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Contents

Part I. GROUP
Chapter 1. Group
1.1.

Group

3
3

1.2. Group

1.3.

Subgroup

1.4. subgroup

1.5. subgroups

11

Chapter 2. Group

13

2.1.

13

2.2.

14

Lagranges Theorem

2.3. order

16

2.4.

Normal Subgroups Quotient Groups

17

2.5.

Group Homomorphisms

20

2.6. Isomorphism

23

2.7.

27

Correspondence Theorem

Chapter 3. Groups

31

3.1.

Cyclic Groups

31

3.2.

Direct Product

33

3.3.

Finite Abelian Groups

38

3.4.

The Symmetric Group

46
vii

viii

Contents

Chapter 4. Group

67

4.1.

Group Action

67

4.2.

Cauchys Theorem

70

4.3. p-Group

72

4.4.

First Sylows Theorem

75

4.5.

Second Sylows Theorem

78

4.6.

Third Sylows Theorem

80

4.7.

Sylow

83

Part II. RING


Chapter 5. Ring
5.1.

Ring

89
89

5.2. Ring

90

5.3.

Zero Divisor Unit

92

5.4.

Subring

94

5.5. Noncommutative Ring


Chapter 6. Ring

96
101

6.1.

Ideals Quotient Rings

101

6.2.

Subring Ideal

103

6.3.

Ring Homomorphism Correspondence

106

6.4. Ring Isomorphism

109

6.5. Commutative Ring with 1 Ideals

112

Chapter 7. Rings

119

7.1.

The Ring of Integers

119

7.2.

Ring of Polynomials over a Field

123

7.3.

Polynomials over the Integers

130

7.4.

Quotient Field of an Integral Domain

139

Integral Domain

143

Chapter 8.
8.1.

Divisor

143

8.2.

Euclidean Domain

147

8.3.

Principle Ideal Domain

148

8.4.

Unique Factorization Domain

152

Contents

ix

Part III. FIELD


Chapter 9. Field

165

9.1.

Field

165

9.2.

Field Characteristic

167

9.3.

171

9.4.

175

Extension Field

Chapter 10. Field

179

10.1.

Algebraic Elements

179

10.2.

Algebraic Closure

183

10.3.

Roots of Polynomials

186

10.4.

Finite Fields

189

Part I

GROUP

Chapter 1

Group

group ,
group .

1.1. Group
S

a, b S a b S. closed.
closed, closed.
, a b S
S . .
a b c
a b c (a b) c b c a
a (b c). .
.
a a a a (a a) (a a) a .
a (b c) = (a b) c. a b c d
a (b (c d)), (a b) (c d) ((a b) c) d ,
. a (b c) = (a b) c associative law.
()
. (,
.) semigroup.
semigroup. , .
identity.
e , a, a e e a a.
3

1. Group

e , a,
b a b = b a = e. a
inverse. e a a,
b a , a b inverse.
a1 a inverse.

group.
Definition 1.1.1. G
group.
(GP1): a, b G a b G.
(GP2): a, b, c G (a b) c = a (b c).
(GP3): G e G g g e = e g = g.
(GP4): G g G g 0 g g 0 = g 0 g = e.
Remark 1.1.2. group,
group. Z group,
group. group
G group.
.
group. Z group,
0 identity, n, n inverse. Z
group. 1 identity
inverse, 2 Z 2 1.
Q group. , 0 Q
0 inverse. 0 ,
group. 0
, . (GP1) closed
, 0 0 .
, a b = b a , group
. group.
group abelian group
group nonabelian group.
Definition 1.1.3. G group a, b G a b = b a,
G abelian group.
Group . group
. group .

1.2. Group

Definition 1.1.4. G group , G


finite group G n, G order n group.
|G| = n .
finite group.

1.2. Group
Group ,
. group
(GP1) (GP4) ,
group .
group . .
.
group (GP3) identity,
e . something is wrong.
identity . ,
(GP3) , .
,
.
, .
(GP3) .
, .
,
.
.
.
. e e0 G
identity , e e0
Proposition 1.2.1. G group, G identity
.
Proof. e e0 G identity , e e0 .
e identity e e0 = e0 . e0 identity e e0 = e.
e = e0 , e 6= e0 , G identity.
e e0 , (GP3) identity
a G e a = a ( a e = a) identity
. identity e a = a a e = a.

1. Group

G a, inverse
,
Proposition 1.2.2. G group, G a, G
b a b = b a = e.
Proof. G b b0 a inverse . ab = ba = e
a b0 = b0 a = e.
b = b e = b (a b0 ) = (b a) b0 = e b0 = b0
b 6= b0 , .

(GP2) (GP3), inverse


identity. inverse a b = e ( b a = e)
inverse . b a inverse,
a b = e b a = e.
Proposition 1.2.2, a a1 inverse.
group Propositions
Theorem 1.2.3. G group, G a b, a x = b
G . , y a = b G .
Proof. .
, G c a c = b.
c = a1 b, a1 G b G, (GP1) c G. ,
a c = a (a1 b) = (a a1 ) b = b
c a x = b G .
,
a1

a1 b .
a1 b. .
, .
c c0 G a x = b , a c = a c0
a1 (a c) = a1 (a c0 ). a1 (a c) = (a1 a) c = c
a1 (a c0 ) = (a1 a) c0 = c0 c = c0 . c 6= c0 , .

Remark 1.2.4. , G group G


a G identity, g G g a = a g = g.
G group, Theorem 1.2.3 : a G
identity, G b a b = b ( b a = b) .
G g g a = a g = g.

1.3. Subgroup

Theorem 1.2.3
Corollary 1.2.5. G group, G a b,
(a1 )1 = a

and

(a b)1 = b1 a1 .

Proof. (a1 )1 a1 x = e, x = a ,
Theorem 1.2.3 (a1 )1 = a.
(a b)1 (a b) x = e, x = b1 a1 ,
Theorem 1.2.3 (a b)1 = b1 a1 .

1.3. Subgroup
group , ,
. group
, .
, group
. group group .
subgroup. subgroup
group. subgroup .
subgroup .
Definition 1.3.1. group G, G H G
group, H G subgroup.
, G .
subgroup {1, 1}
group, group
subgroup.
group G, subgroup: G ,
identity . subgroup ,
trivial subgroups, subgroup nontrivial proper subgroups.
group nontrivial proper subgroups.
, group H G
subgroup group (GP1) (GP4) .
subgroup H identity G identity.
H a, H identity a x = x a = a. Theorem 1.2.3,
G a x = a ( x a = a), G identity
, H identity G identity. (GP4) H
a H a inverse. Theorem 1.2.3 a H

1. Group

inverse a G inverse.
subgroup .
Definition 1.3.2. group G, G H G

(SGP1): a, b H a b H.
(SGP2): a, b, c H (a b) c = a (b c).
(SGP3): G identity e H.
(SGP4): H h G inverse h1 H.
H G subgroup.
H G subgroup (SGP1) (SGP4)
. G (GP2), H G, H
(SGP2). (SGP3) . H
, H a. (SGP4) a H a1 H
(SGP1) a H a1 H e = a a1 H, (SGP3) (SGP1)
(SGP4) . ,
Lemma 1.3.3. group G, H G . H G
subgroup H G
(1) a, b H a b H.
(2) a H a1 H.
subgroup .
; !
Lemma 1.3.4. group G, H G . H G
subgroup G a, b H, a b1 H.
Proof. ( trivial ) : H G subgroup, a, b H,
b H, (SGP4) b1 H. a H b1 H, (SGP1)
a b1 H. .
() : H a b H
(SGP1) (SGP4) . Lemma 1.3.3 (SGP1)
(SGP4) , (SGP3)
(SGP4) (SGP1). e H: , H
a H, a H b = a , b H.
e = a a1 = a b1 H.

1.4. subgroup

e H, b H a = e H,
a b1 H
a b1 = e b1 = b1 H.
(GP4). c, d H, d1 H.
a = c b = d1 , a, b H. a b1 H.
a b1 = c (d1 )1 = c d H. (SGP1), H G
subgroup.

: H a, b H a1 b H,
H G subgroup.
finite group case. finite group
subgroup .
:
Proposition 1.3.5. finite group G, H G .
H G subgroup G H closed.
Proof. H G closed H G subgroup.
Lemma 1.3.3, H G closed, H G
subgroup a H a1 H . a H,
H G closed, a2 = a a H, a3 = a a2 H, ....
n N, an H. G , H
G , H . {a, a2 , a3 , . . . an , . . . }
H . m n
an = am . , m > n. (an )1 , amn = e.
m n = 1, a = e, a1 = e = a H. m n > 1,
m n 1 N. amn1 H. amn = e amn1 a = a amn1 = e.
a1 = amn1 H.

1.4. subgroup
group subgroup group.
group trivial subgroup subgroup ?
group nontrivial proper subgroup (),
nontrivial proper subgroup .
G group a G, a subgroup.
a2 , a3 , . . . , an , . . . subgroup , a1 , (a2 )1 , . . . , (an )1 , . . .
, e . Corollary 1.2.5, (an )1 = (a1 )n ,
:
hai := {an | n N} {(a1 )m | m N} {e}.

1. Group

10

Lemma 1.3.3 ( Lemma 1.3.4) hai G subgroup.


hai the cyclic subgroup of G generated by a. , a = e
hai = {e} trivial subgroup. a hai = G,
G cyclic group. group G
a G hai = G.
Example 1.4.1. . ,
group , a2 = a a a a
, a3 ... . Z group.
h2i subgroup ? 2, 4 = 2 + 2, 6 = 2 + 2 + 2, ...(
, 2, 4 = 22 , 8 = 23 ,...) 2, 4, 6, ... .
group 2 cyclic subgroup .
2 subgroup. 1 cyclic
subgroup Z Z cyclic group.
, group , ab ba. ae = ea = a
identity . ,
. a G,
C(a) = {g G | g a = a g}.
G a . the centralizer of a.
a G, C(a) G subgroup. the centralizer of
identity C(e) G .
Proposition 1.4.2. G group a G, C(a) G subgroup.
Proof. Lemma 1.3.3, : g1 , g2 C(a) g1 g2 C(a)
g11 C(a). g1 , g2 C(a) g1 a = a g1 g2 a = a g2 .
(g1 g2 ) a = g1 (g2 a) = g1 (a g2 ) = (g1 a) g2 = (a g1 ) g2 = a (g1 g2 ).
g1 g2 C(a). , g1 a = a g1 , g11 .
(g1 a) g11 = a. g11 . a g11 = g11 a.
g11 C(a).

subgroup
Z(G) = {g G | g x = x g, x G}.
Z(G) G center. C(a) G a
, Z(G) G .

Z(G) =

\
aG

C(a).

1.5. subgroups

11

C(a) G subgroup Z(G) G subgroup.


Z(G) G
subgroup.

1.5. subgroups
subgroup. subgroups
subgroups subgroup .
Lemma 1.5.1. H1 , H2 G subgroups, H1 H2 G subgroup.
Proof. . x, y H1 H2 , x, y H1 H1
subgroup, x y H1 . x y H2 . x y H1 H2 .
inverse . x H1 H2 , x H1 H1 subgroup,
x1 H1 . x1 H2 . x1 H1 H2 .

Lemma 1.5.1
. H1 H2 subgroup. Z , 2Z 3Z
subgroups subgroup. 2 2Z 3Z 3 2Z 3Z
2 + 3 = 5 6 2Z 3Z.
Lemma 1.5.1 subgroups subgroup,
subgroups subgroup. subgroups
subgroup. C(a) subgroup Z(G) = aG C(a)
subgroup.
G a subgroup H,
a1 H a = {a1 h a | h H}
( G abelian H = a1 H a).
Lemma 1.5.2. a G H G subgroup, a1 H a G
subgroup. H finite group, |H| = |a1 H a|.
Proof. x1 , x2 a1 H a, h1 , h2 H x1 = a1 h1 a
x2 = a1 h2 a.
x1 x2 = (a1 h1 a) (a1 h2 a) = a1 (h1 h2 ) a.
h1 h2 H, x1 x2 a1 Ha. .
x a1 H a, h H x = a1 h a.
x1 = (a1 h a)1 = a1 h1 (a1 )1 = a1 h1 a.
h1 H x1 a1 H a.

12

1. Group

H G finite subgroup, |H| = |a1 H a|.


, 1-1
onto . a G, f H a1 H a ,
: h H, f (h) = a1 h a. f (h) a1 H a.
f 1-1, h 6= h0 f (h) 6= f (h0 ). (
, .) f (h) = f (h0 ), a1 h a = a1 h0 a,
h = h0 . h 6= h0 , f (h) 6= f (h0 ). f onto,
a1 H a y, H x f (x) = y.
, y a1 H a h H y = a1 h a, x = h, f (x) = y.
|H| = |a1 H a|.

Chapter 2

Group

group , Lagranges Theorem,


Cauchys Theorem for abelian groups isomorphism theorems.

2.1.
. ,
; ;
, .
equivalence relation. equivalence relation
.
Definition 2.1.1. S a b a b ,
equivalence relation:
(equiv1): a S, a a (reflexivity).
(equiv2): a b, b a (symmetry).
(equiv3): a b b c, a c (transitivity).
(equiv2) : a b b a.
(equiv3) a a. (equiv1) ? (equiv1)
S a a a. (equiv2) (equiv3),
S a S b a b, a
a a . . equivalence relation
().
equivalence relation ? (equiv1)
. (equiv2) (equiv3)
; b A B , A
a b a b B c b b c.
13

2. Group

14

(equiv2) (equiv3) a c. A B
. A B
? .
Lemma.
Lemma 2.1.2. S , equivalence relation
C1 , . . . , Cn . |S| |Ci | ,
|S| =

n
X

|Ci |.

i=1

Proof. (equiv2) (equiv3) : i 6= j , Ci Cj = .


Ci . (equiv1) S
Ci , S C1 , . . . , Cn .

Lemma 2.1.2 group ? H group G subgroup,


H G .
equivalence relation, Lemma 2.1.2 G .
H equivalence relation ? a b a1 b H.
a1 b H, a b . equivalence
relation ? :
, G a, a1 a = e, H subgroup e H.
a1 a H. a a. (equiv1).
, a b, a1 b H. H subgroup, a1 b H

(a1 b)1 = b1 (a1 )1 = b1 a H.


b a. (equiv2).
, a b b c, a1 b H b1 c H. subgroup
(SGP1),
(a1 b) (b1 c) = a1 c H.
a c, (equiv3).
equivalence relation. Lemma 2.1.2, G
finite group, , G
.

2.2. Lagranges Theorem


Lagrange finite group subgroup .
, ,
.

2.2. Lagranges Theorem

15

Lemma 2.2.1. G group, H subgroup. a1 b H a


b (a b) G , a
a H = {a h | h H}.
H finite subgroup, a H
.
Proof. a b , a b. a1 b = h h H. b = a h a H.
, b a H, H h b = a h. a1 b = h H.
a b .

1-1 onto . a a H,
H a H 1-1 onto . h H,
f (h) = a h. f : H a H H a H
. y a H, h H y = a h.
f (h) = y, f onto. h 6= h0 H , f (h) = a h
f (h0 ) = a h0 a H . a h = a h0 ,
a1 , h = h0 h 6= h0 . f ,
H a H .

G finite group H subgroup, G order n,


H order m. H G k ,
Lemma 2.2.1 m , Lemma 2.1.2 G n = m k.
Lagranges Theorem.
Theorem 2.2.2 (Lagrange). G finite group H subgroup,
G order n, H order m, m | n.
: Lagranges Theorem
. ! G order n, m | n,
G subgroup H H order m. : Lagranges Theorem
G finite group. G , H
. H order , .
Lagranges Theorem ,
.
Corollary 2.2.3. G finite group order p, p .
G cyclic group, G identity generates
G.

2. Group

16

Proof. : G cyclic group a generates G a cyclic


group hai G. a identity, hai order 1, hai
e a . Lagranges Theorem (2.2.2) |hai| |G| = p
. p , 1 p. |hai| = p. hai
G subgroup , hai = G.

2.3. order
group order . group a,
cyclic group hai order a order. ord(a). G
group a G, Lagranges Theorem ord(a) | |G|. G
order G order , .
Lemma order.
Lemma 2.3.1. a group G , e G identity. n N
an = e, ord(a) = n.
Proof. n an = e hai n .
hai = {e, a, a2 , . . . , an1 }. hai ak , k Z
. : n > 1 , h r k = h n + r,
0 r < n.
ak = ahn+r = (an )h ar = e ar = ar .
an = e hai ar , 0 r < n ,
hai = {e, a, a2 , . . . , an1 }. hai n ,
. 0 i < j < n , ai 6= aj .
n . 0 i < j < n ai = aj , aji = aj ai = e.
j i N n > j i. n an = e . aj 6= ai .
hai order n.

a order n. n an = e m N
am = e, m n. m n .
Lemma 2.3.2. a group G . am = e, ord(a) | m.
Proof. ord(a) = n. , h r, 0 r < n
m = n h + r.
am = anh ar = e ar = ar .
ar = e. r 6= 0, r n ar = e.
Lemma 2.3.1 . r = 0; n m.

2.4. Normal Subgroups Quotient Groups

17

, am = e n | m n
an = e. Lemma 2.3.1 Lemma 2.3.2, ord(a) = n ,
:
(1) an = e.
(2) am = e n | m.
Proposition ,
order .
Proposition 2.3.3. a group G . ord(a) = n,
i,
n
ord(ai ) =
.
gcd(i, n)
Proof. , d = gcd(i, n). ord(ai ) = n/d,
(ai )n/d = e. d i , i/d . n a
order, an = e. (ai )n/d = (an )i/d = e.
, (ai )m = e (n/d) | m. (ai )m = e, ami = e.
Lemma 2.3.2, n | mi. d n i . n/d
i/d . n | mi (n/d) | m(i/d). n/d i/d ,
(n/d) | m.

Lagranges Theorem . G finite group, a G,


Lagranges Theorem (2.2.2) : hai order G order.
a order m, G order n, r N n = m r. a
order m, Lemma 2.3.1 am = e. an = amr = (am )r = e.
.
Corollary 2.3.4. G finite group, order n. a G G
. an = e.

2.4. Normal Subgroups Quotient Groups


H G subgroup , a1 b H G .
,
G . G ,
G . ?
a G, a a . a b ?
a b. a b
a b . , H .
H .

2. Group

18

a a0 , b b0 ; a1 a0 = h1 H b1 b0 = h2 H.
a0 b0 = (a h1 ) (b h2 ). a b a0 b0 ?
(a b)1 (a0 b0 ) H?

(a b)1 (a0 b0 ) = (b1 a1 ) (a h1 ) (b h2 ) = (b1 h1 b) h2 .


a b a0 b0 , (b1 h1 b) h2 H. h2 H,
b1 h1 b H. , a a0 b b0
, b G , h1 H .
:
Definition 2.4.1. H G subgroup H a G h H
a1 h a H. H G normal subgroup.
G .
a a1 , normal (a1 )1 h a1 = a h a1 H.
a h a1 H , .
.
Remark 2.4.2. group normal ,
group normal . ,
: groups, N , H, G, N H G.
(1) N G normal subgroup, N H normal subgroup.
n N, h H, h G , N G normal
h1 n h N .
(2) N H normal, N G normal. G
H . g G g 1 n g N .
(3) H G normal, N G H normal.
n N n H. , H G normal,
g 1 n g H, N .
(4) N H normal H G normal, N
G normal. (2), (3) .
normal. N G normal a G,
a1 N a N . . normal subgroup
: a G, a1 N a = N . .
a G, a1 N a N . a
a1
N = a (a1 N a) a1 a N a1 .

2.4. Normal Subgroups Quotient Groups

19

N = a N a1 , a1 N a = N .
group N G normal subgroup , aN a1
N , N G normal , a N a1 = N
. !
N G normal subgroup, : g G,
n N n0 N g n = n0 g ( n00 N n g = g n00 ).
G abelian, n0 = n ( n00 = n) , . :
Lemma 2.4.3. G abelian group , subgroup normal subgroup.
normal subgroup . G
group G. subgroup N
N G ,
G . Lagrange
, G finite group N G |G|/|N | .
|G|/|N | . N G normal subgroup ,
. a a
, b b , a b = a b. (
normal subgroup well defined. a
b a b .)
group . group the quotient group of G by N (
factor group), : G/N .
(GP1): a, b G/N , ab G a b G/N . ab G/N .
(GP2): (a b) c = a (b c).
(a b) c = a b c = (a b) c,

a (b c) = a b c = a (b c)
(a b) c = a (b c) .
(GP3): G/N identity ? e G identity,
a G/N . a e = a e = a. e a = e a = a. e
G/N identity.
(GP4): a G/N a inverse ?
a1 . a a1 = a a1 = e. a1 a = e. a1
a inverse. (a)1 = a1 .
Example 2.4.4. Quotient group .
group quotient group. 5Z Z normal subgroup (
Z abelian). Z/5Z the quotient group of Z by 5Z. Z/5Z

2. Group

20

? 5Z 1 ? n Z
1 (n)1 5Z. ! +, n1
n. 1 1 n 5N. 5 1
. Z/5Z {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} . 0, 5
, identity. congruence.

2.5. Group Homomorphisms


function.
. groups group ,
. group homomorphism.
Definition 2.5.1. G, G0 groups : G G0 G G0 .
a, b G (a b) = (a) (b), group
homomorphism.
: a, b G, ab G ; (a), (b) G0 ,
(a) (b) G0 . : G G0 group homomorphism
G G0 . Lemma
. group homomorphism identity identity,
inverse inverse.
Lemma 2.5.2. G G0 groups e e0 identity.
G G0 group homomorphism, :
(1) (e) = e0 .
(2) a G, (a1 ) = (a)1 .
Proof. Theorem 1.2.3 : (e) G0 identity, G0
b b (e) = b ( g G0
g (e) = g). b = (e) G0 . ,
b (e) = (e) (e) = (e e) = (e) = b.
(e) G0 identity.
(a1 ) (a) inverse, (a1 ) (a) = e0 .

(a1 ) (a) = (a1 a) = (e) = e0 .


(a1 ) = (a)1 .

: ();
( 0 ). group homomorphism
. image; kernel .

2.5. Group Homomorphisms

21

Definition 2.5.3. : G G0 group homomorphism,


im() = {(a) G0 | a G}
image.
ker() = {a G | (a) = e0 },
kernel.
im() G0 , ker() G .
.
Lemma 2.5.4. : G G0 group homomorphism, im() G0
subgroup, ker() G normal subgroup.
Proof. im() ker() G0 G subgroup.
Lemma 1.3.4 .
(a), (b) im(), a, b G, Lemma 2.5.2 (b)1 = (b1 ).

(a) (b)1 = (a) (b1 ) = (a b1 ).


a b1 G, (a) (b)1 im(). a, b ker(), (a) = (b) = e0 ,

(a b1 ) = (a) (b)1 = e0 e0 = e0 .
a b1 ker(). im() ker() G0 G
subgroup.
ker() G normal subgroup. :
g G, g ker() g 1 ker(). : a ker(),
g a g 1 ker().
(g a g 1 ) = (g) (a) (g 1 ).
(a) = e0 (g 1 ) = (g)1 ,
(g a g 1 ) = (g) e0 (g)1 = e0 .
g a g 1 ker().

Definition 2.5.5. : G G0 group homomorphism:


(1) onto, epimorphism.
(2) 1-1, monomorphism.
(3) 1-1 onto, isomorphism.
im() epimorphism. im() = G0 ,
onto, epimorphism. ker() monomorphism.

2. Group

22

Lemma 2.5.6. : G G0 group homomorphism,


monomorphism ker() = {e}.
Proof. monomorphism ( 1-1). g ker(), Lemma 2.5.2
(g) = (e) = e0 . g 6= e, 1-1 (g) 6= (e). g = e,
ker() = {e}.
, ker() = {e}. g1 6= g2 (g1 ) = (g2 ),
(g1 g21 ) = (g1 ) (g2 )1 = e0 .
g1 g21 ker(). g1 g21 = e, g1 = g2 , g1 6= g2
. g1 6= g2 (g1 ) 6= (g2 ). 1-1 .

: group homomorphism 1-1,


kernel identity . , group
homomorphism . kernel
identity 1-1. group homomorphism.
f : R R , x = 0
f (x) = 0 f (x) 1-1.
groups .
groups. groups
? groups G G0 group homomorphism
isomorphism ( 1-1 onto), G G0 group isomorphic,
: G ' G0 . group. :
1-1 onto G G0 , group homomorphism
group , group.
finite group groups isomorphic
order ( ) . groups order
isomorphic. groups order
isomorphic.
infinite group ; .
, group subgroup isomorphic.
:
Example 2.5.7. Z group, 2Z
subgroup. : Z 2Z group homomorphism : (n) = 2n.
isomorphism. Z 2Z isomorphic.
Z nontrivial subgroup Z isomorphic.
infinite group ,
finite group .

2.6. Isomorphism

23

: G G0 isomorphic G G0
isomorphism. G G0 homomorphism isomorphism.
G G0 isomorphic ,
G G0 homomorphism 1-1 onto G G0
isomorphism. !

2.6. Isomorphism
G G0 isomorphic ,
isomorphism .
G ' G0 isomorphism. ! ,
. isomorphism .
Theorem 2.6.1 (First Isomorphism Theorem). : G G0 group
homomorphism,
G/ ker() ' im().
Proof. : : G G0 group homomorphism, Lemma
2.5.4 im() G0 subgroup, ker() G normal subgroup.
, G/ ker() quotient group im() group
. group homomorphism, 1-1
onto.
G/ ker() im() ,
? ! .
, :
: G/ ker() im();

a 7 (a), a G/ ker().

a (a) . group
homomorphism. (well defined function) ?
:(1) ;
(2) : . (1)
O.K. . ( G/ ker()) a ,
a G. a (a). (a) im() . (2)
. G/ ker() G
. G a, b a b G/ ker()
. , (a) = (b). a 6= b,
a = b a b ker() subgroup . a b
a1 b ker(). (a1 b) = e0 . group homomorphism
,
(a)1 (b) = (a1 b) = e0 .

2. Group

24

(a), (a) = (b). well defined


function.
group homomorphism: , G/ ker()
: a b = a b. a, b G/ ker(),
(a b) = (a b) = (a b).
group homomorphism,
(a b) = (a) (b) = (a) (b).
, (a b) = (a) (b).
onto : y im(), x G
y = (x). x G/ ker() (x) = (x) = y.
onto.
group homomorphism, Lemma 2.5.6: ker()
G/ ker() identity. G/ ker() identity e. x ker(),
(x) = e0 , e0 G0 identity. : (x) = (x), x ker().
G ker() x e ( e1 x = x ker()).
G/ ker() x = e.
: G/ ker() im() isomorphism.
G/ ker() ' im().

onto. im() = G0 .
:
Corollary 2.6.2. : G G0 group epimorphism,
G/ ker() ' G0 .
First Isomorphism Theorem ? group G, N
normal subgroup. group G0 G/N isomorphic .
G/N G0 isomorphism. G G0
epimorphism, , ker() = N . First Isomorphism Theorem
G/N ' G0 .
isomorphism First Isomorphism Theorem
! group G, H, N G subgroups, :
H N = {h n | h H, n N }.
H N G H N G . G
subgroup ! . H N , h n h0 n0 ,
h, h0 H, n, n0 N . (h n) (h0 n0 ) H

2.6. Isomorphism

25

N . H N G normal subgroup,
H N G subgroup . Lemma !
Lemma 2.6.3. H G subgroup N G normal subgroup.
H N = N H G subgroup.
Proof. N G normal subgroup, H G, h H n N ,
h n h1 N . n0 N h n h1 = n0 . h n = n0 h.
H N N H. N H H N .
, . n00 N
h0 n0 = n00 h0
(h n) (h0 n0 ) = (h n) (n00 h0 ) = h (n n00 ) h0 .
n n00 N , n
N (n n00 ) h0 = h0 n
.
(h n) (h0 n0 ) = (h h0 ) n
H N.
: h n H N ,
(h n)1 = n1 h1 N H.
N H = H N , (h n)1 H N .

isomorphism ?
Theorem 2.6.4 (Second Isomorphism Theorem). H G subgroup N
G normal subgroup. H N H normal subgroup,
H/(H N ) ' (H N )/N.
Proof. H N H normal subgroup, ,
first isomorphism , normal subgroup .
quotient group (H N )/N . group N
H N normal, N H N normal ?
trivial . H identity n N
n = e n H N . N H N . H H N subgroup.
normal? N G normal, g H N G
g N g 1 = N .
first isomorphism ? quotient group
group isomorphism , quotient group normal
subgroup. : (1) H (H N )/N homomorphism;
(2) H N H/(H N ) homomorphism. ? (1) !
(2) H N H normal . H

2. Group

26

(H N )/N homomorphism H N H/(H N ) homomorphism


. ( ? !)
H (H N )/N ! H H N subgroup,
H H N : H
H N . : H H N (h) = h. N H N normal,
H N N . : H N (H N )/N
g H N (g) = g. ,
= : H (H N )/N,
h H
(h) = ((h)) = h.
group homomorphism. ( well defined,
h h .
.) h, h0 H,
(h h0 ) = h h0 = h h0 = (h) (h0 ).
onto. H N h n, h H, n N .
(H N )/N h n. h n = h n.
N N identity . n = e. h n = h.
(H N )/N h n h H (h) = h = h n.
onto.
H (H N )/N epimorphism, First Isomorphism
Theorem (Corollary 2.6.2)
H/ ker() ' (H N )/N.
ker() ? ker() H h (h) (H N )/N
identity, e. (h) = h = e. (H N )/N N ,
h = e h e , e1 h = h N . ker()
H N ; ker() H N . a H N , a N
(a) = a = e. H N ker(). ker() = H N . Lemma
2.5.4 H N H normal subgroup First Isomorphism Theorem
H/(H N ) ' (H N )/N.

First Isomorphism Theorem .


isomorphism !

2.7. Correspondence Theorem

27

Theorem 2.6.5 (Third Isomorphism Theorem). : G G0 group


epimorphism. N 0 G0 normal subgroup.
N = {a G | (a) N 0 }.
N G normal subgroup
G/N ' G0 /N 0 .
Proof. : G0 G0 /N 0 G0 N 0 .
= : G G0 /N 0 . (a) = (a), a G.
group homomorphism
(a b) = (a b) = (a) (b) = (a) (b) = (a) (b).
G G0 /N 0 group homomorphism.
G0 /N 0 g g G0 . onto,
a G (a) = g.
(a) = (a) = g.
onto. (, onto
onto onto.)
: G G0 /N 0 epimorphism, First Isomorphism
Theorem
G/ ker() ' G0 /N 0 .
ker() ? a ker() (a) = (a) = e0 , e0 G0 identity.
(a) e0 N 0 . (a) N 0 . N
, a N . ker() N . a N , (a) N 0 G0 /N
(a) = (a) = e0 , a ker(). N ker(). ker() = N N
G normal subgroup.

2.7. Correspondence Theorem


group homomorphism group . group
. Correspondence Theorem .
Theorem 2.7.1 (Correspondence Theorem). : G G0 group epimorphism. H 0 G0 subgroup
H = {a G | (a) H 0 },
H G subgroup H ker().
(H) = {(a) | a H},

2. Group

28

(H) = H 0
H/ ker() ' H 0 .
H 0 G0 normal subgroup. H G normal
subgroup.
Proof. H subgroup of G. a, b H, a b H
a1 H. a, b H (a) H 0 (b) H 0 , (a) (b) H 0 .
group homomorphism, (a b) = (a) (b). (a b) H 0 ,
a b H. (a) H 0 (a)1 H 0 , (a1 ) = (a)1 ,
(a1 ) H 0 . a1 H . ( group
homomorphism, onto.)
a ker(), (a) = e0 . e0 G0 identity H 0 G0 subgroup,
e0 H 0 . (a) H 0 , a H. ker() H. (
epimorphism.)
(H) = H 0 . (H) H 0 . (H) (a)
, a H. a H, (a) H 0 . (H) H 0
. H 0 (H) ; .
b H 0 a G (a) = b. onto
. onto b G0 , a G (a) = b.
b H 0 b G0 a G (a) = b. (a) = b H 0 ,
a H . b = (a) (H), H 0 (H).
H 0 = (H).
(H) = H 0 H H onto H 0 .
G group homomorphism, H group
homomorphism. H kernel ?
ker() H . ker() H. ker() H
ker() H = ker(). First Isomorphism Theorem
H/ ker() ' H 0 .
Theorem 2.6.5 : H 0 G0 normal H G normal.
( onto.) a H
g G g a g 1 H. g a g 1 H
H 0 .
(g a g 1 ) = (g) (a) (g)1 .
(g) G0 , (a) H 0 H 0 G0 normal subgroup,
(g) (a) (g)1 H 0 .
(g a g 1 ) H 0 , g a g 1 H. H G normal subgroup.

2.7. Correspondence Theorem

29

(H) = H 0 H/ ker() ' H 0 onto ,


onto .
Remark 2.7.2. Correspondence Theorem : G G0 epimorphism, G0 subgroup H 0 G subgroup H
(H) = H 0 , ker() H. G (H) = H 0 ker() H
subgroup . G subgroup N (N ) = H 0 ker() N .
a N , (a) (N ) = H 0 , (H) = H 0 H
b (b) = (a). (a) (b)1 = e0 . (a b1 ) = e0 .
a b1 ker(). a ker() b. ker() H b H
ker() b H. a H, N H. ( H N
) H N . H = N . Correspondence Theorem :
: G G0 epimorphism, G0 subgroup H 0 , G
subgroup H (H) = H 0 ker() H.
, .
Correspondence Theorem N G normal subgroup,
G G/N group homomorphism a G, (a) = a.
Corollary 2.7.3. G group N G normal subgroup.
G/N subgroup H 0 G subgroup H N H
H/N = H 0 .
H 0 G/N normal subgroup , H G normal subgroup.
Proof. group homomorphism
(a b) = a b,

a b = a b = (a) (b).
onto , y G/N y = a, a G
. a G (a) = a = y. epimorphism.
ker() ? a ker() (a) = e, (a) = a.
a = e, a N . a N , (a) = a = e, a ker().
ker() = N .
Correspondence Theorem , Theorem 2.7.1
G/N subgroup H 0 , G subgroup H
N = ker() H (H) = H/N = H 0 .

2. Group

30

Corollary 2.7.3 Correspondence Theorem. G/N


subgroup H/N , H G subgroup N H. G/N
normal subgroup H/N H G normal subgroup.
Correspondence Theorem Third Isomorphism Theorem
. K G normal subgroup, : G G/K (a) = a
epimorphism. G/K normal subgroup N 0 Corollary 2.7.3
G normal subgroup N : N 0 = (N ) = N/K.
Theorem 2.6.5 Third Isomorphism Theorem.
Theorem 2.7.4 (Third Isomorphism Theorem). G group, K G
normal subgroup. G/K normal subgroup N/K ,
K N N G normal subgroup.
(G/K)/(N/K) ' G/N.
Proof. G/K normal subgroup N/K Corollary 2.7.3
.
(G/K)/(N/K) ' G/N
Theorem 2.6.5 . : G0 = G/K, N 0 = N/K.
N = {a G | (a) N 0 }. G/N ' G0 /N 0 .

Chapter 3

Groups

groups: cyclic groups, abelian groups symmetric


groups.

3.1. Cyclic Groups


, group G cyclic group G a G
a cyclic group hai = {ai | i Z} G. G
ai . Cyclic group group .
cyclic groups .
Theorem 3.1.1. G cyclic group. :
(1) G (infinite group), G ' Z.
(2) G n (order n), G ' Z/nZ.
Proof. G cyclic, G a . : Z G (i) = ai .

