh thng tin [8]. Bn cnh , SGT cng
cn c nghin cu cho mt lnh vc ng
dng mi, l bi ton d bo chui thi
gian m. Liu SGT c th tip tc khng
nh c tnh u vit ca n trong bi ton
bi ton d bo chui thi gian m nu trn
hay khng? cng chnh l ni dung nghin
cu trong bi bo ny.
*

Tel: 0986 437050, E-mail: vnlan@ioit.ac.vn

Bi bo c trnh by theo th t sau y:


Sau mc 1 M u l Mc 2 gii thiu v
phng php d bo chui thi gian m ca
Song, Chissom [1,2] v Chen [3]. Mc 3 nu
mt s ni dung quan trng ca SGT cn
thit cho bi ton d bo chui thi gian m.
Mc 4 trnh by m hnh d bo chui thi
gian m s dng SGT ng dng cho bi
ton d bo s sinh vin nhp hc ca trng
i hc Alabama v so snh vi cc phng
php ca Song, Chissom v Chen.
M HNH D BO CHUI THI GIAN M
Mt s khi nim c bn ca m hnh d
bo chui thi gian m
nh ngha 2.1 [1,2]: Chui thi gian m
Gi s Y(t), (t = ..., 0, 1, 2, ...), l tp cc s
thc v cng l tp nn trn xc nh cc
tp m f i(t), (i = 1, 2, ...). Bin t l thi gian.
Nu F(t) l mt chui cc tp m ca f i(t), (i
= 1, 2, ...), th F(t) c gi l chui thi gian
m trn Y(t), (t = ..., 0, 1, 2, ...).
nh ngha 2.2 [1,2]: Quan h m
Nu tn ti quan h m R(t1, t), sao cho F(t) =
F(t1)*R(t1, t), trong du * k hiu ton t
no , th F(t) c suy ra t F(t1). Quan h
gia F(t) v F(t1) c xc nh bng k hiu:
95

V Nh Ln v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

F(t1)F(t)

(2.1)

Ton t * c th l php kt hp MaxMin [1]


hoc MinMax [2] hay php tnh s hc [3].
Nu F(t1) = Ai and F(t) = Aj, quan h logic
gia F(t) and F(t1) c k hiu bng
AiAj, trong Ai l v tri v Aj l v phi
ca quan h m m t tp m d bo.
nh ngha 2.3 [1, 2]: Nhm quan h m
Cc quan h m vi cng mt tp m bn v
tri c th a vo mt nhm gi l nhm
quan h m (NQHM). Gi s c cc quan h
m sau: AiAj1; AiAj2;...; AiAjn
Cc quan h m trn c th a vo mt
nhm c k hiu nh sau:
AiAj1, Aj2, ..., Ajn

(2.2)

Tp m Ajk (k = 1, 2, ..., n) ch c xut hin


1 ln bn v phi.
M hnh d bo Song v Chissom [1, 2]
Bc 1. Xc nh tp nn
Bc 2. Chia min xc nh ca tp nn
thnh nhng khong bng nhau.
Bc 3. Xy dng cc tp m trn tp nn
Bc 4. M ho chui d liu
Bc 5. Xc nh cc quan h m
Bc 6. D bo bng phng trnh Ai = Ai1*
R, y k hiu * l ton t max-min
Bc 7. Gii m cc kt qu d bo.
Trong bc 5, quan h m R c xc nh
bng biu thc Ri = AsTAq, vi mi quan h
m k,
(2.3)
y l ton t min, T l php chuyn v
v l php hp.

Lut d bo chui thi gian m


Gi s d liu ca chui thi gian F(t-1) c
m ho bng Aj, khi , u ra d bo caF(t)
c xc nh theo nhng nguyn tc sau y:
1. Nu tn ti quan h mt-mt, k hiu l
AjAk, v mc thuc cao nht ca Ak ti
khong uk, th u ra d bo ca F(t) l im
gia ca uk.
2. Nu Aj l trng, c ngha l Aj v Aj c
mc thuc cao nht ti khong uj, th u
ra d bo l im gia ca uj.
3. Nu tn ti quan h mt - nhiu, k hiu l
AjA1, A2, ..., An, v mc thuc cao nht
ca A1, A2, ..., An ti cc khong u1, u2, ..., un
tng ng, th u ra d bo c tnh bng
trung bnh cc im gia m1, m2, ..., mn ca
u1, u2, ..., un. Phng trnh d bo c dng:
(m1+m2+ ... +mn)/n.
TM TT M HNH TNH TON CA
I S GIA T
Gi AX = (X, G, C, H, ) l mt cu trc i
s, vi X l tp nn ca AX; G = {c, c+} l
tp cc phn t sinh; C = {0, W, 1}, trong
0, W v 1 tng ng l cn tri, trung ha v
cn phi; H l tp cc ton t mt ngi c
gi l cc gia t; l biu th quan h th t
trn cc gi tr ngn ng. Gi H l tp hp
cc gia t m v H+ l tp hp cc gia t
dng ca AX. K hiu H = {h-1, h-2, h-q},
trong h-1< h-2< < h-q v H+ = {h1, h2, ,
hp}, trong h1< h2< < hp.
nh ngha 3.1 [7,8]: o tnh m.
fm: X [0, 1] gi l o tnh m nu tha
mn cc iu kin sau:
fm(c)+fm(c+) = 1 v

M hnh d bo Chen[3]

Bc 1. Chia min xc nh ca tp nn
thnh nhng khong bng nhau.

Vi cc phn t 0, W v 1,
fm(0) = fm(W) = fm(1) = 0

Bc 2. Xy dng cc tp m trn tp nn

V vi x, y X, hH,

Bc 3. M ho chui d liu.
Bc 4. Xc nh cc quan h m.
Bc 5. To lp nhm quan h m.
Bc 6. Gii m u ra d bo.
96

122(08): 95 - 101

hH

fm(hx) = fm(x), vi x X

fm(hx) fm(hy )

fm( x)
fm( y )

(3.1)
(3.2)

(3.3)

ng thc (3.3) khng ph thuc vo cc


phn t x, y v do ta c th k hiu l (h)

V Nh Ln v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

v y l o tnh m ca gia t h. Tnh


cht ca fm(x) v (h) nh sau:
fm(hx) = (h)fm(x), xX
(3.4)
p

i q ,i 0
p

i q ,i 0
q

fm(hi c) fm(c) , vi c {c, c+} (3.5)


fm(hi x) fm( x)

(hi ) v

i 1

(3.6)

(h ) , vi , > 0
i 1

v + = 1
(3.7)
nh ngha 3.2 [7,8]: Hm du
Hm Sign: X{-1, 0, 1} l mt nh x c
gi l hm du vi h, h'H v c {c, c+}
trong :
Sign(c) = 1, Sign(c+) = +1
(3.8)

122(08): 95 - 101

ho (semantization), cn vic chuyn ngc


li t on [as, bs]sang [a, b] c gi l php
gii ngha (desemantization). Trong nhiu
ng dng ca SGT, s dng min ng
ngha l on [as = 0, bs = 1], khi php ng
ngha ho c gi l php chun ho
(Semantization = Normalization) v php gii
ngha c gi l php gii chun
(Desemantization = Denormalization).

M HNH D BO CHUI THI


GIAN M S DNG SGT
Bc 1. Chia min xc nh ca tp nn
thnh nhng khong bng nhau.
Bc 2. Xy dng cc nhn ng ngha trn
tp nn.
Bc 3. Ng ngha ho chui d liu.

Bc 4. Xc nh cc quan h ng ngha theo


Sign(hc)=Sign(c), nu h l m i vi c (3.9)
Sign(hc)=+Sign(c), nu h l dng i vi c (3.10) nhn ng ngha.
Bc 5. To lp nhm quan h ng ngha
Sign(h'hx) = Sign(hx), nu hhx hx v h' l
theo nhn ng ngha.
m i vi h
(3.11)
Sign(h'hx) = +Sign(hx), nu hhx hx v h' l
Bc 6. Gii ngha u ra d bo.
dng i vi h
(3.12)
Bi ton c chn lm r hiu qu d bo
Sign(h'hx) = 0 nu hhx = hx
(3.13)
ca m hnh trn l bi ton d bo s lng
Gi fm l mt o tnh m trn X, nh x
sinh vin nhp hc ti trng i hc
ng ngha nh lng : X [0, 1], c
Alabama trn c s cc s liu c t nm
sinh ra bi fm trn X, c xc nh nh sau:
1971 n nm 1992 tng t bi ton d bo

ca Song & Chissom [1, 2] v Chen [3] vi


(3.14)
v(W) fm(c ),
cc bc nh sau:
(3.15)
v(c ) fm(c ) fm(c )
Bc 1: Xc nh tp nn, chia min xc nh
v(c ) fm(c ) 1 fm(c ) (3.16)
ca tp nn thnh nhng khong bng nhau.
Tp nn U c Chen chn c khong xc
v(h j x) v( x) sign(h j x)
(3.17)
nh: [DminD1, DmaxD2] vi Dmin v
j
{ i sign ( j ) fm(hi x) (h j x) fm(h j x)}
Dmax l s sinh vin nhp hc thp nht v
cao nht theo d liu lch s nhp hc ca
1
(h j x) [1 Sign(h j x)
trng. C th Dmin = 13055 v Dmax =
(3.18)
2
19337. Cc bin D1 v D2 l cc s dng
sign(hp h j x)( )] { , }
c chn sao cho khong [DminD1,
j [-q^p], j 0.
DmaxD2] bao c s sinh vin nhp hc
thp nht v cao nht trong tng lai. S dng
Gi s rng min tham chiu thng thng
cch chn ca Chen, D1 = 55 v D2 = 663,
ca cc bin ngn ng X l on [a, b] cn
nh vy U = [13000, 20000]. Khong xc
min tham chiu ng ngha Xs l on [as, bs]
nh tp nn U c Chen v nhiu tc gi
(0as<bs1). Vic chuyn i tuyn tnh t [a,
khc chia thnh 7 khong bng nhau u1, u2,
b] sang [as, bs] c gi l php ng ngha
97

V Nh Ln v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

u3, u4, u5, u6 v u7. Trong u1 =


14000], u2 = [14000, 15000], u3 =
16000], u4 = [16000, 17000], u5 =
18000], u6 = [18000, 19000] vu7 =
20000].

[13000,
[15000,
[17000,
[19000,

Bc 2: Xy dng cc nhn ng ngha trn


tp nn.
Trong bi ton d bo s sinh vin nhp hc
ti trng i hc Alabama, Chen s dng
cc gi tr ngn ng A1 = (not many), A2 =
(not too many), A3 = (many), A4 = (many
many), A5 = (very many), A6 = (too many)
v A7 = (too many many). Bi ton d bo
ny theo tip cn SGT, s dng 2 gia t
"very" v "little" tc ng ln 2 phn t sinh
"small" v "large" to ra 7 nhn ng ngha
tng ng vi 7 gi tr ng ngha ca Chen
nh sau: A1 = (very small), A2 = (small), A3
= (little small), A4 = (midle), A5 = (little
large), A6 = (large) v A7 = (very large).
Bc 3: Ng ngha ho chui d liu.
K hiu: SA = Semantization (A) l gi tr
ng ngha nh lng theo nhn ng ngha A,
khi : SA1 = (very small); SA2 = (small);
SA3 = (little small); SA4 = (midle);
SA5 = (little large); SA6 = (large) v SA7
= (very large) l cc gi tr ng ngha nh
lng theo cc tham s c chon trc , .
Sau 3 bc trn, xy dng c Bng 1: Ng
ngha ho d liu lch s s sinh vin nhp
hc ti trng Alabama.
T Bng 1 xy dng c phn b 22 d liu
theo 22 nm tnh t 1971 n 1992 thuccc
khong ui.
Bc 4: Xc nh cc quan h ng ngha theo
nhn ng ngha.
Nu t chui thi gian m F(t-1) l Ak c
ng ngha nh lng SAk v F(t) l Am c
ng ngha nh lng SAm, th Ak c quan
h vi Am v dn n SAk c quan h vi
SAm. Quan h ny c gi l quan h ng
ngha theo nhn ng ngha v c k hiu l:
SAk SAmhoc
Semantization(Aj)Semantization(Ak)(3.21)
98

122(08): 95 - 101

Bng 1: Ng ngha ho d liu lch s s sinh


vin nhp hc
Nm
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992

S sinh vin
nhp hc
13055
13563
13867
14696
15460
15311
15603
15861
16807
16919
16388
15433
15497
15145
15163
15984
16859
18150
18970
19328
19337
18876

Thuc
khong
u1
u1
u1
u2
u3
u3
u3
u3
u4
u4
u4
u3
u3
u3
u3
u3
u4
u6
u6
u7
u7
u6

Ng ngha
nh lng
SA1
SA1
SA1
SA2
SA3
SA3
SA3
SA3
SA4
SA4
SA4
SA3
SA3
SA3
SA3
SA3
SA4
SA6
SA6
SA7
SA7
SA6

Bng 2: Phn b s nm trn cc khong ui


Khong
Snm

u1
3

u2
1

u3
9

u4
4

u5
0

u6
3

u7
2

Trn c s Bng 1 xy dng c cc quan


h ng ngha sau y:
SA1 SA1 (2 ln); SA1 SA2;SA2
SA3;SA3 SA3 (7 ln);
SA3 SA4 (2 ln); SA4 SA4 (2 ln);SA4
SA3;SA4 SA6;
SA6 SA6;SA6 SA7; SA7 SA7
vSA7 SA6
(3.22)
Bc 5: To lp nhm quan h ng ngha
theo nhn ng ngha.
Nhm 1: SA1 (SA1, SA1, SA2)
Nhm 2: SA2 (SA3)
Nhm 3: SA3 (SA3, SA3, SA3, SA3, SA3,
SA3, SA3, SA4, SA4)
Nhm 4: SA4 (SA4, SA4, SA3, SA6)
Nhm 5: SA6 (SA6, SA7)
Nhm 6: SA7 (SA7, SA6)
Bc 6:Gii ngha u ra d bo.
Gi s s sinh vin nhp hc ti nm (t-1) ca
chui thi gian m F(t-1) c ng ngha ho
theo (3.19) l SAj, khi u ra d bo ca
F(t) hay s sinh vin nhp hc d bo ti nm

V Nh Ln v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

t c xc nh theo cc nguyn tc (lut) sau


y:
1. Nu tn ti quan h 1-1 trong nhm quan
h ng ngha theo nhn ngn ng Aj:
SAj SAk, haytheo (3.19): Semantization
(Aj) Semantization (Ak), th u ra d bo
c
tnh
theo
(3.20):
DSAj
=
Desemantization (SAj) trn khong uj.
2. Nu SAj l rng, (SAj = ) SAk, th
u ra d bo l im gia khong uj
3. Nu tn ti quan h 1-nhiu trong nhm
quan h ng ngha (k c quan h trng) theo
nhn ngn ng Aj: SAj (SAi, SAk,..., SAr),
hay
theo
(3.19):
Semantization(Aj)
(Semantization(Ai), Semantization(Ak), ...,
Semantization(Ar)), th u ra d bo c
xc
nh
theo
(3.20):
DSAj
=
Desemantization(WSAiAj x SAi+WSAkAj x
SAk+ ... +WSArAj x SAr) trn khong bt k
trong khong chung bao gm t ui, uk, n
ur ca NQHNN. Trong WSAiAj,
WSAkAj..., WSArAj l trng s ng ngha
ca tng thnh phn trong NQHNN theo nhn
ng ngha Aj c tnh bng t s gia s
nm thuc khong ui v tng s nm thuc

122(08): 95 - 101

cc khong ui, uk, ..., ur vi ui < uk < ... < ur.


Lu : WSAiAj+WSAkAj+...+WSArAj=1.
Cc tham s trong m hnh d bo chui thi
gian m theo tip cn SGT c chn c
th nh sau:
a/ Cc tham s ca php ng ngha ho:
= = 0.5.
b/ Cc khong ca php gii ng ngha cho 6
nhm quan h ng ngha gm:
Nhm 1 [13500 14500]
Nhm 2[15000 16000]
Nhm 3 [15500 16500]
Nhm 4 [16000 17000]
Nhm 5 [18500 19500]
Nhm 6 [18500 19500]
Kt qu so snh cc phng php d bo bc
nht khc nhau trn c s sai s trung bnh
bnh phng MSE gia tip cn SGT v cc
phng php d bo khc ca Song &
Chissom [1,2], Chen [3], Hwang [5] v
Huarng [4] c m t trong Bng 3:

Bng 3: So snh cc phng php d bo bc nht khc nhau


Nm

1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992

S sinh
vin
nhp hc

13055
13563
13867
14696
15460
15311
15603
15861
16807
16919
16388
15433
15497
15145
15163
15984
16859
18150
18970
19328
19337
18876
MSE

Phngphp
Song & Chissom

Phngphp
Song &
Chissom

Phng
phpChen

Phng
php
Hwang

Phng
php
Huarng

Phngphp
SGT

14000
14000
14000
15500
16000
16000
16000
16000
16813
16813
16789
16000
16000
16000
16000
16000
16813
19000
19000
19000
Khng c
423027

Khng c
Khng c
Khng c
14700
14800
15400
15500
15500
16800
16200
16400
16800
16400
15500
15500
15500
16800
19300
17800
19300
19600
775687

14000
14000
14000
15500
16000
16000
16000
16000
16833
16833
16833
16000
16000
16000
16000
16000
16833
19000
19000
19000
19000
407507

Khng c
Khng c
Khng c
Khng c
16260
15511
16003
16261
17407
17119
16188
14833
15497
14745
15163
16384
17659
19150
19770
19928
19537
321418

14000
14000
14000
15500
15500
16000
16000
16000
17500
16000
16000
16000
15500
16000
16000
16000
17500
19000
19000
19500
19000
226611

13643
13643
15143
15875
15889
15889
15889
16389
16481
16481
15981
15889
15889
15889
15889
16389
18981
19300
19300
19300
19300
188910

99

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Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

(3.23)
Trong : MSE (Mean Square Error) l sai s
trung bnh bnh phng; SSVNHTT i l s
sinh vin nhp hc thc t nm I; cn
SSVNHDB i l s sinh vin nhp hc d bo
nm i, i = 1, 2, , 21
T Bng 3 c th thy r tnh u vit ca m
hnh d bo bc nht chui thi gian m theo
tip cn SGT so vi nhiu m hnh d bo
khc cng bc nht. Sai s trung bnh bnh
phng ca phng php d bo theo tip
cn SGT c gi tr MSE = 188910 l nh
nht so vi tt c cc phng php khc.

KT LUN
D bo chui thi gian m l mt hng
nghin cu hon ton mi. Trn thc t,
nhng d liu thu c theo thi gian thng
chu nh hng ca cc yu t khch quan v
ch quan. Chnh v vy xem xt chui thi
gian trn quan im bin ngn ng ca Song
& Chissom v Chen l hon ton ng n.
Bi bo nghin cu a ra m hnh d bo
chui thi gian m da trn tip cn SGT
v so snh vi cc m hnh d bo truyn
thng c. Hiu qu d bo tt hn ca m
hnh mi c khng nh trn c s gii
quyt cng mt bi ton d bo s sinh vin
nhp hc c Song & Chissom, Chen v

100

122(08): 95 - 101

nhiu tc gi khc s dng. y l nghin cu


quan trng ban u khng nh gi tr khoa
hc ca tip cn SGT trong mt lnh vc
ng dng mi v d bo. Kt qu nhn c
ca bi bo m ra hng nghin cu ng
dng mi ca tip cn SGT trong lnh vc
d bo.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Song Q, Chissom B.S: Forecasting enrollments
with fuzzy time series part 1. Fuzzy Sets and
Syst. 54, 19, 1993.
2. Song Q, Chissom B.S.: Forecasting enrollments
with fuzzy time series part 2. Fuzzy Sets and
Syst. 62, 18, 1994
3. Chen S.M.: Forecasting Enrollments Based on
Fuzzy Time Series. Fuzzy Sets and Syst. 81, 311
319, 1996.
4. Huarng, K.: Heuristic Models of Fuzzy Time
Series for Forecasting. Fuzzy Sets and Syst. 123
369386, 2001.
5. HwangJ.R.,Chen,S.M., Lee, C.H., Handling
Forecasting problems using fuzzy time series.
Fuzzy Sets and Systems 100, 217-228, 1998
6. N.C Ho and W. Wechler, Hedge algebras: An
algebraic approach to structures of sets of
linguistic domains of linguistic truth variable,
Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 35, 281-293, 1990.
7. N.C Ho and W. Wechler, Extended hedge
algebras and their application to Fuzzy logic,
Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 52, 259-281, 1992.
8. Nguyen Cat Ho, Vu Nhu Lan, Le Xuan Viet,
Optimal hedge-algebras-based controller: Design
and Application, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 159,
968 989, 2008.

V Nh Ln v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 95 - 101

SUMMARY
HEDGE-ALGEBRA-BASED FUZZY TIME-SERIES
Vu Nhu Lan1*, Nguyen Tien Duy2, Trinh Thuy Ha3
of Information Technology Vietnam Academy of Science an Technology,
2College of Technology TNU, 3College of Information and Communication Technology - TNU
1Institute

Song and Chissom [1-2] presented thenew concept of fuzzy time series for the first time. However,
computational method of the fuzzy logical relationship groups in the fuzzy time series forecasting
model is too complicated to apply. Thus, the forecasting accuracy is not high. Chen [3] changed
the way to compute fuzzy relationship groups by simple numbers arithmetic operations in order to
bring a betterforecasting result.Hedge algebra (HA) is a new approachbuilt by N.C.Ho and W.
Wechlerx in the 1990s, 1992s [6,7] as giving a dealing model of linguistic value of linguistic
variable and it is completely different from fuzzy approach. As an application, this paper is a
continuous process of the studies using hedge algebra in the field of fuzzy time series forecasting.
This is a new field which is being studied by many scientists all over the world.Basing on data
series of the historical enrollments of the University of Alabama from 1971 to 1992, the paper
proposes a new forecasting method based on hedge algebra and compares to the results of Song,
Chissom's [1,2], Chen's [3], Hwang's [5]v Huarng's [4]. Meanwhile, it can be shown that the
mean squared error (MSE) by approaching hedge algebra is much less than the one in fuzzy time
series forecasting model of the above authors.
Key words: Fuzzy set, Fuzzy time series, Fuzzy logicalrelationship, Hedge Algebra

Ngy nhn bi:04/5/2014; Ngy phn bin:18/5/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS Li Khc Li i hc Thi Nguyn
*

Tel: 0986 437050, E-mail: vnlan@ioit.ac.vn

101

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102

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122(08): 95 - 101

Nguyn c Tho v tg

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122(08): 103 - 109

A HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTELLIGENT ECG SIGNAL


ACQUISITION AND AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION USING
PROGRAMMABLE IC TECHNOLOGIES
Nguyen Duc Thao1, Tran Hoai Linh1*,
Pham Van Nam1, Truong Tuan Anh2
1Hanoi

University of Science and Technology,


2College of Technology - TNU

SUMMARY
This paper will present a proposed hardware design of an intelligent device for ECG signal
acquisition and classification. The device will be able to collect one channel of ECG signal,
analyze it and classify the signal to detect the arrhythmias using a neuro-fuzzy TSK network. The
classification model was trained by using the sample ECG signals taken from the MIT-BIH
database (available on physionet.org). The device's design will use the programmable IC
technologies such as FPAA (Field Programmable Analog Array) and PSoC (Programmable
System on Chip) in order to: 1. tune the parameters of the circuits in a easy way for better
performance, 2. implement the classification model, which is the neuro-fuzzy TSK (Takagi Sugeno - Kang) network, especially in the case when we need to update the structure and
parameters of network due to new results from a learning process to adapt the network to a new set
of data. Also thanks to the high degree of functional blocks integration on the FPAA and PSoC
ICs, we can create portable devices with very compact size and easy to use. A very strong
advantage of FPAA is the fact that the parameters of the filters and the amplifiers implemented in
FPAA can be changed in fly during the working process of the circuit. This capability allows us
to create adaptive, flexible devices for different working conditions and environments.
Keywords: Programmable System on Chip (PSoC); Field Programmable Analog Array (FPAA);
Takagi - Sugeno Kang (TSK); Electrocardiogram (ECG); QRS Complex; Portable Devices

INTRODUCTION*
In the present life, the need to periodically
check the health of each person is
increasingly enhanced. The growing trend is
to have the checking devices compact, multifunctional and intelligent. Earlier ECG
devices had mostly the option of acquisition
and some very limited capability of analyzing
such as rhythm counting and pace estimation
but not the automatic rhythm classification.
This option was done by the doctors or the
models implemented on the PC due to the
high complexity and computational power
demand. With the development of
manufacturing electronic components but
now we have the versatile integrated circuits
capable of reconfiguration. We can integrate
many functions in modern devices that do not
require a lot of space. The objective of the
*

Tel: 0912 316629, Email: thlinh2000@yahoo.com

study in this paper is the application of new


microelectronics technologies for design an
intelligent device for ECG signal acquisition
and classification.
Two main IC technologies used in this design
are the PSoC (Programmable System on
Chip) and FPAA (Field-Programmable
Analog Array).
PSoC is the name of a family of processor
already contains many of built-in function
blocks, which can be connected in a quite
arbitrary way to create the required function
of the device. A single PSoC chip can be used
to built circuit functions that previously
needed to use a lot of chips at once. For
example, the PSoC chip has already different
integrated ADC (Analog Digital Converter) at
different precision to facilitate the users'
choice. It has also IOAMP (Instrumentation
Operational Amplifier) needed in acquisition
circuits. Or it allows a number of
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communication protocol such as I2C and


UART, ... Besides the PSoC chip is also
equipped with Flash memory, SRAM
memory, and as many ports on the versatility
- the ability to be able to simplify the design
process and construction of signal processing
circuits. The main idea of building system
using PSoC chip can be summarized as
follows: "The IC has already contained
multiple functional circuits (both analog
signals and digital) and the ability to be
flexible when coupling between those
functional blocks. The designer's task is to
select the appropriate function blocks and set
up the connection between the function
blocks.
Later
those
programmable
connections are coded by the device
integrated software and loaded into the chip,
which reduces significantly the time to create
the device".
The very same idea but particularly for the
analog circuits is used for the FPAA ICs.
Using those two technologies, we can build
easily a device to measure the ECG signal
from the user. After acquisition and
preprocessing, the signal is analyzed by using
a software simulator of neuro-fuzzy TSK
network. As a neural network, the TSK model
need to be able to change their structure and
parameters if we use another set of data
samples to train the network. This
requirements can be fulfilled because PSoC
ICs allow their configurations and programs be
changed in fly (i.e. during the working
process of the circuit) so that we don't need to
turn the device off and reprogram it as we have
to do with earlier microprocessor circuits.
DEVICE REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
In this paper, a device for ECG signal
acquisition and classification is concerned.
The main requirements for the device are:
Measure and acquire one channel of ECG
signal (optional multichannel measurement).
The device should be portable, operate on
battery sources.
104

122(08): 103 - 109

Has a built-in LCD to display various


parameters and the ECG signal itself.
Built-in memory storage and communication
port to connect with PC to exchange the data.
The general schematic of the device is
presented on Fig. 1.

Figure 1. The block schematic of the device

On this schematic, there are following main


functional blocks:
Block of ECG signal acquisition: Containing
the ECG electrodes, the different filters
including low-pass, high-pass and notch
filters. The input signals have the range
around mV so an amplifier block is also
needed. All of theses blocks can be
implemented using a single FPAA IC.
The central microprocessor: Used to connect
to all external devices. It implements also the
software simulator of the TSK neuro-fuzzy
network (as a C-code function) to process the
ECG signals collected from the FPAA IC.
Display: A graphical LCD is selected in order
to display both texts and the ECG signals.
Input interface: A touch screen is used to
provide to input interface with the users.
Storage: A flash memory card with capacity
around GB is sufficient for general purposes
of such type of the devices.
Power Source: The device is powered by battery.

THE HARDWARE DESIGN


The acquisition circuit
a) The filters and pre-amplification blocks:
The ECG signals has small amplitudes. As
seen on the Fig. 2, even the R peak has
amplitude about 1 to 2.5mV. To convert to
the standard range of 0V ,5V
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microprocessor circuits, it need to be


amplified about 2000 times. At the same time,
the ECG signal contains different noise
sources that need to be canceled, for example
the high frequency components from the
digital circuit, the low frequency components
from the movement of the users, the 50 (or
60) Hz noise from home appliances power
sources,...We have decided to use the FPGA
IC AN221E04 from Anadigm company to
implement all 3 type of filters (connected in
cascade) because IC AN221E04 has enough
resources to fulfill the need.
Figure 4. Designing of filters and amplification
blocks using Anadigm Designer for AN221E04

Figure 2. Example of ECG signal with the


indicated peaks and signal levels about mV

(a)

(b)

Figure 3. IC AN221E04 (a) and its pins (b)

These filters are designed firstly by using the


included software Anadigm Designer as it can
be seen of Fig. 4.
In details:
The low pass filter with DC blocking: We use
a built-in block CAM DC Blocking High Pass
Filter with Optional LPF set with cutting
frequency around 0,05Hz. At the sampling
frequency of FPAA equals 16kHz then the
external capacitor needs to be around 740nF.
When used with the available capacitor type
C105 (1000nF) the real cutting frequency for
DC blocking is 0.037Hz, which is acceptable.
This block also has an amplification factor
equal G3 16 .