(i + j) = ai+j = ai aj = (i) (j).


Z group G group homomorphism. G
ai onto . epimorphism
First Isomorphism (Corollary 2.6.2).
(1) G infinite group. . 0 Z identity,
Lemma 2.5.6 ker() = {0}. m ker(), (m) =
am = e. m 6= 0, i i = mh + r , h Z,
0 r < |m|. G ai
ai = (am )h ar = eh ar = ar .
31

3. Groups

32

G ar , 0 r < |m|; G |m|


. G . m 6= 0 .
(0) = a0 = e, 0 ker(). ker() = {0}.
(2) G cyclic group of order n, G = hai ord(a) = n. Lemma
2.3.2 am = e n | m. m ker(), (m) = am = e.
n | m: m n . m = nh n ,
(m) = am = (an )h = e: m ker(). ker() n
. ker() = nZ. Corollary 2.6.2 G ' Z/nZ.

Theorem 3.1.1 cyclic groups .


n isomorphism cyclic group order n,
group order n.
p, Corollary 2.2.3 group order p, cyclic
group Z/pZ. Corollary 2.2.3 Lagranges Theorem
|G| = p identity G G nontrivial proper subgroup.
Lemma G nontrivial proper subgroup, G
cyclic group.
Lemma 3.1.2. G group nontrivial nontrivial proper subgroup,
G cyclic group |G| = p, p .
Proof. a G a 6= e, a cyclic group hai G subgroup.
hai 6= {e}, G nontrivial proper subgroup , hai = G.
|G| = ord(a) , ord(a) = mn m > 1 n > 1, Proposition
2.3.3
mn
= n,
ord(am ) =
gcd(mn, m)
am cyclic subgroup of G n. ham i 6= {e} ham i 6= G.
ham i G nontrivial proper subgroup. , G order
.

G cyclic group, subgroup cyclic group.


, , .
Proposition 3.1.3. G cyclic group, G subgroup
cyclic group.
Proof. G = hai cyclic group, H G subgroup.
H cyclic group H.
? a .
H identity e, H = hei cyclic group. H
hei, H G, H ai , i Z ,

3.2. Direct Product

33

n an H. H = han i. an H
han i H. H han i, H (an )h ,
h Z . am H, , h r,
0 r < n m = n h + r.
ar = am (anh )1 .
am H (anh )1 H, ar H. n
an H, 0 r < n, ar H r = 0. H
(an )h .

3.2. Direct Product


() groups, groups
group. direct product.
Definition 3.2.1. groups, G1 G2 ,
G1 G2 = {(a1 , a2 ) | a1 G1 , a2 G2 }.
(a1 , a2 ), (b1 , b2 ) G1 G2 ,
(a1 , a2 ) (b1 , b2 ) = (a1 b1 , a2 b2 ).
G1 G2 G1 G2 direct product.
G1 G2 group.
G1 G2 . G1 G2 identity ? e1
e2 G1 G2 identity, (e1 , e2 ) G1 G2 identity
1
! (a1 , a2 ) inverse (a1
1 , a2 ) .

Proposition 3.2.2. G1 G2 cyclic groups, order n m.


(1) n m , G1 G2 cyclic group.
(2) n m , G1 G2 cyclic group.
Proof. G1 G2 cyclic, G1 G2 a b . :
G1 G2 order nm.
(1) n m , G1 G2 cyclic G1 G2
order nm. , group G1 G2
, G1 G2 . ? (a, b) .
Lemma 2.3.1 (a, b) order nm, nm
(a, b)nm = (e1 , e2 ).

n
(a, b)nm = ((an )m , (bm )n ) = (em
1 , e2 ) = (e1 , e2 ).

3. Groups

34

nm . (a, b)r = (e1 , e2 ), (a, b)r =


(ar , br ), ar = e1 br = e2 . ord(a) = n ord(b) = m, Lemma 2.3.2
n | r m | r. n m nm | r, r
(a, b)r = (e1 , e2 ) r nm. (a, b) order nm, G1 G2
(a, b) cyclic group.
(2) n m , l n m . n m
, l < nm. a G1 , G1 ai . G2
bj . G1 G2 (ai , bj ) .
(ai , bj )l = (ail , bjl ).
l n , ail = e1 . bjl = e2 . (ai , bj )l = (e1 , e2 ). Lemma
2.3.1 G1 G2 (ai , bj ) order l. G1 G2
order nm. G1 G2 cyclic.

Corollary 3.2.3. m, n ,
Z/nZ Z/mZ ' Z/(nm)Z.
Proof. Proposition 3.2.2 Z/nZ Z/mZ cyclic group. Z/nZ
Z/mZ order nm, Theorem 3.1.1 Z/(nm)Z isomorphic.

Proposition 3.2.2 cyclic groups direct product


cyclic, direct product group.
finite abelian group cyclic groups direct product .
group groups direct product ,
group ? G1 G2 groups, e1 e2
identity. G0 = G1 G2 , G0 :
N 0 = {(a, e2 ) | a G1 } and M 0 = {(e1 , b) | b G2 }.
N 0 M 0 G0 subgroups. G0 normal
subgroups. G0 (g1 , g2 ), g1 G1 a G1
g1 a g11 G1 ,
(g1 , g2 ) (a, e2 ) (g1 , g2 )1 = (g1 a g11 , g2 e2 g21 ) = (g1 a g11 , e2 ) N 0 .

(g1 , g2 ) (e1 , b) (g1 , g2 )1 M 0 .


N 0 ' G1 : 1 : N G1 1 ((a, e2 )) = a,
1 group isomorphism. M 0 ' G2 . N 0 M 0

G = N0 M0

and N 0 M 0 = {(e1 , e2 )}.

3.2. Direct Product

35

G0 (g1 , g2 ) , g1 G1 , g2 G2 . (g1 , e2 ) N 0
(e1 , g2 ) M 0 ,
(g1 , g2 ) = (g1 , e2 ) (e1 , g2 ) N 0 M 0 .
(g1 , g2 ) N 0 M 0 , (g1 , g2 ) N 0 g2 = e2 , (g1 , g2 ) M 0
g1 = e1 . {(e1 , e2 )} = N 0 M 0 .
Theorem 3.2.4. G ' G1 G2 G normal subgroups N M

(1) N ' G1 M ' G2 .


(2) G = N M
(3) N M = {e}, e G identity.
Proof. N 0 M 0 , N 0 M 0 G1 G2 normal subgroups,
N 0 ' G1 M 0 ' G2 . G1 G2 = N 0 M 0 N 0 M 0 = {(e1 , e2 )}.
: G G1 G2 isomorphism.
N = {a G | (a) N 0 } and M = {b G | (b) M 0 }.
Correspondence (Theorem 2.7.1), N M G normal subgroups,
N/ ker() ' N 0 M/ ker() ' M 0 . , Lemma 2.5.6
ker() = {e}.
N ' N 0 ' G1

and M ' M 0 ' G2 .

x G, (x) G1 G2 , G1 G2 = N 0 M 0 ,
(x) = N 0 M 0 . n0 N 0 m0 M 0 (x) = n0 m0 .
onto n N m M (n) = n0 (m) = m0 . :
(x) = (n) (m) = (n m).
x = n m. G n m
, n N , m M .
G = N M.
, x N M , x N (x) N 0 , x M (x) M 0 .
(x) N 0 M 0 . N 0 M 0 G1 G2 identity, x ker().
ker() = {e} x = e.
N M = {e}.
G normal subgroup N M (1), (2), (3).
: G N M : x = nm G, n N m M , (x) = (n, m).
well-defined function? G G = N M ,
n m , ? , x = n m = n0 m0 ,

3. Groups

36

n 6= n0 m 6= m0 , (x) = (n, m) (n0 , m0 ) ,


. : n m = n0 m0 n, n0 N ,
m, m0 M .
n0

n = m0 m1 .

n0 1 n N m0 m1 M ,
n0

n N M.

N M = {e} n0 1 n = e, n = n0 . m = m0 .
. ! , group
homomorphism. x = n m, x0 = n0 m0 n, n0 N m, m0 M ,
(x x0 ) = (x) (x0 ).
(x) (x0 ) = (n, m) (n0 , m0 ) = (n n0 , m m0 ),
x x0 = (n n0 ) (m m0 ), n n0 N m m0 M ,

(x x0 ) = (n n0 , m m0 ).
(x x0 ) = (x) (x0 ). group homomorphism

(n m) (n0 m0 ) = (n n0 ) (m m0 ).

(n m) (n0 m0 ) = n (m n0 ) m0

(n n0 ) (m m0 ) = n (n0 m) m0 ,
m n0 = n0 m . m n0 = n0 m ?
a = b a b1 = e.
(m n0 ) (n0 m)1 = m n0 m1 n0

m n0 m1 N ( n0 N N G normal subgroup),
m n0 m1 n0

= (m n0 m1 ) n0

N.

M G normal subgroup,
m n0 m1 n0

= m (n0 m1 n0

) M.

(m n0 ) (n0 m)1 N M.
N M = {e} (m n0 ) (n0 m)1 = e, m n0 = n0 m.
1-1 and onto. x ker(), (x) N M identity
(e, e) ( e G identity N M identity). x G
n N , m M x = n m. (x) = (n, m) = (e, e).
n = e m = e, x = e e = e. ker() = {e} .

3.2. Direct Product

37

onto, N M (n, m), G x


(x) = (n, m). x = n m , (x) = (n, m).
isomorphism
G ' N M.
G ' G1 G2 ? , N ' G1 M ' G2 ,
Lemma,
G ' N M ' G1 G2 .

Lemma 3.2.5. G1 ' G01 G2 ' G02


G1 G2 ' G01 G02 .
Proof. isomorphisms: 1 : G1 G01 , 2 : G2 G02 .
: G1 G2 G01 G02 , (g1 , g2 ) G1 G2 ,
((g1 , g2 )) = (1 (g1 ), 2 (g2 )).
1 (g1 ) G01 , 2 (g2 ) G02 , G1 G2 G01 G02 . 1
2 group homomorphism, group homomorphism.
onto ? (y1 , y2 ) G01 G02 , y1 G01 y2 G02 , 1
2 onto, x1 G1 x2 G2 1 (x1 ) = y1 2 (x2 ) = y2 .
(x1 , x2 ) G1 G2 ,
((x1 , x2 )) = (1 (x1 ), 2 (x2 )) = (y1 , y2 ).
onto.
ker() ? (a, b) ker(), G01 G02 identity (e01 , e02 ),
e01 e02 G01 G02 identity,
((a, b)) = (1 (a), 2 (b)) = (e01 , e02 ).
1 (a) = e01 2 (b) = e02 . a ker(1 ) b ker(2 ). 1
2 , ker(1 ) = {e1 } ker(2 ) = {e2 }, e1 e2
G1 G2 identity. a = e1 , b = e2 , ker() G1 G2
identity, Lemma 2.5.6 . isomorphism,
G1 G2 ' G01 G02 .

group direct product , groups G1


G2 direct product G1 G2 group group G3
direct product (G1 G2 ) G3 . , n groups
direct product.

3. Groups

38

3.3. Finite Abelian Groups


groups, abelian groups. G
abelian group G a b a b = b a.
3.3.1. Cauchy and Sylows Theorems for finite abelian groups. G abelian
G subgroup normal. abelian groups
G subgroup quotient group
group order , .
quotient group Correspondence
( Corollary 2.7.3), ord(a)
ord(a) . Lemma , Lemma
abelian :
Lemma 3.3.1. N group G normal subgroup, a G. a G/N ,

ord(a) | ord(a).
ord(a) = ord(a)
N hai = {e}.
Proof. ord(a) = n. an = e an = an = e, Lemma 2.3.2
ord(a) | n.
ord(a) = m. N hai = {e}, am = e am N ,
N hai = {e}. am = e, Lemma 2.3.2 ord(a) = n | m.

am
m | n, n = m: N hai = {e}, ord(a) = ord(a).

, ord(a) = ord(a). x N hai, x hai : i


x = ai . x N , ai = x = e. ord(a) | i.
ord(a) = ord(a) ord(a) | i, x = ai = e. ord(a) = ord(a)
N hai = {e}.

abelian groups :
Theorem 3.3.2 (Cauchys Theorem for Abelian Groups). G finite abelian
group, p , p G order, G order p.
Proof. induction . induction ?
finite abelian group order induction.
order p abelian group . order pk
abelian group , order pk abelian group .
G order p, Corollary 2.2.3 G cyclic group, a G
G = hai, ord(a) = p.

3.3. Finite Abelian Groups

39

abelian group G0 |G0 | = pr r < k, a G0


ord(a) = p. |G| = pk, :
(1) G nontrivial proper subgroup.
(2) G nontrivial proper subgroup H p |H|.
(3) G nontrivial proper subgroup order p .
1. Lemma 3.1.2 |G| = p, . 2.
H nontrivial proper subgroup |H| < |G|, p |H| |H| = pr,
r < k. induction a H G ord(a) = p.
. 3. G nontrivial
proper subgroup H, G/H quotient group ( G
abelian H normal). p - |H|, p |G/H| = |G|/|H|.
G/H abelian group |G/H| < |G| induction
G/H , a G/H ord(a) = p. Lemma 3.3.1
p | ord(a); t ord(a) = pt. Proposition 2.3.3
pt
ord(at ) =
= p.
gcd(pt, t)
G at order p.

Cauchys Theorem G abelian


, G abelian ,
Cauchys Theorem. G abelian .
:
Theorem 3.3.3 (Sylows Theorem for Abelian Groups). G finite abelian
group, |G| = pn m, p p - m, G subgroup P
order pn .
Proof. Theorem 3.3.2 induction. |G| = pm , Theorem
3.3.2 a G order p, P = hai .
|G0 | = pr m, r < n , G0 subgroup P 0 order pr .
|G| = pn m , Theorem 3.3.2 G subgroup N order p.
G abelian N G normal subgroup, G/N quotient group.
G/N order |G|/|N | = pn1 m. induction G/N
subgroup P 0 order pn1 . Correspondence (Corollary 2.7.3) G
subgroup P P 0 = P/N . |P | = |P 0 | |N | = pn1 p = pn ,
.

p , group pn , group
p-group. G pn m, p m , G subgroup H

3. Groups

40

order pn , H G Sylow p-subgroup. Theorem 3.3.3


G abelian group , Sylow p-subgroup .
group Sylow p-subgroup , Sylow .
3.3.2. abelian groups . groups
abelian groups .
G abelian , a, b G, a b = b a
(a b)2 = (a b) (a b) = a (b a) b = a (a b) b = a2 b2 .
n N,
(a b)n = an bn .
Lemma G abelian :
Lemma 3.3.4. G finite abelian group, m 1 m
G order. M = {g G | g m = e}. M G subgroup
M 6= {e}.
Proof. m > 1 p p | m. Theorem 3.3.2
a G order p. a 6= e ap = e, p | m am = e. a M
M 6= {e}.
M G subgroup. : a, b M , am = e, bm = e.
(a b)m = am bm = e, a b M . : a M ,
am = e (am )1 am = (am )1 = (a1 )m . (am )1 am = e, (a1 )m = e.
a1 M .

G abelian M G normal subgroup,


finite abelian group .
Lemma 3.3.5. G finite abelian group, |G| = pn m, p - m.
n

P = {g G | g p = e}

and

M = {g G | g m = e},

G ' P M.
Proof. Lemma 3.3.4 P M G normal subgroups. G ' P M ,
Theorem 3.2.4 G = P M P M = {e} .
pn m .
pn m , r s rpn + sm = 1. a G,

n +sm

a = arp

= asm arp .

3.3. Finite Abelian Groups

41

nm

((asm )p = (ap

)s ,

|G| = pn m, Corollary 2.3.4


n

(asm )p = e;
n

asm P . arp M . G P
M , G = P M .
, g P M , g M , g m = e. Lemma 2.3.2 ord(g) | m.
ord(g) | pn . ord(g) g n m . g n m
, ord(g) = 1; g = e. P M = {e}.

Lemma 3.3.5 P ? G g
g = e order pn . Cauchy
|P | = pn .
pn

Lemma 3.3.6. G finite abelian group, |G| = pn m, p - m.


n

P = {g G | g p = e},
P G Sylow p-subgroup, P G Sylow p-subgroup.
Proof. M = {g G | g m = e}, p M order.
p M order, Cauchys Theorem M a
order p, am = e, Lemma 2.3.2 p | m. p - m . p
|M |.
P p-group. p q |P |,
q | pn , p, q . |P | p
, r N |P | = pr .
Lemma 3.3.5 G ' P M , |G| = |P | |M |.
|M | = |G|/|P | = pnr m.
p M , n = r. P G Sylow p-subgroup.
P 0 G Sylow p-subgroup. |P 0 | = pn , Lagrange
n
(Corollary 2.3.4) a P 0 , ap = e. a P . P 0 P .
|P 0 | = |P | = pn , P 0 = P . .

Lemma 3.3.6 abelian groups .


Sylow p-subgroup , . group
.
Lemmas, :

3. Groups

42

Proposition 3.3.7. G finite abelian group, order


|G| = pn1 1 pnr r ,
p1 , . . . , pr . Pi G pi Sylow pi -subgroup,
i {1, . . . , r}.
G ' P1 Pr .
Proof. m = pn2 2 pnr r , M = {g G | g m = e}, Lemmas 3.3.5, 3.3.6
G ' P1 M . |M | = pn2 2 pnr r M ' P2 Pn .
Lemma 3.2.5
G ' P1 M ' P1 P2 Pr .

3.3.3. Abelian p-groups. Proposition 3.3.7 finite abelian group


p-subgroups direct product, p-subgroup abelian.
abelian p-groups, finite abelian groups
.
cyclic group abelian. group abelian
cyclic. Lemma abelian group cyclic
.
Lemma 3.3.8. G abelian p-group, a G G order
. :
(1) G cyclic G = hai.
(2) G cyclic G b 6 hai, ord(b) = p.
Proof. |G| = pn , Lagrange (Corollary 2.3.4) ord(a) = pr , r
r n.
(1) G cyclic, G x G = hxi. ord(x) = pn .
a G order . ord(a) = pn (
, x = a). G hai ,
G = hai.
(2) G cyclic, hai ( G. A = hai. quotient group G/A
abelian p-group, |G/A| = pnr . Cauchy (Theorem 3.3.2)
x G/A ord(x) = p. x 6= e xp = e, x 6 A xp A.
A = hai, xp A i xp = ai . p | i.
p - i, Proposition 2.3.3
ord(ai ) =

pr
= pr .
gcd(pr , i)

3.3. Finite Abelian Groups

43

ord(xp ) = ord(a) = pr . x G, G p-group,


ord(x) = ps , s . Proposition 2.3.3
ord(xp ) =

ps
= ps1 .
gcd(ps , p)

ord(xp ) = pr s = r + 1. ord(x) = ps = pr+1 .


ord(a) = pr . ord(x) > ord(a) a order .
p | i.
i = pt, b = at x. b A, x = at b, x A,
x 6 A , b 6 A, b =
6 e ( e A). G abelian,
p
pt
p
i
p
b =a
x . pt = i a = x , bp = e. ord(b) = p.
Lemma 2.3.2 ord(b) | p. p , ord(b) = 1 or ord(b) = p.
b 6= e ord(b) 6= 1, ord(b) = p.

Lemma abelian p-group cyclic


cyclic group .
Lemma 3.3.9. G abelian p-group, a G G order
. G cyclic group; G subgroup
Q
G ' hai Q.
Proof. A = hai. G cyclic Lemma 3.3.8 b G b 6 A
ord(b) = p. B = hbi. A B = {e}. A B B
subgroup. Lagrange (Theorem 2.2.2) A B order B
order. B order p, |A B| = 1 |A B| = p. |A B| = p,
A B = B, B A. b 6 A . A B order p.
|A B| = 1, A B = {e}.
B Lemma. G order
p, Corollary 2.2.3 G cyclic group. |G| = pn . Lemma
order pn abelian p-groups .
G cyclic , G cyclic . G cyclic,
G/B abelian group. |G/B| = pn1 , G/B order pn
abelian p-group. induction ,
G/B order . a G/B order
. Lemma 3.3.1 x G/B, ord(x) ord(x).
B hai = {e} Lemma 3.3.1 ord(a) = ord(a). a G order
, G/B x G/B
ord(a) = ord(a) ord(x) ord(x).

3. Groups

44

. G/B cyclic,
G/B subgroup Q0 G/B ' hai Q0 .
G/B cyclic, Lemma 3.3.8 G/B = hai. G ' hai B.
Theorem 3.2.4 G = A B A B = {e} ( A, B
normal). A B = {e}, G = A B.
x G, x G/B. G/B = hai, i x = ai . x
ai B . (ai )1 x B. j
x = ai bj . G A B ,
G = A B. A B = {e} G ' A B.
G/B cyclic induction G/B subgroup Q0
G/B ' hai Q0 . Theorem 3.2.4 G/B = hai Q0 hai Q0 = {e}.
G , Correspondence (Corollary 2.7.3)
G subgroup Q B Q Q/B = Q0 . G ' hai Q.
G = A Q. x G, x G/B, G/B = hai Q/B,
i q Q
x = ai q = ai q.
(ai q)1 x B. B = hbi, j (ai q)1 x = bj .
x = ai (q bj ). ai A, q bj Q ( B Q).
G = A Q.
A Q = {e}. x A Q, x A = hai i
x = ai . G/B x = ai = ai . a Q G/B x Q/B = Q0 .

x hai Q0 = {e}.
G/B x = e, x B. x A Q,
x A. x A B. A B = {e}, x = e.
A Q = {e}.

Lemma 3.3.9 ? G abelian p-group, |G| = pn .


G cyclic group: Theorem 3.1.1 G ' Z/pn Z. G
cyclic, Lemma 3.3.9 G order order
pn1 , subgroup Q G ' (Z/pn1 Z) Q. G abelian
p-group, subgroup Q abelian p-group. Q cyclic,
G ' (Z/pn1 Z) Q ' (Z/pn1 Z) (Z/pn2 Z); Q cyclic
Lemma 3.3.9 Q isomorphic to cyclic group Q subgroup direct
product. , G order .
:

3.3. Finite Abelian Groups

45

Proposition 3.3.10. G abelian p-group, |G| = pn .


n1 , . . . , nr N n1 + + nr = n
G ' (Z/pn1 Z) (Z/pnr Z).
Proof. G cyclic groups direct product.
cyclic groups G subgroups, p-group.
isomorphic to Z/pni Z ,
pn = |G| = |Z/pn1 Z| |Z/pnr Z| = pn1 pnr ,
n = n1 + + nr .

3.3.4. Finite abelian groups . finite abelian group


abelian p-groups direct product, abelian p-group
cyclic groups direct product,
finite abelian groups.
Theorem 3.3.11 (Fundamental Theorem on Finite Abelian Groups). G
finite abelian group, G cyclic groups direct product.
Proof. Proposition 3.3.7 G ' P1 Pr , Pi pi
abelian pi -group. 3.3.10 Pi , cyclic groups Ci1 , . . . Cini
Pi ' Ci1 Cini . .

cyclic groups , finite abelian


groups cyclic groups direct product, finite abelian
groups . G abelian group |G| = 6, G
? Proposition 3.3.7 G ' P1 P2 P1 order 2, P2
order 3. order 2 group cyclic (Corollary 2.2.3) P1 ' Z/2Z.
P2 ' Z/3Z. G ' Z/2Z Z/3Z. 3.2.2 Z/2Z Z/3Z ' Z/6Z,
G ' Z/6Z. 6 abelian group cyclic group.
Corollary:
Corollary 3.3.12. G abelian group |G| = p1 pr p1 , . . . pr
, G cyclic group.
G order , .
order 144 abelian group G. 144 = 24 32 , Proposition 3.3.7
G ' P1 P2 P1 order 24 , P2 order 32 . Proposition 3.3.10

4=3+1=2+2=2+1+1=1+1+1+1

3. Groups

46

P1 isomorphic to
(1) Z/16Z or (2) Z/8Z Z/2Z or
(4) Z/4Z Z/2Z Z/2Z or

(3) Z/4Z Z/4Z,

(5) Z/2Z Z/2Z Z/2Z Z/2Z,

. P3 isomorphic to
(1) Z/9Z or (2) Z/3Z Z/3Z
. 144 abelian groups .

3.4. The Symmetric Group


group symmetric group.
3.4.1. The group A(S) and Cayleys Theorem. S A(S)
S S 1-1 onto . f, g A(S)
f g 1-1 onto, f g A(S).
A(S) . , .
A(S) identity ? identity function
IS : IS S S IS (x) = x, x S. f A(S)
1-1 onto g A(S) f g = g f = IS ( g f
), A(S) inverse . A(S) group.
A(S) group .
Theorem 3.4.1 (Cayleys Theorem). group G, G isomorphic to
A(G) subgroup.
Proof. A(G) G , A(G) G
G 1-1 onto group homomorphism .
G group A(G) group group homomorphism : G A(G). a G, (a) A(S)
Ta : G G, x G, Ta (x) = a x.
well-defined function. :
(a) = Ta A(S)? Ta G G .
Ta 1-1 onto . , Ta
kernel ( ker(Ta ) ).
b G, Ta 1-1 onto G c
Ta (c) = b. Ta (x) = a x, Theorem 1.2.3 Ta 1-1 onto.
: a 7 Ta G A(G) group homomorphism.
a, b G, (a b) = (a) (b) ( (a) (b) A(G)
(a) (b)). (a b) (a) (b)

3.4. The Symmetric Group

47

, . (a b) = Tab
x G,
Tab (x) = (a b) x.
(a) (b) = Ta Tb , x G,
Ta Tb (x) = Ta (Tb (x)) = Ta (b x) = a (b x).
G x G, Tab (x) = Ta Tb (x). (a b) =
(a) (b).
. group homomorphism, ker() = {e}.
a ker(), (a) A(G) identity IG . , x G
Ta (x) = x. Ta (x) = a x, a = e. G ' im(). Lemma
2.5.4 im() A(G) subgroup, .

Cayleys Theorem group .


: G , A(G) ?
A(G) , G group , G .
order n group , n S,
A(S) order n subgroup ( Cayleys Theorem
order n group ). A(S) group
. S 0 , .
3.4.2. The symmetric group of degree n. A(S) group
S . S n , S = {1, 2, . . . , n}
. A(S) {1, 2, . . . , n} {1, 2, . . . , n} 1-1
onto Sn , the symmetric group of degree n.
Cayleys Theorem order n group isomorphic Sn
subgroup, Sn .
{1, 2, . . . , n} {1, 2, . . . , n} 1-1 onto ?
. 1 ? n , 1
, , 2 n 1 . Sn
order.
Lemma 3.4.2.
|Sn | = n (n 1) 2 1 = n!.
Sn n = 1 n = 2 : S1 ,
identity. S2 2 , cyclic. n 3 .

3. Groups

48

Sn . S5
1 7 2, 2 7 3, 3 7 1, 4 7 5 5 7 4,

1 2 3 4 5
=
(3.1)
2 3 1 5 4
.

1 2 3 4 5
3 4 5 1 2

(3.2)

1 7 3, 2 7 4, 3 7 5, 4 7 1 5 7 2. ?
1 7 3, 3 7 1 1 7 1. 2 7 4, 4 7 5
2 7 5.

1 2 3 4 5
=
(3.3)
1 5 4 2 3

1 2 3 4 5
4 5 3 2 1

(3.4)

(3.3) (3.4) 6= S5 abelian.


n 3, Sn abelian.
, Sn , , , .
.
3.4.3. Disjoint cycle decomposition. (3.1) Sn
. . cycle .
, Sn . .
Definition 3.4.3. i1 , i2 . . . , ik {1, 2, . . . , n} k .
(i1 i2 ik )
Sn s {1, 2, . . . , n}

ij+1 , s = ij 1 j k 1;
s = ik ;
i1 ,
(s) =

s 6 {i1 , . . . , ik }.
s,
i1 7 i2 , i2 7 i3 , . . . , ik1 7 ik , ik i1 , i1 , . . . , ik
.
(i1 i2 ik ) k-cycle.
S5 :

1 2 3 4 5
(1 2 3) =
2 3 1 4 5
cycle Sn , Sn cycle.
cycle (). (3.1)

3.4. The Symmetric Group

49

cycle . 1 7 2
(1 2
2 7 3
(1 2 3
3 7 1
(1 2 3)
) 3 3 1. 3-cycle. (1 2 3)
, 4 7 5 5 7 4. (4 5) cycle.
(3.1)
= (4 5)(1 2 3).
(1 2 3) S5

1 2 3 4 5
2 3 1 4 5
,

(4 5) =

1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 5 4

. (3.2) 1 7 3,
(1 3
3 7 5
(1 3 5
5 7 2,
(1 3 5 2
2 7 4,
(1 3 5 2 4
4 1 )
= (1 3 5 2 4).
cycle , 5-cycle.

= (4 5)(1 2 3)(1 3 5 2 4)
? cycles ,
cycle . (1 3 5 2 4) 1 7 3, (1 2 3)
3 7 1, (4 5) 1 1 7 1. cycle
1 . 2: (1 3 5 2 4) 2 7 4, (1 2 3) 4 ,
(4 5) 4 7 5 2 7 5,
(2 5

3. Groups

50

(1 3 5 2 4) 5 7 2, (1 2 3) 2 7 3, (4 5) 3,
5 7 3,
(2 5 3
(1 3 5 2 4) 3 7 5, (1 2 3) 5 , (4 5) 5 7 4
3 7 4,
(2 5 3 4
(1 3 5 2 4) 4 7 1, (1 2 3) 1 7 2, (4 5) 2,
4 2,
= (2 5 3 4).
cycles (i1 ik ) (j1 jl ) {i1 , . . . , ik } {j1 , . . . , jl } =
cycle disjoint cycles. Sn disjoint cycles
( cycle ), disjoint cycle decomposition.
(4 5)(1 2 3) (1 3 5 2 4) disjoint cycle decomposition.
Sn , disjoint cycle decomposition
. , a1 {1, . . . , n} a1
? (a1 ) = a1 , a1 cycle decomposition ,
. (a1 ) = a2 6= a1
(a1 a2
(a2 ) ? . . . ak (ak )
. a1 , . . . , ak (ak ) {a1 , . . . , ak1 }. (ak )
a1 , (ak ) = ai , i > 1, (ai1 ) = ai , 1-1
ak = ai1 a1 , . . . , ak , (ak ) = a1 .
cycle:
(a1 ak ).
{a1 , . . . , ak } b1 , cycle.
{1, . . . , n} , cycles .
1-1 cycles disjoint.
disjoint cycle decomposition .
. (1 2 3) cycle (2 3 1) (3 1 2)
: 1 7 2, 2 7 3, 3 7 1. cycle ( (1 3 2)
cycle). (1 2 3)(4 5) (4 5)(1 2 3)
decomposition.
Lemma 3.4.4. = (a1 a2 ak ) = (b1 b2 bl ) Sn cycles.
(1) k = l a1 = b2 , a2 = b3 , . . . , ak1 = bk , ak = b1 , = .
(2) disjoint, {a1 , . . . , ak } {b1 , . . . , bl } = , = .

3.4. The Symmetric Group

51

Proof. , Sn ,
{1, . . . , n} .
(1) x {1, . . . , n} x 6 {a1 , . . . , ak }, (x) = x,
{a1 , . . . , ak } = {b1 , . . . , bl },
x 6 {b1 , . . . , bl }, (x) = x.
x {a1 , . . . , ak }, x = ai , 1 i k 2,
(x) = (ai ) = ai+1 = bi+2 .
ai = bi+1 ,
(x) = (bi+1 ) = bi+2 .
x = ak1 ,
(x) = (ak1 ) = ak = b1 .
ak1 = bk ,
(x) = (bk ) = b1 .
x = ak ,
(x) = (ak ) = a1 = b2 .
ak = b1
(x) = (b1 ) = b2 .
x {1, . . . , n} (x) = (x), = .
(2) disjoint, x {1, . . . , n} : (a)
x 6 {a1 , . . . , ak } {b1 , . . . , bl }; (b) x {a1 , . . . , ak }; (c) x {b1 , . . . , bl }.
x (a) , (x) = (x) = x
( )(x) = ( (x)) = (x) = x,
( )(x) = x.
x (b) , (x) {a1 , . . . , ak } disjoint x (x)
{b1 , . . . , bl } (x) = x ((x)) = (x).
( )(x) = ( (x)) = (x)

( )(x) = ((x)) = (x).


x (c) , (b)
( )(x) = (x) = ( )(x).
= .

3. Groups

52

Remark 3.4.5. Lemma 3.4.4


(a1 a2 ak1 ak )

(ak a1 ak2 ak1 )


cycle. (ak a1 ak2 ak1 ) Lemma 3.4.4
(ak1 ak ak3 ak2 )
cycle. k-cycle k .
disjoint , (
).
Lemma 3.4.4 ( cycle
disjoint cycle ), Sn disjoint cycle
decomposition . Sn disjoint cycle decompositions:
= 1 r = 1 s , 1 , . . . , r 1 , . . . , s disjoint
cycles. a1 {1, . . . , n} 1 cycle , 1 (a1 ) = a2 ,
1 = (a1 a2
1 , . . . , r disjoint a1 , a2 2 , . . . , r ; i
2 i r i (a1 ) = a1 = 1 r
(a1 ) = (1 r )(a1 ) = 1 (a1 ) = a2 .

(3.5)

= 1 s , a1 i , a1 i
i (a1 ) = a1 , ,
(a1 ) = 1 s (a1 ) = a1 .
(3.5) . 1 , . . . , s disjoint, a1 i .
a1 1 ( 1 , . . . , s disjoint
). a1 i , i 2 i s , i (a1 ) = a1 .

(a1 ) = (1 s )(a1 ) = 1 (a1 ).

(3.6)

(3.5) (3.6) , 1 (a1 ) = a2 .


1 = (a1 a2
a2 1 (a2 ) = 1 (a2 ), 1 = 1 .
r = s i i = i . Sn
disjoint cycle decomposition.

3.4. The Symmetric Group

53

3.4.4. Disjoint cycle . disjoint cycle


.
inverse. cycle .
Lemma 3.4.6.
= (a1 a2 ak1 ak )
Sn k-cycle. 1 k-cycle
1 = (ak ak1 a2 a1 ).
Proof. = (ak ak1 a2 a1 ) identity.
x {1, . . . , n}, ( )(x) = x.
x 6 {a1 , . . . , ak } (x) = (x) = x,
( )(x) = ((x)) = (x) = x.
, x {a1 , . . . , ak }, x = ai , 1 i k1 , (x) = (ai ) = ai+1
2 i + 1 k,
( )(x) = ((ai )) = (ai+1 ) = ai = x.
x = ak
( )(x) = ((ak )) = (a1 ) = ak = x.
Sn identity, = 1 .

= 1 r disjoint cycle decomposition. Lemma


3.4.6 i inverse . Lemma 3.4.6 11 , . . . , r1
disjoint cycles. 1 disjoint cycle decomposition .
= (1 2 3)(4 5), 1 = (3 2 1)(5 4).
disjoint cycle Sn order.
cycle .
Lemma 3.4.7. Sn k-cycle. ord() = k.
Proof. = (a1 a2 ak1 ak ), 1 i k 1 , i Sn
identity, k Sn identity.
1 i k 1 , i (a1 ) = ai+1 . 2 i + 1 k, ai+1 6= a1 ,
i (a1 ) 6= a1 . i identity.
, x 6 {a1 , . . . , ak } , k (x) = x. x
{a1 , . . . ak } k (x) = x. k identity.

cycle order , disjoint cycles order


group :

3. Groups

54

Lemma 3.4.8. a, b G a b = b a. hai hbi = {e},


ord(a b) = lcm[ord(a), ord(b)],
lcm .
Proof. , ord(a) = n : (1) an = e; (2) ar = e
n | r.
ord(a) = n ord(b) = m, l = lcm[n, m], a b = b a
(a b)l = al bl = e. l ord(a b) (1).
(a b)r = e, ar br = e, ar = br . ar hai br hbi,
ar hai hbi. hai hbi = {e}, ar = e br = (br )1 = e (
br = e). ord(a) = n, ord(b) = m, (2) n | r m | r. r
n, m . l = lcm[n, m] | r. l
ord(a b) (2). ord(a b) = l = lcm[ord(a), ord(b)].

Proposition 3.4.9. Sn , = 1 2 r disjoint cycle decomposition, i ni -cycle.


ord() = lcm[n1 , n2 , . . . , nr ].
Proof. ord(1 2 ) = lcm[n1 , n2 ]. 1 2 disjoint,
1 2 = 2 1 . h1 i h2 i = {e}, Lemma 3.4.7
Lemma 3.4.8 ord(1 2 ) = lcm[n1 , n2 ]. h1 i h2 i, i j
= 1i = 2j . Sn identity, a {1, . . . , n} (a) 6= a.
1i (a) 6= a. a 1 cycle ( 1 (a) = a
1i (a) = a). 2 1 disjoint, a 2 cycle
. 2 (a) = a. 2j (a) = a, 2j (a) = (a) 6= a
. Sn identity . h1 i h2 i = {e},
ord(1 2 ) = lcm[n1 , n2 ].
. 1 , . . . r1 , r disjoint,
(1 r1 ) r = r (1 r1 ).
,
h1 r1 i hr i = {e}.
ord(1 r1 ) = lcm[n1 , . . . , nr1 ] Lemma 3.4.8
ord() = ord((1 r1 ) r )
= lcm[lcm[n1 , . . . , nr1 ], nr ]
= lcm[n1 , . . . , nr1 , nr ].

3.4. The Symmetric Group

55

Proposition 3.4.9 Sn order.


= (1 2 3)(4 5) ord() = lcm[2, 3] = 6. .
Proposition 3.4.9 disjoint cycle . (1 2 3)(3 2 1)
identity. order 1 lcm[3, 3] = 3.
3.4.5. cycles . cycles ,
cycles , .
Conjugation , a G, x G, x a x1 a
conjugate. Sn , = 1 r disjoint cycle decomposition,
Sn
1 = (1 r ) 1 = ( 1 1 ) ( r 1 ).
conjugate cycle conjugate .
Lemma 3.4.10.
= (a1 a2 ak1 ak )
Sn k-cycle. Sn , 1 k-cycle

1 = (a1 ) (a2 ) (ak1 ) (ak ) .


Proof. (a1 ak ) k-cycle, ai , Sn
1-1 (ai ) . ( (a1 ) (ak )) k-cycle.

= (a1 ) (ak ) , 1 = , x {1, . . . , n},


(( 1 (x))) (x) .
x 6 { (a1 ), . . . , (ak )} 1 (x) 6 {a1 , . . . , ak }, ( 1 (x)) = 1 (x).

(( 1 (x))) = ( 1 (x)) = x,
x 6 { (a1 ), . . . , (ak )}, (x) = x. .
x = (a1 )
(( 1 (x))) = ((a1 )) = (a2 )
(x) = ( (a1 )) = (a2 ). x { (a1 ), . . . , (ak )}, 1
x . Sn .

Example 3.4.11. = (1 2 3)(4 5), = (3 4)


1 = ( (1 2 3) 1 ) ( (4 5) 1 )

= (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


= (1 2 4)(3 5)
Sn 2-cycle .
.

3. Groups

56

Lemma 3.4.12. = (a b) Sn 2-cycle.


(1) = (a a2 ak ) Sn k-cycle, a2 , . . . , ak 6= b,
= (a a2 ak b)
(2) = (a a2 ak b b2 bl ) Sn k + l-cycle,
= (a a2 ak )(b b2 bl )
Proof. (1) = (a a2 ak ) , x {1, . . . , n} x 6 {a, a2 , . . . , ak , b},
( )(x) = (x) = x, x disjoint cycle decomposition .
x {a, a2 , . . . , ak1 }, (x) 6 {a, b}, ( )(x) = (x).
(a a2 ak
x = ak ( )(ak ) = ((ak )) = (a) = b,
(a a2 ak b
( )(b) = ((b)) = (b) = a, cycle
(a a2 ak b)
x {1, . . . , n}
(a b)(a a2 ak ) = (a a2 ak b)

(3.7)

(2) , x 6 {a, a2 , . . . , ak , b, b2 , . . . , bl } , ( )(x) = (x) = x, x


disjoint cycle decomposition . x {a, a2 , . . . , ak1 },
(x) 6 {a, b}, ( )(x) = (x).
(a a2 ak
x = ak ( )(ak ) = ((ak )) = (b) = a, cycle
(a a2 ak )
x {b, b2 , . . . , bl } .
cycle
(b b2 bl )
x {1, . . . , n}
(a b)(a a2 ak b b2 bl ) = (a a2 ak )(b b2 bl )

(3.8)

Remark 3.4.13. (3.8) , 2 identity,


= ( ) = (a a2 ak )(b b2 bl )

(a b)(a a2 ak )(b b2 bl ) = (a a2 ak b b2 bl )

(3.9)

3.4. The Symmetric Group

57

3.4.6. Even and odd permutations. Sn {1, . . . , n}


, Sn permutation. permutation
{1, . . . , n} . {1 . . . , n}
transposition. Sn
2-cycle . , 2-cycle .
permutation transposition ,
:
Lemma 3.4.14. Sn , Sn 2-cycles, 1 , . . . , s
= 1 s .
Proof. cycles , 2-cycles ,
cycle 2-cycles . (3.7)
(a1 a3 )(a1 a2 ) = (a1 a2 a3 ), k-cycle (a1 a2 ak1 ak )

(a1 a2 ak1 ak ) = (a1 ak )(a1 ak1 ) (a1 a2 ).

: Lemma 3.4.14 Sn disjoint


2-cycle . , (1 2 3) disjoint 2-cycle
. ? : (1 2 3) disjoint 2-cycle ,
Proposition 3.4.9 order 2, (1 2 3) order 3
disjoint 2-cycle . Lemma 3.4.14 2-cycle
, .
(1 2 3) = (1 3)(1 2) = (1 2)(2 3)
2-cycle . (1 2) 2-cycle
(1 3)(2 3)(1 3) 2-cycle .
, Sn 2-cycle .
2-cycle decomposition
even permutation odd permutation . Sn even
2-cycle , odd.
! Sn 2-cycle .
, ?
.
Theorem 3.4.15. Sn = 1 2 r = 10 20 s0 , 1 , . . . , r
10 , . . . , s0 2-cycles.
r s (mod 2)

( r s :

2 | r s).

3. Groups

58

Proof. .
: n n A, A A0 ,
det(A0 ) det(A).
Sn A A i (i) .
= (i j) A A i j , j i ,
2 cycle A A . , Sn ,
( ) A A i ( )(i) = ( (i)) . A (i)
A i ( A) A (i) ( (i)) .
( A) A i ( (i)) . ( ) A ,

( ) A = ( A) , Sn .

(3.10)

= 1 2 r = 10 20 s0 , In , In n n
. (3.10)
In = 1 ( (r In )) = 10 ( (s0 In )).
i , j0 2-cycles, ,
det( In ) = (1)r = (1)s .
r s .

Theorem 3.4.15 2-cycles 2-cycle


, 2-cycle . .
:
Definition 3.4.16. Sn 2-cycles ,
even permutation. , 2-cycles , odd
permutation
Lemma 3.4.14 k-cycle k 1 2-cycle
, k-cycle even k . , k k-cycle
odd . r 2-cycles , s 2-cycles
, r + s 2-cycles . :
Lemma 3.4.17. , Sn .
(1) , even permutations, odd permutations, even
permutation.
(2) even permutation odd permutation,
odd permutation.

3.4. The Symmetric Group

59

Lemma 3.4.17 Sn disjoint cycle decomposition,


even odd. disjoint cycle decomposition
.
3.4.7. The alternating group. Sn even permutations
group alternating group.
Theorem 3.4.18. An Sn even permutation .
(1) An Sn normal subgroup.
(2)
1
n!
|An | = n (n 1) 2 1 = .
2
2
Proof. sgn : Sn {1, 1}

even;
1,
sgn() =
1, odd.
{1, 1} , 1 identity, Lemma 3.4.17
sgn group homomorphism. ker(sgn) = An , Lemma 2.5.4
An Sn normal subgroup. 2-cycle odd, sgn onto,
First Isomorphism (Corollary 2.6.2) Sn /An ' {1, 1}.
|An | = |Sn |/2.

Definition 3.4.19. Sn even permutation An


the alternating group of degree n.
Remark 3.4.20. An Sn , Sn odd
permutations , Sn odd permutation even permutation
.
Sn 2-cycle (Lemma 3.4.14). An
?
Lemma 3.4.21. An , Sn 3-cycles, 1 , . . . , s
= 1 s .
Proof. An 2r 2-cycles 1 , . . . , 2r = 1 2 2r1 2r .
i , = (1 2 ) (2r1 2r ).
2-cycle 3-cycles , .
= (a b), 0 = (c d) Sn 2-cycle. :
(1) {a, b} = {c, d}, 0 identity, 0
(1 2 3)(3 2 1)

3. Groups

60

(2) {a, b} {c, d} , a = c b 6= d.


(3.7)
0 = (a b)(a d) = (a d b)
(3) {a, b} {c, d} ,
0 = (a b)(c d) = (a d b)(a d c)

3-cycle even permutation, 3-cycles An .


.
Proposition 3.4.22. H Sn nontrivial proper subgroup, H
3-cycles, H = An .
Proof. An , Lemma 3.4.21 3-cycles, 1 , . . . , s = 1 s .
, i H . H group, 1 s H.
H. An H. H 6= Sn |H| < n! = 2|An | Lagrange
(Theorem 2.2.2) |H| |An | . |H| = |An |.
H = An

3.4.8. Sn normal subgroup. n 5 An Sn


nontrivial normal subgroup.
S3 6 , , : (1 2), (1 3), (2 3), (1 2 3),
(1 3 2) identity. A3 (1 2 3) cyclic group. 2-cycle
order 2 subgroup. (1 2) cyclic group h(1 2)i,
(1 3)(1 2)(1 3) = (3 2) 6 h(1 2)i
h(1 2)i S3 normal subgroup. order 2 subgroup
normal. S3 nontrivial normal subgroup, A3 .
S4 . A4 normal subgroup
N = {I, (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3)}.
N identity , order 2,
inverse. N .
(1 2)(3 4) (1 3)(2 4) = (1 4)(2 3)
N , N S4 subgroup. ( N
even permutation N A4 subgroup.) N identity
disjoint 2-cycle . S4 disjoint

3.4. The Symmetric Group

61

2-cycle permutation N . = (a b)(c d) disjoint 2-cycle


, Lemma 3.4.10 S4 ,
1 = ( (a) (b))( (c) (d))
disjoint 2-cycle permutation. , N ,
S4 1 N , N S4 normal subgroup.
n 5 , Sn order , .
Lemma .
Lemma 3.4.23. N Sn nontrivial proper normal subgroup, N
3-cycle, N = An .
Proof. Proposition 3.4.22, N = An , 3-cycle
N . (a b c) N 3-cycle, N normal
3-cycle (a0 b0 c0 ) N .
N Sn normal, Sn , (a b c) N , (a b c) 1
N . Lemma 3.4.10
(a b c) 1 = ( (a) (b) (c)).
3-cycle (a0 b0 c0 ), Sn (a) = a0 , (b) = b0
(c) = c0 . , a, b, c , a0 , b0 , c0 ,
1-1 a 7 a0 , b 7 b0 , c 7 c0 . 3-cycle
(a0 b0 c0 ), Sn (a b c) 1 = (a0 b0 c0 ).
(a b c) 1 N (a0 b0 c0 ) N .

: Lemma 3.4.22 H Sn
nontrivial proper subgroup, H = An Sn 3-cycle H
; H normal Lemma 3.4.23 H
3-cycle H = An .
n 5 An Sn nontrivial normal subgroup.
Theorem 3.4.24. n 5 , N Sn nontrivial proper normal subgroup,
N = An .
Proof. Lemma 3.4.23 N 3-cycle, N = An .
N nontrivial, N identity. N
identity. identity, {1 . . . , n} a
b, (a) = b 6= a. N identity ,
. b a a0 ,
cases:
(1) (a) = b, (b) = a;

3. Groups

62

(2) (a) = b (b) = a0 6= a.


N normal N
. : Sn 2-cycle ,
1 6= . ( 1 ) 1 identity.
( 1 ) 1 = ( 1 1 )
N , 1 N N normal 1 1 N . ( 1 1 )
N . N identity .
case 1 , {1, . . . , n} c, c 6= a c 6= b.
= (a c). Lemma 3.4.10
1 = ((a) (c)) = (b (c)).
(b) = a c 6= b (c) 6= a.
1 = (b (c)) 6= (b a) = .
case 2 , = (a b) . (b) = a0 6= a,
1 = ((a) (b)) = (b a0 ) 6= (a b) = .
cases 1 2, : Sn 2-cycle

( 1 ) 1 N
identity. = 1 1 2-cycles. N
2-cycle identity.
N :
: = (i j)(j k), i, j, k .
: = (i j)(k l), i, j, k, l .
case ,
= (i j)(j k) = (i j k) N,
N 3-cycle.
case , {1, . . . , n} {i, j, k, l} m (
n 5 ). = (i m), N N normal,
1 = (m j)(k l) N . N ( 1 ) N .
( 1 ) = (i j)(k l)(m j)(k l)
= (i j)(m j)
= (i j m)
N 3-cycle.
N 3-cycle, N = An .

3.4. The Symmetric Group

63

S4 A4 normal subgroup, disjoint


2-cycle permutation . ,
Theorem 3.4.24 (case ) n 5 .
3.4.9. An normal subgroup. B A subgroup, C B subgroup,
C A normal subgroup, C B normal subgroup.
C B subgroup, C A normal subgroup ( Remark
2.4.2). n 5 An , Sn nontrivial proper
normal subgroup, An nontrivial normal subgroup.
n 5 An nontrivial normal subgroup.
Sn , An .
Lemma 3.4.25. n 5, N An normal subgroup, N
3-cycle, N = An .
Proof. Lemma 3.4.23 N Sn normal subgroup,
N An normal subgroup, N Sn normal
subgroup Lemma 3.4.23 Lemma.
, 3-cycle N An normal 3-cycle
N . Proposition 3.4.22 N = An .
(a0

(a b c) N , Lemma 3.4.23 : 3-cycle,


b0 c0 ) Sn
(a b c) 1 = (a0 b0 c0 ).

. N Sn normal, (a b c) N
(a b c) 1 N , N An normal, An
(a b c) 1 N (: N An normal
N , An 1 N ).
An (a b c) 1 = (a0 b0 c0 ).
, An = . An ?
odd permutation, 2-cycle even
permutation, An . Lemma 3.4.23 ,
n 5. i, j {1, . . . , n} i j {a, b, c}, = (i j).
An
(a b c) 1 = ( (i j)) (a b c) ( (i j))1
= (i j)(a b c)(i j) 1
= (a b c) 1
= (a0 b0 c0 ).

( (a b c) (i j) disjoint)

3. Groups

64

(a b c) N N An normal, (a0 b0 c0 ) N .

: Lemma 3.4.25 n 5 ,
n = 3, 4 , Lemma 3.4.25 .
Theorem 3.4.24 Theorem.
Theorem 3.4.26. n 5 An nontrivial proper normal subgroup.
Proof. , N identity An normal subgroup,
3-cycle N . , Lemma 3.4.25 N = An , .
Theorem 3.4.24 , N identity
, 2-cycle 1 6= . N
identity , ( 1 1 ). N N
Sn normal subgroup, 1 N 1 1 N .
N An normal, 2-cycle An , 1 1 N .
, An .
3-cycle . 3-cycle 1 6= .
N identity, a {1, . . . , n} (a) = b 6= a.
3-cycle, :
(1) (a) = b, (b) = a;
(2) (a) = b, (b) = c (c) = a;
(3) (a) = b, (b) = c (c) = d 6= a.
case 1 , = (a b i), i {1 . . . , n} i 6 {a, b}.
Lemma 3.4.10
1 = (b a (i)).
(a) = b, i 6= a (i) 6= b. a 7 b, 1 a 7 (i)
1 6= .
case 2 , = (a b i), i {1 . . . , n} i 6 {a, b, c} (
n 5 i). Lemma 3.4.10
1 = (b c (i)).
b 7 i, 1 b 7 c, i 6= c 1 6= .
case 3 , = (a b c) .
1 = (b c d),
a 6= d 1 6= .
: N identity ,
3-cycle 1 6= . An , N An normal, 1 N

3.4. The Symmetric Group

65

1 1 N . = ( 1 ) 1 identity,
= ( 1 1 ) N . 3-cycle, Lemma 3.4.10
1 3-cycle. = ( 1 ) 1 3-cycle
permutation. : N identity ,
3-cycle .
3-cycles :
: 3-cycles ;
: 3-cycles , ;
: 3-cycles , ;
: 3-cycles .
case , (i j k)(i j k) ( (i j k)(i k j)
identity).
= (i j k)(i j k) = (i k j) N.
N 3-cycle.
case , (i j k)(j i r) (i j k)(i j r). ,
= (i j k)(j i r) = (i r k) N ;
,
= (i j k)(i j r) = (i k)(j r).
n 5, {1, . . . , n} s 6 {i, j, k, r}, = (i k s) N .
N N An normal, 1 N . 1 = (k s)(j r)

( 1 ) = (i k)(j r)(k s)(j r) = (i k s) N.


, N 3-cycle.
case , (i j k)(i s t).
= (i j k)(i s t) = (i s t j k).
N 5-cycle. = (i s t) An , 1 = (s t i j k) N .

1 ( 1 ) = (k j t s i)(s t i j k) = (i t k) N.
, N 3-cycle.
case , (i j k)(r s t).
1 = (j r k)(i s t) N .

= (i j r) An ,

1 ( 1 ) = (k j i)(t s r)(j r k)(i s t) = (i r j t k) N.


N 5-cycle. (case ) 5-cycle ,
N 3-cycle.

3. Groups

66

, N 3-cycle. Lemma 3.4.25


N = An .

group nontrivial proper normal subgroup , group


simple group. G abelian, subgroup normal subgroup,
G simple, G nontrivial proper subgroup.
G cyclic . , simple group
simple. Theorem 3.4.26 n 5 An simple group,
An .

Chapter 4

Group

group .
group action. group action ,
group action . , .
group action ,
action, group action
.

4.1. Group Action


S group G, a G, s S, a s ,
a s. : ,
group group
, G S. S = G , G
G , .
Definition 4.1.1. G S (G, S, )
group action.
(Act1): a G, s S, a s S.
(Act2): s S, e s = s, e G identity.
(Act3): a, b G, s S, (a b) s = a (b c).
(Act1) action , G S
S . G . b G,
s S, b s S G a b s a (b s).
(Act3) a (b s) . (Act3) : b s a
a b s . ! S = G,
G G G , G group action.
67

4. Group

68

Theorem 3.4.15 Sn n n group action.


group action , .
group action G action S .
(G, S, ) group action. x, y S ( x y)
a G a x = y. equivalence relation.
Lemma (G, S, ) group action ,
.
Lemma 4.1.2. (G, S, ) group action, x, y S
x y a G a x = y,
S equivalence relation.
Proof. Definition 2.1.1 .
(equiv1) x S, (Act2) e x = x x x.
(equiv2) x y, : a G a x = y. a1
, (Act2) (Act3)
a1 y = a1 (a x) = (a1 a) x = e x = x.
a1 G, y x.
(equiv3) x y y z, a, b G a x = y b y = z.
(Act3) (b a) x = b (a x) = b y = z. b a G, x z.

equivalence relation S
, . S , S
[x1 ], . . . , [xr ] r , [xi ] S xi .
Lemma 2.1.2
r
X
|S| =
|[xi ]|.
(4.1)
i=1

[xi ] .
Lemma 4.1.3. (G, S, ) group action, x S.
(1) Gx = {g G | g x = x}, Gx G subgroup.
(2) [x] S x . G S finite,

|G|
|[x]| =
.
|Gx |
Proof. (1) a, b Gx , a x = x b x = x, (Act3)
(a b) x = a (b x) = a x = x,

4.1. Group Action

69

a b Gx .
x = e x = a1 (a x) = a1 x,
a1 Gx . Gx G subgroup.
(2) y [x], a G y = a x. ,
a G, y = a x, y x . [x] = {g x | g G},
[x] g x . a, b G a 6= b
a x = b x. [x] , G
g x . a, b G a x = b x, a1 ,
x = a1 (a x) = a1 (b x) = (a1 b) x.
a1 b Gx . , a1 b Gx a x = b x.
a1 b Gx ! Gx subgroup G , a
x a x. a, b G Gx subgroup
, a x 6= b x. [x] G Gx
. Lagrange (Theorem 2.2.2)
Gx G , G |G|/|Gx | , .

Lemma 4.1.3 , x S, Gx [x] . Gx = G


( G x x), |[x]| = 1. S x
x , x . x ,
x S0 .
Proposition 4.1.4. p . G p-group, (G, S, )
group action, S .
S0 = {s S | g s = s, g G},

|S| |S0 | (mod p).


Proof. S [x1 ], . . . , [xr ] r , x1 , . . . , xt S0 ,
xt+1 , . . . , xr S0 . S0 = {x1 , . . . , xt }.
{x1 , . . . , xt } S0 , x S0 , x , xi
xt+1 , . . . , xr S0 x {x1 , . . . , xt }.
G p-group, |G| = pn . Lagrange
(Theorem 2.2.2) G subgroup p-group. x 6 S0 ,
Gx 6= G, |Gx | = pm 0 m < n. p |G|/|Gx |.
i {t + 1, . . . , r} , xi 6 S0 , Lemma 4.1.3 p |[xi ]| = |G|/|Gxi |.

|S| =

r
X
i=1

|[xi ]| = |S0 | +

r
X
i=t+1

|[xi ]|,

4. Group

70

Pr

i=t+1 |[xi ]|,

p |S| |S0 |, |S| |S0 |

(mod p).

, Proposition 4.1.4
, group action, S0 .

4.2. Cauchys Theorem


Theorem 3.3.2 Cauchys Theorem, abelian
group . group action Cauchys Theorem
finite group .
4.2.1. Cauchys Theorem group action. Cauchys Theorem
, group action . ,
group action . ,
group action, group action
.
m N , H Sm (1 2 m) m-cycle
cyclic subgroup. group G, S:
S = {(a1 , a2 , . . . , am ) Gm | a1 a2 am = e}.
S m G , m
, identity.
H S group action. H, x S. x
x i (i) , 1
(1) , . . . . = (1 2 m), x = (a1 , a2 , . . . , am ) S.

x = (am , a1 , a2 , . . . , am1 ).
x x ,
, , m 7 1, x x m
.
(H, S, ) group action, (Act3). , H,
x S, x x i (i) ; x
x i (i) . ( x) x
(i) ((i)) . x (i)
x i , ( x) x i
((i)) . ( ) x x i
( )(i) = ((i)) . i {1, . . . , m}
( x) = ( ) x.

4.2. Cauchys Theorem

71

(Act1). H = (1 2 m) cyclic group,


H j , j N. x S
x S, (Act3) 2 x = ( x) ( (Act3)),
2 x S. j N j x S.
x = (a1 , a2 , . . . , am1 , am ) S x S.
x = (am , a1 , a2 , . . . , am1 ), ai G , x S,
am a1 a2 am1 = e . x = (a1 , a2 , . . . , am1 , am ) S,
(a1 a2 am1 ) am = e. a1 a2 am1 = a1
m . G group,
1
1
am a1
m = am am = e, am am = am (a1 a2 am1 ) = e.

x S.
(Act2). I H H identity, I(i) = i, i
{1, . . . , m}. I x x i i
. x S, I x = x.
, (H, S, ) group action. S .
|G| = n, S (a1 , . . . , am ) ,
G , S nm . S
a1 a2 am1 am = e. m 1 G
a1 , . . . , am1 m (a1 am1 )1 . S
,
|S| = nm1 .

(4.2)

S0 . x = (a1 , a2 , . . . , am1 , am ) S0 ,
x = x. x = (am , a1 , . . . , am1 ),
am = a1 , a1 = a2 , . . . , am1 = am .

a1 = a2 = = am1 = am .
S0 (a, a, . . . , a) , a G ;
S0 S, (a, a, . . . , a) S am = e.
x = (a, a, . . . , a), am = e, x S0 .
S0 = {(a, a, . . . , a) Gm | a G, am = e}.

(4.3)

em = e, (e, e, . . . , e) S0 . S0 ,
|S0 | 1.

(4.4)

4.2.2. Cauchy . group action Cauchys Theorem.


G abelian, group.
Theorem 4.2.1 (Cauchys Theorem). G group p G ,
p , a G ord(a) = p.

4. Group

72

Proof. group action, m = p, H Sp


(1 2 p) p-cycle cyclic subgroup.
S = {(a1 , . . . , ap ) Gp | a1 a2 ap = e}.
|G| = n (4.2) |S| = np1 , p | n p |S|.

|S| 0 (mod p)

(4.5)

lemma 3.4.7 (1 2 p) p-cycle order p, |H| = p.


H p-group. Proposition 4.1.4 (4.5)
|S0 | |S| 0 (mod p).
p |S0 |. (4.4) |S0 | 1, p |S0 |,
|S0 | p 0.
|S| > 1.
S0 (e, e, . . . , e) . (4.3),
(a, a, . . . , a) , ap = e. a 6= e ap = e,
ord(a) = p.

abelian group Cauchy ,


abelian group Sylow . group Cauchy
group Sylow .

4.3. p-Group
abelian p-group. p-group.
4.3.1. Conjugation as a group action. x G,
g G, g x g 1 x conjugation. G S = G
group action.
G group. S = G, S . G S
: a G, x S, a x = a x a1 .
(G, S, ) group action. (Act1). a G,
x S, a x = a x a1 . a, x, a1 G G group,
a x a1 G = S. a x S. e x = e x e1 = x, (Act2)
. a, b G, x S,
a (b x) = a (b x b1 ) = a (b x b1 ) a1 ,

(a b) x = (a b) x (a b)1 = (a b) x (b1 a1 ).
a (b x) = (a b) x, (Act3).

4.3. p-Group

73

action S = G, |S| = |G|. S0 ?


x S0 g G g x = x. x, g G,
g x g 1 = x. g x = x g, g G. S0
G . x S G ,
g x = g x g 1 = x g g 1 = x,
x S0 .
, 1.4 Z(G)
G center, Lemma 1.5.1 Z(G) G subgroup. ,

S0 = Z(G) = {x G | g x = x g, g G}.

(4.6)

e Z(G),
|S0 | 1.

(4.7)

4.3.2. p-group . abelian group subgroup


normal subgroup, abelian group ,
nontrivial subgroup normal order quotient group,
induction. group ,
nontrivial normal subgroup quotient group. p-group
, p ( cyclic group ),
p-group nontrivial normal subgroup. p-group
induction .
Theorem 4.3.1. G p-group,
Z(G) 6= {e}.
G a 6= e a g = g a, g G.
Proof. conjugation group action (G, S, ). |G| =
|S|, G p-group,
|S| 0 (mod p).

(4.8)

G p-group, Lemma 4.1.4 (4.8)


|S0 | |S| 0 (mod p).
(4.7) |S0 | p . (4.6)
|Z(G)| = |S0 | > 1. Z(G) identity ,
.

4. Group

74

Theorem 4.3.1 normal subgroup ? Z(G)


G subgroup, G normal subgroup. a Z(G), g G,
g a g 1 = a Z(G). Z(G) G normal subgroup.
Corollary 4.3.2. G p-group |G| 6= p, G simple group.
Proof. G abelian, |G| = p simple group.
|G| 6= p G simple group.
G abelian, Z(G)
G Theorem 4.3.1 Z(G) 6= {e},
Z(G) G nontrivial proper normal subgroup. G simple
group.

p-group, order p group cyclic.


order p2 group.
Proposition 4.3.3. G group |G| = p2 , G abelian group.

G ' Z/p2 Z

or

G ' Z/pZ Z/pZ.

Proof. G abelian group Z(G) 6= G, Theorem 4.3.1


Z(G) 6= {e}, Lagrange (Theorem 2.2.2) |Z(G)| = p. a G
a 6 Z(G). a centralizer
C(a) = {g G | g a = a g}.
Proposition 1.4.2 C(a) G subgroup. x Z(G),
x a = a x, x C(a). Z(G) C(a). a 6 Z(G), a
C(a) ( a a = a a), Z(G)

C(a). |C(a)| > |Z(G)| = p.


Lagrange |C(a)| p2 , |C(a)| = p2 .
C(a) = G, G C(a). G a
. a 6 Z(G) . G abelian group.

Proposition 4.3.3 |G| = pn , n 3 .


order 8 = 23 nonabelian group.
:
Proposition 4.3.4. G group, |G| = pn , G normal
subgroup N order pn1 .
Proof. . n = 1 |G| = p, {e} G normal
subgroup |{e}| = p11 = 1. .
|G| = pr , 1 r n 1 , . |G| = pn ,
Theorem 4.3.1 Z(G) 6= {e}, Lagrange Z(G) p-group. p

4.4. First Sylows Theorem

75

|Z(G)|, Cauchy (Theorem 4.2.1) Z(G) subgroup H


order p. H Z(G), a H, g G a g = g a.
g a g 1 = a g g 1 = a H, H G normal subgroup. H G
normal, G0 = G/H quotient group. |G0 | = |G|/|H| = pn1
induction G0 normal subgroup N 0 order
pn2 . Correspondence (Theorem 2.7.3) G normal
subgroup N , H N N/H = N 0 .
|N | = |H| |N 0 | = p pn2 = pn1 .
.

Proposition 4.3.4 Corollary 4.3.2 , |G| = pn


G normal subgroup Gn1 order pn1 . Gn1
Proposition 4.3.4 Gn1 normal subgroup Gn2 order pn2 .
G subgroup:
{e} = G0 G1 Gn1 Gn = G,
|Gi | = pi , Gi+1 normal subgroup. Gi+1 /Gi order p
group, quotient group cyclic group. group
G subgroups: {e} = G0 G1 Gn1 Gn = G,
Gi Gi+1 normal subgroup, Gi+1 /Gi cyclic group,
group G solvable group. Proposition 4.3.4 p-group
solvable group.

4.4. First Sylows Theorem


Sylow . Sylow , Isomorphism
. group action ,
. Sylow
.
4.4.1. Group action on left coset. H G subgroup, a1 b H
a, b , Lemma 2.2.1 a

a H = {a h | h H}
. a H a , a H
H G left coset. a H = b H
a1 b H. , a H 6= b H, a1 b 6 H.

4. Group

76

G finite group, H G subgroup. S H G


left coset . ,
S = {a H | a G}.
a H . H S :
h H, a H S,
h (a H) = (h a) H.
(H, S, ) group action. (Act1).
h H, a H S, h (a H) = (h a) H, h a G ,
H G left coset.
e (a H) = (e a) H = a H,
(Act2) . h, h0 H, a H S,
h (h0 (a H)) = h ((h0 a) H) = (h (h0 a)) H,

(h h0 ) (a H) = ((h h0 ) a) H.
(Act3) .
S H G left coset , S H G
. Lagrange (Theorem 2.2.2)
|G|/|H|,
|G|
|S| =
.
(4.9)
|H|
S0 ? a H S0 , h H h (a H) = a H.
h (a H) = (h a) H,
a H = (h a) H.
a1 h a H. a H S0 h H, a1 h a H.
, a h H, a1 h a H, a H S0 .
S0 = {a H | a1 h a H, h H}.

(4.10)

S0 , a h H,
a1 h a H . a , a1 H a H.
G finite group, Lemma 1.5.2 |a1 H a| = |H|,
a1 H a = H. (4.10)
S0 = {a H | a1 H a = H}.
a1 H a = H a N (H),
N (H) = {a G | a1 H a = H}.

(4.11)

4.4. First Sylows Theorem

77

N (H) G subgroup. a, b N (H), a1 H a = H


b1 H b = H,
(b a)1 H (b a) = a1 (b1 H b) a = a1 H a = H.
b a N (H), . inverse, a1 H a = H,
a (a1 H a) a1 = a H a1 .
H, (a1 )1 H a1 , a1 N (H).
h H, H group, h1 H, h0 H
h1 h0 h H. h1 H h = H, h N (H). H N (H),
H N (H) subgroup. H N (H) subgroup, Lagrange
|H| |N (H)|. (4.11) S0 = {a H | a N (H)},
S0 N (H) H ,
|S0 | =

|N (H)|
.
|H|

(4.12)

H N (H) subgroup, e H = H .

|S0 | 1.

(4.13)

N (H) H normalizer, H N (H) subgroup,


N (H) normal subgroup. normal, : h H,
a N (H) a1 h a H. a1 H a = H, a1 h a H.
Lemma.
Lemma 4.4.1. H G subgroup. N (H) = {a G | a1 H a = H},
H N (H) normal subgroup.
4.4.2. Sylow p-subgroup . : |G| = pn m, p
p - m. H G p-subgroup order pn , H
G Sylow p-subgroup. Sylow G Sylow
p-subgroup. .
Theorem 4.4.2 (First Sylows Theorem). G group |G| = pn m,
n 1, p p - m.
(1) G subgroup H order pr 1 r n 1,
G subgroup K order pr+1 H K normal
subgroup.
(2) G subgroup P order pn , G Sylow
p-subgroup.

4. Group

78

Proof. (1) action H S = {a H | a G}.


(4.10)
|S| = |G|/|H| = pn m/pr = pnr m.
r < n
|S| 0 (mod p).

(4.14)

H p-group, Proposition 4.1.4 (4.14)


|S0 | |S| 0 (mod p).

(4.15)

Lemma 4.4.1 H N (H) normal subgroup, G0 =


N (H)/H quotient group. |G0 | = |N (H)|/|H|, (4.12)
|G0 | = |S0 |. (4.15) p |G0 |. G0 Cauchy G0
subgroup K 0 order p. G0 = N (H)/H Correspondence
(Corollary 2.7.3) N (H) subgroup K H K K 0 = K/H.

|K| = |K 0 | |H| = p pr = pr+1 .


H K N (H), H N (H) normal, H K normal
( Remark 2.4.2 (1)).
(2) (1) Sylow p-subgroup . p |G|
Cauchy G subgroup H1 order p. n = 1,
. 1 n 1 (1) G subgroup H2 order p2 .
G subgroup order pn .

Theorem 4.4.2 p-subgroup H


p-subgroup K H K normal subgroup. Proposition 4.3.4
p-subgroup k p-subgroup h H K
normal subgroup. .

4.5. Second Sylows Theorem


Sylow p |G| G Sylow p-subgroup.
? Sylow .
4.5.1. Another group action on left coset. First Sylows Theorem
H G H left coset . H G subgroup
P left coset .
G finite group, H P G subgroups. S = {a P | a G}
G P left coset . H S : h H,
a P S,
h (a P ) = (h a) P.