The high pass filter: By using the block CAM


Bi-quadratic Filter AN221E04 allows us to
select the cutting frequency from the range
0,032kHz to 1,6kHz. We have selected the
cutting frequency equal 150Hz. This block
also has an amplification factor equal G2 8 .
The notch filter: To filter out the 50Hz
frequency (of the home power supply),
IC221E04 allows us to select following
parameters of the notch filter:
Pass Band Ripple = 3dB,
Stop Band Attend = 30dB,
Center Frequency = 50Hz,
Stop Band Width = 2Hz,
Amplification Factor = 1.
Additional amplification
To have the signal gain around 2000 as
mentioned above, with the amplification
coefficients of the 3 filter blocks selected
earlier, we need one additional amplification
block with the gain G1 16. So the total gain is:
G G1 G2 G3 16 8 16 2048 (1)
After design all needed blocks, the Anadigm
Designer will generate for us a configuration
file to be sent down to the IC (from PC to the
microprocessor PSoC and from PSoC to
FPAA) in order to let the FPAA IC works as
designed. The connection schematic between
the PSoC and the FPAA to sent down the
configuration file is shown on Fig. 5.
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communication with the card is supported by


the PSoC CY8C29566. The schematic of
connection between the CY8C29566 and the
SD card is presented on Fig. 8.

Figure 5. The connection between PSoC and


FPAA to transfer the configuration file when the
device is started

The central microprocessor


The central microprocessor is realized using
Cypress's PSoC CY8C29566, which has up to
16 Digital and 12 Analog functional blocks, a
built-in oscillator of 48MHz.
The LCD monitor

Figure 7. The transparent, resistive touch screen

We have chosen as the device display the


GLCD
128X64
KS0108,
with
the
resolution128x64pixels as shown on Fig. 6.

Figure 8. The connection between the SD card


and the PSoC

Figure 6. The LCD graphic KS0108

The input interface


To reduce the sizes of the device, instead of
traditional buttons, we use a resistive touch
screen placed on top of the display of the
device. This transparent screen is shown on
Fig. 7.
Memory storage and PC communication
The device needs to store the measured ECG
signals for longer period (up to few days for
continuous monitoring to help the doctors in
later comparison and assessment of the user's
conditions) We have chosen an SD card of
2GB capacity for used in the device. This
capacity is enough for our purposes and the
106

To communicated with external PC to upload


and download data, CY8C29566 supports
different protocols, among which we have
selected the standard UART (RS-232) to be
used. In this case we need an external IC to
match the voltage levels of PC and the
microprocessor. On Fig. 9 is the connection
schematics between the PSoC and the external
level converter MAX232 (Fig. 10a) and how to
define the connections between the functional
blocks inside the PSoC (Fig. 10b).
Power source
The device is powered using a battery
(rechargeable type is recommended). We used
the Nokia's BL-6C (output voltage
3.63.75V, capacity 1150mAh). Because
some components work with the voltage 5V,
we have used the IC ADP3000-5 to convert
the voltage level required. This IC can supply
the current up to 400mA.

Nguyn c Tho v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 103 - 109

3. The feature vector is put into a neurofuzzy TSK network simulator to detect if
the QRS complexes represent arrhythmia or
normal beats.
(a)

These steps are realized in our device in


following way:
1. The R peak of the QRS complexes is
detected by using simple threshold algorithm:
the difference between levels of a R peak and
the two nearest minima should be 3 times
higher than the variance of non-QRS
fragment of the ECG signal.

(b)
Figure 9. The connection schematic between
PSoC and external communication IC MAX232
(a) and the internal configuration of PSoC for
UART and the two pins TX, RX (b)

2. Once the R peak is detected, a window of


150ms before and 150ms after the peak is
extracted to be used later. The window length
300ms is long enough to cover even the
abnormal QRS complexes (when the normal
QRS complexes have the length of about
100ms). The extracted signal s(t) is
decomposed into a set of N=16 first Hermite
basis functions [9]:
N 1
(2)
s (t )

ci H i (t )
i 0

Figure 10. Generating the 5V from the 3.7V


battery

THE SOFTWARE DESIGN


Despite the complications and the complexity
of the hardware design, the heart of the device
lies with the software because it provide the
most important task for the user: the analysis
and automatic detection of arrhythmias of the
ECG signals. There are many solutions
already proposed. In this paper, we will
implement the solution described in [9].
According to that, the ECG is processed in
following steps:
1. The detection of the R peak of the QRS
complexes
2. The extraction of the QRS complexes and
their corresponded feature vectors using
Hermite basis functions

Figure 11. Setting the threshold to detect the R


peaks

where the 16 decomposition coefficients ci


are later used as the features of the actual
complex. With a digital version of the signal
s(t), we have the approximation spanned on a
set of p points t0 , t1, , t p1 . In this case, the
coefficients ci are chosen to minimize
H 0 (t0 ) H1 (t0 )
H (t ) H (t )
1 1
0 1
...
...

H 0 ( t p ) H1 ( t p )

H N 1 (t0 ) c0 s(t0 )
H N 1 (t1 ) c1 s(t1 ) (3)

...
...

... H N 1 (t p 1 ) cN 1 s(t p 1 )

...
...

107

Nguyn c Tho v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Let's denote
H1 (t0 )
H 0 (t0 )
H (t )
H1 (t1 )
0 1
A
...
...

H 0 (t p 1 ) H1 (t p 1 )
s(t0 )
c0
s (t )
c
1
b
;x 1

s
(
t
)
c
N 1
p 1

H N 1 (t0 )
H N 1 (t1 )
;

...
...

... H N 1 (t p 1 )
...
...

(4)

122(08): 103 - 109

huge complexity of the training algorithms


[9]) practically in this step we need to
calculate the network's output having the
known the transfer function of the network
already coded as a C function.

IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS

The best matched solution with min A x b


x

for this system of equations can be found by


using
the
SVD
(Singular
Value
Decomposition) algorithms, according to
which, first the matrix A of p rows and N
columns is decomposed as
(5)
A p N S p p Vp N DTN N

The above designs and descriptions was fully


tested on the included software from of PSoC
and FPAA producer, the algorithms of ECG
signal processing were tested on the data from
the MIT-BIH databases available on the
physionet.org. The resulted device is very
light and compact (with the dimensions of
10,5cm 10,5cm 2cm ).
The main board of the device is shown on
Fig. 12.

where S and D are unitary matrices, V is a


rectangular diagonal matrix. Then the pseudoinverse matrix A N p of A can be calculated
using the formula
A N p D N N VN p STp p

(6)

where V+ is the so-called pseudo-inverse of


V, which is formed by replacing every nonzero diagonal entry by its reciprocal and
transposing the resulting matrix.
Once A+ determined, the decomposition
coefficients are determined in single step of
matrix calculation
(7)
x A b
Please note that the matrix A is constant for
all decomposition steps, so A and A+ were
determined earlier on the computer and
downloaded to the device for later use. In that
case, the decomposition process in Eq. 2 is just
a matrix multiplication as shown on Eq. 7.
As the feature vector for the given QRS
complex we use 18 components [9]: the
above mentioned 16 values of ci and the 2 Rpeak based values: the last R-to-R distance
and the average of last 10 values of R-to-R
distances.
3. The final stage is to put the 18-component
input vector into a trained TSK network to
calculate the network response, which
indicates the type the rhythm. Since the TSK
network was trained already on PC (due to the
108

(a)

(b)

(c)
Figure 12. The designed product:(a) The main
board, (b) The device with connected ECG
electrodes and LCD, (c) The device with a cover
box

Nguyn c Tho v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 103 - 109

REFERENCES

CONCLUSIONS

1. J. Adamec, R. Adamec, ECG Holter: Guide to


Electrocardiographic Interpretation, Springer, 2008.
2. A. Bays de Luna, Basic Electrocardiography:
Normal
and
Abnormal
ECG
Patterns,
Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.
3. Cypress Library, www.cypress.com/
4. Datasheets of various IC and components used in
the design, www.datasheetarchive.com
5. J. R. Hampton, 150 ECG Problems, Churchill
Livingstone, 2003.
6. J. R. Hampton, The ECG Made Easy, Churchill
Livingstone, 2003.
7. A.C. Metting van Rijn, A. Peper, C. A.
Grimbergen, The Isolation Mode Rejection Ratio in
Bioelectric
Amplifiers,
www.biosemi.com/publications/artikel5.htm
8. P. Laguna, Adaptive estimation of QRS complex
wave features of ECG signal by the Hermite
model, Med. & Biol. Eng. & Comput., vol. 34,
pp.58 -68 1996
9. S. Osowski, Tran Hoai Linh, On-line heart
beat recognition using Hermite polynomials and
neuro-fuzzy network, IEEE Trans. on Instrum.
and Measur., 2003, 52, pp. 12241230

The paper has presented about the design of


an intelligent device for ECG signal
acquisition and classification.
By using
programmable IC of types FPAA and PSoC,
with their very number of built-in functional
blocks we can have a very compact portable
device with many parameters can be tuned "in
fly" without the need of resetting or
reprogramming the device. It also allows us to
easily perform the device upgrade and
improvement. Future upgrades may include:
multi-channel of ECG signals, wireless
connection between the device and the host
computer,
other
models
of
ECG
classification.
Acknowledgment:
The author would like to thank NASFOSTED
for having funded (Project No. 102.022010.05, subeld 06) the research performed
of this paper.
TM TT
THIT K THIT B THU THP V T NG NHN DNG THNG MINH
TN HIU IN TIM S DNG CC CNG NGH VI MCH KH TRNH

Nguyn c Tho1, Trn Hoi Linh1*,


Phm Vn Nam1, Trng Tun Anh2
1Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni,
Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip - H Thi Nguyn

Bi bo s trnh by v thit k mch thu thp v nhn dng tn hiu in tim thng minh. Thit b
ny c th thu thp mt knh ca tn hiu in tim, phn tch v nhn dng tn hiu pht hin
cc ri lon nhp tim bng cch s dng mt mng nrn m TSK. M hnh phn loi c hun
luyn bng cch s dng cc mu tn hiu in tim c ly t c s d liu mu MIT- BIH (c
th ti v t physionet.org). Thit b c thit k s s dng cc cng ngh vi mch kh trnh
c nh FPAA (Field Programmable Analog Array) v PSoC (Programmable System on Chip)
: 1. iu chnh cc thng s ca mch mt cch d dng cho hiu sut tt hn, 2. thc hin cc
m hnh nhn dng (trong bi bo ny s dng mng nrn m TSK (Takagi - Sugeno - Kang)),
c bit l trong trng hp khi chng ta cn phi cp nht cc cu trc v cc thng s ca mng
do kt qu mi t mt qu trnh hc tp thch ng mng t mt b d liu mi. Cng nh mc
tch hp cao ca khi chc nng tch hp trn IC PSoC v FPAA, chng ta c th to ra cc
thit b cm tay vi kch thc rt nh gn v d s dng. Mt li th mnh ca FPAA l cc
thng s ca cc b lc v cc b khuch i thc hin trong FPAA c th iu chnh "nng" trong
thi gian thit b ang lm vic. Kh nng ny cho php ta c c cc thit b mm do, c kh
nng thch nghi ln vi cc mi trng o thay i.
T kha: PSoC; FPAA; Mng nrn m TSK; Tn hiu in tim; Phc b QRS; Thit b cm tay
Ngy nhn bi:04/6/2014; Ngy phn bin:23/6/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS Nguyn Thanh H i hc Thi Nguyn

Tel: 0912 316629, Email: thlinh2000@yahoo.com

109

Nguyn c Tho v tg

110

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 103 - 109

Nguyn Thanh Hi

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 111 - 115

XY DNG C S D LIU PHC V QUN L CHT THI RN SINH


HOT TI THNH PH THI NGUYN, TNH THI NGUYN
Nguyn Thanh Hi*
Trng i hc Nng Lm H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Ngy nay h thng thng tin a l (GIS) c ng dng ph bin trong vic qun l v x l
cc vn kinh t, x hi v mi trng, nh ng dng GIS/GPS trong quan trc v qun l cht
thi rn nhm phn tch da trn v tr cc ngun thi, ch thy vn, a hnh, ng x,
quy hoch tuyn vn chuyn, ni tp trung, ni x l cht thi,.. Nghin cu ng dng GIS v
GPS h tr cng tc quan trc h thng thu gom v trung chuyn CTR sinh hot ti TP. Thi
Nguyn nhm to iu kin thun tin cho ngi qun l nh gi hiu qu hot ng ca h
thng hin ti. Qua phn tch nhng kh khn v thun li ca h thng hin ti lm c s cho
nhng nghin cu chuyn su trong tng lai.
T kha: Cht thi rn, c s d liu, bi chn lp, GIS, TP. Thi Nguyn

M U*
Qu trnh th ha nhanh chng ca Thnh
ph Thi Nguyn trong nhng nm gn y
gy nhng kh khn khng nh trong cng
tc qun l th, t ra nhng thch thc i
vi cc nh qun l v nhng vn : nhim
mi trng, qun l cht thi rn,
Gii php s dng d liu a l GIS (h
thng thng tin a l) ang c nhiu c
quan qun l quan tm nghin cu tng bc
a vo s dng. Mt c s d liu a l
GIS c thit k hon ho cho php khai
thc hiu qu d liu, kh nng lin kt cc
loi d liu ny vi d liu t cc ngun khc
v chuyn i d liu sang ngi s dng v
phn mm khc. Do , vic s dng c s
d liu a l GIS s gp phn gii quyt
nhng tn ti trong vic thu gom v qun l
cht thi rn nh hnh thc th cng, thi gian
thu gom ko di ti TP. Thi Nguyn.
PHNG PHP NGHIN CU
* Nghin cu v phn tch ti liu trong v
ngoi nc lin quan ti cng tc qun l
CTR sinh hot, h thng thng tin a l v
ng dng ca h thng thng tin a l trong
qun l thu gom, vn chuyn CTR.
* C s d liu GIS v h thng thu gom
CTR ti TP. Thi Nguyn gm 5 thnh phn:
*

Tel: 0983 090796; Email: nguyenthanhhaitn@gmail.com

d liu vng hnh chnh 10 phng trung


tm, d liu giao thng, d liu cc ch, d
liu cc bi chn lp v cc im hn tp kt
rc. Mi thnh phn c tch hp hai loi d
liu khng gian v d liu thuc tnh.
- D liu khng gian
D liu khng gian c xc nh bng my
nh v Garmin GPS eTrex. D liu my nh
v cung cp bao gm ta a l v cao
ca i tng nghin cu.
Trong gii hn nghin cu ca ti, d liu
khng gian ch bao gm ta a l ca cc
i tng: cc ch, cc bi chn lp v cc
im hn tp kt. Ta a l xc nh theo
h quy chiu trc a WGS84 (World
Geodetic System), li chiu ta phng
UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator). Tuy
nhin, cao ca i tng c th s dng
cho cc mc ch khc nh d bo tnh trng
ngp nc ca h thng thu gom cht thi rn
trong ma ma.
- D liu thuc tnh
D liu thuc tnh c thu thp bng cc
phng php quan st, iu tra, o c v thu
thp ti liu. ti s dng phn mm
Arcview 3.2 qun l d liu bng cch tch
hp cc d liu thuc tnh ny vo cc i
tng bn tng ng.
D liu thuc tnh c hai loi: loi khng thay
i theo thi gian (loi ng, loi ch, bi
111

Nguyn Thanh Hi

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

chn lp) v loi thay i theo thi gian


(lng rc thu gom). D liu thuc tnh ca
ti c lu tr, qun l bng phn mm
Arcview 3.2 di dng bng.

122(08): 111 - 115

T d liu trn ta c ta c bng 2 d liu ca


cc phng trung tm.
Bng 2. Bng d liu ca 10 phng trung tm
TP. Thi Nguyn

KT QU V THO LUN
* Xy dng c s d liu
Cc lp d liu thit k gm cc kiu sau:
String: kiu k t
Number: kiu s
Data: kiu ngy thng
Boolean: kiu logic
V mc tiu ca ti l th hin trc quan
cc thng tin ca h thng thu gom, vn
chuyn CTR sinh hot 10 phng trung tm
TP. Thi Nguyn ln bn giy nn cc lp
thng tin ca cc bng thuc tnh nh sau:
- Lp d liu vng hnh chnh 10 phng
trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn
Lp ha: hanhchinhtptn.shp

- Lp d liu ng giao thng trung tm TP.


Thi Nguyn
Lp ha: giaothongtptn.shp
Lp i tng: ng
Tn bng: Attributes of giaothongtptn.shp

Lp i tng: vng

Bng 3. Bng d liu v giao thng 10 phng


trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn (giaothongtptn.shp)

Tn bng: Attributes of hanhchinhtptn.shp

Tn field

Loi

Shape
Id
Tenduong
Loaiduong
Length
Width
Rushhour

Polygone
Number
String
String
Number
Number
Number

20
15
10
5
3

One way

String

Bng 1. Bng d liu v hnh chnh 10 phng


trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn (hanhchinhtptn.shp)
Chiu
di

Tn field

Loi

Shape
Id

Polygone
Number

Tenphuong

String

20

Dientich
Soho
Danso

Number
Number
Number

10
8
8

Klgrac/ngay

Number

Mc tin

Tn
phng
Din tch
S h
Dn s
Khi lng
rc/ngy

M t mc tin v m hiu:
Id: m n v hnh chnh ca phng
Tenphuong: tn ca tng phng trong khu
vc trung tm
Dientich: din tch ca phng (km2)
Soho: s h hin c trong phng
Danso: dn s tp trung trong phng (ngi)
Klgrac/ngay: khi lng rc sinh ra trong mt
ngy ca phng (tn/ngy)
112

Chiu
di

Mc tin

Tn ng
Loi ng
Chiu di
Chiu rng
Gi cao im
ng mt
chiu

M t mc tin v m hiu:
Id: m ng giao thng
Tenduong: tn ca ng giao thng
Loaiduong: loi cht liu ca ng
Length: chiu di ca on ng
Width: chiu rng ca on ng
Rushhour: gi cao im trn mt on ng
(tnh t 1 - 24, nu khng c gi cao im th
gn bng 0)
One way: quy nh thuc tnh chiu lu thng
ca xe chuyn dng (nu l ng hai chiu
k hiu l H, nu l ng mt chiu k hiu
l M).

Nguyn Thanh Hi

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

T d liu trn ta c ta c bng 4 d liu


ng giao thng ca cc phng trung tm
TP. Thi Nguyn.
Bng 4. Bng d liu ng giao thng 10
phng trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn

122(08): 111 - 115

- Lp d liu bi chn lp
Lp ha: baichonlaptptn.shp
Lp i tng: im
Tn bng: Attributes of baichonlaptptn.shp
Bng 7. Bng d liu bi chn lp ca TP. Thi
Nguyn (baichonlaptptn.shp)
Chiu
di

Tn field

Loi

Shape
Id
Ten
Xa,
phuong
Dientich

Point
Number
String

15

String

15

Number

10

Mc tin

Tn BCL
X,
phng
Din tch

M t mc tin v m hiu:
- Lp d liu cc ch
Lp ha: chotptn.shp
Lp i tng: im
Tn bng: Attributes of chotptn.shp

Id: m bi chn lp
Ten: tn bi chn lp

Bng 5. Bng d liu cc ch trong 10 phng


trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn (chotptn.shp)
Tn field

Loi

Shape
Id
Tencho
Phuong
Klgrac (kg)

Point
Number
String
String
Number

Chiu
di

15
15
8

Mc tin

Tn ch
Phng
KL rc

M t mc tin v m hiu:
Id: m ch
Tencho: tn ch
Phuong: Tn phng m ch trc thuc
Klgrac (kg): khi lng rc c tnh pht sinh
t ch trong mt ngy (kg/ngy)
T d liu trn ta c bng 6 th hin d liu
cc ch trn 10 phng trung tm ca TP.
Thi Nguyn.
Bng 6. Bng d liu cc ch trn 10 phng
trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn

Xa, phuong: Tn x hoc phng m BCL


trc thuc
Dientich: din tch ca bi chn lp (m2)
T cc d liu trn ta c bng 8 th hin d
liu bi chn lp ca TP. Thi Nguyn.
Bng 8. Bng d liu bi chn lp
ca thnh ph Thi Nguyn

- Lp d liu v tr cc im hn
Lp ha: diemhentptn.shp
Lp i tng: im
Tn bng: Attributes of diemhentptn.shp
Bng 9. Bng d liu v tr im hn thu gom rc
ca 10 phng trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn
(diemhentptn.shp)
Tn field

Loi

Shape
Id
Ten
Phuong
Klgrac (kg)

Point
Number
String
String
Number

Chiu
di

Mc tin

25
25
8

Tn im hn
Phng
KL rc

M t mc tin v m hiu:
113

Nguyn Thanh Hi

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 111 - 115

Id: m v tr im hn
Ten: tn im hn
Phuong: tn phng m im hn trc thuc
Klgrac: khi lng rc ti mi im hn
(kg/ngy)
T d liu trn ta c bng d liu 10 th hin
v tr cc im hn trong 10 phng trung tm
TP. Thi Nguyn.
Bng 10. Bng d liu v tr cc im hn trong
10 phng trung tm TPTN

* Xy dng bn hnh chnh, khi lng


rc pht sinh, cc im hn, h thng qun
l CTR sinh hot trn 10 phng trung tm
TP. Thi Nguyn

Hnh 3. Bn mt dn s v s phn b im
hn trn 10 phng trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn

Hnh 4. Bn hin trng h thng qun l CTR


sinh hot 10 phng trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn

KT LUN
S dng cng ngh GIS gp phn qun l
CTR sinh hot mt cch hiu qu t c
nhng kt qu sau:
- Xy dng c s d liu qun l CTR sinh
hot cho TP. Thi Nguyn trn c s thc
hin chuyn i d liu gc t khun dng
*dgn sang Arcview.
Hnh 1. Bn khi lng CTR sinh hot pht
sinh mi ngy trn 10 phng trung tm TP. Thi
Nguyn nm 2013

- Kt qu cui cng thu c cc bn c


cha y cc thng tin v CTR sinh hot
v bn cha nhng thng tin v cc im
tp trung CTR, thit lp c h thng c s
d liu v hin trng CTR sinh hot, qun l
v thit b v nhn s cho cng ty mi trng
th, xc lp cc tuyn thu gom, cc im
tp trung CTR ca TP. Thi Nguyn.
TI LIU THAM KHO

Hnh 2. Bn quy m khi lng rc ti cc im


hn trn 10 phng trung tm TP. Thi Nguyn

114

1. Anwar, S. M (2004). Solid Waste Management


and GIS: a Case of Kalabagan Area of Dhaka
City, Bangladesh, MSc. Dissertation, Department
of Geography, Norwegian University of Science
and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Nguyn Thanh Hi

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

2. Cng ty Mi trng v Cng trnh th Thi


Nguyn (2012), Bo co tng hp lng rc c
thu gom v x l ca TP. Thi Nguyn giai on
2001 - 2011, Thi Nguyn.
3. Nguyn Trng i (2004), Cc bi tp GIS ng
dng, Trng i hc KHTN - HQG H Ni.
4. ESRI (2006). ArcGIS Network Analyst Tutorial,
ESRI press, pp.36.
5. Ghose, M. K., Dikshit, A. K., Sharma, S. K
(2006). A GIS based transportation model for
solid waste disposal - a case study of Asansol
Municipality. Waste Management, Vol.26, pp.
1287-93, ISSN 0956-053X.
6. Phm Thu H, Ng Vn T (2006), C s v
ng dng HTTTL trong qun l ti nguyn v
mi trng nng nghip, Trng i hc Nng
nghip H Ni, H Ni.

122(08): 111 - 115

7. Ramasamy S. M., Kumanan C. J., Palanivel K


(2003). GIS Based Solutions for Waste Disposals,
GIS Development, India.
8. Sarptas, H., Alpaslan, M. N., Dolgen, D (2005).
GIS supported solid waste management in coastal
areas. Water Science and Technology, Vol. 51,
No. 11, 2005, pp. 213220, ISSN:0273-1223
9. Senthil, S (2002). GIS-MIS-GPS for solid waste
management, Map India, India.
10. Tng Cc Mi trng (2008). D n Xy
dng m hnh v trin khai th im vic phn
loi, thu gom v x l rc thi sinh hot cho cc
khu th.
11. y ban nhn dn tnh Thi Nguyn (2013).
Bo co hin trng mi trng tnh Thi Nguyn
nm 2012

SUMMARY
BUILDING DATABASES FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
IN THAI NGUYEN CITY CENTER, THAI NGUYEN PROVINCE
Nguyen Thanh Hai*
College of Agriculture and Forestry TNU

Today, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications has been applied popular in the
management and handling of economic, social and environmental issues, as GIS/GPS in
monitoring and solid waste management based on the source of emissions, hydrology, topography,
roads, ... to planning transportation routes, where the focus, where waste disposal ... The study and
application of GIS GPS to support the work of the monitoring system for collection and transfer
solid waste activities in Thai Nguyen city to create favorable conditions for the effective
management of operational evaluation of the current system. Through analyzing the difficulties
and advantages of the present system as the basis for in-depth research in the future.
Keywords: solid waste, database, GIS, Thai Nguyen city

Ngy nhn bi:05/6/2014; Ngy phn bin:15/6/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. Phan nh Binh Trng i hc Nng Lm - HTN
*

Tel: 0983 090796; Email: nguyenthanhhaitn@gmail.com

115

Nguyn Thanh Hi

116

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 111 - 115

Trn Th Ph v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 117 - 121

KT QU BC U NGHIN CU XY DNG M HNH CHNG CT


TINH DU CAM, BI PHC V X L RC THI XP
Trn Th Ph*, V Vn Bin,
Nguyn Th Ho, Ha Vn o, Vng Vn nh
Trng i hc Nng Lm Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Nghin cu v xy dng m hnh chng ct tinh du ti khu vc trng H Nng Lm Thi
Nguyn t ngun nguyn liu v cam, bi thi b thu c kt qu nh sau: chng ct 10kg v
qu thu c th tch tinh du cam, bi ln lt thu c trung bnh l 249,7 ml v 220 ml. Kt
qu phn tch thnh phn ho hc cho thy rng cht lng tinh sau chng ct l tt, khng cha
cht c hi, thnh phn ch yu c trong hai loi tinh du l Limonene. Qua nghin cu chng
minh Limonene l cht c kh nng x l xp.
T kha: Chng ct, tinh du, cam, bi, Limonene.

T VN *

Phng php nghin cu

T xa xa, ngi ta bit n cng dng


lm p v chm sc sc kho ca tinh du
bi, cam nhng t ai bit rng tinh du cn
c kh nng x l xp mt loi cht thi
kh b phn hu trong iu kin bnh thng.
Nghin cu tin hnh nhm mc ch kho
st hiu sut trch ly ca tinh du v a ra h
thng, quy trnh chng ct tinh du t v
cam, bi ph thi. Bn cnh s xut
nghin cu kh nng x l xp bng tinh
du cam, bi ti khu vc Trng H
Nng Lm Thi Nguyn.

Phng php iu tra thu thp ti liu, s


liu th cp

NI DUNG V PHNG PHP NGHIN CU

Phng php chit xut tinh du t v cam,


bi: S dng phng php chng ct li
cun hi nc khng c ni hi ring.
Phng php x l s liu

i tng ngin cu
i tng nghin cu l:
- H thng thit b chng ct tinh du bi,
cam quy m phng th nghim vi cng sut
10kg/ m.

Thu thp cc ti liu, s liu, cc cng trnh


c nghin cu trong v ngoi nc c
lin quan n cc vn nghin cu: phng
php, thit b s dng chng ct tinh du,
thnh phn, tnh cht ca tinh du bi, cam.
Phng php k tha
K tha v tham kho cc kt qu t c
ca cc bo co, ti c lin quan n vn
nghin cu.
Phng php chng ct

S liu c tng hp, phn tch v x l


bng phn mm MS Excel v SAS 9.0

- Tinh du cam, bi.

KT QU NGHIN CU V THO LUN

Ni dung nghin cu

Thit b chng ct tinh du

- M hnh chng ct tinh du cam, bi: Cc


thng s k thut ca ni chng ct v quy
trnh vn hnh.

V nguyn l lm vic: H thng thit b chng


ct tinh du quy m nh ca ti c thit k
lm vic theo nguyn l gin on.

- Tc dng ca tinh du cam, bi i vi sc


kho con ngi cng nh kh nng x l xp
thi bo v mi trng.

Vt liu ch to: V tinh du cam, qutc


cha mt s thnh phn c tnh oxi ha mnh
nn cc loi vt liu c s dng ch to
thit b u c lm bng cc loi vt liu
bn, khng han r: Thp khng g, inox,

Tel:

117

Trn Th Ph v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

nhm, thy tinh Cc khp ni, ch ni


c lm kn bng cc zong teflon, l loi
vt liu chu du, chu nhit.
V cng sut: 10 kg v nguyn liu/m.
L t: S dng bp than t ong 2 vin.
Ni chng ct: Thit b chng ct tinh du
thn c dng hnh tr, chp hnh chm cu,
gia l ca thot hn hp hi kh, kiu vi
voi. Ni chng ct c thit k vi nhng
thng s k thut sau:
+ Cht liu: Nhm.
+ Chiu cao: 55cm trong thn ni cao
41cm v chp ni cao 14cm.
+ ng knh: 40 cm.
+ ng h o nhit : kim sot nhit
ni chng ct
+ V ngn: V c lm bng 2 lp li inox
an xen nhau c chiu dy 1 mm, to iu
kin cho hi nc thot nn d dng. Chiu
cao v ngn so vi y ni l 12 cm.
B phn lm lnh: L thu tinh trung tnh,
khng c bt, ng knh ngoi 30 mm,
ng gia v dn cht lng ra 10mm, ng
dn kh vo 20mm, ng dn nc lm lnh
5 mm c rng gip ng chnh 20 mm.
m bo lm gim nhit ca dch ngng
xung khong 350C.
Quy trnh chng ct tinh du
Cng on c bn ca qu trnh chng ct
tinh du cam, bi.
B1: Chun b nguyn liu: Nguyn liu dng
chng ct l v cam, bi. Mi m chng
ct cn khong 10kg nguyn liu v c
nghin nh nhm mc ch gii phng tinh
du ra khi m khi chng ct tinh du d
thot ra, t rt ngn thi gian chng ct v
t hiu qu cao
B2: Ngm nguyn liu: Nguyn liu sau khi
nghin nh c ngm vo dung dch NaCl
(10%) trong 3 gi ng h. Cng on ny l
lm cho tinh du thm thu i t ti tit ra
bn ngoi, gip cho qu trnh chng ct tinh
du c trit hn.
118

122(08): 117 - 121

B3: Np liu: Nguyn liu np vo thit b


c cha bi h thng v ngn cch
vi lp nc bn di y ni. Nguyn liu
cha trong thit b khng vt qu 85% dung
tch thit b. Khng c np nguyn liu
cht qu lm cho hi kh phn phi u trong
ton b khi nguyn liu v khng c qu
lng, qu xp s lm cho hi d dng theo
nhng ch rng i ra m khng tip xc vi
ton khi nguyn liu.
B4: Chng ct: Khi bt u chng ct cn
cung cp nhit lng ln lm si nc
chng ct. Sau h nhit , duy tr nc
nhit si v khi nhit cao tinh du d
dng b phn hy. V vy, cn theo di ng
h o nhit ni hi v duy tr mc 951000C. Khi si, hi nc ko theo tinh du,
hn hp hi ny c dn vo h thng lm
lnh, ta s thu c hn hp nc, tinh du
vo mt bnh thy tinh. Cn iu chnh
nhit dch ngng nm trong khong 30 400C v nu dch ngng qu nng s lm
bay hi tinh du.
B5. Tho b: Sau khi chng ct xong cn tt
la, ngui 15 - 30 pht, m np v tho b,
sau dng nc sch v sinh thit b.
B6. Tch tinh du: Sau chng ct ta s thu
c mt hn hp nc v tinh du. Do c t
trng nh hn, tinh du ni nn trn. V vy
c th ht tinh du mt cch d dng. Tinh
du cam, bi cn bo qun trong cc chai l
c mu, trnh tip xc trc tip vi nh sng,
khng khi.
Kt qu chng ct tinh du
Kt qu chng ct tinh du cam, bi c
th hin di bng 1.
Qua bng s liu 1 ta thy, khi chng ct
10kg nguyn liu v cam v 10kg v bi
trong cng mt iu kin th lng tinh du
thu c ca v cam nhiu hn so vi v
bi. Trung bnh khi chng ct 10kg v cam
ta thu c 249.7ml tinh du nhiu hn
29.7ml so vi v bi.

Trn Th Ph v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 117 - 121

Bng 1: Kt qu chng ct tinh du cam, bi


TT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Ch s kho nghim

V tnh

Khi lng v bi
Lng nc cho vo ni
Thi gian t si
Thi gian ct kit
Nhit chng ct
Lng than tiu th
VTD bi
VTD cam

kg
lt
pht
pht
o
C
vin
ml

Kt qu cc m kho nghim
M 1
M 2
M 3
10
10
10
4
4
4
35
35
35
180
180
180
95 - 100
95 - 100
95 - 100
3
3
3
235
210
215
250
256
243

Trung
bnh
10
4
35
180
95 - 100
3
220
249.7

Kt qu phn tch thnh phn ha hc trong tinh du.


Phng php phn tch: Php phn tch s dng phng php sc k kh ni ghp khi ph
xc nh thnh phn cc cht trong mu.
Bng 2: Thnh phn ho hc trong tinh du bi
STT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

time
10.39
10.66
11.87
12.06
12.27
12.87
13.28
13.55
13.78
1382
14.20
14.70
15.17

RI
931
940
980
986
993
1011
1032
1031
1038
1039
1050
1064
1087

Hit %
89
94
89
93
92
80
91
98
73
72
79
94
83

14

15.73

1094

79

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

15.75
16.00
18.97
19.40
20.33
20.54
21.37
29.27

1095
1102
1187
1199
1226
1232
1257
1500

63
76
86
86
49
57
84
86

Chemical name
Thujene <a->
Pinene <a->
Sabinene
Pinene <b->
Myrcene
Phellandrene <a->
Tepinene <a->
Cymene <o->
Limonene
Phellandrene<b->
Ocimene<(E-b->
Tepinene <g->
Linalool oxide <trans>(furanoid)
Linalool oxide <cis>(furanoid)
Terpinolene
Linalool
Terpinen-4-ol
Terpineol<a->
Caveol <trans->
Neron
Geraniol
Germacrene D
Total

integral
5629290
49859989
9574422
41593590
335386553
44676660
5747008
36014137
2374625101
111490372
9049819
181570816
21868861

%
0.15
1.35
0.26
1.14
9.12
1.21
0.16
1.00
74.05
2.98
0.25
4.94
0.60

10007661

0.31

11082235
12180270
9702056
18261879
3966567
5671453
6208940
18192506

0.33
0.33
0.30
0.56
0.12
0.16
0.18
0.50
100

- Trong tinh du bi c cha rt nhiu thnh phn khc nhau nh: Pinene<a->, Sabinene,
Myrcene, Limonene
- Trong , Limonene l cht c thnh phn phn trm ln nht n chim ti 74,05%,
- Cht chim t l ln th 2 v th 3 ln lt l Myrcene vi 9,12% v Phellandrene<b-> vi 2,98%.
- Caveol<trans-> l thnh phn chim t l nh nht trong tinh du v t 0,12%.
119

Trn Th Ph v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 117 - 121

Bng 3: Thnh phn ho hc trong tinh du cam


STT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

time
10.66
11.87
12.27
12.87
13.87
14.69
14.87
15.99
18.97
19.40
19.69

RI
940
980
993
1011
1038
1064
1069
1102
1187
1199
1208

Hit %
94
89
93
78
72
89
100
77
85
0
86

Chemical name
Pinene<a->
Sabinene
Myrcene
Phellandrene <a->
Limonene
Terpinene<g->
Otanol<n->
Linalool
Terpinen-4-ol
Terpineol<a->
Decanal
Total

- Trong tinh du cam, hm lng Limonene


chim t l phn trm cao v t ti 94,22%.
- Cht c hm lng cao th 2 vn l
Myrcene v chim t l 2.97%.
- Cht c hm lng nh nht trong tinh du
l Phellandrene <a-> v chim 0,12%.
*Nhn xt:
- Qua hai bng phn tch thnh phn ha hc
c trong tinh du cam v tinh du bi ta thy
hm lng Limonene c trong 2 loi ny c
s chnh lch ng k. Limonene c trrong
tinh du cam cao hn 20,17% so vi bi v
mc 94,22%.
Tc dng ca tinh du cam, bi
Qua mt s nghin cu chng minh tinh
du cha trong v cam, bi c kh nng x
l xp, v vy vic nghin cu v p dng
trong thc t l rt cn thit. S dng v cam,
bi x l xp s lm gim mt phn
lng rc thi hu c cc ch v cc khu
dn c, ng thi x l c lng xp ph
thi, xy dng mi trng sng tr nn xanh sch - p hn.
KT LUN
M hnh h thng chng ct tinh du trong
phng th nghim c thit k theo nguyn
l chng ct li cun hi nc khng c ni
hi ring. Khi tin hnh chng ct tinh du
cam, bi vi khi lng nguyn liu s

120

integral
29429624
5403321
94120027
3935575
2984034907
10770693
7170575
7883298
3695579
15304574
3766950

%
0.93
0.17
2.97
0.12
94.22
0.34
0.23
0.25
0.13
0.49
0.14
99.99

dng cho mi m l 10kg v tin hnh chng


ct trong cng mt iu kin lng tinh du
thu c ca v cam nhiu hn so vi v
bi. Trung bnh khi chng ct 10kg v cam
ta thu c 249,7ml tinh du nhiu hn
29,7ml so vi v bi.
Nhng kt qu l cn c quan trng xy
dng m hnh chng ct tinh du cam bi.
Kt qu phn tch thnh phn ho hc trong
tinh du chng minh tinh du khng cha
cc thnh phn c hi vi sc kho con
ngi cng nh mi trng. Limonene l cht
chim thnh phn phn trm ln nht v
chim 94,22% trong tinh du cam v 72,05%
trong tnh du bi.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Vng Ngc Chnh (2005), Hng Liu M
Phm, Nxb i hc Quc gia TP. H Ch Minh.
2. L Th Ngc Duyn (2011), Nghin cu ly trch
tinh du t v qu qut bng phng php chng
ct li cun hi nc, Lun vn tt nghip i
hc, Trng i hc ng Thp.
3. Nguyn Minh Hong (2006), Kho st tinh du
v tri ging Citrus h rutaceae. ti nghin cu
khoa hc cp c s, i hc M Tp HCM.
4. Nguyn Vn Minh, Cc phng php sn xut
tinh du, trang wep Vin nghin cu du v cy c
du (http://www.ioop.org.vn).
5. L Ngc Thch (2003), Tinh du, Nxb HQG
TP. H Ch Minh.

Trn Th Ph v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 117 - 121

SUMMARY
RESEARCH OIL DISTILLATION MODEL OF ORANGE, GRAPEFRUIT PEEL
AND APPLICATION FOR STYROFOAM WASTE TREATMENT
Tran Thi Pha*, Vu Van Bien,
Nguyen Thi Hao, Hua Van Dao, Vuong Van Anh
College of Agriculture and Forestry - TNU

Study oil distillation model from peel of orange and grapefruit in the Thai Nguyen University of
Agriculture and Forestry obtained the following results: to distillate 10kg peel were obtained
essential oil volume averaged 249.7 ml and 220.0 ml in the peel of orange and grapefruit,
Respectively. The quality essential oil after distillation is good, does not contain toxic
substances, a major component in the essential oils is Limonene chemical. Initial study,
Limonene chemical is capable of treating the Styrofoam.
Keywords: distillation, essential oil, orange, grapefruit, Limonene

Ngy nhn bi:10/3/2014; Ngy phn bin:24/3/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. Nguyn Ch Hiu Trng i hc Nng Lm - HTN
*

Tel:

121

Trn Th Ph v tg

122

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 117 - 121

Nguyn Ngc Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 123 - 128

NG DNG CNG NGH TIN HC V MY TON C IN T XY


DNG LI KHNG CH O V PHC V CNG TC THNH LP BN
A CHNH X CHI THIT, SN DNG, TUYN QUANG
Nguyn Ngc Anh, Phan nh Binh*
Trng i hc Nng Lm - H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Nghin cu ng dng cng ngh tin hc v my ton c in t xy dng li khng ch o v
phc v cng tc thnh lp bn a chnh cp x c trin khai ti x Chi Thit, huyn Sn
Dng, tnh Tuyn Quang. Kt qu nghin cu cho thy: t 06 im a chnh (SD-157_SD-156_SD153_SD-152_SD-151_SD-150) c chn lm im khi tnh xy dng thm 128 im li khng
ch c chia thnh 16 tuyn ng chuyn kinh v cp I (trong : tng s cnh ng chuyn l
146, tng s gc ng chuyn l 162) m bo yu cu cht lng, chnh xc cao, li cht
ch v iu kin tin hnh o v chi tit thnh lp bn a chnh x Chi Thit, huyn Sn
Dng, tnh Tuyn Quang.
T kha: Li khng ch, my ton c, bnh sai, bn a chnh,

T VN *
t ai l ti sn v cng qu gi ca mi
quc gia. N l iu kin, c s, nn tng
pht trin cc ngnh kinh t - x hi nh:
cng nghip, xy dng, du lch, dch v...
Trong nhng nm trc y ghi nhn, m
t v qun l ti nguyn thin thin, s phn
b th, phn b dn c, phn b sn
xut, ngi ta s dng h thng bn a
l, bn chuyn , bn di tha, c
v trn giy cng cc bng biu thng k
c o v th cng. Cc loi bn ny
mc s dng cn hn ch do chnh xc
khng cao, ni dung khng phong ph, kh
khn cho vic lu tr, nhn bn, bo qun,
cp nht v chnh sa [2].
Song song vi mi giai on pht trin ca x
hi loi ngi, v cc ngnh khoa hc ni
chung v ngnh trc a ni ring cng c
nhng bc pht trin r rt. Ngy nay,
nhng thnh tu to ln ca nhiu ngnh nh
ton hc, a l hc, k thut in, tin hc,
c ng dng vo ngnh trc a bn .
Cng ngh o v bng my ton c in t
ra i to nn mt bc pht trin mi
gip cho vic thnh lp bn c thc hin
nhanh chng v c chnh xc cao, p ng
c cho bn mi t l, mang li hiu
qu kinh t cao. Chnh v vy m cng ngh
*

Tel:

o v bng my ton c in t hin nay


ang dn tr thnh cng ngh chnh trong
cng tc o v thnh lp bn [5].
Bn a chnh l ti liu c bn ca h s
a chnh, mang tnh php l cao phc v cht
ch qun l t ai n tng tha t, tng
ch s dng t. Bn a chnh khc vi
bn chuyn ngnh thng thng ch bn
a chnh c t l ln v phm vi rng
khp mi ni trn ton quc. Bn a
chnh thng xuyn c cp nht nhng
thay i hp php ca php lut t ai, c
th cp nht hng ngy hoc cp nht theo
nh k. Hin nay hu ht cc quc gia trn
th gii, ngi ta hng ti vic xy dng
bn a chnh a chc nng. V vy, bn
a chnh cn c tnh cht ca bn a
chnh c bn quc gia [1].
Vi tnh cht ht sc quan trng ca h thng
bn a chnh, tnh Tuyn Quang tin
hnh xy dng h thng bn a chnh cho
cc a phng trn a bn tnh trong c
x Chi Thit huyn Sn Dng. xy dng
bn a chnh theo h to nh nc cho
x th chng ta cn phi xy dng li khng
ch o v cho khu vc o. Do vy, vic ng
dng cng ngh tin hc v my ton c
in t xy dng li khng ch o v phc
v cng tc thnh lp bn a chnh ti
x Chi Thit, Sn Dng, Tuyn Quang l
cng vic ht sc cn thit v quan trng
123

Nguyn Ngc Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

nhm mc ch nng cao cht lng v yu


cu v chnh xc o v.
VT LIU, PHNG PHP NGHIN CU
Vt liu nghin cu
- My ton c in t TOPCON GTS 230N
phc v o c li khng ch
- Thu thp cc bn s c sn: Bn a
hnh, bn a gii 364, bn hin trng,..
- Thu thp s liu cc im khng ch hng
cao c sn trong khu o.
- S dng cc phn mm trong bin tp, x l
s liu: phn mm trt d liu T-CON; phn
mm bnh sai PickNet.
Phng php nghin cu
- iu tra c bn (thu thp ti liu, s liu,
cc bn hin c,)
- Cng tc ngoi nghip [5]:
+ Kho st thc a kt hp vi bn a
gii hnh chnh xc nh ranh gii khu o.
+ Da vo cc im a chnh thnh lp
li o v.
+ Chn im, chn mc thng hng.
+ o li kinh v (o gc, cnh) bng my
ton c in t
- Cng tc ni nghip [5]:
+ Kim tra nh gi cc kt qu o v bn v
s ha bng cch thng k ton b s liu o
v s liu gc, phn tch v x l thng tin.
+ Trt s liu o t my ton c in t vo
my tnh, tin hnh x l s liu bnh sai
li kinh v.

122(08): 123 - 128

KT QU NGHIN CU
iu tra c bn
Chi Thit l mt x nm pha Nam ca
huyn Sn Dng, cch trung tm huyn
30km v cch th x Tuyn Quang 50km, c
v tr kh thun li cho pht trin kinh t x
hi. V tr a l ca x Chi Thit gip ranh
vi cc x sau: pha Bc gip x Vn Ph;
pha ng gip x ng Li v Ni Lch;
pha Ty gip x Hng Lc v pha Nam gip
x Ho Ph.
Thnh lp li khng ch o v
Cng tc chun b :
- Thu thp ti liu: Tin hnh thu thp s liu,
ti liu t UBND x, phng TN&MT, s
TN&MT chng ti c c cc kt qa sau
(bng 1, 2).
- Kho st khu o, thit k s b li kinh v:
S dng bn a hnh 1:10.000 lm bn
nn thit k s b li khng ch o v.
m bo bo mt cng nh phn b
u ca cc im to li kinh v cp 1
p ng cho vic pht trin li kinh v cp 2,
cc im cc ph, ta thit k li theo dng
ng chuyn ph hp, ng chuyn khp
kn. Khu o c b tr 128 im li kinh v
cp 1 to thnh 16 tuyn ng chuyn, im
khi tnh cho tuyn ng chuyn l 06 im
a chnh trong khu o.
S cc tuyn ca li ng chuyn th
hin bng 3.

Bng 1: Cc loi bn hin c trn a bn x


STT
1
2
3
4

Tn bn
Bn gii tha 299
B GHC 364
Bn a hnh
Bn hin trng s dng t

T l
1:1000; 1:500
1:50.000
1:10.000
1:10.000

Nm o v
1985
1994
2004
2005

Bng 2: H thng cc im trc a hng cao c trong a bn x

124

STT

Tn im

1
2
3
4
5
6

SD- 157
SD-156
SD-153
SD-152
SD-151
SD-150

Ta
Xm
2387872.100
2387440.331
2388275.075
2388086.112
2386851.239
2387437.201

Ym
426922.876
426756.678
428239.686
428713.861
428076.687
428174.667

Nguyn Ngc Anh v tg

STT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

16

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 123 - 128

Bng 3: Thng k cc tuyn ng chuyn


S cc tuyn ng chuyn
SD-150_SD151_ SD152_ SD153_1K01_1K02_1K03_1K04_1K05_1K06
SD-150_SD152_ SD153_1K07_1K08_1K09_1K10_1K11_1K12_1K13_1K14
SD-152_SD-153_1K15_1K16_1K17_1K18_1K19_1K20_1K21_1K22_1K23_1K24_1K25_1K26_
1K31_1K32_1K33_1K34_1K35_1K36_1K37_SD-157_SD-156
SD-152_SD-153_1K15_1K16_1K17_1K30_1K29_1K28_1K27_1K26_1K25_1K24_1K23_1K22_
1K21_1K20_1K39_1K38_SD-157
SD-152_SD-153_1K15_1K16_1K17_1K18_1K19_1K20_1K40_1K41_1K42_1K43_1K44_1K45_
SD-157_SD-156
SD-150_SD-151_1K63_1K62_1K61_1K60_1K59_1K58_1K57_1K56_1K55_1K52_1K53_1K54_
SD-157_SD-156
SD-150_SD-151_1K63_1K62_1K61_1K60_1K59_1K58_1K57_1K56_1K55_1K52_1K51_1K50_
1K49_1K48_1K47_1K46_SD-157_SD-156
SD-150_SD-151_1K63_1K62_1K61_1K64_1K65_1K66_1K67_1K68_1K69_1K70_1K71_1K78_
1K79_1K80_1K81_1K82_SD-156_SD-157
SD-150_SD-151_1K63_1K62_1K61_1K64_1K65_1K66_1K67_1K77_1K76_1K75_1K74_1K73_
1K72_1K71_1K78_1K79_1K80_1K81_1K82_SD-156_SD-157
SD-157_SD-156_1K82_1K81_1K83_1K84_1K85_1K86_1K87_1K88_1K89_1K90_1K91_SD157_SD-156
SD-157_SD-156_1K82_1K81_1K83_1K84_1K85_1K86_1K87_1K88_1K89_1K92_1K43_1K44_
1K45_SD-157_SD-156
SD-150_SD-151_1K63_1K62_1K61_1K64_1K65_1K66_1K67_1K77_1K76_1K75_1K74_1K73_
1K120_1K121_1K122_1K123_1K124_1K125_1K85_1K84_1K83_1K81_1K82_SD-156_SD-157
SD-156_SD-157_1K45_1K44_1K43_1K42_1K41_1K40_1K20_1K19_1K18_1K17_1K16_1K126_
1K127_1K128_1K114_1K115_1K116_1K117_1K96_1K95_1K94_1K93_SD-153_SD-152
SD-156_SD-157_1K45_1K44_1K43_1K42_1K41_1K40_1K20_1K19_1K18_1K17_1K16_1K126_
1K127_1K128_1K114_1K115_1K116_1K117_1K96_1K97_1K98_1K118_1K119_SD-152_SD-153
SD-156_SD-157_1K45_1K44_1K43_1K42_1K41_1K40_1K20_1K19_1K18_1K17_1K16_1K126_
1K127_1K128_1K114_1K113_1K108_1K107_1K106_1K105_1K111_1K110_1K112_1K101_1K1
00_1K99_1K98_1K118_1K119_SD-152_SD-153
SD-156_SD-157_1K45_1K44_1K43_1K42_1K41_1K40_1K20_1K19_1K18_1K17_1K16_1K126_
1K127_1K128_1K114_1K113_1K108_1K109_1K110_1K111_1K105_1K104_1K103_1K102_1K1
01_1K100_1K99_1K98_1K118_1K119_SD-152_SD-153

Cc im li kinh v phi c b tr u nhau trong khu vc o v sao cho mt trm my c


th o c nhiu im chi tit nht. Ch tiu k thut ca li phi m bo theo ng quy phm
o v thnh lp bn a chnh do B Ti nguyn & Mi trng ban hnh (bng 4) [3][4][6].
Bng 4: Ch tiu k thut ng chuyn kinh v cp I, II
STT
1
2
3
4
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Yu t li ng chuyn kinh v
- Chiu di ng chuyn khng ln hn
- S cnh nhiu nht
- S cnh t im gc n im nt hoc gia 2 nt
- Chiu di cnh ng chuyn di nht khng qu
- Chiu di cnh ng chuyn khng ngn nht
- Sai s trung phng o gc khng ln hn
- Sai s trung phng o cnh sau bnh sai khng ln hn
- Sai s khp gc gii hn trong ng chuyn
- Sai s khp gii hn ng chuyn fs/[s] khng ln hn
- S ln o gc trong ng chuyn
+ i vi my c chnh xc o gc t 1" n 5 "
+ i vi my c chnh xc o gc trn 5" n 10"
- S ln o cnh trong ng chuyn

Ch tiu k thut
Cp 1
2000m
15 cnh.
10 cnh.
400 m.
20 m.
15''
0.015 m.
30'' n.
1/ 4000

Cp 2
1000m
15 cnh.
10 cnh.
400 m.
5 m.
15''
0.015 m.
30'' n.
1/ 2000

1
2
2

1
2
2

125

Nguyn Ngc Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Cng tc ngoi nghip


- Chn im, chn mc v thng hng:
Trong qu trnh kho st v chn mc ngoi
thc a, ta chn 6 im a chnh gc, 128
im li, 146 cnh o, 162 gc o.
- o cc yu t c bn ca li: Sau khi chn
mc, thng hng xong ta tin hnh o cc
yu t c bn ca li.
* o gc: Dng my ton c in t
TOPCON GTS 230N o gc trong li
khng ch o v. Sai s kp trong ng
chuyn khng vt qu i lng: f b=2mbn
[3][4][5][6]. Trong :
mb : L sai s trung phng o gc
n : L s gc o
Kt qu o gc th hin bng sau:
Bng 5: Kt qu o gc ca li khng ch
K hiu gc
STT
Gc o
Tri
Gia
Phi
1
SD-152 SD-153 1K01 10905020
2
SD-153 1K01
1K02
9605838
3
1K01
1K02
1K03 17501032
4
1K02
1K03
1K04 18900622
5
1K03
1K04
1K05 22804611
6
1K04
1K05
1K06 19102014
7
1K05
1K06
1K07 17904423
8
1K08
1K07
1K06 19301045
..
..
..
..
..

* o cnh: Dng my ton c in t


TOPCON GTS 230N o cnh li khng
ch o v. Ch tiu k thut ca cnh nh sau
[3][4][5][6]:

+ Chiu di cnh ng chuyn khng qu


400m.
+ Chiu di 2 cnh ng chuyn khng
chnh lch qu 2.5 ln.
+ i vi ng chuyn c im nt, chiu
di ln nht v s cnh ln nht gia im
gc vi im nt v cc im nt phi nh
hn 2/3 chiu di v s cnh ca ng
chuyn n.
+ Cnh li ng chuyn c o 2 ln,
chnh lch kt qu gia cc ln o 2a (a l
hng s ca my). Sai s trung phng trong
cnh ng chuyn khng ln hn 0.015m.
Kt qu o cnh th hin bng 6.
Bng 6: Kt qu o cnh ca li
K hiu cnh
Cnh o
STT
(m)
im 1
im 2
1
SD-153
1K01
58.241
2
1K01
1K02
120.967
3
1K02
1K03
62.433
4
1K03
1K04
86.652
5
1K04
1K05
212.555
6
1K05
1K06
225.865
7
1K06
SD-151
189.910
..
..
..
..

Cng tc ni nghip
- T chc file s liu bnh sai: Sau khi o
xong cc yu t c bn ca li tin hnh
nhp s liu o vo my tnh. Khi s liu o
c x l xong s c son tho bng
Notepad vi 3 file d liu D1.dat; D2.dat v
D3.dat. Kt qu c th hin hnh 1:

Hnh 1: Kt qu t chc File s liu o li khng ch

126

122(08): 123 - 128

Nguyn Ngc Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 123 - 128

Sau tin hnh bnh sai li khng ch o v bng phn mm PickNet. Nh vy ta kt thc
qu trnh bnh sai li khng ch. Kt qu bnh sai c th hin nh hnh 2:

Hnh 2: Kt qu bnh sai li khng ch

Hnh 3: S li khng ch x Chi Thit, Sn Dng, Tuyn Quang

127

Nguyn Ngc Anh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Kt qu nh gi chnh xc ca li khng
ch o v nh sau:
1. Tng s im:
134
2. S im gc:
6
3. S im mi lp:
128
4. S lng gc o:
162
5. S lng cnh o:
146
6. H s k:
0.9999
* Kt qu nh gi chnh xc li D1:
+ Sai s trng s n v M = 4.51"
+ im yu nht (1K05) mp = .004 (m)
+ Chiu di cnh yu: (SD-153_1K01) ms/s =
1/37700
+ Phng v cnh yu: (SD-153_1K01) ma = 3.71"
* Kt qu nh gi chnh xc li D2:
+ Sai s trng s n v M = 7.41"
+ im yu nht (1K10) mp = .018 (m)
+ Chiu di cnh yu: (1K10 _1K09) ms/s =
1/34600
+ Phng v cnh yu: (1K14 _SD-150) ma = 8.72"
* Kt qu nh gi chnh xc li D3:
+ Sai s trng s n v M = 3.36"
+ im yu nht (1K106) mp = .010 (m)
+ Chiu di cnh yu: (1K96 _1K117) ms/s =
1/33100
+ Phng v cnh yu: (1K32 _1K31) ma = 4.11"

122(08): 123 - 128

S li khng ch o v x Chi Thit


c th hin qua hnh 3.
KT LUN
Nh vy, kt qu thit k v thi cng li
ng chuyn kinh v da trn 6 im a
chnH
(SD-157_SD-156_SD-153_SD152_SD-151_SD-150) c chn lm im
khi tnh xy dng thm 128 im li
khng ch c chia thnh 16 tuyn ng
chuyn kinh v cp I (trong : tng s cnh
ng chuyn l 146, tng s gc ng
chuyn l 162) m bo yu cu cht lng,
chnh xc cao, li cht ch v iu
kin tin hnh o v chi tit thnh lp bn
a chnh x Chi Thit, huyn Sn Dng,
tnh Tuyn Quang.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Lut t ai 2003, Nh xut bn chnh tr quc
gia, H Ni.
2. L Vn Th (2009), Bi ging bn a
chnh - i Hc Nng Lm Thi Nguyn.
3. Quy phm thnh lp bn a chnh t l
1:200, 1:500, 1:1000, 1:2000, 1:5000 v 1:10000
ca B Ti Nguyn v Mi Trng, nm 2008.
4. Quy phm li ng chuyn v tam gic o
cnh Cc B Nh nc, 1982.
5. V Th Thanh Thu (2008), Bi ging trc a
II - i Hc Nng Lm Thi Nguyn.
6. Thng t s 06/2009/TT- Quy nh v quy
chun k thut quc gia v xy dng li to
ca B Ti Nguyn v Mi Trng.