4.5. Second Sylows Theorem

79

(H, S, ) group action.


|S| =

|G|
.
|P |

(4.16)

S0 ? a P S0 , h H
(h a) P = h (a P ) = a P.
a h a P , a1 h a P .
h H , a1 H a P . a P S0
a1 H a P . , a a1 H a P , a P S0 .
S0 = {a P | a1 H a P }.

(4.17)

( Sylow ).
G a a1 H a P {a G | a1 H a P }.
G subgroup (), P (
H P ). group action |S0 | .
, Second Sylows Theorem |S0 |.
4.5.2. Sylow p-subgroups . Sylow G
Sylow p-subgroup. Sylow Sylow p-subgroup,
G Sylow p-subgroup.
Theorem 4.5.1 (Second Sylows Theorem). p . G finite
group, P G Sylow p-subgroup.
(1) H G p-subgroup, a G
H a P a1 .
(2) P 0 G Sylow p-subgroup, a G
P 0 = a P a1 .
Proof. (1) H S = {a P | a G} group action.
|G| = pn m, p - m. P G Sylow p-subgroup, |P | = pn .
(4.16) |S| = |G|/|P | = m. p - m, p |S|,
|S| 6 0 (mod p).

(4.18)

H p-group, Proposition 4.1.4 (4.18)


|S0 | |S| 6 0 (mod p).
p |S0 |. S0 ; |S0 | = 0, p
|S0 | . S0 , a G a P S0 .
(4.17) a1 H a P. H a P a1 .

4. Group

80

(2) P 0 G Sylow p-subgroup, (1)


a G P 0 a P a1 . Lemma 1.5.2 |P | = |a P a1 |,
|P 0 | = |P |, |P 0 | = |a P a1 |. P 0 = a P a1 .

Theorem 4.5.1 G Sylow p-subgroup P , Sylow


p-subgroup a P a1 , . P G normal subgroup,
a G a P a1 = P , G Sylow p-subgroup.
, P G normal subgroup, a G a P a1 6= P .
Lemma 1.5.2 a P a1 G subgroup, |a P a1 | = |P |,
a P a1 G P Sylow p-subgroup. Sylow
p-subgroup . :
Corollary 4.5.2. P G Sylow p-subgroup, G Sylow
p-subgroup P G normal subgroup.
Example 4.5.3. |A4 | = 4!/2 = 22 3. A4 Sylow 2-subgroup
Sylow 3-subgroup. A4 order 4 normal subgroup
N = {I, (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3)}.
N A4 Sylow 2-subgroup, A4 order 4 subgroup.
(1 2 3) A4 cyclic subgroup order 3, h(1 2 3)i A4
Sylow 3-subgroup. h(1 2 4)i Sylow 3-subgroup. h(1 2 3)i
A4 normal subgroup.

4.6. Third Sylows Theorem


Sylow Sylow p-subgroup .
Sylow p-subgroup .
. Sylow Theorem
.
4.6.1. Group action on the set of Sylow p-subgroups. G finite
group, p |G| . S G Sylow p-subgroup
( Sylow p-subgroup S ). group
action, G S . G Sylow p-subgroup P
P S .
G S : a G, P 0 S,
a P 0 = a P 0 a1 .
(G, S, ) group action. (Act1). P 0 G
Sylow p-subgroup, Lemma 1.5.2 a P 0 a1 G Sylow

4.6. Third Sylows Theorem

81

p-subgroup. a P 0 S. e P 0 = e P 0 e1 = P 0 (Act2) .
a, b G,
(a b) P 0 = (a b) P 0 (a b)1 = (a b) P 0 (b1 a1 ),

a (b P 0 ) = a (b P 0 ) a1 = a (b P 0 b1 ) a1 ,
(a b) P 0 = a (b P 0 ). (Act3).
|S| ? G Sylow p-subgroup .
S0 , group action ,
|S|. ? P1 , P2 S Sylow (Theorem
4.5.1) a G
P2 = a P1 a1 = a P1 .
S , .
P 0 S, (4.1) |S| = |[P 0 ]|. [P 0 ]
. Lemma 4.1.3 |[P 0 ]| = |G|/|GP 0 |, GP 0 = {a G | a P 0 = P 0 }.
GP 0 ? GP 0 a
P 0 = a P 0 = a P 0 a1 .
4.4
P 0 normalizer N (P 0 ). GP 0 = N (P 0 ).
|S| = |[P 0 ]| =

|G|
|N (P 0 )|

(4.19)

group action. G Sylow p-subgroup


P , P S ( S) : x P , P 0 S,

x P 0 = x P 0 x1 .
, group . (P, S, )
group action.
S G Sylow p-subgroup .
group , ,
. |S0 |.
S0 ? P 0 S0 , x P ,
x P 0 x1 = x P 0 = P 0 ,
normalizer x N (P 0 ). P 0 S0 P 0
x P x N (P 0 ) . : P 0 S0 , P N (P 0 ).

4. Group

82

, P 0 G Sylow p-subgroup P N (P 0 ), x P ,
x P 0 = P 0 .
S0 = {P 0 S | P N (P 0 )}.

(4.20)

P S Lemma 4.4.1 P N (P ),
P S0 .

(4.21)

4.6.2. Sylow p-subgroups . Sylow G order


G Sylow p-subgroups .
Theorem 4.6.1 (Third Sylows Theorem). G group |G| = pn m,
n 1, p p - m. r G Sylow p-subgroup ,
(1)

r | m;

(2)

r 1 (mod p).

Proof. (1) group action (G, S, ) r | m. (4.19) :


P 0 S, r = |G|/|N (P 0 )|. Lemma 4.4.1 P 0 N (P 0 )
subgroup. |P 0 | = pn , Lagrange |N (P 0 )| pn ,
N (P 0 ) G subgroup, Lagrange |N (P 0 )| = pn d d | m.

pn m
m
|G|
=
= .
r=
0
n
|N (P )|
p d
d
r | m.
(2) group action (P, S, ) r 1 (mod p). P
p-group, Proposition 4.1.4
r = |S| |S0 | (mod p).

(4.22)

|S0 |. (4.20) P 0 S0 P N (P 0 ).
|N (P 0 )| = pn d, d | m. p - m p - d, |P | = pn P N (P 0 )
Sylow p-subgroup. , Lemma 4.4.1 , P 0 N (P 0 ) normal
subgroup. P 0 N (P 0 ) Sylow p-subgroup. Corollary 4.5.2 P 0
N (P 0 ) Sylow p-subgroup. P = P 0 . S0 P
. (4.21) S0 = {P }, S0 . (4.22)
r 1 (mod p).

Example 4.6.2. (1) A4 Sylow 3-subgroup (Example 4.5.3),


A4 Sylow 3-subgroup ? r , |A4 | = 4 3,
Sylow (Theorem 4.6.1) r | 4 r = 3k + 1. r = 1 r = 4.
r 6= 1, r = 4. A4
(1 2 3),

(1 2 4),

(1 3 4),

(2 3 4)

3-cycles cyclic group , A4 Sylow


3-subgroup.

4.7. Sylow

83

(2) A5 Sylow 5-subgroups ? r , |A5 | = 5!/2 = 512,


Sylow (Theorem 4.6.1) r | 12 r = 5k + 1. r = 1 r = 6.
A5 simple (Theorem 3.4.26) A5 Sylow 5-subgroup
A5 normal subgroup. Sylow (Corollary 4.5.2) r 6= 1.
r = 6. A5 5-cycle 4! = 24 (?
!). 5-cycle cyclic group 4
5-cycle . :
h(1 2 3 4 5)i = {(1 2 3 4 5), (1 3 5 2 4), (1 4 2 5 3), (1 5 4 3 2), I}
24 5 cycle 24/4 = 6 order 5 subgroup.
A5 Sylow 5-subgroup.
Example 4.6.2 . Sylow ,
group order Sylow Sylow
p-subgroup. group , A5 Sylow 2-subgroup
Third Sylows Theorem 3, 5 15 .
.

4.7. Sylow
group . group
Sylow . Sylow ,
, group
, group .
order group, order
group ( order p group cyclic, order p2 group abelian).
.
Proposition 4.7.1. G group |G| = pn q, n 1, p q
p > q. G Sylow p-group G normal subgroup.
Proof. group order, , normal
. Second Sylows Theorem .
G Sylow p-subgroup , Sylow (Corollary
4.5.2) G normal subgroup .
G r Sylow p-subgroup. Sylow (Theorem 4.6.1) r | q
r = pk + 1. r 6= 1, r p + 1 > q, r | q . r = 1,
G Sylow p-group G normal subgroup.
n = 1 .

4. Group

84

Proposition 4.7.2. G group |G| = pq, p q


p > q. q - p 1, G cyclic group.
Proof. . p, q , Cauchy (Theorem
4.2.1) G subgroups P Q order p q. P
G Sylow p-subgroup, Q Sylow q-subgroup. Proposition 4.7.1 P G
normal subgroup, Q ? G r Sylow q-subgroup. Sylow
(Theorem 4.6.1) r | p r = qk + 1. r 6= 1, r | p r = p,
p = qk + 1. qk = p 1. q - p 1 . r = 1,
Sylow (Corollary 4.5.2) Q G normal subgroup.
P Q normal subgroup, P Q = {e} Theorem
3.2.4 G ' P Q. P Q P Q subgroup (Lemma 1.5.1),
Lagrange (Theorem 2.2.2) |P Q| |P | = p |Q| = q.
|P Q| = 1, P Q = {e}.
G ' P Q, |P | = p, |Q| = q , Corollary 2.2.3
Theorem 3.1.1 P ' Z/pZ Q ' Z/qZ. Lemma 3.2.5 Corollary
3.2.3
G ' P Q ' Z/pZ Z/qZ ' Z/pqZ.
G cyclic group.

q | p 1 ? q = 2 . |G| = 2p,
p . Proposition 4.7.1 , G Sylow p-subgroup P
G normal subgroup. |P | = p, Corollary 2.2.3 a G
ord(a) = p P = hai. 2 |G|, Cauchy (Theorem 4.2.1)
b G ord(b) = 2. (: Lagranges Theorem b 6 P P hbi = {e}.)
P G normal subgroup i N, b a b1 = ai . i
.
2

b (b a b1 ) b1 = b ai b1 = (b a b1 )i = ai .
2

b2 = (b1 )2 = e, a = ai . ai 1 = e. Lemma 2.3.2


ord(a) = p | i2 1. p , p | i 1 p | i + 1. i = pk + 1
i = pk 1.
i = pk + 1, b a = a b. hai hbi = {e}. Lemma 3.4.8
ord(a b) = 2p = |G|. G cyclic group.
i = pk 1, b a = a1 b, a1 6= a ( ord(a) = p 6= 2), G
abelian. B = hbi, P G normal subgroup, Isomorphism
(Theorem 2.6.4) P B G subgroup,
P B/P ' B/P B.

4.7. Sylow

85

P B = {e}, |P B| = |P | |B| = 2p. P B = G.


G = {ai bj | 0 i p 1, 0 j 1}.
group. dihedral group of degree p,
Dp . .
Proposition 4.7.3. G group |G| = 2p, p ,
G ' Z/2pZ

or

G ' Dp .

Proposition 4.7.3 Dp order 2p nonabelian group.


n 3, nonabelian group
Dn = {ai bj | 0 i n 1, 0 j 1},
a, b , ord(a) = n, ord(b) = 2 b a = a1 b.
nonabelian group, dihedral group of degree n. order 2n.
n , Dn order 2n nonabelian group .
order 10 group group
.
order 1 identity. order 2, 3, 5, 7 group cyclic
isomorphic to, Z/2Z, Z/3Z, Z/5Z, Z/7Z.
order 4 group Proposition 4.3.3 , isomorphic to Z/4Z
Z/2Z Z/2Z. order 9 , isomorphic to Z/9Z
Z/3Z Z/3Z.
order 6 group Proposition 4.7.3 , abelian
nonabelian, isomorphic to Z/6Z D3 . :
S3 3! = 6 , ? ! S3 nonabelian,
S3 ' D3 . S3 (1 2 3) D3 order 3 a,
(1 2) D3 order 2 b,
(1 2)(1 2 3) = (2 3) = (3 2 1)(1 2).
order 10 group , isomorphic to Z/10Z D5 .
order 8 group. Abelian ,
Z/8Z, Z/4Z Z/2Z Z/2Z Z/2Z Z/2Z. nonabelian
D4 = {ai bj | 0 i 3, 0 j 1},
ord(a) = 4, ord(b) = 2 b a = a1 b. order
8 nonabelian group Q8 , quaternion group. Q8 :
Q8 = {1, i, j k},

4. Group

86

i2 = j 2 = k 2 = 1 i j = j i = k. Q8 order 4 6
( i, j k), D4 ( a a3 ) Q8 D4 isomorphic.
order 8 nonabelian group .
Proposition 4.7.4. G order 8 nonabelian group,
G ' D4

or

G ' Q8 .

Proof. |G| = 8, Lagrange (Corollary 2.3.4) G order


1, 2, 4 8. G order 4. G order
8, G cyclic G nonabelian . order 4
G identity order 2, g G g 2 = e.
, a, b G,
e = (a b)2 = (a b) (a b),

a b = a (a b) (a b) b = b a
G nonabelian . G order 4 .
a G ord(a) = 4. hai order 4 = 22 subgroup
|G| = 8 = 23 , Sylow (Theorem 4.4.2) , G subgroup K
|K| = 22+1 hai K normal subgroup. |K| = |G|, K = G.
hai K normal subgroup.
hai K normal subgroup, b G b 6 hai, i N
b a b1 = ai . i . ord(b a b1 ) = r,
(b a b1 )r = b ar b1 = e,
ar = e. Lemma 2.3.2 4 | r. (b a b1 )4 = b a4 b1 = e r | 4.
ord(b a b1 ) = 4. Lemma 2.3.3 i = 1, 3 ord(ai ) = 4,
b a b1 = ai , i = 1 i = 3. i = 1 b a = a b G
abelian, G nonabelian .
b a = a3 b = a1 b.
b 6 hai, ord(b) = 2 ord(b) = 4. ord(b) = 2
G ' D4 ; ord(b) = 4, G ' Q8 . order 8 nonabelian group
.

: order 11 group ( )?
order 12 ? .
order , . ,
order 16 group 14 , order 32 group 51 .

Part II

RING

Chapter 5

Ring

ring , ring
.

5.1. Ring
Ring Group , . +
. + abelian group,
. , .
(distributive laws) .
Definition 5.1.1. R + ,
ring:
(R1): a, b R a + b R.
(R2): a, b, c R (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).
(R3): R 0 a R a+0 = 0+a = a.
(R4): R a, R b a + b = b + a = 0.
(R5): a, b R a + b = b + a.
(R6): a, b R a b R.
(R7): a, b, c R (a b) c = a (b c).
(R8): a, b, c R a(b+c) = ab+ac (b+c)a = ba+ca.
(R1) (R5) R (+) abelian group. group
. 0 R a + 0 = 0 + a = a
(Proposition 1.2.1), a R b R a+b = b+a = 0
(Proposition 1.2.2). b a. 0
89

5. Ring

90

0, a a inverse,
.
group .
Lemma 5.1.2. R ring, :
(1) a R, (a) = a.
(2) a, b R c R a + c = b.
Proof. Theorem 1.2.3 Corollary 1.2.5.

(a) = a a inverse a,
.
(R6) (R7) R () .
identity . ring identity ,
R group Proposition 1.2.1
identity . 1 identity (:
1 1). ring R
identity , R ring with 1.
(R6) (R7) a b = b a. ring R a, b R
a b = b a, R commutative ring ( :
abelian ring ). commutative
ring with 1 ring.
(R8) ring . ring
, (R8) ring .
ring commutative ring, .

5.2. Ring
ring ( ) .
R ring, identity 0 .
0 0 0 ,
0 . ? a + 0 = 0 a + x = a x = 0
, Lemma !
Lemma 5.2.1. R ring 0 identity, a R

a 0 = 0 a = 0.
Proof. 0 , a 0 ,
Lemma .

5.2. Ring

91

0 identity, (R3) 0 + 0 = 0. (R8) :


a 0 = a (0 + 0) = a 0 + a 0.
(R3) : a 0 + 0 = a 0, x = 0 x = a 0 a 0 + x = a 0
. Lemma 5.1.2 (2) a 0 = 0.
(0 + 0) a = 0 a 0 a = 0.

Remark 5.2.2.
a 0 = a (a a) = a a a a = 0

(5.1)

Lemma 5.2.1. (5.1) . R


. 0 = a a 0 = a + (a).
(5.1)
a 0 = a (a + (a)) = a a + a (a).
a a + a (a) 0 ? 0 a (a) a a inverse,
a (a) = (a a). ( Lemma
5.2.3). Lemma 5.2.1.
a (a) = (a a) ? Lemma .
Lemma 5.2.3. R ring, a, b R
a (b) = (a) b = (a b).
Proof. a (b) a b inverse, a b a inverse
b (a b) a b inverse. a (b) = (a b)
(a (b)) + (a b) = 0. (R8) Lemma 5.2.1
(a (b)) + (a b) = a ((b) + b) = a 0 = 0,
. (a) b = (a b).

ring, R a (1) a. 1 R
, 1 R . R (1) a .
R ring with 1, Lemma 5.2.3
(1) a = 1 (a) = a

a (1) = (a 1) = a.

Lemma 5.2.3 .
Corollary 5.2.4. R ring a, b R
(a) (b) = a b.

5. Ring

92

Proof. b , Lemma 5.2.3 (a) (b) = (a (b)).


Lemma 5.2.3 a (b) = (a b).
(a) (b) = ((a b)).
Lemma 5.1.2 (1) ((a b)) = a b, (a) (b) = a b.

Lemma 5.2.3 Corollary 5.2.4


, a + (b) a b.
ring abelian
group? group identity 1,
R abelian group. a, b R, (a + b) (1 + 1)
:
(a + b) (1 + 1) = a (1 + 1) + b (1 + 1) = (a + a) + (b + b),
(a + b) (1 + 1) = (a + b) 1 + (a + b) 1 = (a + b) + (a + b).
a + a + b + b = a + b + a + b, a + b = b + a.
: n , na
n a . 2a = a + a, 3a = a + a + a, . . . .
2a 2 a, na n a. 2 n R
, n a . n m,
(na) (mb) = (nm)(a b) ? , na n a , mb
m b , (R8) nm a b .

5.3. Zero Divisor Unit


ring 0 0, ring
0 0. ring
inverse, inverse .
.
Definition 5.3.1. R ring. a 6= 0 R R
b 6= 0 a b = 0 b a = 0, a R zero-divisor.
b R zero-divisor.
Example 5.3.2.
Z/6Z = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
abelian group. a + b a + b 6 . 2 + 5 = 1.
Z/6Z . a b a b 6 .
2 5 = 4. Z/6Z ring. 0
Z/6Z 0 ( identity). 2 6= 0 3 6= 0, 2 3 = 0. 2 3

5.3. Zero Divisor Unit

93

Z/6Z zero-divisor. 4 3 = 0, 4 zero-divisor.


1 5 0 0, 1 5 Z/6Z
zero-divisor.
a zero-divisor , : a x = a y
x 6= y ( x a = y a x 6= y). Z/6Z 2 1 = 2 4 = 2.
a zero-divisor, b 6= 0 a b = 0 (
b a = 0).
a (b + c) = a b + a c = 0 + a c = a c
( (b + c) a = b a + c a = 0 + c a = c a),
b 6= 0, b + c 6= c.
a zero-divisor , .
Lemma 5.3.3. a R ring R zero-divisor , a b = a c
b a = c a, b = c.
Proof. a b = a c, a b a c = 0. Lemma 5.2.3 (a c) = a (c)
0 = a b a c = a b + a (c) = a (b c).
a zero-divisor, b c 6= 0, a (b c) 6= 0. b c = 0,
b = c. b a = c a, b = c.

, ring a 6= 0 a b = a c
b = c, ring zero-divisor. zero-divisor
ring .
Definition 5.3.4. R ring R zero-divisor, R
domain. R commutative ring with 1 domain,
integral domain.
Z ring integral domain.
R ring with 1, R inverse R .
.
Definition 5.3.5. R ring with 1, a R b R
a b = b a = 1, a R unit.
b R unit. Proposition 1.2.2
b R . a unit a1
inverse.
Example 5.3.6. Z/6Z ring 1 Z/6Z 1 ( identity). 55 = 1,
1 5 unit. 0, 2, 3, 4 unit.

5. Ring

94

Unit :
Lemma 5.3.7. R ring with 1 a R unit,
(1) a 0, R zero-divisor.
(2) b R, a x = b y a = b R .
Proof. (1) a = 0, Lemma 5.2.1 a R 0,
b a b = 1. a unit , a 6= 0.
a zero divisor, c 6= 0 a c = 0 c a = 0.
a c = 0, a unit a1 R,
0 = a1 (a c) = c.
c 6= 0 , a zero-divisor. c a = 0 .
(2) b R, a unit a1 R, x = a1 b R
a x = a (a1 b) = b.
x0 R a x0 = b, a x = a x0 , (1) a zero-divisor
Lemma 5.3.3 x = x0 . a x = b R .
y a = b R .

, ring unit zero-divisor,


zero-divisor unit. Z 2 zero-divisor, Z
unit.
Lemma 5.3.7 R 0 unit. 0
unit ring .
Definition 5.3.8. R ring with 1 R 0 unit, R
division ring. R commutative ring division ring,
R field.
Q ring field.
: R division ring, R 0
unit zero-divisor. 0 0. R
0 . inverse,
R 0 group. R field
, R 0 abelian group.

5.4. Subring
group subgroup. ring
subring.

5.4. Subring

95

subring .
Definition 5.4.1. R ring, S R R S
ring, S R subring.
S (R1) (R8) S R subring,
subgroup R (R2) (R7)
. (R5) (R8) R
(R1), (R3), (R4) (R5). S R
subgroup S . .
Lemma 5.4.2. R ring, S R. a, b S a b S
a b S, S R subring.
Proof. Lemma 1.3.4 , a, b S a b S, S
R subgroup. a b S , S R
subring.

Example 5.4.3. Z/6Z subring? subring


subgroup. Z/6Z subgroup ,
. Z/6Z order 6 = 2 3 abelian group,
Lagrange Cauchy (Theorem 2.2.2 & Theorem 3.3.2) order 3
order 2 subgroups ( Z/6Z cyclic group
). {0, 2, 4} {0, 3} subgroups.
, Z/6Z subrings.
subgroup : G group, H subgroup, H
identity G identity. R ring , S subring, S
0 R 0. R S group, R identity
1, S 1. S 1, S 1 R 1 . Example
5.4.3 Z/6Z 1 1. {0, 2, 4} subring
0 4 = 0,

2 4 = 2,

4 4 = 4,

4 {0, 2, 4} subring 1. ring


identity identity . 1 Z/6Z 1, 4 {0, 2, 4}
1. 4 Z/6Z 1 ! ( 3 5 .)
4 Z/6Z zero-divisor, {0, 2, 4}
unit. Lemma 5.3.7 (1) , ring . ,
ring ring subring .

5. Ring

96

5.5. Noncommutative Ring


commutative ring . noncommutative
ring. noncommutative ring,
. .
noncommutative ring
.
5.5.1. Matrix ring M2 (R). R commutative ring with 1.
M2 (R) R 2 2 , M2 (R)

a b
c d
a, b, c, d R. R ring M2 (R)
, :

0 0

a b
a b
a + a0 b + b0

+
=
c d
c0 d0
c + c0 d + d0

0 0

a b
a b
a a0 + b c0 a b0 + b d0

=
.
c d
c0 d0
c a0 + d c0 c b0 + d d0
R

ringwith 1, M2 (R) ring,
0 0
1 0

M2 (R) 0 1. M2 (R) ring


0 0
0 1
with 1. R commutative, M2 (R) commutative ring.
:

0 0
1 0
0 0

=
1 0
0 0
1 0

1 0
0 0

0 0
0 0

=
.
1 0
0 0

(: ring R commutative , a, b R
a b = b a. R noncommutative , a, b R
a b 6= b a .)

0 0
1 0

M2 (R) zero-divisor.
1 0
0 0
noncommutative ring a b = 0
b a 6= 0 .
M2 (R) zero-divisor unit. :

a b
d b
adbc
0

=
.
(5.2)
c d
c a
0
adbc

R commutative
(5.2) . a d b c

a b
,
determinant. A M2 (R)
c d
det(A) determinant. R ring, A M2 (R),
det(A) R. Determinant :
det(A B) = det(A) det(B),

A, B M2 (R).

(5.3)

5.5. Noncommutative Ring

97

M
? determinant
0
.

2 (R)
zero-divisor

a b
0 0
d b
0 0
, A =
det(A) = 0 ,
6=
6=
,
c d
0 0
c a
0 0
(5.2) A zero-divisor.
zero-divisor ? det(A)
R
, A

zero-divisor

a b
0 0
M2 (R) zero-divisor. A =
det(A) =
6=
c d
0 0
R zero-divisor. 6= 0 R = 0.
:

0
0

, 6= 0,

(1) a , b , c d 0: B =

0 0
B 6=
,
0 0

a b
0
a b
0 0
AB =

=
=
.
c d
0
c d
0 0
, A M2 (R) zero-divisor.

(2) a , b , c d 0:

d b
0
d b
0 0
B=

=
6=
.
c a
0
c a
0 0

AB =

a b
c d

d b
0

,
c a
0

(5.2)

AB =

0
0

0
0 0

=
=
.
0
0

0 0

A M2 (R) zero-divisor.

a b
A =
det(A) = R zero-divisor ?
c d
0 0

a b
0 0
B =
6=
( a0 , b0 , c0 d0 0)
c0 d0
0 0

0 0
d b

AB =
.
C=
, (5.2)
0 0
c a

0 0
a0 b0
0
a b
.
=
(C A) B =

c0 d0
c0 d0
0
0
0
0
zero-divisor a0 , b0 , c0 d0
0, a , b , c
0 0
d0 0. (C A) B 6=
.
0 0

0 0
(C A) B = C (A B) =
0 0

5. Ring

98

0 0
0 0
, B 6=
A B =
.
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0
B 6=
B A =
. A M2 (R)
0 0
0 0
zero-divisor. :

Proposition 5.5.1. R commutative ring A M2 (R), A M2 (R)


zero-divisor det(A) = 0 det(A) R zero-divisor.
Proposition 5.5.1 M2 (Z) M2 (Q) determinant 0
zero-divisor, determinant 0 zero-divisor.
R commutative ring with 1 M2 (R) unit ?
:
Proposition 5.5.2. R commutative ring with 1 A M2 (R), A
M2 (R) unit det(A) R unit.
Proof. A M2 (R) unit, B M2 (R)

1 0
AB =BA=
.
0 1
(5.3)
det(A) det(B) = det(B) det(A) = 1.
det(A), det(B) R, det(A) R unit.

a b
, A =
det(A) = R unit,
c d

1 d
1 (b)
B=
.
1 (c)
1 a
1 R, B M2 (R). (5.2),

1 0
AB =BA=
.
0 1
A M2 (R) unit.

Proposition 5.5.2 M2 (Z) determinant 1 unit,


M2 (Q) determinant 0 unit.
5.5.2. The Hamilton quaternions. C a + bi,
a, b R i 6 R i2 = 1. C , :
a + bi, a0 + b0 i C,
(a + bi) + (a0 + b0 i) = (a + a0 ) + (b + b0 )i

(a + bi) (a0 + b0 i) = aa0 + ab0 i + ba0 i + bb0 i2 = (aa0 bb0 ) + (ab0 + ba0 )i.

5.5. Noncommutative Ring

99

C commutative ring with 1, 0 + 0i


1 + 0i C 0 1.
(a + bi) (a bi) = (a2 + b2 ) + 0i,

(5.4)

a + bi 6= 0 + 0i ( a 6= 0 b 6= 0),
a
b
(a + bi) ( 2
+ 2
i) = 1 + 0i.
2
a +b
a + b2
C 0 unit, C field.
R C , Hamilton :
H = {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d R},
i, j, k 6= R, H the Hamilton quaternions. H
: a + bi + cj + dk, a0 + b0 i + c0 j + d0 k H,
(a + bi + cj + dk) + (a0 + b0 i + c0 j + d0 k) = (a + a0 ) + (b + b0 )i + (c + c0 )j + (d + d0 )k.
H i, j k :
(1) i2 = j2 = k2 = 1,
(2) i j = k = j i,
(3) j k = i = k j,
(4) k i = j = i k.
a + bi + cj + dk, a0 + b0 i + c0 j + d0 k H,
i, j, k .
(a + bi + cj + dk) (a0 + b0 i + c0 j + d0 k) = + i + j + k,

= aa0 bb0 cc0 dd0


= ab0 + ba0 + cd0 + dc0
= ac0 bd0 + ca0 + db0
= ad0 + bc0 cb0 + da0

H ring with 1, 0 + 0i + 0j + 0k
1 + 0i + 0j + 0k H 0 1. H commutative ring,
(0 + 1i + 0j + 0k) (0 + 0i + 1j + 0k) = 0 + 0i + 0j + 1k

(0 + 0i + 1j + 0k) (0 + 1i + 0j + 0k) = 0 + 0i + 0j 1k
. , H (5.4) :
(a + bi + cj + dk) (a bi cj dk) = (a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) + 0i + 0j + 0k.

(5.5)

5. Ring

100

(5.5) , a + bi + cj + dk 6= 0 + 0i + 0j + 0k ( a, b, c, d
0), = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ,
a
b
c
d
i j k) = 1 + 0i + 0j + 0k.

H 0 unit, H noncommutative division


(a + bi + cj + dk) (

ring.
, {1 i, j, k} 4.7
quaternion group Q8 . group
ring, ring group ring.

Chapter 6

Ring

ring , ideals, quotient ring


isomorphism theorems.

6.1. Ideals Quotient Rings


group group subgroup subgroup
group , normal subgroup. ring subring
, subring, ideal.
, normal subgroup subgroup
group quotient group. G subgroup H,
G H , .
group, H G normal
subgroup. , R ring S R subring, R
abelian group, S R subgroup, abelian group
subgroup normal subgroup, R/S quotient
group. R/S , ring .
R/S R ? 2.4 .
R/S . R/S a
, a R a R a .
a ? a a0
a a0 S. a, b R/S, S R normal subgroup,

a + b = a + b.

a b = a b.
101

6. Ring

102

. a R/S ,
a0 R a0 6= a a = a0 ( a a0 S ). :
a = a0 b = b0 a b 6= a0 b0 ?
.
S R/S ? r, r0 R
s, s0 S r = r + s r0 = r0 + s0 r r0 = (r + s) (r0 + s0 ) r r0
(r + s) (r0 + s0 ) S . :
(r + s) (r0 + s0 ) r r0 = r s0 + s r0 + s s0 S.

(6.1)

S subring, s s0 S, (6.1)
r, r0 R s, s0 S
r s0 + s r S

(6.2)

s = 0 s0 = 0 (6.2), r R
s S
rsS

s r S.

:
Definition 6.1.1. I R subring r R a I
raI

a r I,

I R ideal.
ring ideal ring, subring
ring , Lemma 5.4.2 ideal .
Lemma 6.1.2. R ring, I R. I , I R ideal:
(1) a, b I a b I.
(2) a I, r R r a I a r I.
Proof. a, b I, b R, (2) a, b I
a b I. (1), Lemma 5.4.2 I R subring.
(2) I R ideal.

ideal . I R ring ideal,


R ring ring. R abelian group
I normal subgroup, I R ,
. R/I , abelian
group. I ideal , R/I . a a
, b b ,
a+b=a+b

a b = a b.

6.2. Subring Ideal

103

R/I + ring.
group , R/I + abelian group,
R/I (R1) (R5) 5 ring . (R6), (R7) (R8)
.
(R6): a, b R/I, a b R a b R/I. a b R/I.
(R7): (a b) c = a (b c).
(a b) c = a b c = (a b) c,

a (b c) = a b c = a (b c)
(a b) c = a (b c) .
(R8): , a (b + c) = a b + a c
a (b + c) = a b + a c.

(b + c) a = b a + c a.
R/I R quotient ring.

6.2. Subring Ideal


normal subgroup group ideal ring
. group normal subgroup , ring
ideal . group , ring
group + , +.
Lemma 2.6.3 : H, H 0 G subgroup, H H 0
G subgroup, H H 0 G normal subgroup. ring
: S, T R subring,
S + T = {s + t | s S, t T }
R subring. S +T s+t s0 +t0 , (s+t)(s0 +t0 )
S T , S T
R subring , S + T . S, T R
ideal , S + T !
Lemma 6.2.1. R ring, S, T R subring.
(1) S R ideal, S + T R subring.
(2) S T R ideal, S + T R ideal.

6. Ring

104

Proof. (1) group , a = s + t, b = s0 + t0 S + T


s, s0 S t.t0 T ,
a b = (s + t) (s0 + t0 ) = (s s0 ) + (t t0 ) S + T.

a b = (s + t) (s0 + t0 ) = s s0 + s t0 + t s0 + t t0 .
S T R subring, s s0 S t t0 T . S R ideal
t, t0 R, s t0 S t s0 S. s s0 + s t0 + t s0 S
(s + t) (s0 + t0 ) S + T . Lemma 5.4.2 S + T R subring.
(2) S T R ideal, r R, s S t T
r s, s r S r t, t r T .
r (s + t) = r s + r t S + T

(s + t) r = s r + t r S + T.
Lemma 6.1.2 S + T R ideal.

group subgroup subgroup,


normal subgroup normal subgroup. ring .
Lemma 6.2.2. R ring, S, T R subring.
(1) S T R subring.
(2) S T R ideal, S T R ideal.
Proof. (1) group a, b S T a b S T .
a S b S S a b S, a b T .
a b S T . Lemma 5.4.2 S T R subring.
(2) S T R ideal , r R, a S T , a S,
r a S. a T , r a T . r a S T . a r S T .
Lemma 6.1.2 S T R ideal.

S T R ideal, S T R subring.
R ideal ! group subgroup
subgroup, S T R subring, S T R subring.
ring , S, T R subring {s t | s S, t T }
R subring ? s, s0 S, t, t0 T , (s t) (s0 t0 )
s00 t00 , s00 S, t00 T ( R commutative).
R commutative, s t + s0 t0 s00 t00 , s00 S,

6.2. Subring Ideal

105

t00 T . {s t | s S, t T } .

n
X
{
si ti | si S, ti T, for some n N}.
i=1

S T . , S T
S T .
Lemma 6.2.3. R ring, S T R ideal, S T R ideal.
Proof. a = s1 t1 + + sn tn b = s01 t01 + + s0m t0m S T
,
a b = s1 t1 + + sn tn + (s01 ) t01 + + (s0m ) t0m
S T . a b S T .
r R,
ra=r

n
X
i=1

s i ti =

n
X

(r si ) ti .

i=1

si S S R ideal, r si S. r a S
T . r a S T . a r S T . Lemma 6.1.2
S T R ideal.

ideal subring , subring


. subring ring unit (Z Q subring,
1 Z), ideal !
Lemma 6.2.4. R ring with 1, I R ideal. I
u I R unit, I = R. R division ring , R ideal
{0} R .
Proof. I R ideal, I R. r R, u R
unit, Lemma 5.3.7 r0 R r0 u = r. u I, ideal
r0 u = r I. R I, R = I.
R division ring, , R 0 unit.
I R {0} ideal, I 0 ,
R = I.

, R {0} R trivial ideals, ideal


nontrivial proper ideal. Lemma 6.2.4 division ring nontrivial
proper ideal ( proper subring).
Remark 2.4.2 subgroup normal subgroup
, subring ideal :

6. Ring

106

R ring T S R.
(1) S R subring T S subring, T R subring.
(2) S R subring T R ideal , T S ideal.
(3) S R subring T S ideal, T R ideal.
(4) S R ideal T S ideal, T R ideal.

6.3. Ring Homomorphism Correspondence


group homomorphism group . ring
ring homomorphism, correspondence ring
homomorphism ring ideal .
Definition 6.3.1. R, R0 rings : R R0 R R0 .
a, b R
(a + b) = (a) + (b)

(a b) = (a) (b),

ring homomorphism.
: a, b R, a + b, a b R ;
(a), (b) R0 , (a) + (b), (a) (b) R0 . :
R R0 ring homomorphism, group homomorphism
. group homomorphism
ring homomorphism . Lemma 2.5.2 (0) = 0 ( 0
R 0, 0 R0 0) (a) = (a). (a b)
(a b) = (a + (b)) = (a) + (b) = (a) + ((b)),

(a b) = (a) (b).
group homomorphism image kernel, ring
homomorphism . .
Definition 6.3.2. : R R0 group homomorphism,
im() = {(a) R0 | a R}
image.
ker() = {a R | (a) = 0},
kernel.
kernel 0 R0 identity. group homomorphism
image kernel subgroup normal subgroup.
ring homomorphism !

6.3. Ring Homomorphism

107

Lemma 6.3.3. : R R0 ring homomorphism, im() R0


subring, ker() R ideal.
Proof. Lemma 2.5.4 im() ker() R0 R
subgroup. .
(a), (b) im(), a, b R, (a) (b) = (a b). a b R,
(a) (b) im(). Lemma 5.4.2 im() R0 subring.
ker() R ideal, : r R a ker()
r a ker() a r ker(). (r a) = (r) (a) = (r) 0, Lemma
5.2.1 (r a) = 0 r a ker(). a r ker(). Lemma 6.1.2
ker() R ideal.

Lemma 2.5.6 kernel group homomorphism


, ring homomorphism group homomorphism
Lemma .
Lemma 6.3.4. : R R0 ring homomorphism, monomorphism ( ) ker() = {0}.
ring homomorphism, ring homomorphism correspondence . group homomorphism correspondence
group subgroup normal subgroup group homomorphism
. ring homomorphism .
Theorem 6.3.5 (Correspondence Theorem). : R R0 onto ring
homomorphism. S 0 R0 subring
S = {a R | (a) R0 },
S R subring S ker().
(S) = {(a) | a S},
(S) = S 0 .
S 0 R0 ideal. S R ideal.
Proof. S R subring. a, b S, a b S a b S.
a, b S (a) S 0 (b) S 0 , (a)(b) S 0 (a)(b) S 0 .
ring homomorphism, (a b) = (a) (b) (a b) = (a) (b).
(a b) S 0 (a b) S 0 , a b S a b S. S R
subring. ( ring homomorphism, onto.)
a ker(), (a) = 0. 0 S 0 a S. ker() S. (
onto.)

6. Ring

108

(S) = S 0 . (S) S 0 . (S)


(a) , a S. a S, (a) S 0 . (S)
S 0 . S 0 (S) ;
. b S 0 a R (a) = b.
onto . onto b S 0 R0 a R
(a) = b. (a) = b S 0 , a S . b = (a) (S),
S 0 (S). S 0 = (S).
S 0 R0 ideal, S R ideal. r R,
a S (r a) = (r) (a). (r) R0 (a) S 0 S 0 R0 ideal,
(r) (a) S 0 . r a S, a r S. S R ideal.

(S) = S 0 onto , onto


.
Remark 6.3.6. Correspondence Theorem : R R0 onto
ring homomorphism, R0 subring S 0 R subring
S (S) = S 0 , ker() S. R (S) = S 0 ker() S
subring . R subring T (T ) = S 0 ker() T .
a T , (a) (T ) = S 0 , (S) = S 0 S
b (b) = (a). (a) (b) = 0. (a b) = 0.
a b ker(). ker() S b S a S, T S.
S T . T = S. : R0 subring S 0 , R
subring S (S) = S 0 ker() S.
Correspondence Theorem I R ideal, R
R/I ring homomorphism a R, (a) = a.
Corollary 6.3.7. R ring I R ideal. R/I
subring S 0 R subring S I S S/I = S 0 .
S 0 R/I ideal , S R ideal.
Proof. ring homomorphism
(a b) = a b = a b = (a) (b)

(a b) = a b = a b = (a) (b).
onto , y R/I y = a, a R .
a R (a) = a = y. onto.
ker() ? a ker() (a) = 0, (a) = a.
a = 0, a I. a I, (a) = a = 0, a ker(). ker() = I.

6.4. Ring Isomorphism

109

Correspondence Theorem , Theorem 6.3.5


R/I subring ( idealS 0 ), R subring ( ideal)
S I = ker() S (S) = S/I = S 0 .

Corollary 6.3.7 Correspondence Theorem. R/I


subring ( ideal) S/I , S R subring ( ideal)
I S.

6.4. Ring Isomorphism


group , ring isomorphism . group isomorphism , isomorphism ,
.
Definition 6.4.1. rings R R0 ring homomorphism
isomorphism ( 1-1 onto), R R0 ring isomorphic,
: R ' R0 .
Theorem 6.4.2 (First Isomorphism Theorem). : R R0 ring homomorphism,
R/ ker() ' im().
Proof. Lemma 6.3.3 im() ring ker() R ideal,
R/ ker() ring. group isomorphism ,
R/ ker() quotient ring im() ring .
ring homomorphism, 1-1 onto.
:
: R/ ker() im();

a 7 (a), a R/ ker().

(well defined function): a, b R a


b R/ ker() . (a) = (b). a 6= b, a = b
a b ker() ideal . a b
a b ker(). (a b) = 0. ring homomorphism ,
(a) (b) = (a b) = 0. (a) = (b). well
defined function.
ring homomorphism: a, b R/ ker(),
(a + b) = (a + b) = (a + b)

(a b) = (a b) = (a b).

ring homomorphism,
(a + b) = (a) + (b) = (a) + (b)

(a b) = (a) (b) = (a) (b).

6. Ring

110

,
(a + b) = (a) + (b)

(a b) = (a) (b).

1-1 onto. (),


Theorem 2.6.1 group homomorphism
1-1 onto.
: G/ ker() im() isomorphism.
G/ ker() ' im().

onto. im() = R0 .
:
Corollary 6.4.3. : R R0 onto ring homomorphism,
R/ ker() ' R0 .
ring isomorphism . ?
group : group G, H G subgroup N G
normal subgroup. H N H normal subgroup, H/(H N ) ' (H N )/N.
group ring, subgroup subring, normal subgroup ideal,
.
Theorem 6.4.4 (Second Isomorphism Theorem). R ring, S R
subring I R ideal, S I S ideal,
S/(S I) ' (S + I)/I.
Proof. Lemma 6.2.1 S + I R subring, I S + I
I S + I ideal ( 6.2 ). (S + I)/I ring.
group , first isomorphism .
S (S + I)/I . : S (S + I)/I, s S
(s) = s.
ring homomorphism. s, s0 S,
(s + s0 ) = s + s0 = s + s0 = (s) + (s0 )

(s s0 ) = s s0 = s s0 = (s) (s0 ).

Theorem 2.6.4 , : S (S + I)/I onto.


First Isomorphism Theorem (Corollary 6.4.3)
S/ ker() ' (S + I)/I.
ker() ? ker() S s (s) (S + I)/I identity,
0. (s) = s = 0. s = 0 s 0 = s I. ker()
S I ; ker() S I. a S I, a I

6.4. Ring Isomorphism

111

(a) = a = 0. S I ker(). ker() = S I. Lemma


6.3.3 S I S ideal First Isomorphism Theorem
S/(S I) ' (S + I)/I.

isomorphism . , Theorem 2.6.5 group


ring normal subgroup ideal, isomorphism :
Theorem 6.4.5 (Third Isomorphism Theorem). : R R0 onto
ring homomorphism. J 0 R0 ideal.
J = {a R | (a) J 0 }.
J R ideal
R/J ' R0 /J 0 .
Proof. : R R0 /J 0 , (a) = (a), a R.
ring homomorphism
(a + b) = (a + b) = (a) + (b) = (a) + (b) = (a) + (b)

(a b) = (a b) = (a) (b) = (a) (b) = (a) (b).


R R0 /J 0 ring homomorphism.
, Theorem 2.6.5 : R R0 /J 0 onto ring
homomorphism, First Isomorphism Theorem
R/ ker() ' R0 /J 0 .
ker() ? a ker() (a) = (a) = 0, (a) 0
J 0 . (a) 0 = (a) J 0 . J , a J.
ker() J. a J, (a) J 0 R0 /J 0 (a) = (a) = 0.
a ker(), J ker(). ker() = J Lemma 6.3.3 J R
ideal ( Theorem 6.3.5 J R ideal).

Correspondence Theorem Third Isomorphism Theorem


. I R ideal, : R R/I (a) = a onto
ring homomorphism. R/I ideal J 0 Corollary 6.3.7 R
ideal J : J 0 = (J) = J/I. Theorem 6.4.5
( Third Isomorphism Theorem.)

6. Ring

112

Theorem 6.4.6 (Third Isomorphism Theorem). R ring, I R


ideal. R/I ideal J/I , I J J R ideal.

(R/I)/(J/I) ' R/J.


Proof. R/I ideal J/I Corollary 6.3.7 .
(R/I)/(J/I) ' R/J
Theorem 6.4.5 . : R0 = R/I, J 0 = J/I : R R/I,
(a) = a. J = {a R | (a) J 0 }. R/J ' R0 /J 0 .

6.5. Commutative Ring with 1 Ideals


ring , ring .
commutative ring with 1 . ring
principle ideal, prime ideal maximal ideal.
6.5.1. Principle ideals. group cyclic subgroup,
subgroup. ring principle ideal,
ideal.
R commutative ring with 1. R ideal ,
ideal , ideal.
a R, a ideal I ? I a
cyclic group, {0, a, a, 2a, 2a, . . . , na, na, . . . }.
2a 2 a (1 + 1) a ( 1 R ). 1 + 1 R,
R 2a = a. n,
na = (1 + + 1) a
|
{z
}
n

( 1 R ) R na = a. Lemma 6.1.2,
I r R, r a a r . r a = a r (
R commutative ring ), I r a
. r a R ideal,
a ideal .
Lemma 6.5.1. R commutative ring with 1, a R. A =
{r a | r R}, A R ideal. , A R a ideal.
Proof. : I R a ideal, A I.
A R ideal, I = A.
Lemma 6.1.2 A R ideal. A r a r0 a,
r, r0 R. r a r0 a = (r r0 ) a r r0 R, r a r0 a A.

6.5. Ideals

113

R r A r0 a, r0 R. (r0 a) r = r (r0 a) = (r r0 ) a
r r0 R, (r0 a) r = r (r0 a) A. A R ideal.


Lemma 6.5.1 A a .

( ) .
Definition 6.5.2. R commutative ring with 1, a R.

a = {r a | r R}
the principle ideal generated by a in R. I R ideal R

a I = a I R principle ideal.
Example 6.5.3. Z , n Z, n principle

ideal, n = {z n | z Z}.
Z ideal principle ideal, ring
. I principle ideal, I (

n = n ), .
Lemma 6.5.4. R commutative ring with 1. a, b R

unit u R a = u b, a = b .



Proof. a = u b, a b . b ideal a

a ideal, a b . , u R unit, v R


v u = 1. b = (v u) b = v a b a . b b ideal


b a . a = b .

principle ideal . lemma 6.2.4 : R


division ring , R {0} R ideals. R field
(R division ring), R nontrivial proper ideal. R
commutative ring with 1 , R field .
Proposition 6.5.5. R commutative ring with 1, R field
R nontrivial proper ideal.
Proof. R field , R nontrivial proper ideal. ,
R nontrivial proper ideal, R field. R
commutative ring with 1, R 0 unit.


a R a 6= 0. a principle ideal. a 6= 0 a a ,


a 6= {0}. R {0} R ideal, a = R.


1 R, 1 a a r R 1 = r a. a
unit.

6. Ring

114

, Proposition 3.1.3 cyclic group subgroup


cyclic group. principle ideal, . I, I 0
R ideal I 0 I. I principle ideal, I 0 principle
ideal.
6.5.2. Prime ideals. Z p , p | a b p | a

p | b. , p | a a p , principle ideal a p .



: a b p , a p b p .
ideal .
Definition 6.5.6. R commutative ring with 1 P R
R ideal. P : R a b a b P , a P
b P , P R prime ideal.
, a 6 P b 6 P ,
a b 6 P P prime ideal.

, ideal, 2 Z prime
ideal. principle ideal
prime ideal.
R ideal P prime ideal .
Theorem 6.5.7. R commutative ring with 1 P R ideal,
P R prime ideal R/P quotient ring integral
domain.
Proof. : R commutative ring with 1, R ideal I,
R/I quotient ring commutative ring with 1 ( identity
1). R/P integral domain, R/P zero divisor
.
P prime ideal. R/P 0 a,
a R a 6 P . a R/P zero divisor, R/P 0
b a b = 0. b 6= 0, b 6 P . a, b P ,
P prime ideal , a b 6 P .
a b = a b 6= 0.
R/P integral domain.
, R/P integral domain, a, b R/P a 6= 0 b 6= 0,
a b 6= 0. : a 6 P b 6 P , a b 6 P . P
prime ideal.

R/ 0 ' R Lemma 6.5.7 :

6.5. Ideals

115

Corollary 6.5.8. R commutative ring with 1, R integral



domain 0 R prime ideal.
6.5.3. Maximal ideals. Z 1
. ideal principle ideal.
ideal principle ideal
nontrivial proper ideal. ideal.
Definition 6.5.9. R ring M R nontrivial proper ideal,
M R nontrivial proper ideal, M maximal
ideal.
, maximal . , maximal
, . (
well-ordered, .) ,
M R maximal ideal I R nontrivial proper ideal,
I M , M I, I = M .
R maximal ideal. .


Example 6.5.10. Z 6 ideal. 6 2




2 2 2 6 6 , 6 ( 2 . 2 Z nontrivial proper


ideal, 6 Z maximal ideal. 2 Z maximal ideal.

2 maximal ideal, Z nontrivial proper ideal I


2 ( I. a I a 6 2 ( a ).
n a = 2 n + 1. I ideal 2 I, 2 n I.
a I, 1 = a 2 n I. Lemma 6.2.4 I = Z,

I nontrivial proper ideal , 2 Z maximal ideal.




3 6 2 , 3 ideal 2 . n N, 3n

2 . maximal ideal nontrivial proper ideal
. , Z
principle ideal maximal ideal, Z maximal ideal
( ).
Theorem 6.5.7 quotient ring ideal
maximal ideal.
Theorem 6.5.11. R commutative ring with 1 M R ideal,
M R maximal ideal R/M quotient ring field.
Proof. R/M commutative ring with 1, R/M
field R/M 0 unit.

6. Ring

116

M R maximal ideal. R/M a 6= 0, a R


a 6 M . Lemma 6.2.1

M + a = {m + r a | m M, r R}



R ideal. M M + a a 6 M , M 6= M + a , M + a

M ideal. M maximal ideal M + a R


nontrivial proper ideal. M + a = R. 1 R = M + a ,
m M , r R 1 = m + r a. R/M ,
R/M m = 0
1 = m + r a = r a.
a R/M unit, R/M field.
R/M field, M R maximal ideal.
R nontrivial proper ideal I M ,
M ( I. : M maximal ideal, nontrivial
proper ideal I M ( I. M I M 6= I a I a 6 M ,
R/M a 6= 0. R/M field, r R
r a = r a = 1.
1 r a M , 1 = m + r a m M . a I I
ideal, r a I. m M I 1 = m + r a I. Lemma 6.2.4
1 I I = R, I nontrivial proper ideal , M
maximal ideal.

Remark 6.5.12. Correspondence Theorem 6.5.11.


Corollary 6.3.7 R/M ideal R M ideal
. M maximal ideal, R M ideal R

M . R/M R/M M/M = 0 ideal nontrivial
proper ideal, Proposition 6.5.5 R/M field. R/M
field, Proposition 6.5.5 R/M nontrivial proper ideal.
Remark 6.3.6 () Correspondence
ideal R M , M maximal ideal.
field 0 unit, Lemma 5.3.7
unit zero divisor, field integral domain.
R/M field, R/M integral domain. Theorem 6.5.7
Theorem 6.5.11 :
Corollary 6.5.13. R commutative ring with 1, R maximal ideal
prime ideal.

6.5. Ideals

117


Corollary 6.5.13 . Z Z/ 0 ' Z, Z

integral domain field, 0 Z prime ideal maximal
ideal.

Chapter 7

Rings

ring. ring integral domain,


ring .

7.1. The Ring of Integers


ring Z.
, Z ,
, .
Euclids Algorithm,
. ,
.
Theorem 7.1.1 (Euclids Algorithm). n, m Z,
h, r Z, 0 r < n, m = h n + r.
Proof. , .
ring , .
W = {m t n | t Z} . t ,
W . r W , r W ,
h Z r = m h n. 0 r < n.
r , r n ( r ).
, r r = n + r0 , r0 0.
m = h n + r = h n + (n + r0 ) = (h + 1) n + r0 ,
r0 = m (h + 1) n W . 0 r0 < r, r W
. .

119

7. Rings

120

Theorem 7.1.1 well-ordering principle,


, ring. , ring
Euclids Algorithm. integral domain
Euclids Algorithm. integral domain :
Euclidean domain.
Theorem 7.1.1 !
Theorem 7.1.2. Z ideal principle ideal.
Proof. : I Z ideal, I a

I = a = {h a | h Z},
I a .
, ? !
Z trivial ideal Z {0}, 1 0 , principle ideal.
Z nontrivial proper ideal . I Z nontrivial
proper ideal, I 6= {0}, b 6= 0, b I. I ideal, b I
, I . a I I ,

I= a .

a I, h Z h a I, a I.

I a , I a . m I
m a ? ( m a .) Theorem
7.1.1, h, r Z, 0 r < a r = m h a. m I h a I,
I ideal r = m h a I. a I , r = 0,


m = h a a . I a .

, ring ideal principle ideal.


integral domain ideal principle ideal, integral domain
principle ideal domain. Z principle ideal domain (Theorem 7.1.2)
, Z Euclidean domain (Theorem 7.1.1) .
, ,
.
Definition 7.1.3. a, b Z.
(1) d Z h Z a = h d, d a divisor,
d | a.
(2) c Z, c | a c | b, c a, b common divisor.
(3) d Z a, b common divisor, d a, b greatest common
divisor.

7.1. The Ring of Integers

121

greatest common divisor ,


Theorem 7.1.2 greatest common divisor .

Proposition 7.1.4. a, b Z, d N d = a + b d a, b
greatest common divisor
Proof. Lemma 6.2.1

a + b = {r a + s b | r, s Z}


Z ideal. Theorem 7.1.2 d Z d = a + b .
d , 1 Z unit Lemma 6.5.4

d = d .
d N a, b greatest common divisor.

d a, b common divisor. a a a + b = d , r Z

a = r d. d | a. , b d d | b. d a, b common
divisor.


d a, b common divisor ? d d = a + b ,
m, n Z d = m a + n b. c a, b common divisor,
c | a c | b, r, s Z a = r c b = s c.
d = m (r c) + n (s c) = (m r + n s) c.
c | d. d a, b common divisor .

Proposition 7.1.4 greatest common divisor,


greatest common divisor .
Corollary 7.1.5. a, b Z d a, b greatest common divisor, d
:
(1) m, n Z d = m a + n b.
(2) c | a c | b, c | d.
: . p
1 . p | a b p | a p | b
, . ring
, .
Definition 7.1.6. Z p.
(1) d | p d Z d = 1 d = p, p
irreducible element.
(2) p | a b a, b Z p | a p | b, p prime
element.

7. Rings

122

,
. (prime).
Proposition 7.1.7. Z p irreducible element, p prime
element. , p prime element, p irreducible element.
Proof. p irreducible p prime. p
irreducible. p | a b : p | a p | b. p | a b r Z
a b = r p. p | a , p - a
. p, a greatest common divisor d. d | p p
irreducible d = 1 d = p. d p, d p, a
common divisor p = d | a: p - a . d = 1, Corollary 7.1.5
n, m Z 1 = n p + m a. b
b = (n b) p + m (a b) = (n b) p + m (r p) = (n b + m r) p,
p | b.
, p prime element p irreducible.
d | p, d = 1 d = p. d | p r Z p = d r,
p | d r. p prime , p | d p | r. p | d , d | p
d = p. p | r , s Z r = s p. p = d r = d (s p)
d s = 1. d, s Z, d s = 1 d = 1.

.
, .
Theorem 7.1.8. a N a > 1, p1 , . . . , pr , pi prime,

a = pn1 1 pnr r ,

ni N, i {1, . . . , r}.

a a = q1m1 qsms , qi prime,


r = s pi = qi , ni = mi , i {1, . . . , r}.
Proof. ,
.
: 1
( ) prime . a prime, a = p1 ( r = 1,
n1 = 1), . a prime ? Proposition 7.1.7 a
irreducible, a1 , b1 N a1 6= 1, b1 6= 1 a = a1 b1 .
a1 , b1 prime . prime,
prime . .
a prime . ,
, . a = 2 2 prime,

7.2. Ring of Polynomials over a Field

123

. 2 a 1 .
a prime, , a prime, Proposition 7.1.7
a = a1 b1 a1 , b1 N 1 < a1 < a 1 < b1 < a. a1 b1
prime , a prime .
,
a = pn1 1 pnr r = q1m1 qsms ,
p1 , . . . , pr prime, q1 , . . . , qs prime. p1
prime, p1 | a = q1m1 qsms j {1, . . . , s} p1 | qj .
p1 | q1 . q1 prime, Proposition 7.1.7 q1 irreducible.
, q1 divisor 1 q1 . p1 | q1 p1 = q1 .
a
= pn1 1 1 pnr r = q1m1 1 qsms .
p1
a/p1 < a, r = s p1 = q1 , . . . , pr = qr
n1 = m1 , n2 = m2 , . . . , nr = mr , .

integral domain Z irreducible


element , integral domain unique factorization
domain.

7.2. Ring of Polynomials over a Field


, .
field .
polynomial ring.
.
F field. F
f (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an1 xn1 + an xn ,

ai F i = 0, . . . , n

F [x]. F [x] :
f (x) = a0 + a1 x + an xn g(x) = b0 + b1 x + + bm xm F [x] ,
f (x) + g(x) = c0 + c1 x + + cr xr , i {1, . . . , r}, ci = ai + bi
r = max{m, n}. f (x) g(x) = d0 + d1 x + + dm+n xm+n ,
i {1, . . . , m + n},
di = a0 bi + a1 bi1 + + ai1 b1 + ai b0 .
, j > n aj = 0 k > m bk = 0.
: ;
.
F [x] commutative ring with 1,
. F [x] ring identity 0 0

7. Rings

124

, 0 ( 0 F 0) . identity 1
1 , 1 ( 1 F 1)
0. F [x] the ring of polynomials in x over F .
ring , zero divisor unit ?
polynomial ring ,
degree.
Definition 7.2.1. f (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn F [x] an 6= 0, f (x)
degree n deg(f (x)) = n.
0 , 0
0 , 0 degree 0. 0
degree ( deg(0) = ). degree .
Lemma 7.2.2. f (x) g(x) F [x] 0 ,
deg(f (x) g(x)) = deg(f (x)) + deg(g(x)).
Proof. deg(f (x)) = n deg(g(x)) = m f (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn
P
g(x) = b0 +b1 x+ +bm xm , an 6= 0 bm 6= 0. f (x)g(x) = ck xk ,
P
ck = i+j=k ai bj . k > n + m ck = 0. i n j m,
i + j n + m. k > n + m i + j = k, i > n j > m.
ai = 0 bj = 0. k > n + m ck = 0. k = n + m ,
i + j = k i = n j = m ai 6= 0 bj 6= 0.
cn+m = an bm . F field, F zero divisor, an 6= 0
bm 6= 0 cn+m 6= 0. deg(f (x) g(x)) = n + m.

Lemma 7.2.2, F [x] zero divisor unit .


Proposition 7.2.3. F field.
(1) F [x] zero divisor, F [x] integral domain.
(2) F [x] unit 0 .
Proof. (1) f (x), g(x) F [x] 0. deg(f (x)) = n deg(g(x)) = m,
Lemma 7.2.2 deg(f (x) g(x)) = n + m. , f (x) g(x) xn+m
0. f (x) g(x) 0 . F [x] zero divisor.
(2) f (x) F [x] unit, g(x) F [x] f (x)g(x) = 1.
1 degree 0, Lemma 7.2.2 deg(f (x) g(x)) =
deg(f (x)) + deg(g(x)) = 0. deg(f (x)) 0 deg(g(x)) 0, deg(f (x)) = 0
f (x) . 0 unit, f (x) 0 .
, f (x) = c 0 , c F c 6= 0. F field,

7.2. Ring of Polynomials over a Field

125

F c inverse c1 . g(x) = c1 F [x], f (x) g(x) = 1.


f (x) = c unit.

polynomial ring .
Theorem 7.2.4 (Euclids Algorithm). F field, polynomials f (x),
g(x) F [x], g(x) 6= 0, h(x), r(x) F [x] f (x) = h(x) g(x) + r(x),
r(x) = 0 deg(r(x)) < deg(g(x)).
Proof. , r(x) 0, 0 degree,
deg(r(x)) < deg(g(x)), r(x) = 0 .
Theorem 7.1.1 W = {f (x) l(x) g(x) | l(x) F [x]}
. 0 W , h(x) F [x] f (x) h(x) g(x) = 0,
r(x) = 0. 0 6 W , r(x) W W degree polynomial.
deg(r(x)) = m deg(g(x)) = n, m < n. m n,
r(x) xm a, g(x) xn b.
b F b 6= 0, s(x) = r(x) ((a b1 )xmn ) g(x) . r(x)
((a b1 )xmn ) g(x) xm a, deg(s(x)) < m = deg(r(x)).
r(x) W l(x) F [x] r(x) = f (x) l(x) g(x).
s(x) = f (x)l(x)g(x)((ab1 )xmn )g(x) = f (x)(l(x)+(ab1 )xmn )g(x) W.
s(x) W r(x) degree polynomial, r(x) W
degree . m < n h(x) F [x]
r(x) = f (x) h(x) g(x) deg(r(x)) < deg(g(x). .

Remark 7.2.5. , Theorem 7.2.4 F


field ( g(x) b inverse b1 ). Theorem 7.2.4
ring polynomials . Z[x]
. f (x) = x2 , g(x) = 2x h(x)
f (x) h(x) g(x) = 0 deg(f (x) h(x) g(x)) < deg(g(x)).
(Theorem 7.1.1) Z ideal principle
ideal (Theorem 7.1.2). (Theorem 7.2.4), .
Theorem 7.2.6. F field, F [x] ideal principle ideal.

Proof. F [x] ideal, I. I g(x) g(x) = I.

g(x) I degree polynomial, g(x) = I.

g(x) I g(x) I. , I g(x)


f (x) I h(x) F [x] f (x) = h(x) g(x). Theorem 7.2.4
h(x), r(x) F [x] f (x) = h(x) g(x) + r(x) r(x) = 0
deg(r(x)) < deg(g(x)). g(x), f (x) I, r(x) = f (x) h(x) g(x) I.

7. Rings

126

r(x) 6= 0, r(x) I g(x) degree polynomial,

g(x) . r(x) = 0, f (x) = h(x) g(x) g(x) .

F [x] . ,
.
Definition 7.2.7. f (x), g(x) F [x].
(1) d(x) F [x] h(x) F [x] f (x) = h(x) d(x), d(x)
f (x) divisor, d(x) | f (x).
(2) l(x) F [x], l(x) | f (x) l(x) | g(x), l(x) f (x), g(x)
common divisor.
(3) d(x) F [x] f (x), g(x) common divisor degree polynomial, d(x) f (x), g(x) greatest common divisor.
greatest common divisor . greatest common
divisor common divisor degree 1 polynomial,
greatest common divisor .
greatest common divisor
, Theorem 7.2.6 greatest common divisor
.

Proposition 7.2.8. f (x), g(x) F [x], d(x) F [x] d(x) =

f (x) + g(x) d(x) f (x), g(x) greatest common divisor

Proof. Theorem 7.1.2 d(x) F [x] d(x) = f (x) + g(x) .


d(x) F [x] f (x), g(x) greatest common divisor.

d(x) f (x), g(x) common divisor. f (x) f (x) f (x) + g(x) =

d(x) , h(x) F [x] f (x) = h(x) d(x). d(x) | f (x). ,

g(x) d(x) d(x) | g(x). d(x) f (x), g(x) common divisor.


d(x) f (x), g(x) common divisor degree ?

d(x) d(x) = f (x) + g(x) , m(x), n(x) F [x] d(x) =


m(x) f (x) + n(x) g(x). l(x) f (x), g(x) common divisor, l(x) | f (x)
l(x) | g(x), r(x), s(x) F [x] f (x) = r(x) l(x) g(x) = s(x) l(x).

d(x) = m(x) (r(x) l(x)) + n(x) (s(x) l(x)) = (m(x) r(x) + n(x) s(x)) l(x).
l(x) | d(x). d(x) f (x), g(x) common divisor degree
.

Proposition 7.2.8 greatest common divisor,


greatest common divisor .

7.2. Ring of Polynomials over a Field

127

Corollary 7.2.9. f (x), g(x) F [x] d(x) f (x), g(x) greatest common
divisor, d(x) :
(1) m(x), n(x) F [x] d(x) = m(x) f (x) + n(x) g(x).
(2) l(x) | f (x) l(x) | g(x), l(x) | d(x).
ring , unit . Z
1 1 . F [x] units 0
(Proposition 7.2.3), divisor.
(irreducible element) .
Definition 7.2.10. F [x] p(x).
(1) d(x) | p(x) d(x) F [x], d(x) = c d(x) = c p(x),
0 6= c F , p(x) irreducible element.
(2) p(x) | f (x) g(x) f (x), g(x) F [x] p(x) | f (x)
p(x) | g(x), p(x) prime element.
irreducible element degree
polynomial . irreducible prime ,
F [x] polynomial .
Proposition 7.2.11. F [x] p(x) irreducible element, p(x)
prime element. , p(x) prime element, p(x) irreducible
element.
Proof. p(x) irreducible p(x) prime. p(x)
irreducible. p(x) | f (x) g(x) : p(x) | f (x) p(x) | g(x).
p(x) | f (x) g(x) r(x) F [x] f (x) g(x) = r(x) p(x). p(x) | f (x)
, p(x) - f (x) .
p(x), f (x) greatest common divisor d(x). d(x) | p(x) p(x)
irreducible d(x) = c d(x) = c p(x), 0 6= c F . d(x)
c p(x), d(x) p(x), f (x) common divisor p(x) = c1 d(x) | f (x)
( c F [x] unit). p(x) - f (x) . d(x) = c, Corollary
7.2.9 n(x), m(x) F [x] c = n(x) p(x) + m(x) f (x).
c1 g(x)

g(x) = c1 n(x) g(x) p(x) + c1 m(x) (f (x) g(x))

= c1 n(x) g(x) + m(x) r(x) p(x),


p(x) | g(x).
, p(x) prime element p(x) irreducible.
d(x) | p(x), d(x) = c d(x) = c p(x). d(x) | p(x)

7. Rings

128

r(x) F [x] p(x) = r(x) d(x), p(x) | r(x) d(x). p(x) prime
, p(x) | d(x) p(x) | r(x). p(x) | d(x) , s(x) F [x]
d(x) = s(x) p(x). p(x) = r(x) d(x) d(x) = (s(x) r(x)) d(x).
d(x) (s(x) r(x) 1) = 0, F [x] zero divisor (Proposition 7.2.3)
d(x) 6= 0, s(x) r(x) = 1, s(x) unit. s(x)
c, d(x) = s(x) p(x) = c p(x). p(x) | r(x) , s(x) F [x]
r(x) = s(x) p(x). p(x) = d(x) r(x) = d(x) (s(x) p(x)) d(x) s(x) = 1.
d(x) F [x] unit, d(x) = c.

, Z F [x] .
F [x] Z .
unit , Z . F [x]
d(x) f (x) divisor, h(x) F [x] f (x) = d(x) h(x),
F [x] 0 c F [x] unit, c1 h(x) F [x].
f (x) = (c d(x)) (c1 h(x)) c d(x) f (x) divisor.
0 6= c F , d(x) c d(x) f (x) divisor.
c d(x) f (x) divisor.
c c d(x) 1, .
Definition 7.2.12. f (x) F [x] f (x) 1 f (x)
monic polynomial.
Lemma monic polynomial .
Lemma 7.2.13. p(x), q(x) F [x] monic irreducible element p(x) | q(x),
p(x) = q(x).
Proof. q(x) irreducible, q(x) divisor c c q(x)
. p(x) ( irreducible) p(x) | q(x) c F
p(x) = c q(x). p(x), q(x) monic polynomial,
1. c = 1, p(x) = q(x).

F [x] .
Theorem 7.2.14. f (x) F [x] deg(f (x)) 1, c F
p1 (x), . . . , pr (x), pi (x) monic irreducible elements,
f (x) = c p1 (x)n1 pr (x)nr ,

ni N, i {1, . . . , r}.

f (x) f (x) = d q1 (x)m1 qs (x)ms , d F


qi (x) monic irreducible elements, c = d, r = s
pi (x) = qi (x), ni = mi , i {1, . . . , r}.

7.2. Ring of Polynomials over a Field

129

Proof. Theorem 7.1.8 . Theorem 7.1.8


, , degree
F [x] , degree induction.
( f (x) ): deg(f (x)) = 1
f (x) = ax + b, 0 6= a F , f (x) a (x + b a1 ).
x + b a1 degree 1 polynomial ,
x + b a1 monic irreducible element. .
degree 1 n 1 polynomials .
deg(f (x)) = n . f (x) irreducible a, a1 f (x)
monic irreducible element, f (x) = a (a1 f (x)),
. f (x) irreducible, f (x) = g(x) h(x) g(x), h(x) F [x]
1 deg(g(x)) < n 1 deg(h(x)) < n.
g(x) = c1 p1 (x)n1 pu (x)nu h(x) = c2 p1 (x)m1 pv (x)mv ,
pi (x), pj (x) monic irreducible elements, monic irreducible
elements , f (x) .
: deg(f (x)) = 1, f (x) = ax + b, .
degree 1 n 1 polynomials ,
deg(f (x)) = n .
f (x) = c p1 (x)n1 pr (x)nr = d q1 (x)m1 qs (x)ms ,
c, d F , pi (x) , qj (x) , pi (x), qj (x) monic
irreducible element. , pi (x), qj (x) monic, c d
f (x) . polynomial ,
c = d. p1 (x) irreducible Proposition 7.2.11 prime,
p1 (x) | f (x) = cq1 (x)m1 qs (x)ms j {1, . . . , s} p1 (x) | qj (x).
p1 (x) | q1 (x), p1 (x) q1 (x) monic irreducible
element Lemma 7.2.13 p1 (x) = q1 (x). f (x)
f (x) = c p1 (x)n1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr = c p1 (x)m1 q2 (x)m2 qs (x)ms .
c p1 (x),

c p1 (x) p1 (x)n1 1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr p1 (x)m1 1 q2 (x)m2 qs (x)ms = 0.


c p1 (x) 6= 0 F [x] integral domain,
p1 (x)n1 1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr p1 (x)m1 1 q2 (x)m2 qs (x)ms = 0.
g(x) = p1 (x)n1 1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr .
deg(g(x)) = deg(f (x)) deg(p1 (x)) < deg(f (x)) = n

7. Rings

130

g(x) = p1 (x)n1 1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr = p1 (x)m1 1 q2 (x)m2 qs (x)ms


g(x) , r = s p1 (x) = q1 (x), . . . , pr (x) =
qr (x) n1 = m1 , n2 = m2 , . . . , nr = mr , .