SUMMARY
SETTING UP DRAWING CONTROL NETWORK FOR CADASTRAL MAP
CREATION IN CHI THIET COMMUNE, SON DUONG DISTRICT,
TUYEN QUANG PROVINCE BY INFORMATIC TECHNOLOGY
AND TOTAL STATION ELECTRONICS
Nguyen Ngc Anh, Phan Dinh Binh*
College of Agriculrure and Forestry - TNU

A study on setting up drawing control network for cadastral map creation in commune level by
informatics technology and total station electronic was conducted in Chi Thiet commune, Son
Duong district, Tuyen Quang province. The result shown that, from 6 cadastral starting points (SD157_SD-156_SD-153_SD-152_SD-151_SD-150), there are 128 added drawing control network points
were built and were divided in to 16 I level theodolite angles. In which, there are 146 lines and 162
angles meeting requested standard and conditions for setting up detail cadastral map of Chi Thiet
commune, Son Duong district, Tuyen Quang province.
Keywords: theodolite angles, total station electronic, adjustment, cadastral map
Ngy nhn bi:15/4/2014; Ngy phn bin:29/4/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. L Vn Th Trng i hc Nng Lm HTN
*

Tel:

128

Nguyn Mnh c

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 129 - 135

NG DNG MU THIT K XY DNG M HNH


GII MT S BI TON HI QUY
Nguyn Mnh c*
Trng i hc S phm H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Bi ton hi quy c s dng nhiu trong khoa hc k thut, kinh t-x hi phc v cho cc
cng vic nh phn tch xu hng tin trin ca cc cc hin tng, tnh ton ti u ha, cng tc
d bo... Trong cng ngh phn mm, mu thit k l mt gii php tng th cho cc vn chung
trong thit k phn mm. Trong bi bo ny chng ti s xy dng v thit k m hnh gii cc bi
ton hi quy theo cc mu thit k m Gamma xut. T c mt ci nhn su sc hn mt
s mu thit k, cng nh tm hiu mt s tnh nng mi ca ngn ng C# lm cho d dng hn
trong thit k phn mm theo hng i tng.
T kha: Cc mu thit k, mu thit k chin lc, ngn ng m hnh ha thng nht, bi ton
hi quy tuyn tnh, bi ton hi quy phi tuyn, khch hng

GII THIU*
Trong cng ngh phn mm, mt mu thit k
(design pattern) l mt gii php tng th cho
cc vn chung trong thit k phn mm.
Mt mu thit k khng phi l mt thit k
hon thin m c th c chuyn i trc
tip thnh m, n ch l mt khung sn m
t cch gii quyt mt vn m c th c
dng li trong nhiu tnh hung khc nhau. Cc
mu thit k hng i tng thng cho thy
mi quan h v s tng tc gia cc lp hay
cc i tng, m khng cn ch r cc lp hay
i tng ca tng ng dng c th [1].
Cc mu thit k c th gip tng tc qu
trnh pht trin phn mm bng cch cung cp
cc mu hnh pht trin c chng thc
v kim chng. N cung cp cc gii php
chung, c vit ti liu di mt nh dng
m khng gn lin vi mt vn c th no.
Cc mu thit k cho php cc nh pht trin
giao tip vi nhau dng cc tn d hiu c
dng rng ri t cho cc i tng tng
tc ca phn mm [4, 5].
Mc ch cc cng vic ca chng ti
y l xy dng v thit k m hnh gii mt
s bi ton hi quy theo mu thit k m
Gamma xut. T c mt ci nhn su
sc hn v mt s mu thit k c th c
*

Tel: 0915 564 249; Email: nmductn@yahoo.com

thc hin trong C#, v tm hiu xem cc tnh


nng mi ca ngn ng trong thc t, lm cho
n d dng hn trong thit k phn mm
theo hng i tng.
Sau phn gii thiu, phn 2 s xem xt mu
thit k Chin lc (Strategy) do Gamma v
cng s xut [1]; Phn 3 s nu ra mt
s bi ton hi quy c quan tm; Phn 4 l
mt xut mi v vic xy dng v thit k
mt m hnh gii cc bi ton hi quy theo
mu thit k; Cui cng phn 5 s bao gm
mt s nhn xt, kt lun v cc cng vic
trong tng lai.
MU
THIT
K
CHIN
(STRATEGY PATTERN):

LC

Mu Strategy c nh ngha l mt h cc
thut ton, ng gi cc thut ton lin quan
v lm chng hon i cho nhau, iu ny
cho php la chn cc thut ton thay i c
lp vi khch hng s dng n v thay i
theo thi gian. Vic xy dng cc mu
Strategy l ng gi mt s lng chin
lc trong mt m-un duy nht v cung cp
mt giao din n gin cho php cc khch
hng la chn gia cc chin lc [1].
Cu trc ca mu Strategy nh trn hnh 1,
trong :
Strategy: nh ngha giao din (hay lp tru
tng) cho tt c cc lp th hin gii thut.
129

Nguyn Mnh c

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Trong qu trnh khi to i tng c th


thm d liu t trong Context.
ConcreteStrategy: L cc hin thc ca giao
din Strategy th hin mt gii thut c th.
Context: Ti thi im bin dch ch s dng
i tng kiu Strategy khi xc nh gii
thut cho vn cn x l; Ti thi im thc
thi c cung cp mt i tng gii thut c
th thay th cho i tng Strategy.
Mu Strategy c th c p dng
nhng trng hp sau [1]:

trong

Nhiu lp lin quan ch khc nhau cch x


l yu cu. Vi mt la chn trong nhng
cch x l theo mu Strategy gip ta thc
hin trch nhim ca mt lp.
C nhiu cch thc hin cng mt thut ton.
Phi cho khch hng kh nng la chn cch
u vit nht trong s dng ti nguyn v thi
gian. Nn dng Strategy khi cc thut ton
ny c th hin nh mt c cu lp ca cc
thut ton. Thut ton cn phi c che du
c v d liu v cu trc i vi cc Client.
Dng Strategy thay th vic cng khai ho
nhng cu trc d liu phc tp, c th cho
thut ton. Khch hng nh ngha nhiu cch
x l khc nhau v nhng cch x l ny c
th coi nh cc cu lnh r nhnh (if- thenelseif, switch) trong phng thc, thay v
dng cc cu trc iu kin ta s dng cc lp
Strategy ci t ring cho tng nhnh.

Trong [6] chng ti ci t Strategy


Pattern bng ngn ng C# [2, 3, 7]. Cc on
m minh chng cho m hnh
Strategy, s ng gi chc nng hnh thc
ca mt i tng c thc hin trong C#
da vo cu trc ca mu Strategy nh trong
hnh 1. Trong cc phn sau chng ti s
xut xy dng v thit k m hnh p dng
gii quyt bi ton hi quy theo Strategy
Pattern.
BI TON HI QUY
Cc bi ton hi quy c s dng trong
nhiu lnh vc. Sau y chng ta xt mt
dng bi ton hi quy tuyn tnh v phi tuyn
tnh hay c s dng nht.
Bi ton hi quy tuyn tnh
M hnh hi quy tuyn tnh bi c dng nh
sau [8]:

Yi 0 1Xi1 2 Xi 2 n Xin u i

(1)

trong : ui l cc bin ngu nhin khng


tng quan c k vng bng 0 v phng sai
khng i 2; 0, 1, 2, ... , n l cc tham s
cn c lng.

, ,..., ca 0, 1, 2, ...,
Cc c lng
0
1
n
n c xc nh bng phng php bnh
phng ti thiu. Ngoi vic c lng, nu
mun tm khong tin cy ca cc tham s hay
tin hnh kim nh, ta phi gi thit thm cc
bin ngu nhin c phn phi chun ui N(0,
2) [8].

Hnh 1: Cu trc mu Strategy [1]

130

122(08): 129 - 135

Nguyn Mnh c

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Mt s bi ton hi quy phi tuyn


Sau y ta xt mt s dng hi quy phi tuyn
in hnh rt hay c s dng trong khoa
hc k thut, kinh t-x hi, khoa hc d bo,
sinh hc... Cc dng bi ton ny u c th
a c v dng hi quy tuyn tnh [8, 9].
Bi ton hi quy phi tuyn dng m (hm
Cobb Douglas)
M hnh hi quy m c dng :
yi = b0 Xi1b1 Xi2b2 Xinbn

(2)

xc nh cc tham s b i (i = 0,1, ..., n) t


cc s liu thu thp, ta chuyn v dng bi
ton hi quy bi bng cch logarit t nhin
hai v (2), t Y = lnyi, b = lnb0, Xi = lnxi (i =
1 .. n), th c bi ton tuyn tnh bi Y = b
+ b1X1 + b2X2 + ... + bnXn.
Bi ton Cobb Douglas tng qut
M hnh Cobb Douglas tng qut c dng:

Y (t ) ae

bt

x (t )
i

(3)

i 1

Trong : a, b, i > 0, i = 1 .. m
m

i 1

t l bin thi gian (t = 1, 2, ...); x i(t) l cc


nhn t sn xut; Y(t) l cc kt qu sn xut.
xc nh cc h s a, b, i, ta logarit t
nhin hai v (3) v bin i nh sau:
lnY = lna + bt + 1lnx1 + ... + m-1lnxm-1 +
mlnxm = lna + bt + 1lnx1 + ... + m-1lnxm-1 +
(1- 1 - ... - m-1)lnxm.
Hay: lnY - lnxm = lna + bt + 1(lnx1 - lnxm) +
1(lnx2 - lnxm) +...+ m-1(lnxm-1 - lnxm)
ln(Y/xm) = lna + bt + 1ln(x1/xm) +
2ln(x2/xm) + ... + m-1ln(xm-1/xm).
t: ln(Y/xm) = g; lna = k; ln(xi/xm) = Zi, ta s
c bi ton hi quy tuyn tnh: g = k + bt +
z11 + z22 + ... + zm-1m-1.
Hi quy a thc
Hm hi quy a thc c dng: y = a0 + a1t1 +
a2t2 + ... + antn
(4)

122(08): 129 - 135

Trong cc ai (i = 0, 1 ... n ) l cc hng s


cn xc nh, t l bin thi gian.
xc nh cc ai (i=0 ... n) t s liu thc
nghim ta a (4) v bi ton hi quy tuyn
tnh bng php i bin: x1 = t, x2 = t2 , ... , xn
= tn, t ta c c bi ton hi quy tuyn
tnh bi.
Nhiu bi ton hi quy phi tuyn khc c th
c gii bng cch chuyn v bi ton hi quy
tuyn tnh m vn m bo tnh chnh xc [8].
Phng php gii mt s bi ton hi quy
phi tuyn
Trong phn trn chng ta a ra mt s
dng trong lp bi ton hi quy phi tuyn,
gii cc bi ton chng ta c th chuyn
chng v dng bi ton hi quy tuyn tnh, c
th thc hin cc bc nh sau:
Tuyn tnh ho bi ton phi tuyn: Chuyn d
liu ca bi ton phi tuyn v dng p dng
c cho bi ton tuyn tnh.
Gii bi ton hi quy tuyn tnh vi d liu
ca bi ton phi tuyn c chuyn i
ph hp.
Tr li cc thng s cho bi ton hi quy
phi tuyn.
Trong phn tip theo chng ti s xut m
hnh gii cc bi ton hi quy nh trnh
by trn theo mu thit k Strategy.
THIT K M HNH GII MT S BI
TON HI QUY THEO MU THIT K
M hnh gii cc bi ton hi quy theo mu
Chin lc trong ngn ng C# c chng ti
thit k nh trn hnh v 2. Trong :
IRegression l giao din (interface) xc nh
cc dch v phc v cho vic gii cc bi ton
hi quy tuyn tnh theo yu cu.
Linear_Regression l lp thc thi ca giao
din IRegression, cc phng thc khai
bo trong IRegression s c thc hin trong
lp ny.
NonLine_Regressioni ( y i = 1 .. 3): l
cc lp con, c k tha t
Linear_Regression, mi lp con ny s thc
131

Nguyn Mnh c

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

hin vic gii mt bi ton hi quy phi tuyn


tnh theo yu cu.
Context: Ti thi im bin dch ch s dng
i tng kiu IRegression xc nh gii thut
cho vn cn gii bi ton hi quy; Ti thi
im thc thi c cung cp mt i tng
gii thut c th thay th cho i tng
IRegression gii mt bi ton hi quy phi
tuyn c th.
Cc phng thc trong giao din c khai
bo nh sau:
interface IRegression
{
void INPUT_DATA();
void DISPLAY();
void EDIT_DATA();
void GET_DATA();
void TRANSLATE();
void SLOVE();
void TEST();

}
Phn thn ca chng s c nh ngha trong
lp Linear_Regression, trong :
void INPUT_DATA(): Nhp d liu cho
bi ton;
void DISPLAY(): Hin th cc thng
cng nh kt qu x l;
void EDIT_DATA(): Sa d liu khi cn;
void GET_DATA(): Ly d liu t tp
cho bi ton;
void TRANSLATE(): Chuyn i d liu
cho bi ton;
void SLOVE(): Gii bi ton hi quy
tuyn tnh;
void TEST(): Kim nh cc gi thuyt
Vic thc thi cc phng thc ca
interface IRegression c thc
hin trong lp Linear_Regression
gii bi ton hi quy tuyn tnh c xc nh
nh sau:
class
Linear_Regression
:
IRegression

Hnh 2: Biu UML ca m hnh bi ton

132

122(08): 129 - 135

Nguyn Mnh c

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

{
public void INPUT_DATA()
{
...//Nhp d liu
}
public void DISPLAY()
{
...//Hin th t.tin
}
public void EDIT_DATA()
{
... //Sa d liu
}
public void GET_DATA()
{
...//c d liu t tp
}
public
virtual
void
TRANSLATE()
{
...//Chuyn d liu
}
public virtual void SLOVE()
{
...//Gii bi ton HQTT
}
public virtual void TEST()
{
...//Kim th bi ton
}
}
Cn ch rng cc phng thc
TRANSLATE(), SLOVE(), TEST()
phi l o (virtual) v chng cn phi c
ghi trong cc lp hu du (k tha) ca lp
Linear_Regression x l cho cc bi
ton hi quy phi tuyn.
Cc lp NonLine_Regressioni (i=1..3)
c ci t nh sau:
class NonLinear_Regressioni
Linear_Regression

{
public
override
TRANSLATE() {...}

void

122(08): 129 - 135

public
TEST() {...}

override

void

public
SLOVE()

override

void

{
TRANSLATE();
base.SLOVE();
}
}
Trong phng thc TRANSLATE()
bin i d liu bi ton phi tuyn thnh d
liu cho bi ton tuyn tnh, TEST() kim
th cho bi ton, phng thc SLOVE() s gi
thc TRANSLATE() ly d liu ph hp
cho bi ton tuyn tnh, ri gi phng thc
SLOVE() lp c s ca chng.
Lp NonLine_Regression1 gii bi
ton
hi
quy
dng
m,
lp
NonLine_Regression2 gii bi ton
Cobb
Douglas
tng
qut,
lp
NonLine_Regression3 gii bi ton
hi quy a thc. Trong cc lp ny cc tn
ca cc phng thc l ging nhau, nhng
ni dung ca chng l khc nhau ty thuc
vo mi bi ton.
Lp context c ci t nh sau:
class Context
{
IRegression ihq;
public Context(IRegression
ihq)
{
this.ihq = ihq;
}
public
void
ContextInterface()
{
this.ihq.GET_DATA();
this.ihq.SLOVE();
this.ihq.TEST();
}
...//cc thnh phn khc
}
Khi mt lp Client vi hm Main c
th d dng gi cc i tng cn thit cho
133

Nguyn Mnh c

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

tng loi bi ton theo mu thit k Strategy


nh sau:
class Client
{
static void Main(string[]
args)
{
Context
hqtt
=
new
Context(new
Linear_Regression());
hqtt.ContextInterface();
Context hqpt1 =
Context(new
NonLinear_Regression1());
hqpt1.ContextInterface();
Context hqpt2 =
Context(new
NonLinear_Regression2());
hqpt2.ContextInterface();
Context hqpt3 =
Context(new
NonLinear_Regression3());

new

new

new

hqpt3.ContextInterface();
}
}
M hnh c thit k nh vy c u im:
Cc khch hng c th gi ti bi ton cn
thit thng qua cc phng thc ca lp
context, m khng cn bit ti cc chi tit
c th ca chng; Vic thay i cc chi tit
ca gii thut gii cc bi ton c thc hin
theo yu cu ca cc lp con c th, iu
s lm d dng cho vic m rng pht trin
cc bi ton khc m khng nh hng ti
cc module c ca chng trnh
Chng ti ci t chng trnh th nghim
cho m hnh xut trn, bc u p
ng c mt s cc yu cu t ra v cho
cc kt qu tnh ton chnh xc. Chng trnh
c th c m rng d dng v thun li cho
tch hp vo cc h thng khc.
134

122(08): 129 - 135

NHN XT V KT LUN
Trong cng ngh phn mm, mu thit k l
mt gii php tng th cho cc vn chung
trong thit k phn mm. tng su xa
ca cc mu thit k l tit kim tt cc
gii php thit k hng i tng v vic ti
s dng chng gii quyt cc vn tng
t trong nhng ng cnh khc nhau. Trong
bi bo ny, trn c s ca cc nguyn l thit
k phn mm theo hng i tng v cc
mu thit k, chng ti xut thit k m
hnh gii cc bi ton hi quy. Vic xy dng
m hnh tnh ton nh vy s d dng m
rng v pht trin m hnh, an ton, nng cao
kh nng s dng li, thun li cho vic tch
hp cc module chng trnh vo cc h
thng phn mm khc...
M hnh gii cc bi ton hi quy m chng
ti xy dng v thit k c cc c im:
Tun theo cc nguyn l thit k hng i
tng da trn mu Strategy; S k tha gia
cc lp c tn dng ti a phc v cho
vic ti s dng cc module chng trnh;
Quan h gia cc lp mc tng qut, thun
li cho vic pht trin m rng ca m hnh
gii cc bi ton hi quy khc
Trong tng lai chng ti s xem xt, thc
hin xy dng v pht trin m hnh tnh ton
kt hp vi cc mu thit k khc c
mt h thng a dng v tt hn; Nghin cu
v vic lm mn cc mu thit k; p dng
cc mu v kt hp chng gii quyt cc
bi ton khc trong thc t.

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Gamma E., et. al, Elements of Reusable ObjectOriented Software, Addison-Wesley. The PDF
conversion was made in February 2003.
2. Liberty J., Programming C#, 2nd Edition,
OReilly, ISBN: 0-596-00309-9, 2002.
3.
MSDN, C# Language specification 17.
Attributes, Microsoft Corporation 2004.
4. Mathias Bartoll, Nori Ahari, Oliver C.Moldez,
Design patterns in C#, Mlardalen University
Vsters, Sweden. 2004.

Nguyn Mnh c

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

5. Sherif M. Yacoub, H.H. Ammar, Pattern -Oriented


Analysis and Design: Composing Patterns to Design
Software Systems, Addison Wesley 2003.
6. Nguyen Manh Duc (2012), Building some
design patterns in C# Journal of science and
technology, Thainguyen University, volume 90
(02), p. 77-86.

122(08): 129 - 135

7. Phm Hu Khang, Trn Tin Dng, C# 2005


Lp trnh Hng i tng, Nh xut bn Lao
ng x hi, 2008.
8. Nguyn Cao Vn, Trn Thi Ninh, L thuyt
xc xut v thng k, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v
k thut, 1996.
9. Nguyn Mnh c, Gio trnh tin hc ng
dng, Nh xut bn Nng nghip, 2000.

SUMMARY
APPLYING DESIGN PATTERNS TO CONSTRUCT MODEL
SOLVE SOME REGRESSION PROBLEM
Nguyen Manh Duc*
College of Education - TNU

The problem of regression is widely used in scientific, technical, socio-economic... handle tasks
such as trend analysis of the evolution of the phenomenons, computational optimization,
forecasting... In software engineering, design patterns as a general solution to the common
problems in software design. In this article we will build and design the model solve regression
problems based on the designs that Gamma has proposed. From there take a deeper look at some
of the designs, as well as learn the new features of C# language makes it easier to design objectoriented software.
Key words: Design Patterns, Strategy pattern, UML, Linear Regression Problem, NonLinear
Regression Problem, Client

Ngy nhn bi:06/5/2014; Ngy phn bin:20/5/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: TS. V Vinh Quang Trng i hc Cng ngh Thng tin & Truyn thng - HTN
*

Tel: 0915 564 249; Email: nmductn@yahoo.com

135

Nguyn Mnh c

136

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 129 - 135

L Th Huyn Linh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 137 - 141

NG DNG NHN DNG NHIU TRN C S MNG NRON


CHO BNH PHN NG KHUY TRN LIN TC
L Th Huyn Linh*, ng Ngc Trung
Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip - H Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Cc i tng c tr trong cng nghip thng chu tc ng ca nhiu loi nhiu khc nhau, c
bit l vi cc nhiu phi tuyn bt nh (khng o c). Mt trong cc i tng l bnh phn
ng khuy trn lin tc (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor - CSTR). Trong bi bo trin khai v
xy dng phng trnh ton hc ca i tng CSTR v dng phng trnh trng thi ng hc
nh trong [3] v da vo phng php nhn dng nhiu trn c s s dng mng Nron xuyn
tm (Radial Basic Functions - RBF). Thng qua kt qu m phng trn Matlab Simulik khng
nh lut cp nht trng s gip h thng n nh v m bo qu trnh nhn dng nhiu c hi
t vi chnh xc bt k.
T kho: M hnh iu khin d bo, c tr, nhn dng nhiu, mng nron RBF, bnh phn ng
khuy trn lin tc

M U*
iu khin cc i tng c tr thng
gp trong cc lnh vc cng nghip t c
cht lng mong mun i hi chng ta phi
nhn dng c nhiu, c bit l cc nhiu
khng o c bi s tn ti ca hiu ng tr
v cc loi nhiu trong cng nghip thng
lm cho h thng b nh hng xu, thm ch
trong nhiu trng hp cn lm cho h thng
b mt n nh. C th k n cc i tng
c tr thng c bit n trong cng
nghip lc du, ha du, cng nghip ha
cht, cng nghip thc phm, cng nghip
giy[1...7]
Da vo phng php nhn dng nhiu trn
c s s dng mng N ron RBF cho mt lp
i tng c tr [3], bi bo ny trin khai
ng dng cho i tng c th l bnh phn
ng khuy trn lin tc CSTR. Mi khi nhiu
tc ng ln h thng s c nhn dng, bi
ton b tr nh hng ca chng s c gii
quyt v bi ton ti u ha trc tuyn cho
cc h iu khin MPC s c tnh thc thi cao
hn. p dng lut cp nht trng s Online
c pht biu v chng minh nh l trong
[3], ta d dng thc thi v kim chng
nhn dng c nhiu vi chnh xc ty .
*

Tel: 0982 847826

C S L THUYT NHN DNG NHIU


TRONG H THNG C TR TRN C
S S DNG MNG NRON RBF
Gi s ng hc ca i tng c tr c
miu t bng phng trnh trong khng gian
trng thi:
(1)
Y(t ) AY(t ) Bu(t ) F( Y)
Trong :
Y(t ) - u ra ca i tng iu khin
u (t ) - tc ng iu khin, u(t ) Umax

- thi gian tr
A, B - cc thng s c trng cho ng hc

ca i tng
a11 a12

a1n

b1
; B

a n1 a n 2

ann

0
; F(Y)

bn

f ( Y)

f ( Y ) - nhiu khng o c l hm phi


tuyn trn, ph thuc vo trng thi (state
depend disturbance) v bin i chm
f ( Y ) 0 . y l dng nhiu thng gp
nhiu trong cc lnh vc cng nghip [7].
Bi ton nhn dng trn c s s dng mng
N ron thu ht s quan tm ca rt nhiu
tc gi [8 12]. y gii bi ton nhn
dng nhiu t ra phn trn, chng ta s s
dng m hnh song song, trong nhiu
f ( Y ) c xp x bng mng Nron RBF.

f ( Y ) - hm nh gi ca f ( Y ) trn c s
mng Nron.
137

L Th Huyn Linh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 137 - 141

Tng t nh i vi (1), m hnh song song


biu din bng phng trnh khng gian trng
thi: Ym (t ) AmYm (t ) Bmu(t m ) F (Y)
(2)
Vi

Am A; Bm B; m ; F (Y) [0 0
f (Y)]
Do hm phi tuyn f ( Y ) tha mn cc iu
kin ca nh l Stone Weierstrass [8], v
vy s dng mng Nron RBF ta c th xp
x vi chnh xc bt k:
m
*
i i

f (Y)

(Y)

(3)

i 1

Y - Ci
2 i2

exp
i

(Y)

Y-Cj

exp

j 1

(4)
2

2
j

nh gi ca hm phi tuyn f ( Y ) c biu


din thng qua cc hm c s v cc trng s
hiu chnh w i :
m

f ( Y )

w i i ( Y )

(5)

Hnh 1. S cu trc h thng nhn dng nhiu


cho cc i tng c tr trn c s m hnh song
song v mng N ron

Trn Hnh 1 l s cu trc h thng nhn


dng nhiu cho cc i tng c tr trn c s
m hnh song song v mng N ron. S
c xy dng trn c s phng trnh ng
hc ca i tng (1), phng trnh ng hc
ca m hnh song song (2). Khi hiu chnh
thch nghi AB thc hin hiu chnh cc trng
s w i ca mng Nron RBF theo lut cp
nht trng s.
XY DNG M HNH TON HC CA
I TNG CSTR V M HNH KHNG
GIAN TRNG THI THEO GI THIT (1)

i 1

nh gi c nhiu i hi phi xc nh
lut hiu chnh thch nghi cc trng s mng
0 , ng
Nron trong m hnh m bo wi
thi m bo cho h thng n nh..
nh l: Gi s A l ma trn Hurwitz. H
thng s n nh khi tha mn ng thi cc
iu kin sau y :
Q

PU max

E(t )

0;

2 Pn
rmin (Q)

(6)

u 2 ( )d . i ( Y),

Pn E(t )
t

nh l trn y thit lp iu kin h


thng c min n nh ton khng gian trng
thi ch tr mt vng ln cn gc ta vi
bn knh gn bng khng. H thng n nh
trong trng hp ny c gi l n nh
thc t (Practical Stability). nh l cng a
ra quy lut cp nht cc trng s ca mng
Nron RBF xp x hm phi tuyn nhiu f (Y )
v m bo qu trnh nhn dng nhiu hi t
vi chnh xc bt k no.
138

Hnh 2. M hnh bnh phn ng khuy trn lin


tc CSTR

Gi thit ta c m hnh b cha khuy trn


lin tc [12] nh Hnh 2 vi h l cao ca
cht lng, y l nng ca sn phm u ra
ca qu trnh sn xut, u1(t) l tn hiu iu
khin cho van T1 ca dng chy dung dch
vi nng Cb1 (gi thit tr ca van l
), u2(t) l tn hiu iu khin cho van T2
ca dng chy dung dch vi nng Cb2 (gi
thit u2(t)=const). Phng trnh vi phn m t
i tng:

dh t

u1(t ) u2 (t ) 0.2 h t

dt

(7)
dy t
u t
u t
k y t

Cb1 y 1
Cb2 y 2 1
h t
h t 1 k y 2
dt
2

Bc 1: Tm im lm vic h0 , y0 :

L Th Huyn Linh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

dh t
0

ta c
dt

dy t 0

dt
u10 u20 0.2 h0 0
(7a )

u
u
k
y
C y
10
1 0
Cb 2 y0 20
0 (7b)
0
b1
h0
h0 1 k2 y0 2

Gii (7a), (7b) c nghim h0 , y0 tng qut


nh sau:
h0
y0

u10

t cc bin trng thi:


h

Y ; Y h ; f (h , y ) f (Y)
y
y
Ta hon ton c th a h phng trnh vi
phn ny v khng gian cc bin trng thi
phng trnh ng hc c dng (1):
Y(t ) AY(t ) Bu(t ) F( Y)
Trong :
0,1

u10 u20
0, 2

5(u10

u20
h0

(1

u20 )

k1 y0
k 2 y0 ) 2

Cb 2 u20

Bc 2: t u1 (t ) u10 u1 (t ); u2
h(t )

h0

h02

h0

h (t ); y(t )

h0
u10

Cb1u10

122(08): 137 - 141

(Cb1 y0 )

u20
h02

2k1k2 y0

(Cb 2 y0 )

u10 u20

(1 k2 y0 )3

h0

k1
(1 k 2 y0 )2

h0

u20

y0

y (t )

Coi cc thnh phn u1 (t ) ; h (t ); y (t ) bin


thin nh theo thi gian. p dng php khai
trin Taylor ta a (7) v dng:
dh 0,1
dt h h u1
0

dy u

u
102 (Cb1 y0 ) 202 (Cb 2 y0 ) h

dt
h
h

0
0

u
u
k1
2k1k 2 y0
10 20
y

3
2
(1

k
y
)
h
h
(1

k
y
)
2 0
0
0
2 0


(C y )
2k1k 2 y 2
0
b1
u1

h0
(1 k 2 y0 )2

(C y )
(u u )
1
b1 2 0 u1h 10 2 20 yh
u1 y
h0
h0
h0

Cb1 y0
h0
0

F(Y)

2k1k2 y

(1 k2 y0 )

(Cb1 y0 )

u1
2
0

u10
2
0

yh

u1
h0

u20
h02

yh

M PHNG
T hnh 1 ta xy dng cu trc nhn dng
nhiu trn Malab Simulink nh sau:

Hay
0,1

h h h (t ) u1 (t )
(8)
0

y ah (t ) by (t ) Ku (t ) f ( h , y )

Vi
u

u
a 102 (Cb1 y0 ) 202 (Cb 2 y0 ) ;
h
h
0
0

2k1k2 y0
u
u
k1
b
10 20
3
2
(1

k
y
)
h
h
(1

k
2 0
0
0
2 y0 )

Cb1 y0

f (h , y )

h0

Hnh 3. Cu trc nhn dng nhiu cho i tng


CSTR trn c s m hnh song song v mng
Nron RBF

(Cb1 y0 )
(u u )
2k1k2 y 2

u1h 10 2 20 yh
2
(1 k2 y0 )
h02
h0

1
u1 y
h0

Hnh 4. S khi m t i tng thc

139

L Th Huyn Linh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Hnh 5. S khi m t nhiu F(Y)

Hnh 6. Khi hm

i (Y )

122(08): 137 - 141

Nhn xt :
Vic p dng lut cp nht trng s online
nhn dng nhiu i tng bng mng Nron
RBF thng qua m phng trn Matlab
Simulink cho thy c kh nng u vit ca
thut ton nhn dng: p ng u ra gia
nng y ca i tng thc v p ng
nng ym ca m hnh mu c sai lch
khng ng k v bm st tn hiu t mong
mun, sau mt khong thi gian qu sai
lch tnh nh v tin ti bng 0, h lm vic
xc lp v n nh.
KT LUN
Mc tiu chnh ca bi bo ny l p dng
c l thuyt ca thut ton nhn dng nhiu
trn c s s dng m hnh song song v
mng Nron RBF vi chnh xc bt k cho
i tng c tr v c nhiu bt nh - bnh
khuy trn CSTR. Qua vic m phng h
thng trn matlab simulink cho thy c
tnh u vit ca phng php xut vi cu
trc n gin v thut ton nhn dng thu
c di dng lut cp nht trng s d thc
hin trong k thut gip ta khng nh
c kh nng nhn dng nhiu mt cch
chnh xc, m bo h thng c hi t.
TI LIU THAM KHO

Hnh 7. p ng ca y v ym so vi gi tr t

Hnh 8. Sai s nhn dng gia y v ym

140

1. Qin S.J and Badgwell T.A. An overview of


industrial model predictive control technology. In
J.C Kantor, C.E. Garcia and B. Carnahan, Fifth
International conference on Chemical Process
Control- CPC, pp. 232 256. American Institute
of Chemical Engineers, 1996.
2. Cao Tin Hunh. Tng hp h iu khin thch
nghi cho cc i tng c tr. Tuyn tp cc bo
co khoa hc hi ngh ton quc ln th 6 v T
ng Ha, H Ni 2005, trang 288 293.
3. Cao Tin Hunh, Li Khc Li, L Th Huyn
Linh. Mt phng php nhn dng nhiu trn c
s mng N ron cho mt lp h thng iu khin
d bo c tr, Tp ch KHCN Thi Nguyn, tp
120, s 06, 2014.
4. Frank Allgower, Rolf Findeisen, Christian
Ebenbauer. Nolinear Model Predictive
Control, Stuttgart, 2010.
5. Camacho, Bordons. Model Predictive Control.
Springer Venlag, 2004.

L Th Huyn Linh v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

6. Cao Tin Hunh. Tng hp h iu khin trt,


thch nghi cho cc i tng c tr. Tuyn tp cc
bo co khoa hc Hi ngh ton quc ln th 5 v
T ng Ha, H Ni 2002, trang 181 186.
7. GiangTao. Adaptive Control Design and Analysis.
A John Wiley & Son, Inc. , publication. 2003.
8. Neil E. Cotter. The Stone Weierstrass
Theorem and Application to Neural Networks.
Vol. 1, No. 4, 1990, pp 290 295.
9. Jagannathan, S.; Lewis, F.L. Identification of
Nonlinear
Differentical
Systems
using
Multilayered Neural Networks Automatica, No
32, 1996, pp 1707 1712.

122(08): 137 - 141

10.
Narendra,
K.S.;
Parthasarathy,
K.
Identification and control for differential Systems
using neural networks. Trans. On Neural
Networks, No 1, 1990, pp 4 27.
11. Yu, W.; Li, X. Some new results on system
Identification with differential Neural Networks.
Trans. Neural Networks, No 12, 2001, pp 412 417.
12. Piyush Shrivastava, Modeling and Control of
CSTR using Model based Neural Network
Predictive Control, Takshshila Institute of
Engineering & Technology, Jabalpur, Madhya
Pradesh, India

SUMMARY
APPLICATION ON A DISTURBANCE IDENTIFICATION BASED ON NEURAL
NETWORK FOR CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR
Le Thi Huyen Linh*, Dang Ngoc Trung
College of Technology - TNU

Industrial objects with delay are normally influenced by various kind of disturbance, especially the
uncertain nonlinear disturbance (unmeasured disturbance). One of these objects is Continuous
Stirred Tank Reactor CSTR. This paper implemented and established the equation of CSTR
object in dynamic state equations as [3] and based on disturbance identification method using
Radial Basic Function RBF. With the Matlab and Simulink simulation results, the online updated
weight has been confirmed to make system stable and ensure the convergence of disturbance
indentification process with any expected accuracy.
Key word: Model Predictive Control, delay, disturbance identification, RBF Neural Network,
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

Ngy nhn bi:30/7/2014; Ngy phn bin:11/8/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS Li Khc Li i hc Thi Nguyn
*

Tel: 0982 847826

141

L Th Huyn Linh v tg

142

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 137 - 141

Li Khc Li

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 143 - 147

IU KHIN CNG SUT TC DNG V CNG SUT PHN KHNG


CA BIN TN MT PHA NI LI
Li Khc Li*
i hc Thi Nguyn

TM TT
Bin tn mt pha ni li ngy cng c s dng rng ri nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc
ngun nng lng ti to vi qui m va, nh v phn tn. Trong qu trnh vn hnh bin tn,
ngoi vic ng b ha vi li cn cn phi iu khin mt s thng s trng thi khc ca bin
tn. Bi bo ny xut mt phng php iu khin cng sut tc dng v cng sut phn khng
ca bin tn mt pha ni li theo hng iu khin in p u ra. Cc thng s trng thi ca h
thng mt pha c phn tch, thit k trn h qui chiu o 2 pha. Kt qu m phng trn MatlabSimulink v Psim cho thy tnh kh thi ca s xut.
T kha: iu khin, cng sut tc dng, cng sut phn khng, bin tn mt pha, ni li

GII THIU*
S khi ca bin tn ni li c ch ra
trn hnh 1, trong L l in cm ca cun
khng lc v R l in tr ca chng, E l tr
hiu dng ca in p u ra b nghch lu, U
l tr hiu dng in p li in. i l dng
in chy trong mch.
+

P,Q

th vc t biu din quan h (2) nh hnh


2. Trong l gc lch pha gia in p v
dng in bin tn bm vo li, l gc lc
pha gia in p u ra bin tn v in p
li. T th vc t ta c quan h:
Esin

XI cos

Cng sut tc dng v cng sut phn khng


t bin tn vo li c xc nh:

C
i

Grid

UI cos( )

UI sin( )

Inverter

Hnh 1: S khi ca nghch lu ni li

Quan h gia in p ra ca bin tn v in


p li c biu din qua phng trnh
Kirhop 2 di dng s phc:

jX I

(1)

Gi tr in tr ca cun khng thng rt


nh, nn n gin ta c th b qua chng,
khi phng trnh (1) tr thnh:

jXI

(2)
E

jXI

Hnh 2: th vc t u, i
*

Tel: 0913 507464

(3)

EU
sin( )
X
U 2 EU
cos( )
X
X

(4)
(5)

Biu thc (4) v (5) cho thy c th iu


khin cng sut tc dng v cng sut phn
khng a vo li in bng cch iu chnh
gc lch pha gia 2 in p() hoc iu
chnh in p u ra ca bin tn (E). Phng
php iu khin gc in p l phng php
n gin nht v c cp trong cc ti
liu [3,6].Trong bi bo ny, chng ti
xut phng php iu chnh cng sut tc
dng v cng sut phn khng bm vo li
in thng qua vic iu chnh in p u ra
ca bin tn, gi l iu khin theo hng
in p. Ni dung bao gm: Nguyn tc iu
khin cng sut, s iu khin cng sut,
m hnh ha v m phng.
CNG SUT TC DNG V CNG
SUT PHN KHNG MT PHA TRN
H QUI CHIU O 2 TRC
Theo cc bin c nh ngha trong hnh 1,
143

Li Khc Li

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

biu thc cng sut tc dng v cng sut


phn khng ca bin tn mt pha ni li c
th vit nh sau:

P
Q

1
U m I m1 cos
2
1
U m I m1 sin
2

Trong Um v Im1 ln lt l gi tr bin


ca in p li v thnh phn c bn ca
dng in li, cn 1 l gc lch pha gia
hai thnh phn . Ta chuyn cc cng sut
ny sang h thng 2 pha trc giao t tn hiu
mt pha thng thng. Sau , ng dng ca
l thuyt cng sut tc thi pht trin cc
phng php mi iu khin v phn tch
cc h thng inmt pha. Do bn cht ca h
thng l mt pha, nn c 2 pha trc giao
cn phi to ra mt pha o, tn hiu pha o
ny vung pha vi tn hiu pha thc, cng
chnh l do ny m chng c gi l h
thng o 2 pha. T c th biu din h
thng chuyn i nng lng in t 1 pha
trn h qui chiu tnh () hoc h qui chiu
ng b (dq). Cc chuyn i ny rt n
gin v d dng phn tch, c bit khi cn
xc nh cng sut tc dng v phn khng
tc thi ca h thng 1 pha.
C nhiu cch to ra thnh phn tn hiu th
hai trc giao thc hin h thng o hai pha.
n gin nht l dch gc pha ca tn hiu 1
pha mt gc 900, hoc s dng b tch phn
bc hai tng qut (SOGI -second-order
generalised integrator) [5]. Cu trc ca SIGI
c m t trn hnh 3, trong k l h s
gim chn, l tn s gc c bn. S dng
SOGI c u im ni bt l ty thuc vo h
s k m cho ta mt vi loi lc v c gim
mo in p li. T hnh 3 ta thu c c
tnh hm s truyn ca SOGI.

X (s)
X(s)
X (s)

X(s)

s2

144

k s
k s
k 2
k s

x
x + -

(7)
2

(6)

122(08): 143 - 147

Hnh 3: S nguyn l SOGI

Tng t nh h thng ba pha, cng sut tc


dng v phn khng tc thi trong h qui
chiu tnh , c th c nh ngha:

p
q

u
u

u
u

i
i

(8)

p dng (7) cho in p li (u) v dng in


(i) m khng k n thnh phn sng hi, ta xy
dng c h thng hai pha trc giao nh sau:

u
u

U m sin t

(9)

U m cos t

I m1 sin

n 3,5,...

I m1cos

(10)

n 3,5,...

Trong biu thc (10) in v in l thnh phn


sng hi bc n ca dng in.
T (8),(9),(10) sau mt vi bin i n gin
ta thu c:

U m I m1 cos
+ Um

i n sin t

i n cos t
(11)

n 3,5,...

U m I m1 sin

+ Um

i n cos t

i n sin t

n 3,5,...

Tham kho (6) ta c:

i n sint-in cost

p=2P+U m
n=3,5,...

-i n cost-in sint

q=2Q+U m

(12)

n=3,5,...

Gi thit p v q l cc gi tr trung bnh ca


p v q tng ng, nhn c chng bng cch
s dng lc thng thp l tng, ta c:
p
P
2
(13)
q
Q
2

Li Khc Li

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Trong thc t, s chuyn i s dng iu


ch rng xung, c th d dng loi b gn
sng dng in khi cng sut tc thi trong
cng thc (12) bng b lc thng thp (LPF)
c tn s ct thp hn so vi tn s chuyn
i. Biu thc (13) cho thy gi tr ca cng
sut o tc thi tnh ton cho h thng hai pha
o bng 2 ln gi tr ca h thng mt pha
thc t. Do cc cng sut trong h thng o 2
phac quan h trc tip vi cc cng sut
thc 1 pha nn ta c th s dng chng
iu khin cng sut tc dng v phn khng
ca h thng 1 pha.
CU TRC MCH IU KHIN CNG SUT
Nh phn tch trn, phn ny s xy
dng cu trc mch iu khin cng sut tc
dng v cng sut phn khng cho h thng
bin tn ni li 1 pha bng cch chuyn
chng sang h thng o 2 pha v s dng cc
kt qu tnh ton nh i vi h thng 3 pha
c trnh by trong ti liu [2].
Quan h gia cc thng s trng thi trong
hnh 1 c th biu din di dng phng
trnh vi phn:
di
(14)
e L
Ri u
dt
Chuyn sang h qui chiu d,q ta c:

ed
eq

d id
dt iq

0
1

1 id
0 iq

id
iq

ud
uq

Sau khi bin i ta c:

ed
eq

d
id
dt
d
L iq
dt
L

Li q

Ri d

ud
(15)

Li d

Ri q

uq

T (15) ta c cu trc mch iu khin dng


in c ch ra trn hnh 4. u vo l dng
in tham chiu c so snh vi dng in
o lng t li. Sai s gia chng c a
qua b iu khin PI v a n b tng hp.
Kt qu ta thu c cc gi tr in p yu
cu trong h qui chiu d,q l ed v eq. Cc gi
tr in p ny c chuyn i sang h qui
chiu ,, thnh phn e a vo b iu ch

122(08): 143 - 147

rng xung hnh sin (SPWM) to xung


iu khin cc kha chuyn mch.
id,ref

id

900 i

PI
L

,
d,q iq

ud

PI -

iq,ref

ed

eq
uq

Hnh 4: Vng iu khin dng in

Cc dng in tham chiu id,ref, iq,refc tng


hp t mch vng iu khin cng sut c
cu trc nh hnh 4.
id max
pref
-

id,ref

PI
P

-id max
iq max

Qref
-

iq,ref

PI
Q

-iq max

Hnh 5: B iu khin cng sut

Cng sut tc dng v cng sut phn khng


chuyn t bin tn vo li c so snh vi
cc cng sut t tng ng. Sai lch ca
chng c a qua b PI, u ra ca PI l
cc dng in tham chiu. P v Q c tnh
ton c lng theo (8) v (13).
S khi h thng iu khin bin tn mt
pha ni li c ch ra trn hnh 5. Trong
iu khin theo nh hng in p sai lch
gia cc thnh phn tc dng v phn khng
ca dng in v cc gi tr t ca chng
c a vo b iu khin PI trong h qui
chiu ng b, n to ra in p tham chiu
cho b chuyn i. in p ny sau c
p dng cho b iu ch rng xung hnh
sin (SPWM). to ra 2 tn hiu trc giao, ta
s dng dch gc pha 900 hoc s dng b
tch phn bc hai tng qut (SOGI). Trong
phng php ny, cn phi o lng in p
v dng in li, y cng chnh l nhc
im ca chng.
145

Li Khc Li

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

DC

122(08): 143 - 147

C
-

AC
DC
SPW

PLL
900

u
u

900

d
,
d,q uq

c
lng
p &q

p
pref

id

,
d,q iq

PI

id
iq

qref
q
-

ud

id,ref

iq,ref -

PI

PI
L

ed
eq

d,q
,

PI uq

Hnh 6: S cu trc h thng iu khin cng sut bin tn 1 pha ni li

KT QU M PHNG
xc minh hiu lc v tnh kh thi ca
phng php iu khin xut, ta tin hnh
m phng trn Matlab-Simulink v Psim.Cc
thng s m phng nh sau:
- Tn s chuyn i(kHz)
- in cm ca b lc (mH)
- in tr ca b lc ()
- Hiu dng in p xoay chiu (V)
- Tn s in p xoay chiu (Hz)
- in p mt chiu DC-link (V)

20
3,5
0,2
220
50
300

Cc kt qu m phng c ch ra trn cc
hnh 6,7,8,9. Trong cc hnh 6,7 l p
ng ng ca cng sut tc dng v cng
sut phn khng, cc hnh 8,9 l dng sng
in p v dng in bin tn.

1000
P(W)

Hnh 9: Dng sng in p

500
0
0

0.05

Hnh

0.1
0.15
0.2
T(giay)
7: Cng sut tc dng

0.25

Q(Var)

20
10
0
0

0.05

0.1
0.15
T(giay)

0.2

Hnh 8: Cng sut phn khng

146

0.25

Hnh 10: Dng sng dng in

Li Khc Li

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

NHN XT V KT LUN
Kt qu m phng cho thy p ng ng
ca h thng, v dng sng in p v dng
in ra p ng yu cu. Song cn mt s
nhc im nh: thi gian qu cn tng
i di, cn phi o lng c in p v dng
in dn n sai s ln, nhiu sng hi giai
on qu ln. y cng l nhng vn
cn c tip tc nghin cu tm gii php
khc phc.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Lai Khac Lai: 'Fuzzy Logic Controller for GridConnected single phase Inverter', Journal of
science and technology - ThaiNguyen University,
2014. pp. 33-37
2. Crowhurst, B., El-Saadany, E.F., El Chaar, L.,
Lamont, L.A.: Single-phase grid-tie inverter
control using DQ transform for active and reactive
load power compensation. Proc. Power and

122(08): 143 - 147

Energy (Pecon), 2010, pp. 489494


3. Ichikawa, R., Funato, H., Nemoto, K.:
Experimental verication of single-phase utility
interface inverter based on digital hysteresis
current controller. Int. Conf. Electrical Machines
and Systems, 2011, pp. 16
4. Tran Cong Binh, Mai Tuan Dat, Phan Quang
An, Pham Dinh Truc and Nguyen Huu Phuc:
Active and reactive power controler for singlephase grid-connected photovoltaic systems,
www4.hcmut.edu.vn/.../HCMUT_VN
5. Gong, J.W., Chen, B.F., Li, P., Liu, F., Zha,
X.M.: Feedback decoupling and distortion
correction based reactive compensation control for
single-phase inverter. Proc. Power Electronics
and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2009, pp. 14541459
6. Samerchur,S., Premrudeepreechacharn, S.,
Kumsuwun, Y., Higuchi, K.: Power control of
single-phase voltage source inverter for gridconnectedphotovoltaic systems. Proc. Power
Systems Conf. and Exposition (PSCE), 2011,
pp. 16

SUMMARY
ACTIVE AND REACTIVE POWER CONTROL
OF SINGLE -PHASE GRID -TIE INVERTER
Lai Khac Lai*
Thai Nguyen University

Single-phase grid-tie inverter is increasingly widely used to improve the efficiency of exploitation
of renewable energy sources for medium, small and scattered. During inverter operation, in
addition to synchronization with the grid also needs to control some of the other states of the
inverter.This paper proposes a control method of active and reactive power controls of singlephase grid-tie inverter voltage-oriented control of the output voltage. The status parameters of
single-phase system is analysis and design on virtual reference two phasesystem. The simulation
results in Matlab-Simulink and Psim showed the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Keywords: control, active power, reactive power, single-phase inverter, grid-tie

Ngy nhn bi:28/7/2014; Ngy phn bin:10/8/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS Nguyn Hu Cng i hc Thi Nguyn
*

Tel: 0913 507464

147

Li Khc Li

148

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 143 - 147

L Kim Hng v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 149 - 153

XY DNG TP TIN COMTRADE BNG MATLAB NH GI CHC


NNG NH V S C TRN RLE BO V
L Kim Hng1*, V Phan Hun2
1Trng

i hc Bch khoa, i hc Nng,


2Cng ty TNHH MTV Th nghim in Min Trung

TM TT
Mc ch ca bi bo l xut cch xy dng v s dng tp tin lu tr d liu s c
(COMTRADE) pht li cc trng hp nhiu lon ca h thng in, nhm kim tra chc nh
v s c ca rle bo v Siemens 7SD522. Tp tin c nh dng COMTRADE cha cc gi tr tn
hiu in p thanh ci v dng in ng dy c to ra bng cch m phng h thng in
trong Matlab Simulink. Tp tin gip cho vic nh gi c tnh lm vic ca rle trong cc iu
kin s c khc nhau (nu ch s dng ring hp b th nghim rle th kh c th thc hin c).
C th ni rng vic kt hp s dng Matlab Simulink v hp b ISA DRTS66 gip cc nh
nghin cu c c thng tin v tr s c trc quan v c th thc hin nhiu th nghim nhm
pht trin chc nng bo v rle mi trong tng lai.
T kho: ng dy truyn ti in, tp tin nh dng COMTRADE, nh v s c, rle bo v,
hp b th nghim ISA DRTS66

T VN *
Ngy nay, rle bo v (RLBV) k thut s c
kh nng cung cp y cc d liu thu
thp bng chc nng ghi s kin khi xy ra s
c trong h thng in. Nhng d liu ny
bao gm: gi tr dng in, in p, trng thi
ca tn hiu u vo v trng thi rle u
ra c lu tr trong tp tin c nh dng
COMTRADE nhm phc v cng tc phn
tch, bo co v xc nh ng nguyn nhn
s c d dng hn [1].
Tuy nhin, s c xy ra trn li in theo
thng k l kh t, cho nn k t khi IEEE a
ra tiu chun tp tin c nh dng
COMTRADE vo nm 1991 (C37.111) cho
n nay, th vic s dng cc tp tin ny
nhm th nghim RLBV vn cn hn ch do
ngi s dng cha quen vi tiu chun ny
[2]. Kt qu l ch c mt s lng nh ngi
dng ng dng thnh cng trong vic s
dng pht li d liu bn ghi s c bng hp b
th nghim phn tch kh nng lm vic ca
rle i vi nhiu lon trong h thng in.
Bi bo trnh by vic xy dng tp tin c
nh dng COMTRADE t cc d liu dng
in, in p c m phng bng phn mm
*

Tel: 0914 112526, Email: lekimhung@dut.udn.vn

Matlab Simulink c s dng ph bin


trn khp th gii v hp b ISA DRTS66
th nghim RLBV trong h thng in. Qua
, bi bo gip cc nh nghin cu hiu su
hn v mt l thuyt v thc nghim.
M HNH NGHIN CU
Hin nay, vi bi cnh h thng in ngy
cng quy m v phc tp, th vic s dng cc
thit b in trn li cng nh phc v
cho nghin cu ngy cng tn km hn. Do
, c c cc s liu s c thc t trn
li in th ch c cc phng th nghim ni
ting, hoc in lc cp quc gia vi d n c
ngun vn di do mi chi ph mua cc
thit b ny. V vy, ti cc trng i hc vi
ngun ti chnh hn ch s kh khn gii
quyt vn ny phc v cho mc ch
nghin cu. Tuy nhin, cc trng s dng
phn mm nh Matlab, Atp/Emtp, Etap,
Pscad m phng h thng in nhm
thc hin phn tch, nh gi, kim nghim
nhng vn t ra trong lnh vc l thuyt.
Tp tin nh dng
COMTRADE

Hp b th
RLBV
nghim
ISA DRTS66

Hnh 1. M hnh th nghim RLBV

149

L Kim Hng v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Vi mc ch kt hp hp l gia l thuyt v
thit b bo v thc t ang s dng trn li
in, m hnh nghin cu c bi bo trnh
by trn hnh 1 s dng phn mm Matlab
Simulink m phng HT, to d liu s c.
Sau chuyn i d liu ny sang nh dng
COMTRADE v pht li bng cng c
PlayBack Waveform ca ISA DRTS66 phc
v vic th nghim rle Siemens 7SD522.
Xy dng tp tin lu tr d liu s c c
nh dng COMTRADE
Tp tin COMTRADE l bn ghi s c c
to ra theo chun chung ca IEEE cc hp
b th nghim c th c c. D liu trong
tp tin bao gm gi tr tc thi ca dng in
v in p ba pha thi im trc s c v
ti thi im s c. Mi b bn ghi
COMTRADE bao gm bn loi [3], [4]: Tp
tin tiu ; Tp tin thng tin; Tp tin cu hnh;
Tp tin d liu.
Cc tp tin c t tn ging nhau v gii
hn khong tm k t. Phn m rng s dng
ba k t i din cho tng loi tp tin khc
nhau (HDR dng cho cc tp tin tiu , CFG
l tp tin cu hnh, DAT dng cho cc tp tin
d liu v INF l tp tin thng tin).
s dng cho cc hp b th nghim, bi
bo lp trnh to 2 tp tin COMTRADE bng
Matlab c tn l test.cfg v test.dat:
Tp tin cu hnh (test.cfg): l mt tp tin vn
bn ASCII. Cu hnh tp tin c trnh by
trong hnh 2. Thng tin cha trong test.cfg
gii thch cc d liu trong tp tin test.dat.
Nhng thng tin ny bao gm: Hai dng u
tin m t ni dung tn tp tin v s lng
knh tng t v knh tn hiu s c ghi.
Tip theo l thng tin ca cc knh o lng
nh tn tn hiu, n v o, h s nhn. Cui
cng l tn s li, tn s ly mu, s mu,
thi im bt u v kt thc, ngy o lng
v kiu tp tin d liu l ASCII hoc Binary.
Tp tin d liu (test.dat): lu tr cc tn hiu
c nh ngha trong test.cfg. test.dat
c cu hnh sau: ct u l s mu, ct 2 l
nhn thi gian. Ct 3 n 6 l cc knh tn
hiu dng in v in p vi cc gi tr tc
thi (s m v dng). Xem hnh 3.
150

122(08): 149 - 153

Hnh 2. Cu hnh tp tin test.cfg

Hnh 3. Cu hnh tp tin d liu test.dat

M phng h thng in
Matlab Simulink l mt phn mm quen
thuc i vi hu ht cc k s in, h tr
mnh v tnh ton v xy dng m phng cc
m hnh HT mt cch trc quan v d hiu.
to d liu s c, hnh 4 trnh by ng
dy 110kV, 50km c m phng bao gm:
- ng truyn ti: ng dy truyn ti 3
pha c s dng c cc thng s sau:
RL1=0.1286 (/km), RL0=0.2409 (/km).
LL1=1.3 (mH/km), LL0=3.5(mH/km).
CL1=0.013 (F/km), CL0= 0.0085 (F/km).
- Khi thu thp d liu dng in v in p 3 pha.
- Khi hin th s: hin th gi tr dng in
v in p s c.
Khi s c ba pha.
Thit b th nghim
Hp b th nghim thit b nh th c th pht
ra tn hiu dng in, in p c iu khin
bng my tnh thng qua cng c phn mm.
Hp b c kh nng to ra nhng trng hp
s c qua nh gi cc chc nng ca
RLBV. T kt qu thu c nhn vin th
nghim c th yn tm v h thng rle sau
khi kim tra s p ng chnh xc i vi cc
tnh hung s c trong vn hnh.