7.3. Polynomials over the Integers


polynomials,
polynomials. polynomials
. polynomial
ring , polynomial ring .
Q[x] polynomials Z[x]
polynomials . Q[x] ring,
polynomial ring over Q. Z[x] ring,
polynomial ring over Z.
Z[x] 0 1 Q[x] 0 1 . Z[x] degree (
Z[x] Q[x] ). Lemma 7.2.3 ,
Z[x] integral domain. Z[x] Q[x] Q[x] 0
unit, Z[x] 1 unit. Lemma 7.2.3
Z[x] unit degree 0, Z[x]
unit, , Z unit Z[x] unit,
1. , Z[x] .
Remark 7.2.5 Z[x] , Q[x]
ideal principle ideal (Theorem 7.2.6) Z[x] .
Z[x] ( ) ideal principle ideal.
Example 7.3.1. Z[x] I = (2) + (x) principle ideal.

I principle ideal, f (x) Z[x] I = f (x) . 2 I,

2 f (x) , h(x) Z[x] 2 = h(x) f (x). degree



deg(f (x)) = 0, f (x) c Z. x I = c
g(x) Z[x] x = c g(x). c g(x) c
( g(x) Z[x], g(x) ). x = c g(x) x
c . x x 1,

c | 1, c = 1. c unit, Lemma 6.2.4 I = c = Z[x],


1 I = 2 + x . 2 + x n(x), m(x) Z[x]
1 = 2 n(x) + x m(x). x m(x) , 2 n(x)
2 , 2 n(x) + x m(x) 1. n(x), m(x) Z[x]
1 = 2 n(x) + x m(x) . I principle

ideal, I = 2 + x Z[x] principle ideal.

7.3. Polynomials over the Integers

131

Z[x] ideal principle ideal Proposition


7.2.11 Z[x] irreducible element prime element .
, !
Z[x] irreducible element prime element ,
.
Z[x] Q[x] Z[x]
. f (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn Z[x] f (x) degree
polynomials , (
1 Z[x] ).
? a0 , a1 , . . . , an !
.
Lemma 7.3.2. f (x) Z[x] 0 polynomial, f (x)
f (x) = c f (x), c N, f (x) Z[x] f (x) 1.
Proof. : f (x) = a0 +a1 x+ +an xn , d = gcd(a0 , a1 , . . . , an ).
a0 = db0 , a1 = db1 ,. . . , an = dbn gcd(b0 , b1 , . . . , bn ) = 1.
f (x) d (b0 + b1 x + + bn xn ) .
: f (x) = c f (x), c N f (x) Z[x]. c
f (x) , f (x) a0 , a1 , . . . , an c . c
a0 , a1 , . . . , an . c 6= d = gcd(a0 , a1 , . . . , an ), f (x)
d/c 1 , f (x) 1 .
d = c, d f (x) = d (b0 + b1 x + + bn xn ). Z[x] integral
domain, f (x) = b0 + b1 x + + bn xn .

Lemma 7.3.2, .
Definition 7.3.3. f (x) Z[x] f (x) = c f (x), c N, f (x) Z[x]
f (x) 1. c f (x) content, c(f ).
f (x) Z[x] c(f ) = 1, f (x) primitive polynomial.
c(f ) f (x) . Lemma 7.3.2
f (x) Z[x] content primitive polynomial.
Lemma 7.3.2 Q[x] .
Proposition 7.3.4. f (x) Q[x] 0 polynomial, f (x)
f (x) = c f (x), c Q, c > 0 f (x) Z[x] primitive polynomial.
Proof. : f (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn , ai Q.
m m f (x) Z[x] ( m ai ).
m f (x) Z[x] Lemma 7.3.2 a f (x) Z[x]

7. Rings

132

f (x) primitive polynomial, m f (x) = a f (x).


a
f (x) =
f (x)
m
.
f (x) = d f (x) = d0 g(x) d, d0
f (x), g(x) Z[x] primitive polynomials. d d0 a/b a0 /b0 ,
a, a0 , b, b0 N.
(a b0 ) f (x) = (a0 b) g(x).
(a b0 ) f (x), (a0 b) g(x) Z[x] a b0 , a0 b N f (x), g(x)
primitive polynomial, Lemma 7.3.2 : a b0 = b a0 ( d = d0 )
f (x) = g(x). .

Proposition 7.3.4, content Q[x],


f (x) Q[x] f (x) = c(f ) f (x), 0 < c(f ) Q f (x) content,
f (x) Z[x] primitive polynomial.
f (x), g(x) Q[x], f (x) g(x) content, .
polynomial , , . f (x) g(x)
content f (x) g(x) contents .
f (x) g(x) contents 1 .
Lemma 7.3.5 (Gauss Lemma). f (x), g(x) Z[x] primitive polynomials,
f (x) g(x) primitive polynomial.
Proof. f (x) = an xn + + a1 x + a0 , g(x) = bm xm + + b1 x + b0 ,
c(f ) = c(g) = 1, c(f g) = 1. c(f g) = d 6= 1, p
p | d, p f (x) g(x) . c(f ) = c(g) = 1, ai , bj
p - ai p - bj . r p - ar ( p - ar , i < r,
p | ai ), s p - bs . f (x) g(x) xr+s :
X
ai bj .
i+j=r+s

ar bs , ai bj i < r j < s. i > r j > s


i + j > r + s i + j = r + s . i < r r p | ai ,
p | ai bj . , j < s p | ai bj . , f (x) g(x)
xr+s ar bs ai bj p . p - ar
p - bs , p - ar bs . f (x) g(x) xr+s p .
p f (x) g(x) . c(f g) 6= 1,
f (x) g(x) primitive polynomial.

Gauss Lemma f (x), g(x) Q[x],


c(f g).

7.3. Polynomials over the Integers

133

Proposition 7.3.6. f (x), g(x) Q[x] 0 polynomial,


c(f g) = c(f ) c(g).
Proof. Lemma 7.3.4 f (x) g(x) f (x) = c(f ) f (x)
g(x) = c(g) g (x), f (x) g (x) primitive polynomials.

f (x) g(x) = c(f ) c(g) f (x) g (x) .


Lemma 7.3.4 f (x) g(x) c(f g) h(x) h(x) primitive
polynomial. Lemma 7.3.5 f (x) g (x) primitive polynomial,
f (x) g (x) = h(x) c(f ) c(g) = c(f g).

Z[x] , Z[x] Q[x]


. f (x), g(x) Z[x], f (x) | g(x) in Z[x] h(x) Z[x]
g(x) = h(x) f (x). f (x) | g(x) in Q[x] l(x) Q[x]
g(x) = l(x) f (x). h(x) Z[x], l(x) Q[x]
. f (x) | g(x) in Q[x] f (x) - g(x) in Z[x] .
Lemma 7.3.7. f (x), g(x) Z[x], f (x) primitive polynomial,
f (x) | g(x) in Z[x] f (x) | g(x) in Q[x].
Proof. f (x) | g(x) in Z[x] h(x) Z[x] g(x) = h(x) f (x).
h(x) Z[x] h(x) Q[x], f (x) | g(x) in Q[x]. (
f (x) primitive .)
, f (x) | g(x) in Q[x], l(x) Q[x] g(x) = l(x) f (x).
l(x) Z[x]. Lemma 7.3.4 l(x) l(x) = c(l) l (x), l (x)
primitive polynomials. g(x) = c(l) (l (x) f (x)). f (x) l (x)
primitive polynomials, Lemma 7.3.5 l (x) f (x) primitive polynomial.
Lemma 7.3.4 c(g) = c(l). c(g) N, c(l) N,
l (x) Z[x], l(x) = c(l) l (x) l(x) Z[x].

, Q[x] Z[x] . f (x) Z[x]


f (x) Q[x] f (x) f (x) = g(x) h(x), g(x), h(x) Q[x]
deg(g(x)) deg(h(x)) deg(f (x)). f (x) Z[x]
f (x) = m(x) n(x), m(x), n(x) Z[x]. Lemma
.
Lemma 7.3.8. f (x) Z[x] f (x) = g(x) h(x) g(x), h(x) Q[x],
m(x), n(x) Z[x] f (x) = m(x) n(x) deg(m(x)) = deg(g(x))
deg(n(x)) = deg(h(x)).

7. Rings

134

Proof. Lemma 7.3.4 g(x) = c(g) g (x) h(x) = c(h) h (x)


g (x), h (x) Z[x] primitive polynomial. Proposition 7.3.6
c(g) c(h) = c(g h) = c(f ),

f (x) Z[x], c(g)c(h) = c(f ) N. m(x) = c(g)c(h) g (x) Z[x]


n(x) = h (x) Z[x],

f (x) = g(x) h(x) = c(g) g (x) c(h) h (x)

= c(g) c(h) g (x) h (x)


= m(x) n(x).

deg(m(x)) = deg(g (x)) = deg(g(x))

deg(n(x)) = deg(h (x)) = deg(h(x)).

f (x) Z[x] f (x) = m(x) n(x), m(x), n(x) Z[x],


m(x), n(x) Z[x] unit. m(x), n(x) Q[x]
f (x) Q[x] . , m(x), n(x) Z[x] unit,
Q[x] unit . 2x + 2 Q[x] irreducible Z[x]
2x + 2 = 2 (x + 1), 2 x + 1 Z[x] unit ( 2 Q[x] unit),
2x + 2 Z[x] irreducible. Z[x] irreducible element
Q[x] irreducible element .
irreducible element divisor unit
unit . Z[x] unit 1 1
.
Definition 7.3.9. p(x) Z[x]
(1) p(x) Z[x] divisor 1 p(x), p(x) Z[x]
irreducible element.
(2) p(x) | f (x) g(x) f (x), g(x) Z[x] p(x) | f (x)
p(x) | g(x) p(x) Z[x] prime element.
Lemma.
Lemma 7.3.10. p(x) Z[x] deg(p(x)) > 0.
(1) p(x) irreducible element, p(x) primitive polynomial.
(2) p(x) prime element, p(x) primitive polynomial.
Proof. (1) p(x) irreducible. p(x) = c(p) p (x), c(p) N Z[x]
p (x) Z[x], c(p) p(x) divisor. p(x) irreducible
deg(p (x)) = deg(p(x)) > 0 c(p) = 1, p(x) primitive.

7.3. Polynomials over the Integers

135

(2) p(x) prime. p(x) = c(p) p (x), p(x) | c(p) p (x).


p(x) prime , p(x) | c(p) p(x) | p (x). deg(p(x)) > 0
p(x) | c(p). p(x) | p (x). (x) Z[x] p (x) = (x) p(x).

p (x) = (x) c(p) p (x). Z[x] integral domain p (x) 6= 0


(x) c(p) = 1. (x) c(p) Z[x] unit. c(p) ,
(x) = c(p) = 1. p(x) primitive.

, Z[x] irreducible element prime


element . Z[x] ideal principle ideal ,
. Q[x] irreducible element
, Z[x] irreducible element Q[x] irreducible
element .
Lemma 7.3.11. p(x) Z[x], deg(p(x)) > 0 p(x) primitive polynomial,
p(x) Q[x] irreducible element p(x) Z[x] irreducible
element.
Proof. p(x) Z[x] irreducible element. p(x) Q[x]
irreducible element, g(x), h(x) Q[x] 0 < deg(g(x)) < deg(p(x)),
0 < deg(h(x)) < deg(p(x)) p(x) = g(x) h(x). Lemma 7.3.8
m(x), n(x) Z[x] deg(m(x)) = deg(g(x)), deg(n(x)) = deg(h(x)) p(x) =
m(x) n(x). m(x) p(x) divisor. 0 < deg(m(x)) < deg(p(x)),
m(x) 6= 1 m(x) 6= p(x). p(x) Z[x] irreducible element
. p(x) Q[x] irreducible element.
, p(x) Q[x] irreducible element. p(x) = m(x) n(x),
m(x), n(x) Z[x]. p(x) Q[x] irreducible m(x) n(x)
Q[x] unit, : m(x) = d ! m(x) Z[x] d Z.
p(x) = d n(x) d p(x) . p(x) primitive,
d = 1. p(x) divisor 1 p(x) , p(x)
Z[x] irreducible.

Q field, F [x] Q[x] .


Q[x] irreducible prime , Z[x] irreducible prime
.
Proposition 7.3.12. p(x) Z[x]. p(x) Z[x] irreducible element,
p(x) Z[x] prime element. , p(x) Z[x] prime element,
p(x) Z[x] irreducible element.

7. Rings

136

Proof. , deg(p(x)) = 0 p(x) Z . Z


irreducible prime (Proposition 7.1.7), deg(p(x)) > 0
.
p(x) Z[x] irreducible element. Lemma 7.3.10
primitive, Lemma 7.3.11 p(x) Q[x] irreducible element.
Proposition 7.2.11 p(x) Q[x] prime element. f (x), g(x) Z[x]
p(x) | f (x) g(x) in Z[x], Lemma 7.3.7 p(x) | f (x) g(x) in Q[x]. p(x)
Q[x] prime p(x) | f (x) p(x) | g(x) in Q[x]. Lemma 7.3.7 p(x) | f (x)
p(x) | g(x) in Z[x]. p(x) Z[x] prime element.
, p(x) Z[x] prime element. p(x) = m(x)n(x) m(x), n(x)
Z[x]. p(x) | m(x) n(x), p(x) | n(x) p(x) | m(x). p(x) | n(x),
(x) Z[x] n(x) = (x) p(x).

n(x) = (x) n(x) m(x) = (x) m(x) n(x).


n(x) 6= 0 Z[x] integral domain, (x) m(x) = 1. m(x)
Z[x] unit, m(x) = 1. , p(x) | m(x) n(x) = 1. p(x)
divisor 1 p(x) , p(x) irreducible element.

Z[x] ,
ideal principle ideal , Proposition
7.3.12 irreducible element prime . , f (x)
f (x) , polynomial.
Theorem 7.3.13. f (x) Z[x] 0, 1, 1
polynomial, p1 (x), . . . , pr (x) Z[x], pi (x) Z[x]
irreducible elements,
f (x) = p1 (x)n1 pr (x)nr ,

ni N, i {1, . . . , r}.

f (x) f (x) = q1 (x)m1 qs (x)ms , qi (x)


Z[x] irreducible elements, r = s
pi (x) = qi (x), ni = mi , i {1, . . . , r}.
Proof. , f (x) Z[x] irreducible elements
. ( degree) . deg(f (x)) = 0, f (x) N
unit, Z (Theorem 7.1.8) f (x)
irreducible elements . degree n polynomial .
deg(f (x)) = n , f (x) irreducible, . f (x)
irreducible . , Z[x] polynomial irreducible
degree polynomials (
2x + 2). f (x) f (x) = c(f ) f (x), f (x) Z[x]

7.3. Polynomials over the Integers

137

primitive polynomial. c(f ) N, Theorem 7.1.8 c(f ) = 1


irreducible polynomials .
f (x) irreducible elements . f (x) irreducible
, . f (x) irreducible , Lemma 7.3.11
f (x) Q[x] irreducible, f (x) = g(x) h(x) g(x), h(x) Q[x]
0 < deg(g(x)) < deg(f (x)) 0 < deg(h(x)) < deg(f (x)). Lemma 7.3.8
m(x), n(x) Z[x] deg(m(x)) = deg(g(x)) deg(n(x)) = deg(h(x))
f (x) = m(x) n(x). deg(m(x)) < deg(f (x)) = n deg(n(x)) < n,
m(x) n(x) irreducible elements .
f (x) irreducible elements , f (x) = c(f )f (x)
irreducible elements .
. deg(f (x)) = 0, f (x) N,
Theorem 7.1.8 . degree n
polynomial . deg(f (x)) = n ,
f (x) = p1 (x)n1 pr (x)nr = q1 (x)m1 qs (x)ms ,
pi (x) , qj (x) , pi (x), qj (x) Z[x]
irreducible elements. deg(f (x)) > 0, pi (x)
polynomial degree 0, p1 (x). Proposition 7.3.12
p1 (x) Z[x] prime element, p1 (x) | f (x) , qj (x) polynomial
p1 (x) , q1 (x). p1 (x) | q1 (x). q1 (x)
irreducible, divisor 1 q1 (x). deg(p1 (x)) > 0 p1 (x)
q1 (x) , p1 (x) = q1 (x). f (x)

f (x) = p1 (x)n1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr = p1 (x)m1 q2 (x)m2 qs (x)ms .


p1 (x),

p1 (x) p1 (x)n1 1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr p1 (x)m1 1 q2 (x)m2 qs (x)ms = 0.


p1 (x) 6= 0 Z[x] integral domain,
p1 (x)n1 1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr p1 (x)m1 1 q2 (x)m2 qs (x)ms = 0.
g(x) = p1 (x)n1 1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr . p1 (x) deg(p1 (x)) > 0,

deg(g(x)) = deg(f (x)) deg(p1 (x)) < deg(f (x)) = n

g(x) = p1 (x)n1 1 p2 (x)n2 pr (x)nr = p1 (x)m1 1 q2 (x)m2 qs (x)ms


g(x) , r = s p1 (x) = q1 (x), . . . , pr (x) =
qr (x) n1 = m1 , n2 = m2 , . . . , nr = mr , .

7. Rings

138

Theorem 7.3.13 Z[x] irreducible elements Z


. Lemma 7.3.8 Z[x] irreducible element
Q[x] irreducible. Z[x] irreducible elements
. f (x) Z[x] irreducible .
polynomial irreducible.
Proposition 7.3.14 (Eisenstein Criterion).
f (x) = xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0 Z[x],
n > 0. p N
p | a0 , p | a1 , . . . , p | an1

p2 - a0 ,

f (x) Z[x] irreducible element.


Proof. c(f ) = 1 f (x) primitive polynomial. f (x)
irreducible in Z[x] f (x) degree n polynomials
. .
f (x) = g(x) h(x)
g(x) = cr xr + + c1 x + c0 Z[x],

0<r<n

h(x) = ds xs + + d1 x + d0 Z[x],

0 < s < n.

g(x) h(x) c0 d0 = a0 . p | a0 = c0 d0 , p | c0 p | d0 .
p2 - c0 d0 , c0 d0 p . c0 !
p | c0 p - d0 . g(x) h(x) c0 d1 + c1 d0 = a1 .
p | a1 p | c0 p | c1 d0 . p - d0 p | c1 .
p | cr . p | c0 , p | c1 , . . . , p | cr1 ,
p | cr . g(x) h(x) xr
c0 dr + c1 dr1 + + cr1 d1 + cr d0 = ar .
( s < r, ds+1 = = dr = 0) 0 < r < n p | ar ,
p | c0 , . . . , p | cr1 , p | cr d0 . p - d0 , p | cr .
g(x) h(x) ( f (x) xn )
cr ds = 1.
p | cr cr ds = 1. , f (x) Z[x]
irreducible element.

, Lemma 7.3.8 ( Lemma 7.3.11) Proposition


7.3.14 polynomials Q[x] irreducible.

7.4. Quotient Field of an Integral Domain

139

7.4. Quotient Field of an Integral Domain


Z integral domain Q field. Q Z field.
Z Q integral domain D.
integral domain D, S = {(a, b) | a, b D, b 6= 0}.
S equivalence relation. S (a, b), (c, d) S,
(a, b) (c, d)

a d = c b.

relation , Q a/b
c/d, a, b, c, d Z b 6= 0, d 6= 0, a d = c b .
relation equivalence relation:
(equiv1): (a, b) S, D integral domain commutative, a b = b a. (a, b) (a, b).
(equiv2): (a, b) (c, d), (c, d) (a, b). (a, b) (c, d)
a d = c b . (c, d) (a, b)
c b = a d, , (c, d) (a, b).
(equiv3): (a, b) (c, d) (c, d) (e, f ), (a, b) (e, f ).

ad = cb

(7.1)

cf

(7.2)

= ed

(7.1) (7.2) a f = e b ?
(7.1) f , (a d) f = (c b) f = (c f ) b.
(7.2) (a d) f = (e d) b, d (a f e b) = 0. d 6= 0,
D zero divisor ( D integral domain), a f = e b.
, S equivalence relation, S
. (a, b) S, [a, b] S (a, b)
. Se S . Se [a, b]
, a, b D b 6= 0, (a, b) (c, d), Se [a, b] = [c, d].
e :
Se . [a, b] Se [c, d] S,
[a, b] + [c, d] = [a d + c b, b d]

[a, b] [c, d] = [a c, b d].

. well-defined.
[a, b] + [c, d] [a, b] [c, d] Se , b d 6= 0.
b 6= 0 d 6= 0 D integral domain, b d 6= 0.
[a, b] = [a0 , b0 ] [c, d] = [c0 , d0 ], [a, b] + [c, d] = [a0 , b0 ] + [c0 , d0 ]
[a, b] [c, d] = [a0 , b0 ] [c0 , d0 ]. [a, b] + [c, d] = [a0 , b0 ] + [c0 , d0 ]

7. Rings

140

(a d + c b) (b0 d0 ) = (a0 d0 + c0 b0 ) (b d).


a b0 = a0 b c d0 = c0 d
(a d + c b) (b0 d0 ) = (a b0 ) (d d0 ) + (c d0 ) (b0 b)
= (a0 b) (d d0 ) + (c0 d) (b0 b)
= (a0 d0 + c0 b0 ) (b d).
, [a, b] [c, d] = [a0 , b0 ] [c0 , d0 ] (a c) (b0 d0 ) = (a0 c0 ) (b d).
a b0 = a0 b c d0 = c0 d
(a c) (b0 d0 ) = (a b0 ) (c d0 ) = (a0 b) (c0 d) = (a0 c0 ) (b d).
Se , Se ring,
(R1)(R8). , . Se
commutative ring with 1. Se 0 [0, 1] 1 [1, 1].
[a, b] Se [a, b] + [0, 1] = [a, b] [a, b] [1, 1] = [a, b] . Se
commutative D integral domain D commutative
[a, b] [c, d] = [a c, b d] = [c, d] [a, b].
Se field, [a, b] Se [a, b] 6= [0, 1]
[c, d] Se [a, b] [c, d] = [1, 1]. [a, b] 6= [0, 1] a 6= 0,
e [a, b] [b, a] = [a b, a b] = [1, 1]. , Se 0
[b, a] S.
unit, Se field, D quotient field fraction field.
D quotient field Se , D field.
. isomorphic
. Se D, Se subring
D isomorphic. Se D field F field
subring D isomorphic, F subring Se isomorphic.
D quotient field.
Proposition 7.4.1. D integral domain, Se D quotient field,
D Se injective ( ) ring homomorphism .
Proof. : D Se a D, (a) = [a, 1]. a, b D
(a + b) = [a + b, 1] = [a, 1] + [b, 1] = (a) + (b)

(a b) = [a b, 1] = [a, 1] [b, 1] = (a) (b).


D Se ring homomorphism. ,
ker() = {0}. (0) = [0, 1] 0 ker(). a ker(),

7.4. Quotient Field of an Integral Domain

141

(a) = [a, 1] = [0, 1]. , [a, 1] = [0, 1] a 1 = 0 1, a = 0.


ker() = {0}.

Theorem 6.4.2 D/ ker() ' im() Proposition 7.4.1


ker() = {0} D ' im(). im() Se subring (Lemma 6.3.3),
D D quotient field Se subring isomorphic. D
quotient field field.
Proposition 7.4.2. D integral domain, Se D quotient field.
F field subring D isomorphic, F subring
Se isomorphic.
Proof. ring homomorphism : D F .
ring homomorphism : Se F .
e ([a, b]) = (a) (b)1 .
[a, b] S,
well-defined.
e b 6= 0,
([a, b]) F . [a, b] S,
(b) F 0 . F field
(b)1 F . ([a, b]) = (a) (b)1 F . [a, b] = [c, d]
([a, b]) = ([c, d]). ( :
, ,
.) a d = c b,
(a) (b)1 = (c) (d)1 .
ring homomorphism (ad) = (a)(d) (cb) = (c)(b).
ad = cb (ad) = (cb) (a)(d) = (c)(b).
(d)1 (b)1 ( (b) (d) 0) (a) (b)1 = (c) (d)1 .
well-defined .
e
ring homomorphism. [a, b], [c, d] S,

([a, b] + [c, d]) = ([a d + c b, b d]) = (a d + c b) (b d)1

([a, b]) + ([c, d]) = (a) (b)1 + (c) (d)1 .


ring homomorphism, (b d) = (b) (d)
(a d + c b) (b d)1 = (a) (b)1 + (c) (d)1 .

([a, b] + [c, d]) = ([a, b]) + ([c, d]).

7. Rings

142

([a, b] [c, d]) = ([a c, b d]) = (a c) (b d)1 = ([a, b]) ([c, d]),
ring homomorphism.
, ker() = {[0, 1]}. [a, b] ker(),
([a, b]) = (a) (b)1 = 0. (b) (a) = 0.
, a ker() = {0}, a = 0. [a, b] = [0, 1].
.

e
, Se D quotient field, D S,
[a, 1] a. [a, b] Se a/b.

Chapter 8

Integral Domain

ring . ring
integral domain. ,
.

8.1. Divisor
integral domain irreducible
elements prime elements. .
.
Definition 8.1.1. R integral domain a, d R R 0
. r R a = d r, d a R divisor
d | a.

R integral domain d R, d = {d r | r R}



d | a a d . a d , d ideal




r R a r d . a d . a d , a a



a d . a d a d , :
Lemma 8.1.2. R integral domain a, d R \ {0} . d | a

a d .
Lemma 8.1.2 ,
ideal . divisor
, ideal ,
.
143

8. Integral Domain

144

a R a 6= 0, R unit a

divisor. u R unit, u = R (Lemma 6.2.4).


a R = u u | a. u unit , a u a divisor.


a u = a (Lemma 6.5.4) Lemma 8.1.2 . u a u a divisor
a , a trivial divisor. Lemma
a u a trivial divisor a .
Lemma 8.1.3. R integral domain a b R 0
. a b .
(1) u R R unit a = b u.

(2) a = b .
(3) a | b b | a.

Proof. (1) (2): Lemma 6.5.4 a = b .
(2) (3): Lemma 8.1.2 .
(3) (1): a | b r R b = a r, b | a r0 R
a = b r0 .
a = b r0 = (a r) r0 = a (r r0 ).

a (1 r r0 ) = a a (r r0 ) = 0.
a 6= 0 R integral domain, r r0 = 1. r0 R
unit.

, Lemma 8.1.3 .
Definition 8.1.4. a, b R \ {0} u R R unit a = b u,
a b associates. a b.

Lemma 8.1.3 (2) a b a = b ,
equivalence relation.
Z a, b greatest common divisor a, b common
divisor , F [x] f (x), g(x) greatest common divisor
f (x), g(x) common divisor degree . integral domain
degree . greatest common divisor
( Corollary 7.1.5 (2) Corollary 7.2.9 (2)),
integral domain greatest common divisor.
Definition 8.1.5. R integral domain, a1 , . . . , an R 0 .
(1) c R c | ai , i {1, . . . , n} c a1 , . . . , an common
divisor.

8.1. Divisor

145

(2) d R a1 , . . . , an common divisor a1 , . . . , an


common divisor c c | d, d a1 , . . . , an greatest
common divisor.

u R unit, u = R (Lemma 6.2.4) a1 , . . . , an


ai u , i {1, . . . , n}. u | ai , i {1, . . . , n}. R
unit a1 , . . . , an common divisor. integral domain,
a1 , . . . , an greatest common divisor . greatest common
divisor ( F [x] ). Z
greatest common divisor Section 7.1 Definition 7.1.3 greatest common
divisor . greatest common divisor .
Lemma 8.1.6. R integral domain.
(1) d d0 a1 , . . . , an greatest common divisor, d d0 associates.
(2) R 0 greatest common divisor , R
n 0 greatest common divisor .
Proof. (1) d d0 a1 , . . . , an greatest common divisor, d
a1 , . . . , an common divisor. d0 a1 , . . . , an greatest common divisor
d | d0 . d0 | d. Lemma 8.1.3 d d0 .
(2) R 0 greatest common divisor ,
n 0 a1 , . . . , an greatest common divisor .
n 1 0 a1 , . . . , an1 greatest common divisor d0 .
d0 an R 0 , greatest common divisor .
d d0 an greatest common divisor, d a1 , . . . , an greatest
common divisor.
d | d0 d0 a1 , . . . , an1 common divisor d | d0 | ai , i
{1, . . . , n 1}. d | an d a1 , . . . , an common divisor.
c a1 , . . . , an common divisor, c a1 , . . . , an1
common divisor. d0 a1 , . . . , an1 greatest common divisor c | d0 .
c d0 an common divisor. d d0 an greatest common
divisor c | d. d a1 , . . . , an greatest common divisor.

irreducible element prime element. Irreducible


, trivial divisor divisor.
Definition 8.1.7. R integral domain.

8. Integral Domain

146

(1) a R 0 a divisor trivial divisor (


, d | a d unit d a), a R irreducible
element.
(2) p R 0 p | c d c, d R p | c
p | d, p R prime element.
irreducible element prime element ,
. integral domain
prime element irreducible element.
Lemma 8.1.8. R integral domain. a R prime element, a
irreducible element.
Proof. d | a, a irreducible d unit d a.
d | a, r R a = d r. a | d r. a prime
a | d a | r. a | d, d | a Lemma 8.1.3 d a.
a | r, Lemma 8.1.3 a r. , unit u a = u r.
a = d r = u r R integral domain d = u unit.

ideal . Lemma
irreducible element prime element principle ideal
.
Lemma 8.1.9. R integral domain, a R a 6= 0.
(1) a irreducible element nontrivial principle ideal

a .

(2) a prime element a prime ideal.

Proof. (1) : a irreducible element, b R a b ,
Lemma 8.1.2 b | a. a irreducible b unit b a.


b = R (Lemma 6.2.4) b = a (Lemma 6.5.4). nontrivial

principle ideal a .

: d | a, a d . nontrivial principle ideal





a , d trivial principle ideal a . d = R d = a .


d = R d = 1 Lemma 8.1.3 d 1, d unit.

d = a Lemma 8.1.3 d a. a irreducible element.

(2) : a prime element. c d a , a | c d. a



prime a | c a | d. c a d a , a
prime ideal.

8.2. Euclidean Domain

147



: a prime ideal. c, d R a | c d, c d a .



a prime ideal c a d a . a | c a | d,
a prime element.

8.2. Euclidean Domain


Z F [x] Euclids Algorithm ( ). ,
ring Euclidean domain.
, .
Euclidean domain Euclidean domain
.
Z Euclids Algorithm a, b Z, b 6= 0,
h, r Z, r r = 0 |r| < |b| a = b h + r. F [x] Euclids
Algorithm f (x), g(x) F [x] g(x) 6= 0, h(x), r(x) F [x],
r(x) r(x) = 0 deg(r(x)) < deg(g(x)) f (x) = g(x) h(x) + r(x).
Z Z 0 ,
F [x] degree F [x] 0 .
.
Definition 8.2.1. R integral domain.
: R \ {0} N {0}
a, b R b =
6 0 h, r R, r r = 0
(r) < (b), a = b h + r, R Euclidean domain.
Z F [x] Euclidean domain. Z[i] = {a+bi | a, b Z}
integral domain (a+bi) = a2 +b2 Z[i] Euclidean domain (, http://math.ntnu.edu.tw/li/note
Factorization of Commutative Rings ).
integral domain Euclidean domain
. . Euclidean domain .
Euclids Algorithm Z F [x] ideal principle
ideal. Euclidean domain .
Theorem 8.2.2. R Euclidean domain R ideal principle
ideal.
Proof. I R ideal. T = {(a) | a I \ {0}} .
N {0} T N {0} . T
. d I \ {0} a I \ {0} (d) (a).

I= d .

8. Integral Domain

148


d I, d I. a I, Euclidean domain
h, r R a = d h + r r = 0 (r) < (d). r 6= 0, r = a d h
a, d I r I. r I \ {0} (r) < (d). (d) T


, r = 0. a = d h, a d . I d .

integral domain ideal principle ideal ring ,


.
Definition 8.2.3. R integral domain R ideal principle
ideal, R principle ideal domain.
Theorem 8.2.2 Euclidean domain principle ideal
domain. , principle ideal domain Euclidean domain.
Factorization of Commutative Rings
principle ideal domain Euclidean domain .

8.3. Principle Ideal Domain


principle ideal domain . Euclidean
domain principle ideal domain, Euclidean
Domain.
integral domain 0 greatest common divisor
. principle ideal domain, 0 greatest common
divisor !
Proposition 8.3.1. R principle ideal domain. a, b R
a, b 6= 0 greatest common divisor . , d a, b greatest common
divisor, r, s R d = r a + s b.

Proof. a + b ideal. R principle ideal domain,

d R d = a + b . d a, b greatest common divisor.
d a, b common divisor.

a a + b = d ,
Lemma 8.1.2 d | a. d | b, d a, b common divisor.
c a, b common divisor, c | d. c | a c | b,





a c b c . c ideal, ,


a + b c . d c . c | d.

, a + b r a + s b, r, s R .

d d = a + b r, s R d = r a + s b.
a, b greatest common divisor . Lemma 8.1.6 d0 a, b

greatest common divisor, d0 = d = a + b .

8.3. Principle Ideal Domain

149

d a, b greatest common divisor, r, s R d = r a+sr


. Proposition 7.1.7 Proposition
7.2.11 principle ideal domain irreducible element
prime element. ideal .
Lemma 8.3.2. R principle ideal domain, a R a 6= 0. a R


irreducible element a R maximal ideal. , a R
maximal ideal, a R irreducible element.
Proof. a irreducible element, Lemma 8.1.9 (1)

nontrivial principle ideal a R . R principle ideal

R ideal principle ideal. ideal a

R . a maximal ideal.

, a maximal ideal, nontrivial principle ideal

a . Lemma 8.1.9 (1) a irreducible element.


Lemma 8.1.9 a prime element a
prime ideal. .
Proposition 8.3.3. R principle ideal domain, R irreducible
element prime element. , R prime element irreducible element.
Proof. R integral domain, Lemma 8.1.8 R prime element
irreducible element.

, a R irreducible element, Lemma 8.3.2 a R
maximal ideal. Corollary 6.5.13 R maximal ideal prime

ideal, a R prime ideal. Lemma 8.1.9 (2) a
prime element.

commutative ring with 1 maximal ideal prime


ideal, prime ideal maximal ideal. Lemma 8.3.2 Proposition
8.3.3 principle ideal domain maximal ideal prime ideal
.
Corollary 8.3.4. R principle ideal domain I R 0
ideal. I prime ideal I maximal ideal.
Proof. maximal ideal prime ideal. I
0 prime ideal, I maximal ideal.


R principle ideal domain, a 6= 0 I = a . a
prime ideal, Lemma 8.1.9 a prime element. Proposition

8. Integral Domain

150

8.3.3 ( Lemma 8.1.8) a irreducible element. Lemma 8.3.2



a = I maximal ideal.