L Kim Hng v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 149 - 153

Hnh 4. M hnh h thng in m phng

vi s c 3 pha) kim tra tc ng RLBV


Siemens 7SD522. Sau , kt hp c t bn
ghi s c bng phn mm Sigra 4.5 cho dng
sng v gi tr ln dng in, in p nh
hnh 6.

Hnh 5. Giao din cng c PlayBack Waveform

Vi cc tp tin nh dng COMTRADE ly t


RLBV, Cng ty Th nghim in Min Trung
thng s dng cc thit b sau ti to li
tn hiu dng in, in p:

Hnh 6a. Kt qu dng sng dng in, in p

Hp b Omicron: CMC 156, CMC 256 v


CMC 356 s dng cng c TransPlay ca
phn mm iu khin Test Universe 3.0 SP.
Hp b ISA: DRTS3, DRTS6, DRTS66 s
dng cng c PlayBack Waveform ca phn
mm TDMS Test & Data Management
Software 6.5.7.
T kt qu tp tin COMTRADE c to ta
bng Matlab cho tng trng hp s c trong
mc 2, bi bo s dng cng c PlayBack
Waveform c giao din nh hnh 5 (v d i

Hnh 6b. Kt qu gi tr dng in, in p s c

Nhn xt: cc vng trn c nh du trn


hnh v cho thy cc gi tr dng in v in
p hiu dng ca RLBV v Matlab c sai
khc nhau. y l kt qu sai s ca chnh
thit b RLBV v hp b ISA DRTS66.
151

L Kim Hng v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Rle bo v

Hnh 7. Thng s chnh nh rle

Thit b bo v tch hp chc nng nh v s


c c s dng l rle 7SD522 (SN:
BF0312063233). Trc khi pht tn hiu dng
in, in p bng hp b ISA DRTS66, bi
bo s dng phn mm Digsi 4.84 ci t
thng s chnh nh nh hnh 7.

122(08): 149 - 153

NH GI CHC NNG NH V S C
S dng phn mm Matlab Simulink m
phng 10 kiu s c ca m hnh h thng
hnh 2 vi v tri s c khc nhau trn ng
dy, thi gian m phng t = 0.1s nh gi
nh hng ca gi tr in tr s c (RF) n
kt qu u ra chc nng nh v s c RLBV
Siemens 7SD522. Mi trng hp s c s c
c d liu dng in, in p tc thi vi
tn s ly mu 1kHz (s mu trong tp tin l
1001). Tip n, chuyn i tn hiu sang
nh dng COMTRADE hp b ISA
DRTS66 c th c v ti to li cc tn hiu
bm vo RLBV nhm kim tra kt qu tc
ng ca rle cho kt qu trn bng 1. Trong
, sai s gia kt qu hin th trn rle
Siemens 7SD522 (m) vi gi tr v tr s c
m phng (mf) theo cng thc sau:

m - mf
100
L

Bng 1a. Kt qu kim tra s c mt pha chm t


RF
[]

mf
[km]

30
40
50
60
70
80

1
10
20
30
40
49

AG
m
e
[km] [%]
0.5
1
9.1 1.8
19.2 1.6
28.5 3
38.7 2.6
46.6 4.8

BG
m
e
[km] [%]
0.5
1
9.2 1.6
19.2 1.6
28.7 2.6
38.1 3.8
47.5 3

CG
m
e
[km] [%]
0.5
1
9.4 1.2
19.6 0.8
29.5 1
39.3 1.4
47.9 2.2

Bng 1b. Kt qu kim tra s c hai pha chm t

Hnh 8. Kt qu thng tin s c rle

Sau khi RLBV tc ng, thng tin s c xut


hin trn mn hnh rle hoc ghi trong bn
ghi s c (Trip log) vi kt qu nh hnh 8
bao gm cc thng tin v chc nng bo v
tc ng, gi tr dng in, in p lc s c,
v tr s c. y l nhng d liu cn thit
lm c s so snh vi cc gi tr m phng
bng phn mm Matlab Simulink nhm kim
chng v tr li cu hi liu thit b bo v
thc t c p ng c d liu ly t m
hnh l thuyt hay khng.
152

RF
[]

mf
[km]

30
40
50
60
70
80

1
10
20
30
40
49

ABG
m
e
[km] [%]
1
0
10
0
20.2 0.4
30.1 0.2
40.4 0.8
44.8 1.2

BCG
m
e
[km] [%]
1
0
10
0
20.1 0.2
30.1 0.2
40.1 0.2
44.8 1.2

ACG
m
e
[km] [%]
1
0
10.2 0.4
20.4 0.8
30.7 1.4
40.9 1.8
50
2

Bng 1c. Kt qu kim tra s c hai pha


RF
[]

mf
[km]

1
15
35
45
55

5
15
25
35
45

AB
m
e
[km] [%]
5
0
14.7 0.6
24
2
33.6 2.8
42.9 4.2

BC
AC
m
e
m
e
[km] [%] [km] [%]
5
0
5
0
14.9 0.2 15
0
24.3 1.4 24
2
33.8 2.4 33.6 2.8
43
4 43.2 3.6

L Kim Hng v tg

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

Bng 1d. Kt qu kim tra s c ba pha


RF [] mf [km]
1
15
35
45
55

5
15
25
35
45

ABC
m [km] e [%]
5
0
15
0
24.5
1
34
2
43.4 3.2

Nhn xt: phng php nh v s c c sai


s nh khi in tr ti im s c c gi tr b
(1 n 15) v sai s ln nht 4.8% khi xy
ra s c AG vi RF = 80.
KT LUN
nh gi v kim tra vic phn tch s c
bng tp tin COMTRADE ca RLBV c
thc hin ti Cng ty Th nghim in Min
Trung trong thi gian qua chng minh
rng ng dng ny l kh thnh cng. Da
trn nhng ni dung c trnh by trong
bi bo ny, chng ta c th rt ra cc kt
lun nh sau:
- Kt qu bi bo s gip cho cc nh k thut
hiu v c kh nng vn dng l thuyt vo
gii quyt mt bi ton tng hp h thng
in thng qua tp tin c nh dng
COMTRADE bng phn mm m phng
Matlab kt hp vi hp b th nghim v
RLBV thc t.

122(08): 149 - 153

- Cng vic phn tch s c lin quan n vic


s dng tp tin COMTRADE nh gi c
tnh lm vic ca chc nng bo v khong
cch, qu dng c hng, dao ng cng sut,
sng hi, bo ha bin dng in nhm
khc phc hu qu s c v gip cho vic
hon thin cng tc qun l v vn hnh HT
ngy cng tt hn.
- Tch hp cc ng dng phn tch s c mt
cch hiu qu thng qua vic nghin cu,
nh gi c s ph hp gia l thuyt v
thc t.
- Nng cao kin thc, kh nng lm vic cho i
ng k thut lm cng tc th nghim Rle.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Birdi, Harjit Singh, Power quality analysis
using relay recorded data, Master thesis, August
2006.
2. Steve Turner, Using comtrade records to test
protective relays, Beckwith Electric Co., Inc,
2011.
3. IEEE Std C37.111-1999, IEEE Standard
Common Format for Transient Data Exchange
(COMTRADE) for Power Systems, The Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. ISBN 07381-1666-1, 15 October 1999.
4. Juan M Gers, James Ariza, Operation
simulation of out of step relays using comtrade
files
and
transient
stability
analysis.

SUMMARY
BUILDING COMTRADE FILE FORMAT BY MATLAB FOR EVALUATION OF
FAULT LOCATOR FUNCTION ON RELAY PROTECTION
Le Kim Hung1*, Vu Phan Huan2
1University

of Science and Technology Da Nang, 2Center Electrical Testing Company Limited

This purpose of this paper is to propose how to build and use COMTRADE file for playback
power system disturbances to test fault locator function of protective relay Siemens 7SD522. The
COMTRADE file of bus voltage and line current signals generates by power system simulation
using Matlab Simulink. These provide the ability to evaluate the protection system operation
behavior for fault conditions which are hard to get using only relay test device. It can be stated that
the use of Matlab Simulink and ISA DRTS66 can help researchers to have visual information
about fault location and performs to test relay for developing new protection function in future.
Key words: Transmission line, COMTRADE file, fault location, relay protection, test set ISA
DRTS66
Ngy nhn bi:31/7/2014; Ngy phn bin:18/5/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS Li Khc Li i hc Thi Nguyn
*

Tel: 0914 112526, Email: lekimhung@dut.udn.vn

153

L Kim Hng v tg

154

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 149 - 153

Trn Xun Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

122(08): 155 - 160

AN OPTIMAL STATE FEEDBACK CONTROL METHOD FOR 4 DEGREES


OF FREEDOM - RIGID ROTOR ACTIVE MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEM
Tran Xuan Minh*
Thai Nguyen University of Technology

SUMMARY
Based on mechanical electrical magnetic principles, the paper presents detailed analyses to
build a completed mathematical model for 4 degree of freedom - rigid rotor active magnetic
bearing (AMB) system. Gyroscopic effect, one of significant reasons affecting to performances of
system is mentioned in this research. By using the centralized approach, a state-space model for
multi-input multi-output (MIMO) active magnetic bearing system is built. An optimal state
feedback controller is then designed in order to directly formulate the performance objectives of
the control system and provides the best possible control system for a given set of performance
objectives. Zero steady-state error of system outputs is also given by the means of integrators
which are added into the system. As a result, MIMO systems responses achieve quick
stabilization and good performances.
Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB); gyroscopic; MIMO; state-space; Linear Quadratic
Regulator (LQR)

INTRODUCTION*
Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) comprises a
set of electromagnetic mechanisms to provide
bearing forces which suspend rotor shaft
freely in space. These systems utilize
feedback control methods to stabilize the
rotating motion of them. This advanced
bearing technology offers many significant
advantages, compared to conventional
bearings, since mechanical non-contact
between rotor shaft and static parts is
generated by electromagnets. With a suitable
active control approach, damping and bearing
stiffness characteristics of AMB can be
adjusted [1, 2]. Control methods contribute an
important role in designing an AMB system.
In many applications, however, the
performance of a controller is highly
influenced by the coupled impact in motion of
the system which should not be neglected.
Many different control methods have been
applied successfully for AMB, with or
without the mention of the gyroscopic effect
[4-9].
These
include
conventional
decentralized approaches such as PD, PID
and nonlinear control methods such as
*

Tel: 0913 354975

feedback linearization, backstepping [4, 5],


[7], [9]. A new trend for modern control
methods is also attracted many interests.
These centralized methods consisting of Poleplacement, LQR, LQG, H, -synthesis [6,
7], [9] increase quickly due to the rapid
development of the sensor technology and
digital signal processing recently. As a result,
measurement and computation tasks of
various physical signals can be implemented
easily for the purpose of feedback control.
In this research work, a fully mathematical
model of 4-DOF AMB is described, in which
the gyroscopic effect is also included in the
system dynamics. A modern centralized
control method is designed for a MIMO radial
suspension system. By using this approach,
the optimal controller is then proposed in
order to yield high performance for the
system in terms of control energy and control
error. Obtained results show that an
improvement in dynamic performance of the
system can be achieved.
This paper is structured in four parts. Part 2
dedicates to modeling of the system in terms
of dynamics and electromagnetic issues. The
control design is described in part 3. Part 4 is
the computation and simulation results.
155

Trn Xun Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

MODELING OF 4-DOF AMB SYSTEM


Dynamic equations of rotor
The object of this research work is a drive
system including 2 active magnetic bearings
arranged in both ends of the shaft. The AMB1
and AMB2 provide radial forces in the
directions of xA, yA and xB, yB respectively.

The presentation of the generalized force F:


F1
F2
F3
F4

Figure 1. 4-DOF rigid rotor AMB system [5]

Based on dynamic principles of a rotating


object in literature [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], equations
of motion for rotating shaft can be recognized
by Newtons second law and Eulers second
law of motion. This arrangement is assigned 4
physical degrees of freedom, describing
translations in the x- and y- directions and
angular displacements about the xz () and yz
() planes. This contributes to elements for
structural matrices of the mechanical system
which enable the Lagrange representation of
the second order dynamical system.
Mq Gq

where, q

Bu f

Bu f ;

a b 0 0

c 1 0 0

1 1 0 0
;C
0 0 a b

d 1 0 0
0 0 c 1

0 0 1 1

0 0 d 1

The mass matrix is symmetric and positive


definite, M=MT 0 ; J y J x because the
rotor is assumed to be symmetric; the
gyroscopic matrix is skew-symmetric,
G = -G T containing the rotor speed rm as a
linear factor;
Radial bearing forces are represented by four
controlled forces, which act within the
bearing planes in the x- and y- directions.
uf

f xA

f xB

f yA

f yA

Each bearing force is be described as a


linearized function of the rotor displacement
in the rotor and the coil current. Hence, the
following relationship results for the force
vector u f can be shown as follows [2]:
uf
K s qb K i i
(2)
where,
(1)

F
xs

122(08): 155 - 160

ys

Ks

diag ( K s _ xA , K s _ xB , K s _ yA , K s _ yB );

qb

xbA

xbB

ybA

ybB

K s is bearing stiffness vector; i : is vector of


control current of four bearing coils;

Ki

Figure 2. The rigid rotor provided with magnetic


bearings and sensors[2]
Ji 0 0 0
0
0 J k rm 0
0 m 0 0
0
0
0
0
;G
M
0 0 Ji 0
J k rm 0
0
0
0 0 0 m
0
0
0
0

156

diag ( KiA , KiB , KiA , KiB ); i

ixA ixB

iyA iyA

K i : is force/current vector; qb expresses the


rotor displacements within magnetic bearings.
For the purpose of simple differential
equation description, the center of gravity
(COG) coordinates, combined in q , have
been
introduced.
However,
rotor
displacements
involve
the
bearing
coordinates qb . It therefore is necessary to
transfer the bearing coordinates qb into the
COG coordinates q through a linear
transformation matrix bTS :

Trn Xun Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH


a 1 0 0

qb

xbA xbB

ybA

b 1 0 0 x
0 0 a 1

ybB

qb

liron
(3)

Ts q

0 0 b 1 y

By inserting of (2) and (3) into (1), the


complete equation of motion can be obtained
as follows:

iron

(4)

Electromagnetic equations of magnetic


bearing model
Assuming that in the air gaps and iron paths,
the magnetic flux and flux density are
constant. Moreover, the iron will be treated as
operating below saturation then stored
magnetic energy Wa, and magnetic flux in the
paths a can be calculated by [4]:
Ba2
2s
2 0

1 2
Ba dVa
2

Wa

liron

l fe

iron

fe

Aa

where, Va = 2sAa; Aa is cross-section area of


flux path. It is assumed that flux leakage is
not existed, = a = fe
A Ni

Ni
2s
0

0 a

liron

l fe

0 iron

fe

1
Aa

2s

liron

l fe

iron

fe

When the magnetic flux in the air gaps is


unity then making: B = Ba= /Aa;
If rotor is displaced by an amount of s then a
magnetic force F is generated [1, 2], [4]:
F

Wa
s

2s

Aa N 2 i 2

liron

l fe

iron

fe

The relationship between magnetic force and


current in (6) is represented by square term
which indicates the nonlinearity.

is neglected since the equation

fe

above does not take into account


magnetization effect of ferromagnetic
materials. As a result, (6) becomes:

Mq + Gq + K sS q = BK i i
BK s bTS is the negative bearing
where, K sS
stiffness matrix converted into COG
coordinates.
In general, displacement motions xs , ys and
angular motions , will be coupled due to
the presence of the gyroscopic effect in
matrix G if rotor speed rm 0 .

l fe

122(08): 155 - 160

Wa
s

Aa N 2
i
4
s0

(7)

Figure 3. An differential arrangement for


electromagnets in x-axis

Two functions for magnetic forces will be


given by:
F

i
K 0
s0

i
s

and F

i
K 0
s0

i
s

The total magnetic force F will be the


difference between F+ and F-; K

Aa N 2
4

s s0 and
Under the assumption that
i i0 the linear function of F can be
approximated by the first order of Taylor(4)
expansion
as follows [1, 2]:

4 Ki02
s03

4 Ki0
s02

Ks s

Ki i

(8)

State-space description
The rotor dynamic equations and the
(5)
linearized
electromagnetic
equations
constitute a set of equations describing
dynamic behaviour of the system. We
introduce a state vector presenting for bearing
displacements and their derivatives:
x

the(6)
input vector: u

ixA ixB iyA iyB and,

the output vector at the sensors of bearings:

xc

xd

yc

yd

Then, the state-space description of the 4DOF AMB system yields:


157

Trn Xun Minh

x
y

Ax+Bu
; A
Cx Du
04

M 1BK i

;C

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

04 4
M BK s bTS
1

C4

04

simultaneous equations, where P is unique


positive-definite solution to the following
(9)
equation:

I4 4
M 1G

;D

04

PA + A T P + Q - PBR -1B T P = 0

Controller design
Linear time-invariant state equations of
proposed system can be expressed in
generalized form:
x
y

Ax+Bu
Cx

with
x

R ; u, y

R ;A

n n

;B

n m

;C R

m n

This controlling design seek to minimize the


quadratic performance index:
xT Qx

u T Ru dt

t0

where, Q is state weighting matrix and


positive semi-definite; R
is control
weighting matrix and positive definite; x is
the state vector.

Qii

1
;
max acceptable value of xi2

Rii

1
max acceptable value of ui2
i

where, K = R-1BT P is optimal feedback gain


matrix.
Should t1 in (11) be infinite, the matrix
Riccati equations reduce to a set of
158

1, 2,..., l

Qii xi (t )2

J
0

i 1

R jj u j (t )2 dt

(14)

j 1

In this paper, we introduce an integral action


based on the tracking error in order to achieve
zero steady-state error under any changes in
references. A number of integrators are added
in the system model then the state-space
model of the new augmented system cab be
written as:

Figure 4. LQR closed-loop block diagram

represented as: uopt = -R -1BT Px or uopt = -Kx

1, 2,..., j ; i

(11)
which corresponds to the following criterion:

In the LQR design approach, the only design


parameters are the weighting matrices, Q and
R. A LQR controller is constructed under the
assumption that all states of the controlled
system are available for feedback. Once the
LQG controller is obtained, the dynamic
behaviour of each controlled variable can be
checked and the closed-loop poles can be
evaluated [10].
Optimal control law denoting by u opt can be

(13)

Therefore, if we want to modify the system


behaviour, the weighting matrices Q and R
can be adjusted to obtain different optimal
feedback gain matrix K. A reasonable simple
choice for the matrices Q and R is given by
Brysons rule [9]. Then Q and R are selected
(10)
diagonally with:

t1

122(08): 155 - 160

A BK LQR
C
C 0

BK I x
0

0
r
I

(15)

where the additional auxiliary state variables


act as accumulated errors.
SIMULATION RESULTS
In this section, AMBs simulating parameters
are taken from [7] in order to prove the
effectiveness of the method:
Rotor mass: m=12.4(kg); Distance between
mass center and bearings/sensors: la= lb=
(12)
0.21(m); lc = ld = 0.215(m); Momen of inertia
in i, j and k axes: Ji = Jj = 2.22x10-1(kg.m2)
and Jk=6.88x10-3 (kg.m2). Speed of rotor rm
= 15000(RPM). Ratio of magnetic
force/current: Ki = 102.325 (N/A); Bearing

Trn Xun Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

stiffness coefficient: Ks = -4.65x105(N/m);


Earths gravity acceleration: g=9.81(kg.m/s2).
The computation results of the optimal
feedback gain matrix K in equation (12) can
be obtained with given weighting matrices Q
and R and Riccati equation solution P.

KT

0.026
0.0055
0.0089
1.85 10 8
7.071
7.071
5.95 10 11
1.28 10 10

0.026
0.0055
0.0089
1.66 10
7.071
7.071
4.82 10
1.52 10

11
10

0.0089
0.0089
8.7 10 8
2.7 10 8
0.026
0.026
0.0055
0.0055
5.22 10 11 5.56 10 11
1.99 10 10 6.66 10 11
7.071
7.071

7.071
7.071

With the optimal feedback gain matrix K


above, eigenvalues of closed-loop system can
be achieved:
-1242.1+517.7i; -1242.1+517.7i; -126.75+52.8i;
-126.75-52.8i; -58.35+267.6i; -58.35-267.6i;
-58.35+267.6i; -58.35-267.6i

It is can be seen that all the closed-loop


eigenvalues have negative real parts

Figure 5. State responses of 4 DOF AMB


using LQR + integrators

122(08): 155 - 160

indicating
that
the
closed-loop
is
asymptotically stable. We see in the Figure 5
and 6 that the LQR design exhibits excellent
regulation performance. The zeros response
for LQG design decays to zeros quickly with
not much oscillation. The results indicate that
the proposed optimal controller is superior in
terms of both regulation performance and
control efforts.
The figure 7 shows that the performance of
LQR method is much better than poleplacement method when the same step inputs
are applied to. With the addition of integrators
in the LQR model, steady-state errors are
improved significantly. Moreover, in contrast
to the pole-placement method, where the
desired performance is indirectly achieved
through location of closed-loop poles, the
optimal control system directly addresses the
desired performance objectives while
minimizing the control energy. Figures 8 and
9 indicate the significant difference in terms
of control efforts.

Figure 6. Output responses of 4 DOF AMB


using LQR + integrators

Figure 7. Comparisons of output responses between different methods

Figure 8. Control efforts of 4 DOF AMB using


Pole-placement method

Figure 9. Control efforts of 4 DOF AMB


using LQ controller + integrators

159

Trn Xun Minh

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

CONCLUSION
In this paper, a detailed mathematical model
of a 4 DOF AMB system has been constituted
in which the gyroscopic effect is also
mentioned. The proposed LQ regulator has
performs excellent qualities of both regulation
performance and control effort. This centralized
control approach is successfully constructed
under the assumption that all states can be
measured. Moreover, as integrator parts have
been added to LQR model, steady-state errors
are reduced significantly in dynamic output
responses of the system. Therefore, this design
can be a good reference for an alternative
realistic designs, such as optimal output
feedback design and observer design, since the
issues of unmeasurable physical quantities are
considered. Those unsolved problems are
wished to be investigated in other research
works.
REFERENCES
1. Akira Chiba, Tadashi Fukao, Osamu Ichikawa,
Masahide Oshima, Masatsugu Takemoto and
David G. Dorrell, Magnetic Bearings and
Bearingless Drives. Newnes, 2005.
2. Gerhard Schweitzer and Eric H. Maslen,
Magnetic Bearings: Theory, Design, and
Application to Rotating Machinery. SpringerVerlag, 2009.
3. R. D. Smith and W. F. Weldon, Nonlinear
control of a rigid rotor magnetic bearing system:

122(08): 155 - 160

Modeling and simulation with full-state


feedback, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol.
31, No. 2, 1995.
4. M. S. de Queiroz and D. M. Dawson,
Nonlinear control of Active Magnetic Bearing: A
backstepping approach, IEEE Transactions on
Control Systems Technology, Vol. 4, No. 5,
March 1996.
5. Abdul R. Husain, Mohamad N. Ahmad and
Abdul H. M. Yatim, Deterministic models of a
Active Magnetic Bearing System, Journal of
Computers, Vol. 2, No. 8, October 2007.
6. Tian Ye, Sun Yanhua, Yu Lie, LQG Control of
Hybrid Foil-Magnetic Bearing, 12th International
Symposium on Magnetic Bearings, 2010.
7. Chunsheng Wei, Dirk Soffker, MIMO-control
of a Flexible Rotor with Active Magnetic
Bearing, 12th International Symposium on
Magnetic Bearings, 2010.
8. Quang Dich Nguyen, Nobukazu Shimai,
Satoshi Ueno, Control of 6 Degrees of Freedom
Salient Axial-Gap Self-Bearing Motor, 12th
International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings,
August, 2010.
9. Luc Quan Tran, Xuan Minh Tran, Design a
state feedback controller with Luenberger observer
for 4 degree of freedom - rigid rotor active
magnetic bearing system, Proceedings of the
First Vietnam Conference on Control and
Automation, November, 2011 (in Vietnamese).
10. Robert L. Williams II, Douglas A. Lawrence,
Linear State-Space Control Systems, John Wiley
& Sons, 2007

TM TT
MT PHNG PHP IU KHIN TI U PHN HI TRNG THI
CHO H THNG T CH NG 4 BC T DO ROTOR CNG
Trn Xun Minh*
Trng i hc K thut Cng nghip H Thi Nguyn

Da trn cc nguyn l v c- in- t, bi bo trnh by nhng phn tch chi tit xy dng nn
mt m hnh ton hc y cho h thng t ch ng (Active Magnetic Bearing-AMB),
rotor cng, 4 bc t do. nh hng hi chuyn l mt trong nhng nguyn nhn chnh nh hng
n cht lng lm vic ca h thng cng c cp n trong nghin cu ny. Bng cch s
dng gii php iu khin tp trung, mt m hnh khng gian trng thi cho h nhiu u vo, nhiu
u ra (MIMO) c xy dng cho h thng t ch ng. Mt b iu khin phn hi trng
thi c thit k nhm trc tip a ra cc tiu ch cht lng ca h thng iu khin v to thnh
mt h iu khin tt nht c th ng vi cc tiu ch cht lng lm vic cho trc. Sai lch tnh
ca tn hiu u ra cng c ci thin thng qua cc b tch phn c b sung vo m hnh iu
khin ca h thng. Cc kt qu m phng cho ng ca h MIMO t c n nh ha nhanh
chng v cht lng lm vic tt.
T kha: t ch ng (AMB); nh hng hi chuyn; MIMO;khng gian trng thi; LQR.
Ngy nhn bi:09/6/2014; Ngy phn bin:11/8/2014; Ngy duyt ng: 25/8/2014
Phn bin khoa hc: PGS.TS Li Khc Li i hc Thi Nguyn
*

Tel: 0913 354975

160

THIT K B IU KHIN LQR DCH CHUYN C CHN


LC CC IM CC
Nguyn nh Ha
i hc Bch khoa H Ni
TM TT:
Bi bo ny trnh by mt phng php thit k b iu khin LQR dch chuyn c chn lc cc im cc cho cc
h tuyn tnh dng. dch chuyn mt hoc mt s im cc khng mong mun ca h h sang bn tri mt phng
phc trong khi cc im cc cn li khng b thay i, cc ma trn trng s ca phim hm ti u LQR c chn da
trn cc vector ring bn tri tng ng vi cc gi tr ring khng mong mun. Sau , chng ti ch ra min xc nh
ca cc im cc mi. Mt v d minh ha c gii thiu minh chng cc kt qu l thuyt xut.
T kha: Phng php gn im cc; Phng php LQR; Dch chuyn im cc c chn lc; H tuyn tnh dng.

T VN
Xt mt h tuyn tnh dng c m hnh trng
thi:
x = Ax + Bu, x n , u m .

(0.1)

Hin nay, cc phng php ph bin thit k


b iu khin gn im cc cho cc h tuyn tnh
dng (0.1) bao gm phng php trc tip, phng
php Ackerman, phng php modal [1]. Mi
phng php li c u hoc nhc im ring,
chng hn phng php trc tip th rt th cng v
khng tng qut. Phng php Ackerman c cng
thc tng qut nhng ch p dng c cho cc h
c mt u vo. Phng php modal c th p dng
cho h c nhiu u vo nhng cn mt gi thit
quan trng l ma trn h thng c th bin i thnh
dng ng cho (diagonal) hoc khi ng cho
(block- diagonal). Ngoi ra phng php modal cn
c mt c im na l n ch c th dch chuyn
c mt s lng cc im cc khng vt qu

( )

rank B , ngha l khng vt qu m . y c th

coi l nhc im m cng c th coi l u im v


trong nhiu trng hp ta khng cn thit dch
chuyn ht tt c cc im cc ca h h.
Ngoi cc phng php trn, ta cn c th thit
k b iu khin gn im cc da trn phng php
LQR. iu ny c th thc hin c bng cch
trc ht thit k b iu khin LQR dch chuyn
c chn lc mt s im cc nh trong cc ti liu
[2-5], sau da vo cc kt qu y tm cc ma
trn trng s sao cho cc im cc khng mong
mun c dch chuyn chnh xc n cc v tr bit
trc. Tuy nhin, cc phng php trong [2-5] tn

ST :0949823777. Email: hoa.nguyendinh@hust.edu.vn

ti mt s nhc im nh cn mt s gi thit v
cc ma trn trng s trong phim hm ti u LQR.
Hn na, cc kt qu trong [2-5] mi ch xt n
vic thit k b iu khin LQR dch chuyn c
chn lc cc im cc khng mong mun v xc
nh vng m chng chuyn n, ch cha xt n
vic tm cc ma trn trng s c th dch chuyn
cc im cc mt cch chnh xc n cc v tr mong
mun.
tin cho vic trnh by, sau y chng ti s
nh ngha c th hai bi ton khc nhau tng ng
vi hai bc trn thit k mt b iu khin gn
im cc LQR.
Bi ton th nht: Thit k b iu khin LQR
dch chuyn c chn lc mt s im cc khng
mong mun ca h (0.1) sang bn tri mt phng
phc.
Bi ton th hai: Cho trc mt s im cc mong
mun bn tri mt phng phc, thit k b iu
khin LQR dch chuyn c chn lc cc im cc
khng mong mun ca h (0.1) ti cc v tr bit
trc .
Bi bo ny xut mt s kt qu mi trong
vic s dng phng php LQR thit k b iu
khin dch chuyn c chn lc cc im cc cho h
(0.1), t to c s gii bi ton th hai hay ni
cch khc l to c s cho bc tip theo gii bi
ton thit k b iu khin LQR gn im cc. C
th hn, bi bo ch ra cch chn cc ma trn trng
s ca phim hm ti u LQR sao cho cc im cc
khng mong mun ca h (0.1) c dch chuyn c
chn lc sang bn tri mt phng phc, m khng
cn n cc gi thit nh trong [2-5]. Tip ,
min bn tri mt phng phc m cc im cc c

th c dch chuyn n c ch ra mt cch


tng minh. Do khun kh ca bi bo nn li gii
cho bi ton th hai khng c trnh by y m
s c gii thiu trong cc bi bo khc.
Cc phn tip theo ca bi bo c trnh by
nh sau. Phn II gii thiu cc kt qu cho bi ton
thun vi ba mc con cho phn dch chuyn c chn
lc mt im cc thc, mt cp im cc phc lin
hp v mt cp im cc thc. Phn III gii thiu
mt v d minh ha. Phn IV l kt lun v cc
hng m rng ca bi bo.

im cc thc v dch chuyn hai im cc phc


lin hp hoc hai im cc thc. Cc kt qu ny c
th c tng qut ha cho trng hp dch chuyn
mt s lng bt k cc im cc v s c gii
thiu trong cc bi bo sau. Ngoi ra, ta cng c th
lp li nhiu ln phng php dch chuyn mt hoc
hai im cc ny dch chuyn tt c cc im cc
khng mong mun.
A. Dch chuyn c chn lc mt im cc thc

A biu th cho tp cc gi tr ring ca ma trn

Gi s l im cc thc khng mong


mun ca h (0.1). Gi v T 0T l vector ring bn
tri ca A tng ng vi . Ta chn ma trn trng
s Q nh sau:

A . K hiu gch di, chng hn x , l ch cc


i lng vector. K hiu gch trn, v d v l

Q = v T q1v , q1 0.

Trong bi bo c s dng mt s k t nh sau.

( )

()

ch gi tr phc lin hp ca v. Ngoi ra, Re a ch


phn thc ca mt s phc a.

(1.4)

nh l sau ch r biu thc ca b iu khin LQR


v tp cc im cc ca h kn.
nh l 2.1. Vi cc gi thit A1-A2 v ma trn
Q chn (1.4), b iu khin LQR c dng:

THIT K B IU KHIN
Xt phim hm mc tiu:

(1.5)

, r1 = v T BR 1BT v .

(1.6)

u = p1R 1BT vv T x ,

J =

(x

Qx + uT Ru dt,

(1.1)

trong

trong Q l ma trn i xng, bn xc nh


n

dng, R m l ma trn i xng, xc nh


dng. Nh bit trong l thuyt iu khin ti u
[1], [6], b iu khin ti u phn hi trng thi
LQR cho h (0.1) c tnh bng:
(1.2)

u = Fx ,

vi F = R B P trong P l nghim ca
phng trnh i s Riccati:
1

PA + AT P PBR 1BT P + Q = 0.

(1.3)

Ngoi ra, phng trnh (1.3) c nghim duy nht


th hai gi thit sau phi c tha mn:

A1: A, B l iu khin c.

A2: Q 1/2 , A l quan st c.


Vn t ra cho bi ton thun l tm cch thit
k b iu khin (1.2) sao cho ch mt s cc im
cc khng mong mun c dch chuyn sang bn
tri mt phng phc trong khi cc im cc khc
c gi nguyn. n gin, chng ti ch trnh
by kt qu cho cc trng hp dch chuyn mt

p1 =

+ 2 + r1q1
r1

ng thi, tp cc im cc ca h kn l:

} {

( ) { }}

A BF = 2 + r1q1 A \ . (1.7)

Chng minh: Vi ma trn Q chn (1.4), d thy


P = vp1v T , p1 > 0 l nghim ca phng trnh

Riccati (1.3) trong p1 tnh theo (1.6) thu c


bng cch thay P vo (1.3) v gii phng trnh bc
hai. Hn na, vi cc gi thit A1-A2, phng trnh
(1.3) c nghim duy nht. iu ny c ngha l gi
tr ca P tnh trn chnh l nghim duy nht y.
T ta thu c b iu khin LQR nh (1.5).
Gi s l mt gi tr ring bt k ca A v
w l vector ring bn phi tng ng vi n. Ta c
v T w = 0 , do vy:

(A BF ) w = (A p BR
1

= Aw,
= w.

BT vv T w,

iu ny chng t w cng l vector ring bn phi


ca ma trn h kn v tng ng l gi tr ring .

{ ( ) { }} (A BF ) . Ngoi

Ni cch khc A \
ra,

v T A BF = v T A p1BR 1BT vv T ,

= p1r1 v T ,
2

Do vy, v T cng l vector ring bn tri ca ma trn


h kn v tng ng l gi tr ring 2 + r1q1 .
Kt hp c hai kt lun trn v cc gi tr ring ca
h kn, ta thu c (1.7).

T nh l 2.1 ta thy cc im cc ca h kn
gm n 1 im cc ging vi h h v ch c duy
nht mt im cc khng mong mun ca h h l
b thay i. Hn na, gi tr ca im cc mi cho
thy n nm bn tri mt phng phc, v c th hn
l bn tri ca im trn trc thc.
B. Dch chuyn c chn lc mt cp im cc phc lin
hp

Gi s , l mt cp im cc phc khng

mong mun ca h (0.1) v v T , v T l cp vector


ring bn tri lin hp ca A tng ng vi chng.
Ta chn ma trn trng s Q nh sau:
v
v Q2 T ,
v

T

Q = v

nh l sau ch r biu thc ca b iu khin


LQR v tp cc im cc ca h kn.

u = R 1BT v

= + r1q1 v .

hiu q q11 = q 22 .

nh l 2.2. Vi cc gi thit A1-A2 v ma trn


Q chn (1.4), b iu khin LQR c dng:

= v T A p1r1v T ,

iu ny dn n q11 = q22 . trnh rm r, ta k

(1.8)

trong Q2 l ma trn Hermitian, bn xc nh


dng. Gi s

q
q
Q2 = 11 12 ; q11, q 22 0.
q
q
12 22
Khi ,

Q = q11vv T + q12 vv T + q12 vv T + q22 vv T .


Do Q v q12 vv T + q12 vv T u l cc ma trn thc
nn q11vv T + q22 vv T cng phi l ma trn thc.

v T
v P2 T x ,
v

(1.9)

trong P2 l nghim ca phng trnh Riccati


(1.10)

P2 2 + T2 P2 P2R2P2 + Q2 = 0,

vi
v T
0
1 T
2 =
,
R
=
2 T BR B v
0

r
v =

r
12

r12
.
r

Hn na, cc im cc khng mong mun ca h h


c dch chuyn ti cc gi tr 1, 2 c tnh
bng:
12 + 22 = 2 Re 2 + Re r12q12 + qr ,

4
2
2 2
2
1 2 = + 2qr + 2 Re r12q12

( )

(1.11)

+ q 2 q12 r 2 r12 ,

trong khi cc im cc khc c gi nguyn ti v


tr.

Chng minh: Vi ma trn Q chn (1.8), d


v T

v P2 T l nghim ca (1.3) trong


v

P2 l nghim ca (1.10). Do c cc gi thit A1A2 m bo phng trnh Riccati (1.3) c nghim
duy nht nn gi tr ca P chnh l nghim duy
nht y.

thy P = v

Tip theo, chng minh tng t nh nh l 1,


ta c th ch ra rng ch c hai im cc , ca h
h l b thay i, cn cc im cc khc th khng b
nh hng.
Mt khc,

v T
R2 = T BR 1BT
v
v T BR 1BT v
= T
1 T
v BR B v

Tip theo, thay cc biu thc ca Q2 , R2 vo (1.13),


ta tnh c

v T BR 1BT v
.
v T BR 1BT v

det sI H = s 4 2 Re 2 + Re r12q12 + qr s 2

4
2
2
+ + 2qr + 2 Re r12q12

lin hp vi nhau nhng do R2 l ma trn Hermitian


nn chng phi l cc gi tr thc, iu ny dn n
cc phn t trn ng cho ca R2 phi bng nhau.
r
r
12

ti u [6], ta bit 1, 2 , 1, 2 l cc gi tr
ring ca H . Ni cch khc,

)(

)(

)(

det sI H = s 1 s 2 s + 1 s + 2 ,

2
1

2
2

2
1

2
2

=s + s + .

(1.12)
Mt khc,
R2
det
T
sI + 2

sI 2
= det sI H

Q2

0 I

I 0
0 I
= det sI H det

I 0

= det sI H .

(
(

)
)

Ngoi ra,
R2
sI 2
det

T
Q2
sI + 2

= det Q2 det R2 sI 2 Q21 sI + T2

( )

nh

sau:

( )

qr q12 r12 Re r12q12 ,


2

qr q12 r12 Re r12q12 2 .

V th, t kt qu ca nh l 2, ta thu c min


xc nh ca cc im cc mi 1, 2 nh sau:

( )

12 + 22 2 Re 2 ,

(1.15)

12 22 .
C. Dch chuyn c chn lc hai im cc thc

Gi s 1, 2 l hai im cc thc khng mong

mun ca h (0.1) v v1T , v2T

) l cc vector ring
(

bn tri ca A tng ng vi 1, 2 . Ta chn ma


trn trng s Q nh sau:

Q = v1

v T
v2 Q2 1T ,
v
2

(1.16)

nh l sau ch r biu thc ca b iu khin


LQR v tp cc im cc ca h kn.
nh l 2.3. Vi cc gi thit A1-A2 v ma trn
Q chn (1.16), b iu khin LQR c dng:

= det Q2 det R2 sI 2 Q21 sI + T2

)) .
(1.13)

So snh (1.13) v (1.14) ta thu c (1.11).

q
q
Q2 = 11 12 ; q11, q 22 0.
q12 q22

)) .

(1.14)

trong Q2 l ma trn i xng, bn xc nh


dng. Gi s

Do , ta c cch khc tnh det sI H

det sI H

2
2
+ q 2 q12 r 2 r12 .

xc nh dng, nn q 2 q12q12 , r 2 r12r12 . Do vy,

R2
Xt ma trn Hamiltonian H = 2
Gi
T .
Q2 2
s im cc khng mong mun ca h h c dch
chuyn ti cc gi tr 1, 2 . T l thuyt iu khin

V Q2 , R2 l cc ma trn bn xc nh dng v

r12
, r > 0.
r

n gin, ta k hiu li R2 =

) (

Ta thy cc phn t trn ng cho chnh ca R2 l

( )

u = R 1BT v1

v T
v2 P2 1T x ,
v
2

(1.17)

trong P2 l nghim ca phng trnh Riccati


(1.18)

P2 2 + T2 P2 P2R2P2 + Q2 = 0,
0
vi 2 = 1
,
0 2

vT
R2 = 1T BR 1BT v1

v2

r r
v2 = 11 12 .

r r
12 22

Hn na, cc im cc khng mong mun ca h h


c dch chuyn ti cc gi tr 1, 2 c tnh
bng:
2
1

2
2
2
2

2
1
2 2
1 2

2
2

+ = + + r11q11 + r22q 22 + 2r12q12 ,


12 = + 2r12q1212 + r11q1122 + r22q 2212

)(

2
+ r11r22 r122 q11q22 q12
,

(1.19)
trong khi cc im cc khc c gi nguyn ti v
tr.

Chng minh: Phn chng minh ca nh l ny


hon ton tng t nh ca nh l 2.2, nn chng
ti khng trnh by li y.

T tnh xc nh bn dng v xc nh dng


2
ca Q2 , R2 , ta c ngay q11q 22 q12
, r11r22 r122 . Do
vy, theo nh l Cauchy-Schvartz, ta c:

V D MINH HA
Xt mt h tuyn tnh dng m t bi (0.1) vi:
0 1 0
0


A = 0 0 1 , B = 0 .
2 5 3
1


(1.21)

Cc gi tr ring ca ma trn A l
0.3283,1.6641 1.823i . Do vy, h l khng n
nh v c hai gi tr ring nm bn phi mt phng
phc.
Tip theo, s dng phng php xut trong
bi bo, chng ti thit k b iu khin LQR
dch chuyn hai im cc 1.6641 1.823i sang bn
tri mt phng phc trong khi im cc cn li c
gi nguyn. Cc ma trn trng s c chn nh
sau: Q2 = I , R = 10. Kt qu m phng trn hnh
H1 cho thy im cc 0.3283 khng b thay i
bi b iu khin LQR trong khi hai im cc khc
c dch chuyn sang bn tri mt phng phc
thnh hai im cc phc lin hp n nh.
Cui cng, vi trng thi u ca h l [ 1; 2; 3] ,
hnh H2 biu din kt qu m phng thu c v cho
thy h kn tr thnh n nh.
2
1.5

r11q11 + r22q22 2 r11q11r22q22 2r12q12 ,

V th, t (1.19) ta thu c:


12 + 22 12 + 22 ,
12 22 1222 .

(1.20)

Hai bt ng thc trong (1.20) cho ta min xc nh


ca cc im cc mi.
Ch rng cc kt qu ca nh l 2.1, nh l
2.2 v nh l 2.3 cng nh min xc nh ca cc
gi tr ring mi l ging vi cc kt qu [4], [5].
Tuy nhin, chng thu c m khng cn thm
bt c gi thit no, trong khi cc kt qu [4], [5]
cn c mt s gi thit khc v cc ma trn trng
s.

Imaginary axis

r11q1122 + r22q 2212 2 r11q11r22q22 12 2r12q1212 .

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-3

-2

-1

Real axis

H1 S phn b cc im cc ca h h (k hiu bi
hnh vung mu ) v ca h kn thu c bi b iu
khin LQR xut (k hiu bi hnh trn mu xanh ).

vi cc gi tr ring khng mong mun. y l bc


c s thit k b iu khin gn im cc bng
phng php LQR. Cc kt qu cho vic thit k b
iu khin LQR gn im cc s c gii thiu
trong cc bi bo tip theo.

3
x1
x2

x3

States

TI LIU THAM KHO

[1]

-1

[2]

-2

[3]

-3

10

15

Time [s]

[4]

H2 p ng cc trng thi ca h vi b iu khin


LQR dch chuyn c chn lc hai im cc.

[5]

KT LUN
Bi bo ny xut mt phng php thit
k b iu khin LQR dch chuyn c chn lc cc
im cc khng mong mun ca cc h tuyn tnh
dng. tng ch o y l vic chn cc ma
trn trng s ca phim hm mc tiu LQR da trn
cc vector ring bn tri ca ma trn A tng ng

[6]

Nguyn Don Phc, L thuyt iu khin tuyn tnh,


NXB Khoa hc v K thut, H Ni, 2009.
N. Kawasaki, E. Shimemura, Determining quadratic
weighting matrices to locate poles in a specied region",
Automatica, vol. 19, pp. 557-560, 1983.
N. Kawasaki, E. Shimemura, J.-W. Shin, On the quadratic
weights of an LQ-problem shifting only the specified
poles, Proceedings of the Society of Instrument and
Control Engineers, vol. 25(11), pp. 12481250, 1989.
F. Kraus, V. Kucera, Linear quadratic and pole placement
iterative design, Proc. of European Control Conference,
1999.
J. Cigler, V. Kucera, Pole-by-pole shifting via a linearquadratic regulation, Proc. of the 17th International
Conference on Process Control, 2009.
B. D. O. Anderson, J. B. Moore, Optimal Control: Linear
Quadratic Methods, Englewood Clis, NJ: Prentice Hall,
1990.

SUMMARY

LQR CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR SELECTIVE POLE SHIFT


This paper proposes a method for designing state feedback controllers based on LQR approach for LTI
systems. To selectively shift one or some undesirable poles of the open-loop system to the open left half
complex plane while not affecting the other poles, the weighting matrices in the LQR performance index are
chosen based on the left eigenvectors of the system matrix associated with the undesirable poles. Then we
point out the region in which the shifted poles must lie in. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate
the theoretical results.
Keywords: Pole placement, LQR method, Selective pole shift, LTI systems.

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

MT S PHNG PHP THIT K B IU KHIN D BO CHO I


TNG VAN M NHANH
Hong c Qunh1, Nguyn nh Ha2, Nguyn Don Phc2
1
Trng C Cng ngh v Kinh t Cng nghip
2
i hc Bch Khoa H Ni
TM TT
Bi bo ny gii thiu v so snh mt s phng php thit k b iu khin d bo c kh
nng m bo c cht lng h thng bn vng vi nhng thnh phn bt nh nh thi gian
tr, khe h cho i tng phi tuyn l van m nhanh. Nhng b iu khin ny c xy dng
thng qua cc tiu ha sai lch bm gia lu lng t trc v lu lng thc ca van. S nh
hng ca cc thnh phn bt nh ln cht lng iu khin c gim thiu nh nht. Hai m
hnh d bo khc nhau, c th l phi tuyn v tuyn tnh ha chnh xc, c s dng. Sau ,
mt v d cng cc kt qu m phng c gii thiu so snh cht lng iu khin khi s
dng hai m hnh v minh ha tnh hiu qu ca cc b iu khin d bo xut.
T kha: iu khin d bo, H phi tuyn bt nh, Ti u ha, Van m nhanh.
T VN
Trong ti liu [8], chng ti i tin
hnh thit k b iu khin d bo cho i
tng van cng nghip nhm mc ch a ra
hng gii quyt mi iu khin i tng
ny khi c s tham gia ca cc thnh phn bt
nh. Tuy nhin, bi bo [8] mi ch mi xt
trng hp van c c tnh tuyn tnh, tc l
loi van c lu lng q [0 , 100]% ca
dng cht lng chy qua van t l tuyn tnh
vi m van thc v / [0 , 1] theo cng
thc:

q = C v f (v / )

(1)

vi f (v / ) = v / , trong P l chnh p
gia hai u van, C v l lu lng (gpm) tnh
trn mt n v chnh p (psi), l khi
lng ring ca cht lng v f (v / ) l hm
m t c tnh ca loi van c s dng.
v

Khe h,
dnh, tr

v/

Van m
nhanh

H1: Cu trc c bn ca h van cng nghip c


ti cc thnh phn bt nh.

Vi mong mun tip tc m rng phm


vi p dng ca b iu khin d bo cho i
tng van cng nghip, trong khun kh ca
bi bo ny, chng ti s tin hnh nghin

cu thit k hai b iu khin d bo cho i


tng van cng nghip trong trng hp van
c dng m nhanh (phi tuyn):
(2)
f (v / ) = v /
Kt hp vi hm m t tp nhiu bt nh
nh a ra trong [8], m t sai lch m
hnh, hin tng khe h v dnh trong van:
(3)
v v / = d (v ,t )
ta s c m hnh dng phi tuyn ca van m
nhanh nh m t hnh H1.
Nhim v iu khin y l phi c kh
nng cp nht online c th khng ch
c s nh hng ca thnh phn bt nh
d (v ,t ) trong h mc thp nht. Bi bo
xut hai b iu khin d bo phi tuyn cho
i tng van m nhanh trn, ng thi m
phng v nh gi cht lng thng qua so
snh hiu qu ca cc phng php thit k
theo cc hng gii quyt khc nhau ny.
M HNH HA VAN M NHANH
Bng cch xp x thnh phn bt nh (3)
nh mt khu qun tnh bc 2, ng thi kt
hp vi (2) ta c m hnh d bo lin tc ca
van m nhanh nh sau:
x

/
d v

= 1 v / (T + T )x + av
dt x
1
2

(4)
1 2
TT

ST:0982235309. Email: hoangducquynh@gmail.com.

= A/ x + b v

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

q = Cv v /

(5)

trong v l tn hiu vo, x = (v / , x )T l


trng thi van, q l tn hiu ra, T1 ,T2 l hai
hng s thi gian qun tnh, a l h s
khuch i tng ng ca m hnh xp x v:
1
0

/
/
A = 1 (T1 + T2 ) , b = a (6)
TT

TT
TT
1 2
1 2

1 2
n y, ta c hai cch thit lp m
hnh trng thi cho i tng van m nhanh
v tng ng l hai cch thit k iu khin
s c gii thiu trong mc tip theo:
Cch u tin l gi nguyn m hnh phi
tuyn trn, thit k b iu khin MPC
vi phim hm mc tiu tng ng.
Cch th hai l tm cch chuyn m hnh
van m nhanh v dng tuyn tnh v p
dng kt qu thit k b iu khin MPC
c chng ti gii thiu ti liu [8].
u tin chng ti gii thiu m hnh phi
tuyn khng lin tc ca van m nhanh. T
(4) v (5) ta c:
/
x = Ax
+ b /v v q =C / (1,0)x

(7)

vi:

vk

xk +i = Ai xk + Ai 1b , , A b , b (11)
v

k +i 1

Tip n, ta s xem xt m hnh tuyn


tnh ha chnh xc cho van m nhanh.
t bin mi:

y =q2
th:

y = C v2

v ' = C v2

(1

v '
0)
x

= cT x
trong

c T = C v2

(1

0)

Kt hp vi (4) ta c m hnh tuyn tnh sau


y ca van m nhanh:
dx
= A / x + b /v
dt
(12)
T
y =c x
Vi m hnh tuyn tnh (12), ta c th d dng
thit k thut ton iu khin MPC cho n
nh lm [8].
THIT K B IU KHIN
A. M hnh phi tuyn

C / = Cv

(8)

Tip tc chuyn (7) sang dng khng lin


tc vi chu k trch mu T v thay
xk = x (kT ) , vk = v (kT ) , ta c:

xk +1 = Axk + bvk

(9)

qk = C / (1,0)xk
trong :
/

A = e A T , b = e A tdt b /
0
T (9) ta li c:

J k = e T diag(ai )e + uT diag(bi )u

(13)

trong
qk +1
wk +1
vk

q = , w = , u =
q

w
v

k +N
k +N
k +N 1

(14)

e = q w

(10)

xk +i = Axk +i 1 + bvk +i 1
= A ( Axk +i 2 + bvk +i 2 ) + bvk +i 1
= A2xk +i 2 + A bvk +i 2 + bvk +i 1

= Ai xk + Ai 1bvk + + A bvk +i 2 + bvk +i 1

hoc c th vit li thnh:

p dng phng php iu khin d


bo, ta s dng hm m t sai lch d bo
dng ton phng nh sau:

vi wk l tn hiu ch o thi im trch


mu th k v N l di ca s d bo.
Nh vy hm mc tiu (13) tng ng:
J k = e T diag (ai )e + uT diag(bi )u,

= qk +1 wk +1 a1 + ... + qk + N wk + N
+ vk2b1

+ ... + vk2 + N 1bN

Ta c th vit li thnh:

aN

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

J k = a1 (C / (1, 0) [Axk + bvk ] wk +1 )2 +

v
+ a 2 (C / (1, 0) A2xk + (Ab , b ) k wk + 2 )2
vk +1

+ ...
+ aN (C /

vk
N

N 1
(1, 0) A xk + (A b ,..., b )
v

k +N 1

wk +N ) 2 + b1vk2 + b2vk2+1 + ... + bN vk2+N 1

hoc tng ng vi:


2

i
N
/
i
i j

Jk = ai C (1,0)(Axk + A bvk+j 1) wk +i

i =1
j =1


2
+bv
i k +i 1

y, cc bin trng thi xk v tn hiu ch


o wk +i l bit v cc bin cn tm khi ti
thiu ha J k l vk , vk +1 ,..., vk +N 1 . y l
mt bi ton ti u ha phi tuyn, gii bi
ton ti u ny, ta c th s dng rt nhiu
thut ton khc nhau nh: gradient, NewtonRaphson, Quasi-Newton, GaussNewton,
Levenberg-Marquard, Trust Region, gii thut
di truyn... Phn mm m phng MATLAB
cng cung cp sn cc lnh tm nghim ti
u c s dng cc phng php ti u ny.
Vy b iu khin d bo vk (xk ) cho
van m nhanh (trng hp s dng m hnh
phi tuyn) s lm vic theo cc bc ca thut
ton sau:
Thut ton 1:

1. Chn di N cho ca s d bo, cc


gi tr tham s ai ,bi ,i = 1,, N v chu
k trch mu T .
2. Xy dng cc ma trn v vector A, b ,C /
t m hnh h thng theo cc cng thc
(8) v (10). Thc hin cc bc sau ln
lt vi k = 1, 2,
a) o (hoc quan st) trng thi tc thi
xk .
b) Gii quyt bi ton ti u J k min
tm uk ti u.
c) a gi tr vk l phn t u tin ca
uk vo iu khin i tng van, tc l

vk = (1,0, ,0 ) uk ri gn k := k + 1
v tr v bc a).
B. M hnh tuyn tnh
Phim hm mc tiu trong trng hp
ny c chn nh sau:

J k = ekTQek + uTk Ruk ,

(15)

trong Q , R l cc ma trn dng vi kch


thc ph hp, ek = yk wk v

wk2+1
yk +1
vk +1

yk = , wk = , uk =
y

k +N 1
k +N 1
wk +N 1
Theo kt qu ca [8], ta c tn hiu iu
khin ti u tng ng vi phim hm mc
tiu (15) l:

uk* = R + BTQB

BTQ (Cxk wk ) (16)

Vi tn hiu iu khin (16), vector tn


hiu u ra yk s bm theo c vector tn
hiu t wk . iu ny cng c ngha l lu
lng qk cng bm theo c gi tr t wk .
Ging nh lm [8], ta c thut ton
thit k b iu khin d bo cho van m
nhanh (trng hp s dng m hnh tuyn
tnh) gm cc bc lp sau:
Thut ton 2:

1. Chn cc ma trn Q , R i xng xc nh


dng, di N cho ca s d bo v
chu k trch mu T .
2. Xy dng ma trn v vector C , B , c , b t
m hnh h thng theo cc cng thc
c trong [8]. Thc hin cc bc sau ln
lt vi k = 0,1,
a) o (hoc quan st) trng thi tc thi
xk .
b) Tnh uk* theo (16).
c) a gi tr vk l phn t u tin ca

uk* vo iu khin i tng van, tc l

vk = (1,0, ,0) uk* ri gn k := k + 1


v tr v bc a).