Z F [x] irreducible element prime element


Z F [x] . principle ideal domain
. Z F [x]
, principle ideal domain .
Lemma .
Lemma 8.3.5. R principle ideal domain, R
ideals. {In }
n=1 R ideal
I1 I2 In ,
m N Im = Im+1 = .
Proof. I =
n=1 In . I R ideal.
( J1 , J2 R ideal J1 J2 R ideals.
In , I ideal.)
a, b I, i, j N a Ii b Ij . i j,
Ij Ii . a, b Ii . Ii ideal, a b Ii . a b I.
a I r R, i N a Ii . a r Ii ,
a r I. Lemma 6.1.2 I R ideal.


I R ideal R principle ideal domain, a R a = I.


a a = I m N a Im . a a

ideal (Lemma 6.5.1) I = a Im . I = Im , i > m
Im Ii Ii I I = Im = Ii , i > m.

Lemma 8.3.5 d a nontrivial divisor



( d | a d unit a associates), a ( d . ,
R irreducible element .
Theorem 8.3.6. R principle ideal domain a R 0
unit , a R irreducible elements ,
associates , .
a = pn1 1 pnr r
= q1m1 qsms
p1 , . . . , pr associates irreducible elements q1 , . . . , qs
associates irreducible elements, , r = s, pi qi
ni = mi , i = 1, . . . , r.

8.3. Principle Ideal Domain

151

Proof. a irreducible elements . a


irreducible elements , a irreducible,
a = a1 b1 , a1 , b1 R a nontrivial divisors a1 , b1
irreducible elements . a1 , a2 , b2 R
a1 = a2 b2 , a2 a1 nontrivial divisor a2 irreducible
elements . ideals


a ( a1 ( a2 ( ( an ( .
Lemma 8.3.5 , a irreducible elements
.
. irreducible element prime element
.
a = pn1 1 pnr r = q1m1 qsms ,
pi
pi | q1m1 qsms ,
pi prime (Proposition 8.3.3) j {1, . . . , s} pi | qj . pi
qj divisor. qj irreducible pi unit, pi qj ( pi
qj associates). pi , {q1 , . . . , qs } qj
pi qj . j 6= j 0 pi | qj 0 , pi qj 0 , associates
equivalence relation qj qj 0 , j 6= j 0 qj qj 0 .
qj {p1 , . . . , pr } pi qj pi .
{p1 , . . . , pr } {q1 , . . . , qs } . r = s
p1 q1 , . . . , pr qr . ni 6= mi ,
n1 6= m1 n1 > m1 ! q1 = u p1 , u R unit,

n1 m1
1
pm
pn2 2 pnr r um1 q2m2 qrmr ) = 0.
1 (p1

p1m1 6= 0 R integral domain,


pn1 1 m1 pn2 2 pnr r = um1 q2m2 qrmr .
n1 m1 > 0, {q2 , . . . , qr } qj p1 | qj ( u unit
p1 | u). p1 qj , q1 {q1 , . . . , qr } p1
associates . .

Theorem 8.3.6 ring ,


.
Definition 8.3.7. R integral domain R 0 unit
R irreducible elements , associates

8. Integral Domain

152

, , R unique factorization
domain.
Theorem 8.3.6 principle ideal domain unique factorization domain. unique factorization domain principle ideal
domain. Z[x] unique factorization domain (Theorem 7.3.13)

2 + x ideal principle ideal (Example 7.3.1).

8.4. Unique Factorization Domain


unique factorization domain ,
unique factorization domains.
8.4.1. Unique factorization domain . unique factorization
domain divisor . Z
a, b greatest common divisor ,
a, b greatest common divisor.
unique factorization domain R R Euclidean domain,
greatest common divisor. a, b R,
unique factorization domain a, b
a = u pn1 1 pnr r ,

nr
1
b = v pm
1 pr ,

(8.1)

u, v R units, p1 , . . . , pr R associates irreducible elements,


i {1, . . . , r}, ni mi 0 .
p1 , . . . , pr a, b ni mi 0,
pi | a pi - b mi = 0. pj | b pj - a, nj = 0.
d = pt11 ptrr ,
ti = min{ni , mi }, d a, b greatest common divisor.
Proposition 8.4.1. R unique factorization domain a1 , . . . , an
R 0 , a1 , . . . , an greatest common divisor .
Proof. Lemma 8.1.6 R 0 a b greatest
common divisor .
a, b (8.1) ,
d = pt11 ptrr ,
ti = min{ni , mi }. d a, b greatest common divisor.
ti mi ti ni , i = 1, . . . , r, d | a d | b.
d a, b common divisor. c a, b common divisor, p
irreducible element p | c, p | a p | b p p1 , . . . , pr

8.4. Unique Factorization Domain

153

pi associates. c p1 , . . . , pr associates
irreducible divisor, c
c = w ps11 psrr ,
w unit si . i si > ni ,
s1 > n1 ! ps11 | c c | a ps11 | a.
ps11 n1 | pn2 2 pnr r .
s1 n1 1
p1 | pn2 2 pnr r .
p1 prime, p1 p2 , . . . , pr pi associates.
p1 , . . . , pr associates , si ni , i = 1, . . . , r. si mi ,
i = 1, . . . , r. i = 1, . . . , r si min{ni , mi } = ti .
c | d. d a, b greatest common divisor.

integral domain unique factorization domain,


integral domain irreducible elements prime elements
. , unique factorization domain irreducible element prime
element .
Proposition 8.4.2. R unique factorization domain, R irreducible
elements prime elements .
Proof. integral domain prime element irreducible element
(Lemma 8.1.8). irreducible element prime element.
p R irreducible element p | a b, a, b R.
h R a b = h p. a, b (8.1) ,
a b = (u v) pn1 1 +m1 pnr r +mr .
R unique factorization domain, a b p p1 , . . . , pr
pi associates. ni mi 0, ni 6= 0 mi 6= 0.
ni 6= 0, p | a, mi 6= 0 p | b. p prime element.

8.4.2. Polynomials over unique factorization domain.


Z[x] unique factorization domain R unique factorization domain

R[x] = {an xn + + a1 x + a0 | ai R}
R polynomials polynomial ring unique factorization
domain.

8. Integral Domain

154

f (x) R[x] f (x) 6= 0, f (x) f (x) = an xn + + a1 x + a0 ,


an 6= 0. F [x] deg(f (x)) = n.
Lemma 7.2.2 : f (x), g(x) R[x] 0,
deg(f (x) g(x)) = deg(f (x)) + deg(g(x)).
Lemma 7.2.2 0 0 ( integral
domain) , field . degree
.
Lemma 8.4.3. R integral domain.
(1) R[x] integral domain.
(2) R[x] unit R unit.
(3) a R R irreducible element a R[x] (
) irreducible.
Proof. (1) f (x) 6= 0 g(x) 6= 0, f (x) an g(x)
bm , f (x) g(x) an bm . an , bm R,
an 6=, bm 6= 0 R integral domain an bm 6= 0. f (x) g(x)
0 .
(2) f (x) R[x] R[x] unit, g(x) R[x] f (x)g(x) = 1
deg(f (x))+deg(g(x)) = 0 ( 1 degree 0). deg(f (x)) =
deg(g(x)) = 0. f (x), g(x) , f (x), g(x) R.
f (x) g(x) = 1 f (x) R unit.
(3) a R R irreducible element. degree
g(x) f (x) divisor ( h(x) R[x] g(x) h(x) = f (x)),
deg(g(x)) deg(f (x)). a , deg(a) = 0, R[x]
a divisor degree 0. R[x] a divisor R
. a R irreducible divisor R unit a
associates. (2) R unit R[x] unit, a R[x]
irreducible.

R unique factorization domain , F R quotient field.


R F [x] unique factorization domain (Theorem 7.2.14)
R[x] unique factorization domain.
R[x] F [x] , Z[x] content
. Proposition 8.4.1 f (x) = an xn + a1 x + a0 R[x],
an , . . . , a1 , a0 greatest common divisor .
Definition 8.4.4. f (x) = an xn + +a1 x+a0 R[x] an , . . . , a1 , a0 greatest
common divisor R unit, f (x) R[x] primitive polynomial.

8.4. Unique Factorization Domain

155

Lemma 8.4.5. R unique factorization domain, f (x) R[x]


f (x) 6= 0, c R f (x) R[x] R[x] primitive polynomial
f (x) = c f (x).

f (x) = c f (x)
= c0 g(x)
c, c0 R, f (x), g(x) R[x] R[x] primitive polynomials, c c0
f (x) g(x).
Proof. : f (x) = an xn + + a1 x + a0 , c an , . . . , a1 , a0
greatest common divisor. i = 0, 1, . . . , n ai = c bi ,
bi R, b0 , . . . , bn greatest common divisor R unit. f (x) =
bn xn + + b1 x + b0 , f (x) R[x] primitive polynomial f (x) = c f (x).
.
: f (x) = c0 g(x), g(x) R[x] primitive polynomial.
g(x) = a0n xn + + a01 x + a00 , i = 0, 1, . . . , n, ai = c0 a0i .
c0 an , . . . , a0 common divisor. c an , . . . , a0 greatest
common divisor c0 | c. d R c = c0 d. ai = c bi = c0 a0i ,
i = 0, 1, . . . , n,
c0 (d bi ) = (c0 d) bi = c bi = c0 a0i .
c0 6= 0 R integral domain, i = 0, 1, . . . , n, a0i = d bi .
d a0n , . . . , a00 common divisor. a0n , . . . , a00 greatest
common divisor unit, d R unit. c c0 .
f (x) = c f (x) = c0 g(x), R[x] integral domain, d f (x) = g(x).
d R unit R[x] unit, f (x) g(x).

Lemma 8.4.5 , .
Definition 8.4.6. R unique factorization domain. f (x) R[x]
f (x) = c f (x) c R f (x) R[x] primitive polynomial, c
f (x) content, c(f ).
Lemma 8.4.5 f (x) content f (x)
greatest common divisor. f (x) content
, content associates.
content F [x]. F R quotient field,
F a/b , a, b R b 6= 0.
f (x) = rn xn + + r1 x + r0 F [x], i = 0, 1, . . . , n, ri = ai /bi ,

8. Integral Domain

156

ai , bi R, d R d 6= 0 d f (x) R[x] (
d = bn b0 ). Lemma 8.4.5 c R f (x) R[x] R[x]
primitive polynomial d f (x) = c f (x). d 6= 0, f (x)
c
f (x) = f (x).
d
F [x] 0 polynomial f (x) f (x) = r f (x),
r F f (x) R[x] R[x] primitive polynomial. r f (x)
content c(f ).
Corollary 8.4.7. R unique factorization domain, F R quotient
field. f (x) F [x] f (x) 6= 0, c F f (x) R[x] R[x]
primitive polynomial
f (x) = c f (x).

f (x) = c f (x)
= c0 g(x)
c, c0 F , f (x), g(x) R[x] R[x] primitive polynomials, u R
R unit c = u c0 u f (x) = g(x).
Proof. , . c c0 c = a/b
c0 = a0 /b0 , a, a0 , b, b0 R b 6= 0, b0 6= 0. f (x) b b0 ,
(b b0 ) f (x) R[x]
(b b0 ) f (x) = (a b0 ) f (x)
= (a0 b) g(x).
(b b0 ) f (x) R[x] Lemma 8.4.5 (b b0 ) f (x) ,
u R R unit a b0 = u (a0 b). c = u c0 . c0 6= 0
F [x] integral domain u f (x) = g(x).

Z[x] , Gauss Lemma polynomials


content.
Lemma 8.4.8 (Gauss). R unique factorization domain. f (x), g(x)
R[x] R[x] primitive polynomials, f (x) g(x) R[x] primitive
polynomial.
Proof. Lemma 7.3.5 , . f (x) g(x)
primitive polynomial, f (x) g(x) greatest common divisor
R unit. R unique factorization domain p R
R irreducible ( prime) element f (x) g(x) common

8.4. Unique Factorization Domain

157

divisor. f (x) g(x) primitive polynomials, p f (x)


g(x) . i f (x) xi
p , j g(x) xj p ,
f (x) g(x) xi+j p . p f (x) g(x)
common divisor , f (x) g(x) R[x] primitive polynomial.

Primitive polynomial R[x] F [x] , R[x]


irreducible element primitive polynomial.
Lemma 8.4.9. R unique factorization domain. f (x) R[x] R[x]
irreducible element deg(f (x)) 1, f (x) R[x] primitive polynomial.
Proof. f (x) R[x] irreducible element, f (x) f (x) = c(f )f (x)
c(f ) R R[x] f (x) R[x], c(f ) f (x) divisor. f (x)
irreducible element c(f ) R unit (f (x) c(f ) associates
deg(f (x)) 1 deg(c(f )) = 0), f (x) primitive polynomial.

f (x), g(x) R[x], R F , f (x) g(x) R[x] polynomials


F [x] polynomials. polynomials R[x]
F [x] . g(x) = f (x) h(x), h(x) R[x]
f (x) | g(x) in R[x]. h(x) F [x], f (x) | g(x) in F [x].
R[x] F [x], f (x) | g(x) in R[x] f (x) | g(x) in F [x].
f (x) | g(x) in F [x] f (x) | g(x) in R[x]. f (x) R[x]
primitive polynomial , .
Lemma 8.4.10. R unique factorization domain F R quotient
field. f (x), g(x) R[x] f (x) R[x] primitive polynomial,
f (x) | g(x) in F [x] f (x) | g(x) in R[x].
Proof. : f (x) | g(x) in F [x] f (x) | g(x) in R[x].
h(x) F [x] g(x) = f (x) h(x). content,
c(g) g (x) = (c(f ) c(h)) (f (x) h (x)).
c(g), c(f ) R g(x), f (x) content, c(h) F h(x) content,
g (x), f (x) h (x) R[x] primitive polynomials. Lemma 8.4.8
f (x) h (x) R[x] primitive polynomial. Corollary 8.4.7
u R R unit u c(g) = c(f ) c(h). f (x) R[x] primitive
polynomial, c(f ) R unit. g(x) R[x] c(g) R.
c(h) = c(f )1 u c(g) R.
h(x) = c(h) h (x), c(h) R h (x) R[x] h(x) R[x].
f (x) | g(x) in R[x].

8. Integral Domain

158

Lemma 8.4.10 R[x] F [x] prime element .


Corollary 8.4.11. R unique factorization domain F R
quotient field p(x) R[x] R[x] primitive polynomial. p(x) F [x]
prime element p(x) R[x] prime element.
Proof. p(x) F [x] prime element. p(x) R[x] prime
element, p(x) | f (x) g(x) in R[x], f (x), g(x) R[x],
p(x) | f (x) in R[x] p(x) | g(x) in R[x]. p(x) R[x] primitive polynomial,
Lemma 8.4.10 p(x) | f (x) g(x) in F [x]. p(x) F [x] prime
element, p(x) | f (x) in F [x] p(x) | g(x) in F [x]. Lemma
8.4.10, p(x) | f (x) in R[x] p(x) | g(x) in R[x], p(x) R[x]
prime element.

R[x] F [x] R[x] polynomial R[x]


F [x] ( irreducible) .
Lemma 8.4.12. R unique factorization domain F R quotient
field f (x) R[x] deg(f (x)) 1. g(x), h(x) F [x]
deg(g(x)) 1 deg(h(x)) 1, f (x) = g(x) h(x), m(x), n(x) R[x]
deg(g(x)) = deg(m(x)) deg(h(x)) = deg(n(x)) f (x) = m(x) n(x).
Proof. content f (x) = g(x) h(x) :
c(f ) f (x) = (c(g) c(h)) (g (x) h (x)),
c(f ) R, c(g), c(h) F , f (x), g (x) h (x) R[x] primitive
polynomial. Lemma 8.4.8 g (x) h (x) R[x] primitive polynomial,
Lemma 8.4.5 u R R unit c(g) c(h) = c(f ) u. ,
c(g) c(h) R. m(x) = (c(g) c(h)) g (x) R[x], n(x) = h (x), m(x),
n(x) .

Lemma 8.4.12 R[x] F [x] irreducible element .


Corollary 8.4.13. R unique factorization domain F R
quotient field. p(x) R[x] deg(p(x)) 1 R[x] primitive polynomial,
p(x) R[x] irreducible element p(x) F [x] irreducible element.
Proof. p(x) R[x] irreducible element, p(x) F [x]
irreducible element. p(x) F [x] irreducible element, g(x), h(x)
F [x] deg(g(x)) 1 deg(h(x)) 1 p(x) = g(x) h(x). Lemma
8.4.12 m(x), n(x) R[x] deg(m(x)) 1 deg(n(x)) 1
p(x) = m(x) n(x). 1 deg(m(x)) < deg(p(x)) , m(x) p(x)

8.4. Unique Factorization Domain

159

R[x] divisor unit p(x) associates. p(x) R[x]


irreducible element. , p(x) F [x] irreducible element.
, p(x) F (x) irreducible element. p(x) R[x]
irreducible, l(x), m(x) R[x] p(x) = l(x) m(x), l(x) m(x)
R[x] unit. l(x), m(x) R[x] F [x], p(x) F [x]
irreducible element l(x) m(x) F [x] unit ( ).
l(x) = a R ! a R unit, l(x) = a R[x]
unit (Lemma 8.4.3). f (x) = l(x) m(x) = a m(x) m(x) R[x] a
f (x) common divisor, a | c(f ) in R. f (x) primitive
polynomial c(f ) R unit, a | c(f ) in R a R unit; a
R unit . f (x) R[x] irreducible.

R[x] unique factorization domain .


Proposition 8.4.14. R unique factorization domain, R[x]
irreducible element prime element .
Proof. R[x] integral domain, R[x] prime element irreducible
element (Lemma 8.1.8). f (x) R[x] irreducible element,
f (x) prime element. F [x] ( F R quotient field)
irreducible element prime element (Proposition 7.2.11) .
deg(f (x)) = 0 ( f (x) = a R ) . a R
irreducible R unique factorization domain, Proposition 8.4.2 a R
prime element. a R[x] prime element. g(x), h(x) R[x]
a | g(x) h(x) in R[x], l(x) R[x] a l(x) = g(x) h(x).
content
(a c(l)) l (x) = (c(g) c(h)) (g (x) h (x)),
c(l), c(g), c(h) R l (x), g (x), h (x) R[x] R[x] primitive polynomials. Lemma 8.4.8 g (x) h (x) primitive polynomial, Lemma
8.4.5 u R R unit
u a c(l) = c(g) c(h),
a | c(g) c(h) in R. a R prime element a | c(g)
a | c(h). g(x) = c(g) g (x), a | c(g) a | g(x). a | c(h),
a | h(x). a = f (x) R[x] prime element.
deg(f (x)) 1 . F R quotient field. f (x) R[x]
irreducible element Corollary 8.4.13 f (x) F [x] irreducible element.
Proposition 7.2.11 f (x) F [x] prime element.
Lemma 8.4.9 f (x) R[x] primitive polynomial, Corollary
8.4.11 f (x) R[x] prime element.

8. Integral Domain

160

R[x] unique factorization


domain. Z[x] unique factorization domain (Theorem 7.3.13)
. F [x] unique factorization domain (Theorem
7.2.14) . , R[x]
F [x] .
Theorem 8.4.15. R unique factorization domain, R[x]
unique factorization domain.
Proof. F R quotient field.
: R[x] 0 unit f (x)
R[x] irreducible elements . f (x) f (x) = c(f ) f (x),
c(f ) R f (x) R[x] R[x] primitive polynomial. c(f )
unit, R unique factorization domain c(f ) R
irreducible elements . Lemma 8.4.3 (3) c(f )
R[x] irreducible elements . f (x)
irreducible elements . f (x) F [x] ,
F [x] unique factorization domain, f (x) = p1 (x) pm (x),
p1 (x), . . . , pm (x) F [x] F [x] irreducible elements. content,
pi (x) pi (x) = c(pi ) pi (x), pi (x) R[x] R[x] primitive
polynomial.
f (x) = (c(p1 ) c(pm )) p1 (x) pm (x).
Lemma 8.4.8 p1 (x) pm (x) R[x] primitive polynomial, f (x)
R[x] primitive polynomial Lemma 8.4.5 c(p1 ) c(pm ) = u R
unit, Lemma 8.4.3 u R[x] unit. p1 (x), . . . pm (x)
R[x] irreducible elements .
f (x) = (u p1 (x)) p2 (x) pm (x),
f (x) irreducible elements ( u p1 (x) p1 (x)
associates, R[x] irreducible element). pi (x) = c(pi ) pi (x),
pi (x) F [x] irreducible pi (x) F [x] irreducible element.
pi (x) R[x] primitive polynomial, Corollary 8.4.13 pi (x) R[x]
irreducible element.
: Proposition 8.4.14
, F [x] R unique factorization domain .

f (x) = (an1 1 anr r ) p1 r+1 (x) pnv r+v (x)


ms+1

ms
1
= (bm
1 bs ) q1

ms+w
(x) qw
(x),

8.4. Unique Factorization Domain

161

a1 , . . . ar R ( deg(ai ) = 0) R[x] associates irreducible


elements p1 (x), . . . , pv (x) R[x] R[x] associates degree 0
irreducible elements, b1 , . . . , bs R q1 (x), . . . , qw (x) R[x]
. pi (x) qj (x) R[x] irreducible elements
deg(pi (x)) 1 deg(qj (x)) 1, Lemma 8.4.9 pi (x) qj (x)
primitive polynomial, Lemma 8.4.8 Lemma 8.4.5 R unit u

ms
1
an1 1 anr r = u bm
1 bs ,

R unique factorization domain r = s,


ai bi ni = mi , i = 1, . . . , r.
n

f0 (x) = u p1 r+1 (x) pvnr+v (x)


ms+1

= q1

ms+w
(x) qw
(x)

. f0 (x) R[x] F [x], pi (x), qi (x) R[x] irreducible


elements F [x] irreducible elements (Corollary 8.4.13), F [x]
unique factorization domain v = w, pi (x) = ki qi (x) ni = mi ,
i = r + 1, . . . r + v, ki F . pi (x) qi (x) R[x] primitive
polynomial, ki R unit. , i = r + 1, . . . , r + v,
pi (x) qi (x). .

Theorem 8.4.15 . R unique factorization


domain, Theorem 8.4.15 R0 = R[x] unique factorization domain.
R0 [y] y R0 polynomial ring, R0 [y]

fn (x)y n + fn1 (x)y n1 + + f1 (x)y + f0 (x),


i = 0, 1, . . . , n, fi (x) R0 = R[x] R x .
R0 [y] = R[x][y] = R[x, y] R x, y
, Theorem 8.4.15 R[x, y] unique factorization domain.
R[x1 , . . . , xn ] R x1 , . . . , xn
n polynomial ring:
Theorem 8.4.16. R unique factorization domain, R[x1 , . . . , xn ]
n polynomial ring unique factorization domain.
Proof. , n = 1 Theorem 8.4.15 R[x1 ] integral
domain. n 1 , R0 = R[x1 , . . . , xn1 ] unique factorization domain.
Theorem 8.4.15 R0 [xn ] = R[x1 , . . . , xn ] unique factorization domain.

162

8. Integral Domain

Theorem 8.4.16 , F field


F [x1 ] unique factorization domain, F [x1 , . . . , xn ] unique
factorization domain.

Part III

FIELD

Chapter 9

Field

field . field
, .

9.1. Field
field .
field commutative ring with 1 0
unit. F field, F + Definition 5.1.1 (R1)
(R8) , :
a, b F a b = b a.
1 F a F a 1 = 1 a = a.
a F a 6= 0, a1 F a a1 = a1 a = 1.
F commutative ring with 1; F 0
unit.
field .
Lemma 9.1.1. F field, F integral domain.
Proof. field F commutative ring with 1,
F zero-divisor . Lemma 5.3.7 ,
.
a F F zero-divisor, a 6= 0 b 6= 0 a b = 0.
b 6= 0 b F unit, b1 F b b1 = 1.
0 = (a b) b1 = a (b b1 ) = a 1 = a.
a 6= 0 , a F zero-divisor.

165

9. Field

166

Lemma 9.1.1 field


. :
Corollary 9.1.2. F field, F = F \ {0} F 0
, F abelian group.
Proof. F ring with 1, F Definition 1.1.1 (GP2)
(GP3) . a F a1 F a a1 = 1, a1
0, a a1 = a 0 = 0. a1 F , F
Definition 1.1.1 (GP4) . F group
(GP1). a, b F , a b F . a, b F
a, b F a 6= 0, b 6= 0, Lemma 9.1.1 a b 6= 0, a b F . F
abelian, F commutative ring .

Example 9.1.3.
Z/5Z = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}
ring. 5 Z irreducible element Z principle ideal domain

Lemma 8.3.2 5Z = 5 Z maximal ideal. Z/5Z field
(Theorem 6.5.11).
(Z/5Z) = {1, 2, 3, 4}
abelian group.
2

2 = 4,

2 = 3,

2 = 1,

(Z/5Z) cyclic group ( |(Z/5Z) | = 4 ord(2) = 4).


F field S F . F S ,
S field, S F subfield. S F F
subgroup S = S \ {0} F F subgroup, S F
subfield. Lemma 1.3.4 subfield .
Lemma 9.1.4. ' F field v S F . AE a, b S,  b 6= 0
/b a b S v a b1 S, J S F subfield.
field homomorphism . R R0 ring
: R R0 , a R (a) = 0, R R0
ring homomorphism. ring homomorphism ,
trivial homomorphism.
Proposition 9.1.5. ' F F 0 K field v 1F 1F 0 5 F F 0 
identity. A : F F 0 nontrivial ring homomorphism, J
(1) (1F ) = 1F 0 .

9.2. Field Characteristic

167

(2) homomorphism.
Proof. (1) (1F ) F 0 identity. trivial,
a F (a) 6= 0. (a) = (a 1F ), ring homomorphism
(a) = (a) (1F ). F 0 (a) 1F 0 = (a),
(a) (1F ) = (a) 1F 0 ,

(a) (1F ) 1F 0 = 0.
F 0 integral domain (Lemma 9.1.1) (a) 6= 0, (1F ) = 1F 0 .

(2) ker() = 0 (Lemma 6.3.4).

ker() F ideal (Lemma 6.3.3) F F 0 trivial

ideals (Lemma 6.2.4) ker() = F ker() = 0 . ker() = F ,
a F (a) = 0, trivial ring homomorphism

. ker() = 0 , ring homomorphism.

9.2. Field Characteristic


field F , a F , 1 F , n N
a
+ a} = (1
+ 1}) a.
| + {z
| + {z
n
n

(9.1)

1 n n, 1 F 1
N 1. 1 Z/5Z 1,
1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 0,
N 5 0 . (9.1)
+ a} = n a.
|a + {z
n
, a F n N na a n ,

a
+ a} = na.
| + {z
n
. (9.1)
na = |a + {z
+ a} = (1
+ 1}) a = (n1) a.
| + {z
n

Lemma 9.2.1. F field, F :


(1) n N a F \ {0} na 6= 0.
(2) prime p N a F pa = 0.

9. Field

168

Proof. : Z F (0) = 0, n N, (n) = n1, (n) = n(1).

(n) = |1 + {z
+ 1}

(n) = (1) + + (1) .


|
{z
}
n
n
1 F 1, 1 F 1 inverse.
Z F ring homomorphism.
kernel. ring 1st isomorphism theorem (Theorem 6.4.2)

Z/ ker() ' im().


im() F subring (Lemma 6.3.3), F integral domain
(Lemma 9.1.1) im() integral domain. Z/ ker()
integral domain. ker() Z ideal (Lemma 6.3.3)
Theorem 6.5.7 ker() Z prime ideal. Z principle ideal

domain, a N ker() = a . Lemma 8.1.9 a = 0
a = p, p Z prime.

(1) ker() = 0 : n N, n1 6= 0 ( n 6 ker()),
a F a 6= 0, F integral domain,
na = (n1) a 6= 0.

(2) ker() = p : p ker(), p1 = 0.
a F
pa = (p1) a = 0.

Lemma 9.2.1 0 p field ,


.
Definition 9.2.2. F field. n N a F \ {0}
na 6= 0, F characteristic 0. char(F ) = 0. p N Z
prime a F pa = 0, F characteristic p.
char(F ) = p.
field Q characteristic 0. Example 9.1.3
Z/5Z a Z/5Z 5a = 0, char(Z/5Z) = 5.
Lemma 9.2.1 F field, char(F ) 0
prime p. char(F ) = p 6= 0, p pa = 0 a F \ {0}
. n N na = 0, F integral domain
na = (n1) a = 0

n1 = 0. n ker() = p . n p.

9.2. Field Characteristic

169

F field F , F finite field.


Lemma 9.2.3. F finite field, prime p N char(F ) = p.
Proof. Lemma 9.2.1 char(F ) = 0 char(F ) = p p .
char(F ) 0. char(F ) = 0, ring

homomorphism : Z F ker() = 0 , .
Z ' im() F . Z , F subring
. F finite field , char(F ) = p 6= 0.

Proposition 9.1.5 characteristic .


field characteristic , nontrivial ring
homomorphism.
Proposition 9.2.4. F F 0 fields F F 0 nontrivial ring
homomorphism, char(F ) = char(F 0 ).
Proof. : F F 0 trivial ring homomorphism, Proposition
9.1.5 (1) (1F ) = 1F 0 . char(F ) = p 6= 0,
(p1F ) = (0) = 0

(p1F ) = (1F + 1F ) = p(1F ) = p1F 0 ,


{z
}
|
p

p1F 0 = 0.
char(F 0 ) 6= 0. char(F 0 ) = q 6= p, p q ,
m, n Z mp + nq = 1. p1F 0 = q1F 0 = 0
1F 0 = (mp + nq)1F 0 = 0,
. char(F ) = char(F 0 ).
char(F ) = 0, n N n1F 6= 0. Proposition 9.1.5
(2) (n1F ) 6= 0.
(n1F ) = n(1F ) = n1F 0 6= 0,
char(F 0 ) = 0.

char(F ) = p 6= 0 , .
Lemma 9.2.5. F field char(F ) = p 6= 0, a, b F ,

(a + b)p = ap + bp

and

(a b)p = ap bp ,

n N.

9. Field

170
n

Proof. induction (a + b)p = ap + bp . n = 1 .


(a + b)2 ? (a + b)2 = a2 + a b + b a + b2 , F field
a b = b a, (a + b)2 = a2 + 2(a b) + b2 . 2(a b)
(a b) + (a b) 2 (a b).

p
(a + b)p = ap + p(ap1 b) + +
(ai bpi ) + + bp .
i
char(F ) = p, F , p 0 ( p = 0).

p i = 1, . . . , p 1 , pi p , pi (ai bpi ) = 0.

(a + b)p = ap + bp .

(9.2)

n1

n1

(a + b)p

= ap

n1

+ bp

(9.3)

(9.2) (9.3)

n
n1 p
n1
n1
n
n
(a + b)p = (a + b)p
= (ap
+ bp )p = ap + bp .
n

(a b)p = ap bp . char(F ) = 2 , F
+ = 2 = 0, = . p = 2
n

(a b)p = (a + b)p = ap + bp = ap bp .
n

p odd prime number , ()p = p (Corollary


5.2.4),

pn
n
n
n
n
n
(a b)p = a + (b)
= ap + (b)p = ap bp .

Lemma 9.2.5 F [x] . F [x] polynomial


F , F [x] . char(F ) = p
, f (x) = an xn + + a0 F [x]
f (x) + + f (x) = (an + + an )xn + + (a0 + + a0 ) = 0.
|
|
{z
}
{z
}
{z
}
|

p
p

p
Lemma 9.2.5 :
Lemma 9.2.6. F field char(F ) = p 6= 0, f (x) =
am xm + + a0 F [x],
n

(f (x))p = apm xmp + + ap0 ,

n N.

a F ,
n

(x a)p = xp ap ,

n N.

9.3.

171

9.3.
,
field .
9.3.1. . vector space, basis
dimension. ,
.
Definition 9.3.1. F field. V vector space over F ,
V + , c F , v V c v V , :
(VS1): V abelian group.
(VS2): c F v1 , v2 V c (v1 + v2 ) = c v1 + c v2 .
(VS3): c1 , c2 F v V (c1 + c2 ) v = c1 v + c2 v
c1 (c2 v) = (c1 c2 ) v.
(VS4): v V 1 v = v, 1 F F identity.
vector space F V , V
. field vector space
F V V . field
vector space .
Definition 9.3.2. F field V vector space over F ,
v1 , . . . , vn V v F c1 , . . . , cn F
v = c1 v1 + + cn vn ,
v1 , . . . , vn span V over F .
vector space v1 , . . . , vn V span V over F , V
finite dimensional vector space over F .
v1 , . . . , vn span V over F , w1 , . . . , wm V span
V over F . v1 , . . . , vn span V over F .
v1 , . . . , vn , vi
vj , span V . .
Definition 9.3.3. F field V vector space over F ,
V v1 , . . . , vn V 0 c1 , . . . , cn F
c1 v1 + + cn vn = 0,
v1 , . . . , vn linearly independent over F .
v1 , . . . , vn F span V linearly independent over F , v1 , . . . , vn
basis of V over F .

9. Field

172

V finite dimensional vector space over F


, V over F basis. basis ,
basis . basis V over F dimension,
dimF (V ). dimF (V ) = n, v1 , . . . , vn V
linearly independent over F span V over F .
W V V F W vector space over F ,
W V subspace over F . dimension ,
.
Lemma 9.3.4. F field V finite dimensional vector space
over F .
(1) v1 , . . . , vn span V over F , dimF (V ) n.
(2) w1 , . . . , wm F linearly independent over F , dimF (V ) m.
(3) W V subspace over F , dimF (V ) dimF (W ).
9.3.2. ring vector space. , dimension.
F field, F [x] polynomial ring. F [x]
F Definition 9.3.1 (VS1) (VS4) , F [x] vector space
over F . F [x] finite dimensional vector space over F ?
Proposition 9.3.5. F field, F [x] vector space over
F , F [x] finite dimensional vector space over F .
Proof. . F [x] finite dimensional over F dimF (F [x]) = n,
1, x, x2 , . . . , xn F [x], 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn linearly independent
over F . 0 c0 , c1 , . . . , cn
c0 1 + c1 x + + cn xn 6= 0.
1, x, x2 , . . . , xn n + 1 , Lemma 9.3.4 (2)
n + 1 dimF (F [x]) = n,
. F [x] finite dimensional over F .

ring. f (x) F [x] deg(f (x)) 1,

R = F [x]/ f (x) quotient ring. R g(x) ,


g(x) F [x]. c F , g(x) R,
c g(x) = c g(x).

well-defined. g(x) = h(x) , g(x) h(x) f (x) .

c F F [x] f (x) F [x] ideal, c (g(x) h(x)) f (x) ,

9.3.