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

KT QU M PHNG
minh ha cc phng php
xut, ta s m phng b iu khin d bo
thit k cho i tng c la chn l van
m nhanh bng phn mm MATLAB vi cc
tham s sau:
Chu k trch mu T = 0.1(s ) .
Hng s thi gian qun tnh T1 = 0.1 v
T2 = 0.5 .
H s khuch i a = 100 .
chnh p sut P = 1(psi ) .
Khi

lng

ring

ca

cht

lng

= 1000(kg / m ) .
A. M hnh phi tuyn
Vi cc thng s c la chn, ta d
dng tnh c cc ma trn ca m hnh phi
tuyn lin tc (4) ca van m nhanh:
0 1 / 0
A/ =
, b =

2 3
200
S dng cc cng thc (8) v (10) ta cng c
c cc thng s ca m hnh phi tuyn
khng lin tc (9) ca van m nhanh:
0.990944082993937 0.0861066649579777

0.172213329915955 0.732624088120004

A=

0.905591700606271

b =

17.2213329915955

C. So snh cht lng


Hnh H2 v H3 biu din cc kt qu m
phng cho hai m hnh trong trng hp
khng c nhiu (H2) v c nhiu (H3) tin
cho vic so snh.
Cc kt qu m phng cho hai trng hp
m hnh phi tuyn v tuyn tnh cho thy cc
b iu khin MPC tng ng a n cc kt
qu kh ging nhau, c th nh sau. Hnh H2
ch ra rng khi khng c nhiu th p ng khi
thay i gi tr t ca hai b iu khin MPC
cho hai m hnh l gn nh ging nhau. Khi
c nhiu n trng u vo, hnh H3 cho thy
p ng ca hai b iu khin c khc nhau
nhng khng nhiu, thi gian p ng l gn
nh bng nhau. Ngoi ra, b iu khin d
bo c thit k trong c hai trng hp vn
th hin tnh bn vng vi nhiu u vo khi
tn hiu ra vn bm theo gi tr t.
T p ng gn nh ging nhau ca hai
trng hp, ta thy rng hon ton c th dng
m hnh tuyn tnh ha chnh xc thay cho m
hnh phi tuyn ca i tng van m nhanh.
1.2

0.8

mo hinh phi tuyen


mo hinh tuyen tinh
Tin hieu dat

0.6

0.4

C = 0.316227766016838
Tip theo, ta chn ca s d bo N = 2 ,
cc trng s ai = 1, bi = 1, i = 1, , N v tin
hnh theo cc bc nh Thut ton 1, ri
m phng cho i tng.
B. M hnh tuyn tnh
T cc thng s la chn nh trn ta
cng c c m hnh dng tuyn tnh lin
tc (12) ca van m nhanh:
0 1
0
0.1
v c =
A/ =
, b/ =

2 3
200
0
Chn cc ma trn trng s Q = I , R = I . T
y ta cng d dng m phng c hot
ng ca b iu khin theo cc bc ca
Thut ton 2 cho van m nhanh (trng hp
s dng m hnh tuyn tnh).

0.2
0

10

20

30

40

50

H2: So snh kt qu m phng 2 m hnh khi


khng c nhiu
1.2

0.8

mo hinh phi tuyen


mo hinh tuyen tinh
Tin hieu dat

0.6

0.4

0.2
0

10

20

30

40

50

H3: So snh kt qu m phng 2 m hnh khi c


nhiu n trng u vo

Tp ch KHOA HC & CNG NGH

KT LUN

TI LIU THAM KHO

Bi bo i xy dng m hnh ton cho


i tng van m nhanh thng dng trong
cng nghip v thit k b iu khin cho i
tng ny theo hai cch khc nhau. cch
th nht m hnh phi tuyn ca van m nhanh
c s dng lm m hnh d bo. cch
th hai, chng ti ch ra cch i bin thu
c mt m hnh tuyn tnh cho van m
nhanh trong ton b khng gian trng thi
(tuyn tnh ha chnh xc).
T c hai m hnh d bo , ta cng c
mt cch tng ng hai b iu khin d bo.
Kt qu m phng cho hai m hnh c gii
thiu v sau so snh trong hai trng hp
khng c nhiu v c nhiu u vo. c hai
trng hp, p ng l gn nh ging nhau.
T , ta thy rng hon ton c th dng m
hnh tuyn tnh ha chnh xc ca van m
nhanh thay cho m hnh phi tuyn. iu ny
rt thun li cho vic thit k b quan st
trng thi cho i tng van m nhanh da
trn m hnh tuyn tnh ha chnh xc ca n.
Cc kt qu ny s c gii thiu trong cc
bi bo tip theo.

[1] Camacho, E. and Bordons, C. (1999): Model


predictive control. Springer.
[2] Chalupa,P.; Novak,J. and Bobal,V. (2011):
Mathematical modelling of control valve of
three tank system. Int. Journal of Mechanics.
Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 310-317.
[3] Choudhury,M.A.A.S. (2005): Modelling valve
stiction. Control engineering practice, Vol.
13, No. 5, pp. 641-658.
[4] Choux,M. and Hovland,G. (2010): Adaptive
backstepping control of nonlinear hydraulic
mechanical system including valve dynamic.
Journal of Modelling, Identification and
Control, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 35-44.
[5] Knight,E.; Russell,M.; Sawalka,D. and
Yendell,S. (2013): Valve modelling. In
ControlsWiki.
a
ch:
https://controls.engin.umich.edu/wiki/index.p
hp/ValveModelling.
[6] Nocedal,J. and Wright,S.J. (1996): Numerical
Optimization. Springer-New York.
[7] Phc,N.D. (2002): L thuyt iu khin
tuyn tnh. NXB KH&KT.
[8] H..Qunh, N.D.Phc, N.Q.Hng: Thit k
b iu khin d bo cho i tng van cng
nghip. Tp ch Nghin cu Khoa hc Qun
s, s 4 (2014).
[9] N.Q.Hng(ch bin), N.V (2013): L thuyt
iu khin t ng M t cc h thng iu
khin v kho st tnh n nh. NXB
KH&KT.

SUMMARY
MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROLLER DESIGN METHODS FOR INDUSTRIAL
QUICK-OPENING VALVES
This paper proposes and compares some model predictive controller design methods to
guarantee the robustness with respect to some uncertainties such as dead-time, backlash,
for a nonlinear plant namely industrial quick-opening valves. The controllers are designed
by minimizing performance indexes including the error between the reference flow and the
actual flow. The impact of uncertainty on the tracking performance is minimized. Two
different predictive models for quick-opening valves namely nonlinear model and exact
linearization model are considered. Then a numerical example with simulation results is
introduced to compare the control performances for two models and to show the
effectiveness of the proposed MPC controllers.
Keywords: Model Predictive Control, Uncertain Nonlinear Systems, Optimization, QuickOpening Valves.

Fixed point theorem using a contractive condition of rational


expression in the context of ordered partial metric spaces
Nguyen Thanh Mai
University of Science, Thainguyen University, Vietnam
E-mail: thanhmai6759@gmail.com
Abstract The purpose of this manuscript is to present a fixed point theorem using
a contractive condition of rational expression in the context of ordered partial metric
spaces.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 47H10, 47H04, 54H25
Keywords: Partial metric spaces; Fixed point; Ordered set.

Introduction and preliminaries

Partial metric is one of the generalizations of metric was introduced by Matthews[2]


in 1992 to study denotational semantics of data flow networks. In fact, partial metric
spaces constitute a suitable framework to model several distinguished examples of the
theory of computation and also to model metric spaces via domain theory [1, 4, 6, 7, 8,
11]. Recently, many researchers have obtained fixed, common fixed and coupled fixed
point results on partial metric spaces and ordered partial metric spaces [3, 5, 6, 9, 10].
In [12] Harjani et al. proved the following fixed point theorem in partially ordered
metric spaces.
Theorem 1.1. ([12]). Let (X, ) be a ordered set and suppose that there exists a
metric d in X such that (X, d) is a complete metric space. Let T : X X be a
non-decreasing mapping such that
d(T x, T y)

d(x, T x)d(y, T y)
+ d(x, y) for x, y X, x y, x 6= y,
d(x, y)

Also, assume either T is continuous or X has the property that (xn ) is a nondecreasing
sequence in X such that xn x, then x = sup{xn }. If there exists x0 X such that
x0 T x0 , then T has a fixed point.
In this paper we extend the result of Harjani, Lopez and Sadarangani [12] to the case
of partial metric spaces. An example is considered to illustrate our obtained results.
First, we recall some definitions of partial metric space and some of their properties
[2, 3, 4, 5, 10].
Definition 1.2. A partial metric on a nonempty set X is a function p : X X R+
such that for all x, y, z X :
(P1) p(x, y) = p(y, x) (symmetry);
(P2) if 0 p(x, x) = p(x, y) = p(y, y) then x = y (equality);

(P3) p(x, x) p(x, y) (small self-distances);


(P4) p(x, z) + p(y, y) p(x, y) + p(y, z) (triangularity); for all x, y, z X.
For a partial metric p on X, the function dp : X X R+ given by dp (x, y) =
2p(x, y)p(x, x)p(y, y) is a (usual) metric on X. Each partial metric p on X generates
a T0 topology p on X with a base of the family of open p-balls {Bp (x, ) : x X,  > 0},
where Bp (x, ) = {y X : p(x, y) < p(x, x) + } for all x X and  > 0.
Lemma 1.3. Let (X, p) be a partial metric space. Then
(i) A sequence {xn } is a Cauchy sequence in the PMS (X, p) if and only if {xn } is
Cauchy in a metric space (X, dp ).
(ii) A PMS (X, p) is complete if and only if a metric space (X, dp ) is complete. Moreover,
lim dp (x, xn ) = 0 p(x, x) = lim p(x, xn ) = lim p(xn , xm ).

n,m

Main Results

Theorem 2.1. Let (X, ) be a partially ordered set and suppose that there exists a
partial metric p in X such that (X, p) is a complete partial metric space. Let T : X X
be a continuous and nondecreasing mapping such that
p(T x, T y)

p(x, T x)p(y, T y)
+ p(x, y), for x, y X, x y, x 6= y,
p(x, y)

(1)

with > 0, > 0, + < 1. If there exists x0 X with x0 T x0 , then T has fixed
point z X and p(z, z) = 0.
Proof. If T x0 = x0 , then the proof is done. Suppose that x0 T x0 .
Since T is a nondecreasing mapping, we obtain by induction that
x0 T x0 T 2 x0 T n x0 T n+1 x0
Put xn+1 = T xn . If there exists n 1 such that xn+1 = xn , then from xn+1 = T xn = xn ,
xn is a fixed point. Suppose that xn+1 6= xn for n 1. That is xn and xn1 are
comparable, we get, for n 1,
p(xn+1 , xn ) = p(T xn , T xn1 )
p(xn , T xn )p(xn1 , T xn1 )

+ p(xn , xn1 )
p(xn , xn1 )
p(xn , xn+1 ) + p(xn , xn1 )
The last inequality gives us
p(xn+1 , xn ) kp(xn , xn1 ), k =

k n p(x1 , x0 ).

<1
1

p(xn+1 , xn ) k n p(x1 , x0 ).

(2)

Moreover, by the triangular inequality, we have, for m n,


p(xm , xn ) p(xm , xm1 ) + + p(xn+1 , xn )

mn1
X

p(xmk , xmk )

i=1

[k m1 + + k n ]p(x1 , x0 )
1 k mn
= kn
p(x1 , x0 )
1k
kn

p(x1 , x0 ).
1k
Hence, limn,m p(xn , xm ) = 0, that is, {xn } is a Cauchy sequence in (X, p). By Lemma
1.3, {xn } is also Cauchy in (X, dp ). In addition, since (X, p) is complete, (X, dp ) is also
complete. Thus there exists z X such that xn z in (X, dp ); moreover, by Lemma
1.3,
p(z, z) = lim p(z, xn ) = lim p(xn , xm ) = 0.
n

n,m

Given that T is continuous in (X, p). Therefore, T xn T z in (X, p).


i.e., p(T z, T z) = lim p(T z, T xn ) = lim p(T xn , T xm ).
n

n,m

But, p(T z, T z) = limn,m p(T xn , T xm ) = limn,m p(xn+1 , xm+1 ) = 0.


We will show next that z is the fixed point of T.
p(T z, z) p(T z, T xn ) + p(T xn , z) p(T xn , T xn ).
As n , we obtain p(T z, z) 0. Thus, p(T z, z) = 0.
Hence p(z, z) = p(T z, T z) = p(T z, z) = 0. Therefore, by (P2) we get T z = z and
p(z, z) = 0 which completes the proof.
In what follows we prove that Theorem 2.1 is still valid for T not necessarily continuous, assuming X has the property that
(xn ) is a nondecreasing sequence in X such that xn x,then x = sup{xn }.

(3)

Theorem 2.2. Let (X, ) be a partially ordered set and suppose that there exists a
partial metric p in X such that (X, p) is a complete partial metric space. Assume that
X satisfies (3) in (X, p). Let T : X X be a nondecreasing mapping such that
p(T x, T y)

p(x, T x)p(y, T y)
+ p(x, y), for x, y X, x y, x 6= y,
p(x, y)

(4)

with > 0, > 0, + < 1. If there exists x0 X with x0 T x0 , then T has fixed
point z X and p(z, z) = 0.
Proof. Following the proof of Theorem 2.1, we only have to check that T z = z. As
(xn ) is a nondecreasing sequence in X and xn z, then, by (3), z = sup{xn }. In
particularly, xn z for all n N.
Since T is a nondecreasing mapping, then T xn T z, for all n N or, equivalently,

xn+1 T z for all n N. Moreover, as x0 < x1 T z and z = sup{xn }, we get z T z.


Suppose that z < T z. Using a similar argument that in the proof of Theorem 2.1 for
x0 T x0 , we obtain that {T n z} is a nondecreasing sequence such that
p(y, y) = lim p(T n z, y) = lim p(T n z, T m z) = 0 for some y X.
n

m,n

(5)

By the assumption of (3) , we have y = sup{T n z}.


Moreover, from x0 z, we get xn = T n x0 T n z for n 1 and xn < T n z for n 1
because xn z < T z T n z for n 1.
As xn and T n z are comparable and distinct for n 1, applying the contractive condition we get
p(T n+1 z, xn+1 ) = p(T (T n z), T xn )
p(T n z, T n+1 z)p(xn , T xn )

+ p(T n z, xn ),
p(T n z, xn )
p(T n z, T n+1 z)p(xn , xn+1 )
+ p(T n z, xn ).
p(T n z, xn )

p(T n+1 z, xn+1 )

(6)

From limn p(xn , z) = limn p(T n z, y) = 0, we have


lim p(T n z, xn ) = p(y, z).

(7)

As, n in (6) and using that (2) and (7), we obtain


p(y, z) p(y, z).
As < 1, p(y, z) = 0. Hence p(z, z) = p(y, y) = p(y, z) = 0. Therefore, by (P2) y = z.
Particularly, y = z = sup{T n z} and, consequently, T z z and this is a contradiction.
Hence, we conclude that z = T z and p(z, z) = 0.
Example 2.3. Let X = [0, ) endowed with the usual partial metric p defined by
p : X X R+ with p(x, y) = max{x, y}, for all x, y X. We consider the ordered
relation in X as follows
x 4 y p(x, x) = p(x, y) x = max{x, y} y x
where be the usual ordering.
It is clear that (X, 4) is totally ordered. The partial metric space (X, p) is complete
because (X, dp ) is complete. Indeed, for any x, y X,
dp (x, y) = 2p(x, y) p(x, x) p(y, y) = 2 max{x, y} (x + y) = |x y|
Thus, (X, dp ) = ([0, ), |.|) is the usual metric space, which is complete.
x
Let T : X X be given by T (x) = , x 0. The function T is continuous on (X, p).
2
Indeed, let {xn } be a sequence converging to x in (X, p), then limn max{xn , x} =
limn p(xn , x) = p(x, x) = x and
lim p(T xn , T x) = lim max{T xn , T x} = lim

max{xn , x}
x
= = p(T x, T x)
2
2

(8)

that is {T (xn )} converges to T (x) in (X, p). Since xn x and by the definition T we
have, limn dp (xn , x) = 0 and
lim dp (T xn , T x) = 0.

(9)

From (8) and (9) we get T is continuous on (X, p). Any x, y X are comparable, so
for example we take x 4 y, and then p(x, x) = p(x, y), so y x. Since T (y) T (x),
so T (x) 4 T (y), giving that T is non-decreasing with respect to 4 . In particular, for
any x 4 y, we have
x
p(x, y) = x, p(T x, T y) = T x = , p(x, T x) = x, p(y, T y) = y.
2
Now we have to show that T satisfies the inequality (1) For any x, y X with x 4 y
and x 6= y, we have
x
p(x, T x)p(y, T y)
xy
p(T x, T y) = and
+ p(x, y) =
+ x.
2
p(x, y)
x
Therefore, choose 12 and + < 1, then (1) holds. All the hypotheses are satisfied,
so T has a unique fixed point in X which is 0 and p(0, 0) = 0.

References
[1] R. Heckmann, Approximation of metric spaces by partial metric spaces, Appl.
Categ. Struct. 7 (1999) 71-83.
[2] S.G. Matthews, Partial metric topology, in: Proceedings Eighth Summer Conference on General Topology and Applications, in: Ann. New York Acad. Sci.728
(1994) 183-197.
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Istit. Mat. Univ. Trieste. 36 (2004) 17-26.
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New York Acad. Sci. 806 (1996) 304-315.
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fixed point on partial metric spaces, Appl. Math. Lett. 24 (2011) 1900-1904.
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Topol. Appl. 153 (5-6) (2005) 948-962.
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Theoret. Comput. Sci. 315 (2004) 135-149.
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Appl. 62 (2011) 4449-4460.

[10] O. Valero, On Banach fixed point theorems for partial metric spaces, Appl. Gen.
Topol. 6 (2) (2005) 229-240.
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Sci. 16 (2) (2006) 359-372.
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a contractive condition of rational type on a partially ordered metric space, Abstr.
Appl. Anal. Volume 2010, Article ID 190701, 8 pages.

Tm tt
nh l im bt ng s dng mt iu kin co
trong khng gian metric c sp th t b phn
Nguyn Thanh Mai
Trng i hc Khoa hc - i hc Thi Nguyn

Bi bo ny gii thiu nh l im bt ng s dng mt iu kin co trong khng


gian metric c sp th t b phn.
T kho: Khng gian metric, im bt ng, tp c th t.

Note on common fixed point for noncommuting mappings without


continuity in cone metric spaces
Nguyen Duc Lang
University of Science, Thainguyen University, Vietnam
E-mail: nguyenduclang2002@yahoo.com
Abstract: In this work, we prove a common fixed point theorem by using the generalized distance in a cone metric space.
Keywords: Cone metric space, Common fixed point, Fixed point.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 47H10, 54H25.

Introduction

In 2007, Huang and Zhang [8] introduced the concept of the cone metric space,
replacing the set of real numbers by an ordered Banach space, and proved some fixed
point theorems of contractive type mappings in cone metric spaces. Afterward, several
fixed and common fixed point results in cone metric spaces were introduced in [1, 2, 10,
11, 14] and the references contained therein. Also, the existence of fixed and common
fixed points in partially ordered cone metric spaces was studied in [3, 4, 5, 12].
The aim of this paper is to generalize and unify the common fixed point theorems
of Abbas and Jungck [1], Hardy and Rogers [7], Huang and Zhang [8], Abbas et al. [2],
Song et al. [14], Wang and Guo [15] and Cho et al. [6] on c-distance in a cone metric
space.

Preliminaries

Lemma 2.1. ([4, 9]). Let E be a real Banach space with a cone P in E. Then, for all
u, v, w, c E, the following hold:
(p1 ) If u  v and v  w, then u  w.
(p2 ) If 0  u  c for each c intP , then u = 0.
(p3 ) If u  u where u P and 0 < < 1, then u = 0.
(p4 ) Let c intP , xn 0 and 0  xn . Then there exists positive integer n0 such that
xn  c for each n > n0 .
Lemma 2.2. ([6, 13, 15]). Let (X, d) be a cone metric space and let q be a c-distance
on X. Also, let {xn } and {yn } be sequences in X and x, y, z X. Suppose that {un }
and {vn } are two sequences in P converging to 0. Then the following hold:
(qp1 ) If q(xn , y)  un and q(xn , z)  vn for n N, then y = z. Specifically, if
q(x, y) = 0 and q(x, z) = 0, then y = z.
(qp2 ) If q(xn , yn )  un and q(xn , z)  vn for n N, then {yn } converges to z.

(qp3 ) If q(xn , xm )  un for m > n, then {xn } is a Cauchy sequence in X.


(qp4 ) If q(y, xn )  un for n N, then {xn } is a Cauchy sequence in X.

Main Results

Our main result is the following theorem. We prove a common fixed point theorem
by using c-distance and we do not require that f and g are weakly compatible. The
following theorem extends and improves Theorems 2.1 and 2.3 of [1], Theorem 2.1 of
[15] and Corollary 2.11 of [2] under generalized distance in a cone metric space.
Theorem 3.1. Let (X, d) be a cone metric space, P be a normal cone with constant
K and q be a c-distance on X. Suppose that the mappings f, g : X X satisfy the
following two contractive conditions:
q(f x, f y)  1 q(gx, gy) + 2 q(gx, f x) + 3 q(gy, f y)
+4 q(gx, f y) + 5 q(gy, f x),
q(f y, f x)  1 q(gy, gx) + 2 q(f x, gx) + 3 q(f y, gy)
+4 q(f y, gx) + 5 q(f x, gy)

(3.1)
(3.2)

for all x, y X, where i for i = 1, 2, , 5 are nonnegative constants such that


1 + 2 + 3 + 2(4 + 5 ) < 1.

(3.3)

If the range of g contains the range of f , g(X) is a complete subspace of X, f and g


satisfy
inf{kq(f x, y)k + kq(gx, y)k + kq(gx, f x)k : x X} > 0
for all y X with y =
6 f y or y 6= gy, then f and g have a common fixed point in X.
If f z = gz = z, then q(z, z) = 0.
Proof. Let x0 X be an arbitrary point. Since the range of g contains the range of
f , there exists an x1 X such that f x0 = gx1 . By induction, a sequence {xn } can be
chosen such that f xn = gxn+1 for n = 0, 1, 2, . Now, set x = xn1 and y = xn in
(3.1). Thus, by (q2 ), for any natural number n, we have
q(gxn , gxn+1 ) = q(f xn1 , f xn )
 1 q(gxn1 , gxn ) + 2 q(gxn1 , f xn1 ) + 3 q(gxn , f xn )
+4 q(gxn1 , f xn ) + 5 q(gxn , f xn1 )
= 1 q(gxn1 , gxn ) + 2 q(gxn1 , gxn ) + 3 q(gxn , gxn+1 )
+4 q(gxn1 , gxn+1 ) + 5 q(gxn , gxn )
 1 q(gxn1 , gxn ) + 2 q(gxn1 , gxn ) + 3 q(gxn , gxn+1 )
+4 [q(gxn1 , gxn ) + q(gxn , gxn+1 )]
+5 [q(gxn , gxn+1 ) + q(gxn+1 , gxn )].

(3.4)

Similarly, set x = xn1 and y = xn in (3.2). Thus, by (q2 ), for any natural number n,
we have
q(gxn+1 , gxn )  1 q(gxn , gxn1 ) + 2 q(gxn , gxn1 )
+3 q(gxn+1 , gxn ) + 4 [q(gxn+1 , gxn ) + q(gxn , gxn1 )]
+5 [q(gxn , gxn+1 ) + q(gxn+1 , gxn )].
(3.5)
Adding up (3.4) and (3.5), we get that
q(gxn , gxn+1 ) + q(gxn+1 , gxn )  (1 + 2 + 4 )[q(gxn1 , gxn )
+ q(gxn , gxn1 )] + (3 + 4 + 25 )[q(gxn , gxn+1 )
+ q(gxn+1 , gxn )].

(3.6)

Now, set vn = q(gxn , gxn+1 ) + q(gxn+1 , xn ) in (3.6). Thus, we have


vn  (1 + 2 + 4 )vn1 + (3 + 4 + 25 )vn .
So, vn  hvn1 for all n 1 with
h=

1 + 2 + 4
< 1,
1 (3 + 4 + 25 )

since 1 + 2 + 3 + 2(4 + 5 ) < 1. Repeating this process, we get vn  hn v0 for


n = 0, 1, 2, . Thus,


q(gxn , gxn+1 )  vn  hn q(gx0 , gx1 ) + q(gx1 , gx0 )
(3.7)
for all n = 0, 1, 2, . Let m > n, then it follows from (3.7) and h < 1 that
q(gxn , gxm )  q(gxn , gxn+1 ) + q(gxn+1 , gxn+2 ) + + q(gxm1 , gxm )


 (hn + hn+1 + + hm1 ) q(gx0 , gx1 ) + q(gx1 , gx0 )

hn 

q(gx0 , gx1 ) + q(gx1 , gx0 ) .
1h

(3.8)

Lemma 2.2 implies that {gxn } is a Cauchy sequence in X. Since g(X) is a complete
subspace of X, there exists a point x0 g(X) such that gxn x0 as n . By (3.8)
and (q3 )
q(gxn , x0 ) 


hn 
q(gx0 , gx1 ) + q(gx1 , gx0 ) , n = 0, 1, 2, .
1h

Since P is a normal cone with normal constant K, we get


 hn 
kq(gxn , x )k K
kq(gx0 , gx1 ) + q(gx1 , gx0 )k, n = 0, 1, 2, ,
1h
0

(3.9)

and
kq(gxn , gxm )k K

 hn 
kq(gx0 , gx1 ) + q(gx1 , gx0 )k,
1h

(3.10)

for all m > n 1. If f x0 6= x0 or gx0 6= x0 , then, by the hypothesis, (3.9) and (3.10)
with m = n + 1, we get
0 < inf{kq(f x, x0 )k + kq(gx, x0 )k + kq(gx, f x)k : x X}
inf{kq(f xn , x0 )k + kq(gxn , x0 )k + kq(gxn , f xn )k : n 1}
= inf{kq(gxn+1 , x0 )k + kq(gxn , x0 )k + kq(gxn , gxn+1 )k : n 1}
n
hn+1
inf K(
)kq(gx0 , gx1 ) + q(gx1 , gx0 )k
1h
hn
+K(
)kq(gx0 , gx1 ) + q(gx1 , gx0 )k
1h
o
hn
+K(
)kq(gx0 , gx1 ) + q(gx1 , gx0 )k : n 1 = 0.
1h
which is a contradiction. Hence x0 = f x0 = gx0 . Also, suppose that f z = gz = z. Then,
by (3.1) we have
q(z, z) = q(f z, f z)
 1 q(gz, gz) + 2 q(gz, f z) + 3 q(gz, f z) + 4 q(gz, f z) + 5 q(gz, f z)
= (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 )q(z, z).
Since 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 < 1 + 2 + 3 + 2(4 + 5 ) < 1 , we get that q(z, z) = 0
by Lemma 2.1(p3 ). This completes the proof.

References
[1] M. Abbas, G. Jungck, Common fixed point results for noncommuting mappings
without continuity in cone metric spaces, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 341 (2008) 416-420.
[2] M. Abbas, B.E. Rhoades, T. Nazir, Common fixed points for four maps in cone
metric spaces, Appl. Math. Comput. 216 (2010) 80-86.
[3] M. Abbas, W. Sintunavarat, P. Kumam, Coupled fixed point in partially ordered
G-metric spaces, Fixed Point Theory and Appl 2012, doi:10.1186/1687-1812-201231.
[4] I. Altun, B. Damnjanovic, D. Djoric, Fixed point and common fixed point theorems
on ordered cone metric spaces, Appl. Math. Lett. 23 (2010) 310-316.
[5] I. Altun, G. Durmaz, Some fixed point theorems on ordered cone metric spaces,
Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo 58 (2009) 319-325.
[6] Y.J. Cho, R. Saadati, S.H. Wang, Common fixed point theorems on generalized
distance in ordered cone metric spaces, Comput. Math. Appl. 61 (2011) 1254-1260.
[7] G.E. Hardy, T.D. Rogers, A generalization of a fixed point theorem of Reich,
Canad. Math. Bull.1 6 (1973) 201-206.
[8] L.G. Huang, X. Zhang, Cone metric spaces and fixed point theorems of contractive
mappings, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 332 (2007) 1467-1475.

[9] D. Ilic, V. Rakocevic, Quasi-contraction on a cone metric space, Appl. Math. Lett.
22 (2009) 728-731.
[10] S. Jankovic, Z. Kadelburg, S. Radenovic, On cone metric spaces, a survey. Nonlinear Anal. 74 (2011) 2591-2601.
[11] S. Rezapour, R. Hamlbarani, Some note on the paper cone metric spaces and fixed
point theorems of contractive mappings, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 345 (2008) 719-724.
[12] W. Shatanawi, Partially ordered cone metric spaces and coupled fixed point results, Comput. Math. Appl. 60 (2010) 2508-2515.
[13] W. Sintunavarat, Y.J. Cho, P. Kumam, Common fixed point theorems for cdistance in ordered cone metric spaces, Comput. Math. Appl. 62 (2011) 1969-1978.
[14] G. Song, X. Sun, Y. Zhao, G. Wang, New common fixed point theorems for maps
on cone metric spaces, Appl. Math. Lett. 23 (2010) 1033-1037.
[15] S. Wang, B. Guo, Distance in cone metric spaces and common fixed point theorems, Appl. Math. Lett. 24 (2011) 1735-1739.

Tm tt
im bt ng chung cho cc nh x khng giao hon, khng lin tc
trong khng gian metric nn
Nguyn c Lng
Trng i hc Khoa hc - i hc Thi Nguyn

Trong bi bo ny chng ti chng minh mt nh l im bt ng chung bng


cch s dng khong cch m rng trong khng gian metric nn.
T kho: Khng gian metric nn, im bt ng chung, im bt ng.

122 (08)
o soT
Nm

2014

Tp ch Khoa hc v Cng ngh

Journal of Science and Technology


NATURAL SCIENCE - TECHNOLOGY
Content

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179