173

c g(x) = c h(x). F R R vector


space over F . R finite dimensional vector space over F ?
Lemma 9.3.6. F field, f (x) F [x] deg(f (x)) 1, R =

F [x]/ f (x) quotient ring finite dimensional vector space over F


dimF (R) = deg(f (x)).
Proof. deg(f (x)) = n, 1, x, . . . , xn1 R R over F
basis.
1, x, . . . , xn1 span R over F . g(x) R, g(x) F [x],
c0 , c1 , . . . , cn1 F
g(x) = c0 1 + c1 x + + cn1 xn1 .
Theorem 7.2.4, h(x), r(x) F [x] g(x) = f (x) h(x) + r(x),

r(x) = 0 deg(r(x)) < deg(f (x)). g(x) r(x) = f (x) h(x) f (x) ,
quotient ring g(x) = r(x).
c0 = c1 = = cn1 = 0

r(x) = 0, g(x) = 0,

g(x) = 0 = c0 1 + c1 x + + cn1 xn1 .


r(x) 6= 0, deg(r(x)) n 1 a0 , a1 , . . . , an1 F
r(x) = a0 + a1 x + + an1 xn1 , c0 = a0 , . . . , cn1 = an1
g(x) = r(x) = c0 1 + c1 x + + cn1 xn1 .
R 1, . . . , xn1 span over F .
1, x, . . . , xn1 linearly independent over F . .
0 c0 , c1 , , cn1 F
c0 1 + c1 x + + cn1 xn1 = 0,
g(x) = c0 + + cn1 xn1 0 g(x) = 0.

g(x) f (x) . g(x) 6= 0, h(x) F [x] h(x) 6= 0 g(x) = f (x)h(x).


degree
deg(g(x)) = deg(f (x)) + deg(h(x)) deg(f (x)) = n,
g(x) , deg(g(x)) n 1, .
1, x, . . . , xn1 linearly independent over F .
1, x, . . . , xn1 R R over F basis. 1, x, . . . , xn1
n , dimF (R) = n = deg(f (x)).

R integral domain F R field ,


R vector space over F . ring F R, Definition
9.3.1 (VS1), (VS2) (VS3) , (VS4).

9. Field

174

1F , 1R F R identity, 1F = 1R .
(VS4) a R 1F a = a. 1F = 1R ,
. subring identity ring
identity. R integral domain, .
F 0 c, F , 1F c = c;
R , 1R c = c. : (1F 1R ) c = 0.
R integral domain c 6= 0, 1F = 1R .
R over F vector space, R finite dimensional over
F .
Theorem 9.3.7. R integral domain, F field F R.
R vector space over F finite dimensional over F ,
(1) a R, 0 f (x) F [x] f (a) = 0.
(2) R field.
Proof. dimF (R) = n.
(1) 1, a, a2 , . . . , an n+1 R . linearly independent
over F , Lemma 9.3.4 (2)
n = dimF (R) n + 1,
, 1, a, a2 , . . . , an linearly independent over F .
0 c0 , c1 , . . . , cn F ,
c0 1 + c1 a + + cn an = 0.
f (x) = c0 + c1 x + + cn xn , f (x) 6= 0 f (a) = 0.
(2) R integral domain, R field, R
0 unit. a R a 6= 0, b R
a b = 1. (1) 0 f (x) f (a) = 0.
f (x) = c0 + c1 x + + cm xm F [x]
F [x] 0 f (a) = 0 degree polynomial. degree
, c0 6= 0. c0 = 0,
f (a) = c1 a + + cm am = (c1 + c2 a + + cm am1 ) a = 0
R integral domain g(a) = 0, g(x) = c1 + c2 x + + cm xm1 F [x]
0 deg(g(x)) < deg(f (x)). f (x) degree ,
c0 6= 0. f (a) = 0 c0 ,
(c1 + c2 a + + cm am1 ) a = c0 .

9.4. Extension Field

175

b = (c0 )1 (c1 + c2 a + + cm am1 ),


a b = 1. c0 F c0 6= 0 F field,
(c0 )1 F R, c1 + c2 a + + cm am1 R b R, a
R unit.

Theorem 9.3.7 Proposition 9.3.5 : F [x]


finite dimensional over F , F [x] integral domain Theorem 9.3.7
F [x] field. , F [x] degree 0
unit.

9.4. Extension Field


field F , subfield, field
f (x) F [x] F f (x) , F field .
F extension field.
Definition 9.4.1. F field, L F field L
F F , L F extension ( extension
field). F L subfield.
F field L F extension field, Lemma 9.1.1 L
integral domain, L vector space over F .
L over F dimension.
Definition 9.4.2. F field L F extension field.
L over F vector space finite dimensional vector space over
F , L F finite extension. dimF (L) [L : F ] ,
the degree of L over F ( the dimension of L over F ).
Theorem 9.3.7 :
Proposition 9.4.3. F field L F finite extension.
R L subring F R L, R field.
Proof. R field, Theorem 9.3.7
. Theorem 9.3.7, R integral domain dimF (R)
.
L integral domain (Lemma 9.1.1), R L subring,
R integral domain. , R L subspace
over F . L F finite extension Lemma 9.3.4
dimF (R) dimF (L), R finite dimensional vector space over F .
Theorem 9.3.7 (2) R field.

9. Field

176

L F finite extension, Theorem 9.3.7 (1) L ,


a L F [x] polynomial f (x) 6= 0 f (a) = 0.
.
Definition 9.4.4. F field L F extension field.
a L, F [x] 0 polynomial f (x) f (a) = 0, a
algebraic over F .
Theorem 9.3.7 :
Lemma 9.4.5. F field L F finite extension, L
algebraic over F .
extensional field of F algebraic over F ,
extension algebraic extension. Lemma 9.4.5 finite extension
of F algebraic extension of F . algebraic extension of
F finite extension of F .
finite extension . F field, K
F extension field, L K extension field.
F K L . L F extension.
K over F L over K finite extension, L F
extension finite extension?
Theorem 9.4.6. F field, L K F extensions
F K L. K F finite extension L K finite
extension, L F finite extension,
[L : F ] = [L : K][K : F ].
Proof. [K : F ] = m [L : K] = n, L finite extension
of F degree m n. [K : F ] = m dimF (K) = m,
a1 , . . . , am K K over F basis. b1 , . . . , bn L L over K
basis.
{ai bj },

i = 1, . . . , m j = 1, . . . , n

L over F basis. . K L
ai K, bj L ai bj L. ai bj span L over F
linearly independent over F .
{ai bj } span L over F : L, ci,j F
=

m
n X
X
j=1 i=1

ci,j (ai bj ).

9.4. Extension Field

177

b1 , . . . , bn span L over K, d1 , . . . , dn K
= d1 b1 + + dn bn .

(9.4)

a1 , . . . , am span K over F , dj K, c1,j , . . . , cm,j F

dj = c1,j a1 + c2,j a2 + + cm,j am .


dj (9.4), {ai bj } span L over F .
{ai bj } linearly independent over F . ,
P
0 ci,j F
ci,j (ai bj ) = 0.
0 = (c1,1 a1 + c2,1 a2 + + cm,1 am ) b1
+ + (c1,n a1 + c2,n a2 + + cm,n am ) bn
j = 1, . . . , n,
dj = c1,j a1 + c2,j a2 + + cm,j am ,
ci,j F , ai K F K, dj K
0 = d1 b1 + d2 b2 + + dn bn .
b1 , . . . , bn linearly independent over K, d1 = d2 = = dn = 0.
j = 1, . . . , n,
0 = dj = c1,j a1 + c2,j a2 + + cm,j am .
a1 , . . . , am linearly independent over F ci,j F ,
ci,j 0. ci,j 0 , {ai bj } linearly
independent over F .

Theorem 9.4.6 K F finite extension L K


finite extension L F finite extension. ?
L F finite extension, K F finite
extension L K finite extension ? ,
:
Corollary 9.4.7. F field, L K F extensions
F K L. L F finite extension, K F finite
extension L K finite extension,
[L : F ] = [L : K][K : F ].
Proof. F K L , K L over F subspace,
Lemma 9.3.4 (3) dimF (L) dimF (K), L over F
finite extension K over F finite extension.
[L : F ] = dimF (L) = n, a1 , . . . , an L L over F basis,

9. Field

178

a1 , . . . , an span L over F F K, a1 , . . . , an span L over K.


Lemma 9.3.4 (1) dimK (L) n = dimF (L). L K
finite extension.
L F finite extension, K F finite extension
L K finite extension. Theorem 9.4.6
[L : F ] = [L : K][K : F ].

Chapter 10

Field

algebraic element algebraic extension


. finite field .

10.1. Algebraic Elements


F field, L F extension. F a
algebraic over F , 0 f (x) F [x]
f (a) = 0. algebraic over F ,
. algebraic element ,
algebraic over F .
a L algebraic over F , f (x) F [x] f (a) = 0
. . f (a) = 0
f (x) F [x] degree polynomials. polynomials
.
Lemma 10.1.1. F field, L F extension. a L
algebraic over F f (x) F [x] F [x] f (a) = 0 0 degree
polynomial, f (x) :
(1) g(x) F [x] g(a) = 0, h(x) F [x] g(x) = f (x) h(x).
(2) f (x) F [x] irreducible element.
Proof. (1) F field, Euclids Algorithm (Theorem 7.2.4)
h(x), r(x) F [x]
g(x) = f (x) h(x) + r(x)

(10.1)

r(x) = 0 deg(r(x)) < deg(f (x)). a (10.1)


g(a) = f (a) h(a) + r(a).
179

180

10. Field

f (a) = g(a) = 0, r(a) = 0. r(x) 6= 0, r(x) F [x]


deg(r(x)) < deg(f (x)) r(a) = 0. f (x) , r(x) = 0.
g(x) = f (x) h(x).
(2) f (x) F [x] irreducible, h(x), l(x) F [x]
deg(h(x)) < deg(f (x)), deg(l(x)) < deg(f (x)) f (x) = h(x) l(x). a
, f (a) = 0 h(a) l(a) = 0. h(x), l(x) F [x] a L,
h(a), l(a) L. L integral domain (Lemma 9.1.1) h(a) = 0 l(a) = 0.
f (x) , f (x) F [x] irreducible element.

f (x) F [x] F [x] f (a) = 0 degree polynomial g(x) F [x]

g(a) = 0, Lemma 10.1.1 (1) g(x) f (x) . g(x) F [x]

g(a) = 0 degree polynomial, f (x) = g(x) . F [x]


unit F 0 (Proposition 7.2.3) Lemma 8.1.3 c F
f (x) = c g(x). f (a) = 0 polynomial
monic polynomial .
.
Definition 10.1.2. F field, L F extension field a L
algebraic over F . p(x) F [x] F [x] 0 polynomial p(a) = 0
degree monic polynomial, p(x) a over F minimal polynomial.
deg(p(x)) = n, a algebraic over F of degree n.
[L : F ] , L algebraic over F .
[L : F ] = n a L, 1, a, . . . , an linearly independent over F ,
f (x) F [x] deg(f (x)) n f (a) = 0 ( Theorem 9.3.7
) minimal polynomial : p(x) a minimal polynomial,
deg(p(x)) deg(f (x)) n. a degree [L : F ].
Lemma.
Lemma 10.1.3. F field, L F finite extension, L
algebraic over F degree [L : F ].
L finite extension over F , L algebraic over
F . a L algebraic over F , F L
field K F finite extension a K?
Definition 10.1.4. F field, L F extension field. K
L extension field F K L, K L over F subextension
intermediate field.

10.1. Algebraic Elements

181

Proposition 10.1.5. F field, L F extension field. a L


algebraic over F degree n, L over F subextension K
a K [K : F ] = n.
Proof. : F [x] L f (x) F [x], (f (x)) = f (a). a L,
(f (x)) = f (a) L, F [x] L .
ring homomorphism.
ker() ? F [x] principle ideal domain ker() F [x]

ideal, p(x) f [x] ker() = p(x) .

ker() = p(x) p(x) a minimal polynomial. f (x) ker(),

(f (x)) = f (a) = 0. Lemma 10.1.1 f (x) p(x) . ,

f (x) p(x) , h(x) F [x] f (x) = p(x) h(x), p(a) = 0

f (a) = p(a) h(a) = 0. ker() = p(x) , p(x) a minimal


polynomial.
First Isomorphism Theorem (6.4.2)

F [x]/ p(x) ' im().

p(x) F [x] irreducible element (Lemma 10.1.1), p(x) F [x]

maximal ideal (Lemma 8.3.2), F [x]/ p(x) field (Theorem 6.5.11).


im() field.
im() ?
im() = {f (a) | f (x) F [x]}.
, im() F [x] polynomial a .
c F , (c) = c im(), F im() L. a x
polynomial a: x a ( (x) = a), a im().
K = im(), K L over F subextension a K.
a over F degree n, a minimal polynomial p(x) degree n,

Lemma 9.3.6 dimF (F [x]/ p(x) ) = deg(p(x)) = n. K ' F [x]/ p(x)


[K : F ] = n.

Proposition 10.1.5 im() = {f (a) | f (x) F [x]}


ring, field ? Theorem 9.3.7
. im() L integral domain, Proposition 10.1.5
dimF (im()) = n.
{f (a) | f (x) F [x]} L F a ring,
R ring F a, f (x) F [x], f (a)
a F , R

10. Field

182

f (a) R. {f (a) | f (x) F [x]} R, {f (a) | f (x) F [x]}


ring F a ring !
,
.
Definition 10.1.6. F field, L F extension field a L.
F [a] L F a ring; F (a) L
F a field.
F [a] im() = {f (a) | f (x) F [x]}. F (a)
? quotient field (Proposition 7.4.2)
F (a) = {f (a)/g(a) | f (x), g(x) F [x] g(a) 6= 0}.
: F [a] F (a) ; a algebraic
over F , F [a] field, F [a] F a field.
a algebraic over F , F [a] = F (a). F (a) Proposition
10.1.5 K, Proposition 10.1.5 :
Corollary 10.1.7. F field, L F extension field. a L
algebraic over F p(x) F [x] a over F minimal polynomial,

F (a) ' F [x]/ p(x)

and

[F (a) : F ] = deg(p(x)).

Remark 10.1.8. F [a] f (a) f (x) F [x]


, F (a) f (a)/g(a) f (x), g(x) F [x] :
, F [a] = F (a) ? a algebraic over F ,
F [a] ( F (a)) . p(x) F [x] a minimal
polynomial, g(x) = f (x) + p(x), g(a) = f (a).
.
a algebraic over F ?
Theorem 10.1.9. F field, L F extension field a L,
a .
(1) a algebraic over F .
(2) K L over F subextension a K [K : F ] .
(3) F [a] = F (a).
Proof. Proposition 10.1.5 (1) (2), (2) (3)
(3) (1).

10.2. Algebraic Closure

183

(2) (3): K L over F subextension ( F K L), a K


F [a] K. K F finite extension, Proposition 9.4.3
F [a] field. F [a] = F (a).
(3) (1): F [a] = F (a), F [a] field. a = 0 F ,
a algebraic over F ( F algebraic over F ). a 6= 0,
a F [a] F [a] field a1 F [a]. F [a] f (a),
f (x) F [x] , a1 = f (a),
f (x) = cn xn + + c1 x + c0 ,

ci F.

a1 = cn an + + c1 a + c0

1 = cn an+1 + + c1 a2 + c0 a.

g(x) = cn xn+1 + + c1 x2 + c0 x 1,
g(a) = 0. g(x) F [x] g(x) 6= 0, a algebraic over F .

Theorem 10.1.9 a algebraic over F .


a algebraic over F f (x) F [x]
f (a) = 0. . a2 L
a2 algebraic over F , f (x) F [x] f (a2 ) = 0, g(x) = f (x2 ),
g(a) = f (a2 ) = 0. a algebraic over F . a2 algebraic
over F , a algebraic over F . , a algebraic over
F , a polynomial a2 polynomial .
f (a) = 0, g(x) = f (x1/2 ), g(a2 ) = f (a) = 0 !
, f (x) , g(x) = f (x1/2 ) polynomial .
polynomial a2 algebraic over
F . a algebraic over F Theorem 10.1.9 field K F
finite extension a K. K field a K, a2 K,
Theorem 10.1.9 ( Lemma 10.1.3) a2 algebraic
over F . .

10.2. Algebraic Closure


F field, L F extension , L algebraic
over F algebraic over F . L algebraic
over F .
Definition 10.2.1. F field L F extension.
LF = {a L | a algebraic over F },

10. Field

184

F L algebraic closure.
F algebraic over F , F LF L. L
F finite extension, Lemma 9.4.5 L algebraic over F ,
LF = L.
LF , LF field. ,
a, b LF , b 6= 0, a b a b1 LF (Lemma 9.1.4).
algebraic over F ? polynomial ,
Theorem 10.1.9. Definition 10.1.6.
Definition 10.2.2. F field L F extension. a1 , . . . , an
L, F (a1 , . . . , an ) L F a1 , . . . , an field.
Lemma 10.2.3. F field L F extension. a1 , . . . , an L
algebraic over F , F (a1 , . . . , an ) F finite extension. ,
a1 , . . . , an over F degree m1 , . . . , mn ,
[F (a1 , . . . , an ) : F ] m1 mn .
Proof. ,
K1 = F (a1 ), K2 = K1 (a2 ) = F (a1 , a2 ), . . . , Kn = Kn1 (an ) = F (a1 , . . . , an ).
i, [Ki : Ki1 ] = [Ki1 (ai ) : Ki ] mi . [Ki1 (ai ) : Ki1 ]
mi : Corollary 10.1.7 [Ki1 (ai ) : Ki1 ]
ai over Ki1 minimal polynomial qi (x) Ki1 [x] degree.

ai over F minimal polynomial pi (x) F [x] degree mi .


pi (x) F [x] Ki1 [x] pi (ai ) = 0, qi (x) ai over Ki1 minimal
polynomial deg(qi (x)) deg(pi (x)) = mi .
[Ki : Ki1 ] = [Ki1 (ai ) : Ki1 ] = deg(qi (x)) mi .
[Ki : Ki1 ] , Theorem 9.4.6
:
[F (a1 , . . . , an ) : F ] = [Kn : Kn1 ][Kn1 : F ]
= [Kn : Kn1 ][Kn1 : Kn2 ][Kn2 : F ]
..
.
= [Kn : Kn1 ] [K1 : F ] mn m1 .
F (a1 , . . . , an ) F finite extension.
Lemma 10.2.3 LF field.

10.2. Algebraic Closure

185

Theorem 10.2.4. F field L F extension. a, b L,


b 6= 0, algebraic over F , a + b, a b, a b a b1 algebraic
over F . LF field.
Proof. Lemma 10.2.3 F (a, b) F finite extension. a, b
F (a, b), b 6= 0 F (a, b) field, a + b, a b, a b a b1
F (a, b) . Theorem 10.1.9 ( Lemma 10.1.3)
algebraic over F .
a, b LF , b 6= 0, a, b algebraic over F .
a + b, a b, a b a b1 algebraic over F . LF ,
LF field.

L F extension, K L over F subextension ( F K L).


L algebraic over K algebraic over F . L algebraic over
F algebraic over K. a LF ( a L algebraic
over F ), F [x] f (x) 6= 0 f (a) = 0. f (x) F [x] K[x],
a algebraic over K. a LK ,
LF LK .
LF LK . .
Lemma 10.2.5. F field, L F extension, K L over
F subextension. K F finite extension, LF = LK
Proof. LF LK , LK LF . : a L
algebraic over K, a algebraic over F . K(a) field. a
algebraic over K, Corollary 10.1.7 K(a) K finite extension.
K F finite extension, Theorem 9.4.6
[K(a) : F ] = [K(a) : K][K : F ],
K(a) F finite extension. a K(a) Theorem 10.1.9
( Lemma 10.1.3) a algebraic over F .

Lemma 10.2.5 . K F
algebraic extension K algebraic over F . Lemma 10.2.5
K F finite extension, F algebraic extension.
Lemma 10.2.5 K F algebraic extension .
Theorem 10.2.6. F field, L F extension, K L over
F subextension. K F algebraic extension, LF = LK

10. Field

186

Proof. Lemma 10.2.5 , : a L algebraic over


K, a algebraic over F . K finite extension
over F , Lemma 10.2.5. ,
F finite extension K 0 a algebraic over K 0 . Lemma
10.2.5 a algebraic over F .
a algebraic over K, f (x) 6= 0 f (x) K[x] f (a) = 0.
f (x) = an xn + + a0 . an , . . . , a0 K K F algebraic
extension, an , . . . , a0 algebraic over F . K 0 = F (an , . . . , a0 ), Lemma
10.2.3 K 0 F finite extension. Lemma 10.2.5 LK 0 = LF .
an , . . . , a0 F (an , . . . , a0 ) = K 0 , f (x) K 0 [x]. f (a) = 0 a
algebraic over K 0 . , a LK 0 , LK 0 = LF a LF .
a algebraic over F .

LF filed (Theorem 10.2.4) F LF L.


L algebraic over LF field ? ,
LL ( ) ? algebraic closure
F

L algebraic over LF LF .
Corollary 10.2.7. F field L F extension, a L
a algebraic over LF , a algebraic over F . ,
LLF = LF .
Proof. LF algebraic over F , LF F
algebraic extension. K = LF , K Theorem 10.2.6 ,
LK = LF . a L algebraic over LF = K, a LK . LK = LF
a LF , a algebraic over F .

10.3. Roots of Polynomials


polynomial field .
.
Lemma 10.3.1. F field. f (x) F [x], deg(f (x)) = n,
a F f (a) = 0, h(x) F [x], deg(h(x)) = n 1,
f (x) = (x a) h(x).
Proof. F field, f (x) F [x] (x a) F [x], Euclids
Algorithm (Theorem 7.2.4) h(x), r(x) F [x] f (x) = (xa)h(x)+r(x),
r(x) = 0 deg(r(x)) < deg(x a) = 1. r(x) 6= 0 deg(r(x)) < 1
r(x) = c F . f (a) = 0 a f (x) = (x a) h(x) + c

10.3. Roots of Polynomials

187

c = 0, r(x) 6= 0 r(x) = 0. f (x) = (x a) h(x).


deg(h(x)) = n 1, Lemma 7.2.2 .

deg(x a) = 1, x a F [x] irreducible element.


Lemma 10.3.1 f (a) = 0, x a f (x) irreducible divisor.
F [x] unique factorization domain (Theorem 7.2.14), k N
q(x) F [x] f (x) = (x a)k q(x), q(a) 6= 0 ( x a q(x)
divisor). a f (x) .
Definition 10.3.2. F field. f (x) F [x] a F f (a) = 0,
a root of f (x). f (x) = (x a)k q(x), q(a) 6= 0, a
root of multiplicity k of f (x).
: n field
n . a k , k .
Theorem 10.3.3. F field. f (x) F [x] deg(f (x)) = n 1,
F multiplicity , f (x) n roots.
Proof. induction. deg(f (x)) = 1, f (x) 1 .
degree n polynomial . f (x) F [x] deg(f (x)) = n
. f (x) F root, . a F f (x)
root of multiplicity k, q(x) F [x] f (x) = (x a)k q(x),
q(a) 6= 0. degree (Lemma 7.2.2) deg(q(x)) = n k < n,
induction F multiplicity , q(x) n k roots.
b F f (x) root,
0 = f (b) = (b a)k q(b).
F integral domain, f (x) roots a q(x) roots.
F f (x) roots k q(x) roots ,
k + (n k) = n .

a f (x) , a f (x)
0. , a f (x) a f (x)
. a F a field L ( ring) ,
a f (x) L . f (a) (
L ) . F extension
L, a L F [x] polynomials . :
f (x) F [x] F extension L f (x) L
? . . F
extension field .

10. Field

188

, .
, .
Theorem 10.3.4. F field p(x) F [x] F [x] irreducible
element, field L F finite extension, [L : F ] = deg(p(x))
L a L p(a) = 0.

Proof. L = F [x]/ p(x) . p(x) irreducible, p(x) F [x]


maximal ideal, L field.
L subfield F isomorphic ,

L F extension. : F F [x]/ p(x) , (c) = c,


ring homomorphism. :

c ker(), c = 0, c p(x) . p(x) 0


, c = 0 ( Proposition 9.1.5 (2) ).
im() L subfield F isomorphic .
L p(x) . a = x L, p(x) = 0

( 0 L = F [x]/ p(x) 0). p(x) = an xn + + a1 x + a0 , ai F .


p(a) ? a L ,
L c F L , c.
p(a) = p(x)
= an xn + + a1 x + a0
= an xn + + a1 x + a0

( L )

= an x n + + a1 x + a0
= p(x) = 0
L p(x) L 0.

Lemma 9.3.6 [L : F ] = dimF (L) = dimF (F [x]/ p(x) ) = deg(p(x)).

Theorem 10.3.4 .

Corollary 10.3.5. F field f (x) F [x], deg(f (x)) = n 1,


field L F finite extension, [L : F ] n L a L
f (a) = 0.
Proof. f (x) F [x] deg(f (x)) 1, f (x) F [x] unit.
F [x] unique factorization domain, p(x) F [x] F [x]
irreducible element p(x) | f (x). p(a) = 0, f (a) = 0.
Theorem 10.3.4 L, [L : F ] = deg(p(x)) deg(f (x)) a L,
f (a) = p(a) = 0.

10.4. Finite Fields

189

Corollary 10.3.5 F finite extension L0 f (x)


L0 . f (x) L0 : deg(f (x)) = n,
f (x) L0 [x] f (x) = c (x a1 ) (x an ), ai L0 .
f (x) splits into linear factors in L0 .
Theorem 10.3.6. F field f (x) F [x], deg(f (x)) = n 1,
field L0 F finite extension, [L0 : F ] n!, f (x) splits
into linear factors in L0 .
Proof. Corollary 10.3.5 L1 F extension [L1 : F ] n
a1 L1 f (a1 ) = 0. Lemma 10.3.1 f1 (x) L1 [x] deg(f1 (x)) =
n 1 f (x) = (x a1 ) f1 (x). f1 (x) Corollary 10.3.5 L2
L1 extension [L2 : L1 ] n 1 a2 L2 f1 (a2 ) = 0.

[L2 : F ] = [L2 : L1 ][L1 : F ] n(n 1),


f2 (x) L2 [x]
f (x) = (x a1 ) (x a2 ) f2 (x).
( degree induction) .

Theorem 10.3.6 L0 f (x) ,


F extension F F [x] polynomial F
splits into linear factors ( F F finite extension).
Zorns Lemma, .

10.4. Finite Fields


, finite field .
F finite field F field F (
|F | ) . F finite field,
F characteristic p (Lemma 9.2.3). characteristic
ring homomorphism : Z F , n N (n) = n1,

(n) = n(1). F characteristic p ker() = p . ring 1st


Isomorphism Theorem Z/ p ' im() F . p , p


Z maximal ideal, Z/ p field. Z/ p = p, F

subfield Z/ p p finite field isomorphic .
p finite field : Fp .
F Fp extension, F vector space
over Fp . F finite dimensional over Fp ? ,
? vector space V finite dimensional over

10. Field

190

field K, V span V over K. F


finite field, |F | = n , F span F over Fp (
a F a = 1 a). Lemma 9.3.4 (1) dimFp (F ) n.
dimension , F
Fp finite extension. finite field
.
Theorem 10.4.1. F finite field char(F ) = p, F

subfield Fp , |Fp | = p Z/ p isomorphic, F Fp finite
extension. [F : Fp ] = k, |F | = pk .

Proof. F subfield Fp Fp ' Z/ p , F Fp
finite extension. : [F : Fp ] = k, |F | = pk .
. dimFp (F ) = [F : Fp ] = k
a1 , . . . , ak F F over Fp basis. basis F ,
c1 , . . . , ck Fp = c1 a1 + + ck ak . (
a1 , . . . , ak span F over Fp , a1 , . . . , ak linearly independent over
Fp .) a1 , . . . , ak basis, c1 , . . . , ck Fp F
. F c1 , , ck .
ci Fp |Fp | = p, i {1, . . . , k}, ci p ,
c1 , . . . , ck pk . F pk .

Theorem 10.4.1 finite field


. finite field 6 ; Theorem 10.4.1
finite field 9 16 .

pk

, finite field .
F finite field, F field, Corollary 9.1.2 F = F \ {0}
abelian group. F , F
finite abelian group. F finite group, Lagranges Theorem
.
k

Proposition 10.4.2. F finite field |F | = pk . f (x) = xp x,


a F f (a) = 0 f (x) splits linear factors in F .
Y
k
xp x =
(x a).
aF

Proof. F order pk 1 finite group. Lagranges


k
Theorem (Corollary 2.3.4), a F , ap 1 = 1 ( 1 F
k

identity). a ap = a, f (a) = 0. a = 0
f (a) = 0, a F f (a) = 0. Theorem 10.3.3

10.4. Finite Fields

191

f (x) F deg(f (x)) = pk . F


f (x) . f (x)
Y
f (x) =
(x a),
aF

f (x) splits linear factors in F .

Lagranges Theorem finite group , Proposition


10.4.2 F abelian . finite abelian group
F cyclic group. finite abelian group
fundamental theorem (Theorem 3.3.11) finite abelian group
cyclic groups direct product. Cn cyclic
group of order n, Cn Cm isomorphic to Cnm , n m
(Proposition 3.2.2).
Theorem 10.4.3. F finite field, F = F \ {0}
group cyclic group.
Proof. Theorem 3.3.11 n1 , . . . , nr N
F ' Cn1 Cnr ,
Cni cyclic group of order ni . ni ,
Proposition 3.2.2
Cn1 Cnr ' Cn1 nr ,
F cyclic group.
, n1 n2 (
). q n1 n2 . q | n1 q
, Cauchys (Theorem 3.3.2 Theorem 4.2.1) a Cn1
ord(a) = q. a, a2 , . . . , aq1 , aq = e1 Cn1 q (
ei Cni identity). Cn2 b Cn2 ord(b) = q.

= (a, e2 , . . . , er ), = (e1 , b, . . . , er ) Cn1 Cn2 Cnr .


i, j {1, . . . , q} i 6= j ,
i = (ai , e2 , . . . , er ) and j = (aj , e2 , . . . , er ),
ai 6= aj , i 6= j . i 6= j . i, j {1, . . . , q 1},
ai 6= e1 bj 6= e2 ,
i = (ai , e2 , . . . , er ) 6= (e1 , bj , . . . , er ) = j .

, 2 , . . . , q1 , , 2 , . . . , q1

10. Field

192

q = q = (e1 , e2 , . . . , er )
Cn1 Cnr 2q 1 . aq = e1 bq = e2 , 2q 1
i j
(i )q = ( j )q = (e1 , e2 , . . . , er ).

(10.2)

(e1 , . . . , er ) Cn1 Cnr identity, Cn1 Cnr F


isomorphism (e1 , . . . , er ) F identity 1. isomorphism
() i j 2q 1 F 2q 1
. (10.2) 2q 1 F xq 1 = 0.
Theorem 10.3.3 xq 1 F q , .
F ' Cn1 Cnr n1 , . . . , nr , F cyclic
group.

F cyclic a F F ai ,
.
Corollary 10.4.4. F finite field |F | = pk , a F
Fp (a) = F a over Fp degree k.
Proof. a F F F cyclic group. Fp (a) F
a Fp filed, Fp (a) F . b F , b = 0,
b Fp (a); b 6= 0, b F , i N b = ai . Fp (a)
field, b = ai Fp (a). F Fp (a), F = Fp (a).
|F | = pk , Theorem 10.4.1 [Fp (a) : Fp ] = [F : Fp ] = k.
Corollary 10.1.7 a over Fp minimal polynomial degree k,
a over Fp degree k.

finite field , p k N,

finite field F pk . k = 1 Z/ p
p finite filed, filed Fp . Theorem 10.4.1
pk finite filed F , F Fp extension.
k

Proposition 10.4.2 xp x F splits into linear


factors. F .
Theorem 10.4.5. p k N, finite field F
|F | = pk .
k

Proof. xp x Fp [x], Theorem 10.3.6 filed L Fp


k
finite extension xp x L splits into linear factors.
k

F = {a L | ap = a},

10.4. Finite Fields

193

F L xp x .
F filed. Lemma 9.1.4, a, b F
b 6= 0 a b F a/b F . a b a/b L ,
Lemma 9.2.5
k

(a b)p = ap bp
k

and

(a/b)p = ap /bp ,

a, b F ( ap = a bp = b) (a b)p = a b (a/b)p = a/b.


a b a/b F .
k

|F | = pk . xp x splits into linear factors in L,


k
F pk , xp x .
k

xp x , a L xp x , Lemma 10.3.1
k
h(x) L[x] xp x = (x a) h(x). h(a) 6= 0, a .
k
k
k
k
Lemma 9.2.6, (x a)p (x a) = xp ap x + a. ap = a
k

( a xp x ),
k

xp x = (x a)p (x a) = (x a) h(x),
k

h(x) = (x a)p 1 1. h(a) = 1 6= 0, xp x


. F pk finite field.

finite field Corollary 10.4.4, .


Corollary 10.4.6. Fp p finite field, k N,
g(x) Fp [x] Fp [x] irreducible deg(g(x)) = k.
Proof. Theorem 10.4.5 finite field F [F : Fp ] = k.
Corollary 10.4.4 a F F = Fp (a), [Fp (a) : Fp ] = k a over Fp
minimal polynomial degree k. minimal polynomial irreducible
(Lemma 10.1.1), .

Fp [x] irreducible element .


Lemma 10.4.7. Fp p finite field g(x) Fp [x] Fp [x]
k
irreducible. deg(g(x)) = k, Fp [x] g(x) | xp x.
Proof. deg(g(x)) = k, Theorem 10.3.4 Fp extension L
[L : Fp ] = k a L g(a) = 0. , L finite field |L| = pk .
k
Proposition 10.4.2 L f (x) = xp x ,
a L f (a) = 0. g(x) a over Fp minimal polynomial h(x)
associates. g(a) = 0 Lemma 10.1.1 (1) h(x) | g(x), g(x)
irreducible, h(x) g(x) associates ( h(x) unit).

f (a) = 0, Lemma 10.1.1 (1) h(x) | f (x) ( f (x) h(x) ). g(x)

h(x) associates g(x) = h(x) , f (x) g(x) g(x) | f (x).

10. Field

194

finite field . K L finite


field |K| = |L| K ' L. isomorphic ring
isomorphism. vector space dimension
, isomorphic. isomorphic vector space
isomorphism, linear transformation, . K
L cyclic group, Theorem 3.1.1 K L isomorphic.
isomorphic group isomorphism, .
isomorphic K L ring isomorphism.
K L ring isomorphism. field F K ' F F ' L,
isomorphism transitivity K ' L.
Theorem 10.4.8. K L finite field |K| = |L|, K L
ring isomorphism. K ' L as rings.
Proof. |K| = |L| = p , Theorem 10.4.1 K subfield



Z/ p isomorphic. |K| = Z/ p = p, K ' Z/ p .

L ' Z/ p , K ' L.
|K| = |L| = pk . p finite field
isomorphic, K L Fp extension, Fp
p finite field. |K| = pk , Corollary 10.4.4 a K
Fp (a) = K a over Fp minimal polynomial g(x) degree k.
Corollary 10.1.7

K = Fp (a) ' Fp [x]/ g(x) .

L L ' Fp [x]/ g(x) . ,


Corollary 10.4.4 a0 L L = Fp (a0 ), a0 over Fp
minimal polynomial g(x). Lemma 10.4.7.
k

, |L| = pk , Proposition 10.4.2 xp x splits into linear factors in


L. g(x) Fp [x] irreducible (Lemma 10.1.1), Lemma 10.4.7
k

g(x) | xp x. g(x) splits into linear factors in L. L


b L g(b) = 0. g(x) b over Fp minimal polynomial.
b over Fp minimal polynomial g(x) divisor (Lemma 10.1.1) g(x)
irreducible monic polynomial, g(x) b over Fp minimal
polynomial. Corollary 10.1.7

Fp [x]/ g(x) ' Fp (b).


Fp (b) L [L : Fp ] = [Fp (b) : Fp ] = k, L = Fp (b).

L ' Fp [x]/ g(x) ' K.

10.4. Finite Fields

195

field , .
Galois Theory, . field
, Galois Theory.