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Unit 1: Introduction to Earth

Science
part 3
Segregation/Formation
Of Earths Layers

Origin of the earth


It was thought that Earth was not
always layered as it is today. Some
scientists suggest that Earth was
somewhat like the moon billions of
years ago

Why does earth have


layers?

Why does earth have


layers?
Thanks to nature (i.e. heat and
gravity)

Sources:
1. Radioactive Decay
2. Particle Collisions
3. Residual Heat

Related
to
density

Why does earth have


layers?
Heat: from particle collisions and
radioactive elements produced
melting of the interior.
Denser material sank to the
Earths center (due to gravitational
forces)
lighter materials floated upwards.

This process is often referred to


as differentiation or segregation.

Why does earth have


layers?
Gases are released from
Earths interior through
volcanoes.
This
segregation/differentiation
caused the geosphere (Solid
Earth) to developed layers
that have different properties.

Differentiation Video

Layers of the earth


Both the inner and outer core are
made up of Nickel and iron (due to
segregation),
but they have different States of
Matter.
Why would they be in different
states?
One solid, one liquid

Layering of Earth pg. 22,


476

Crust
Lithosphere

State: Thin, rocky outer skin


Composition: felsic rock - granite is dominant rock
Density: 2.7 g/cm3 (mostly low density rock)
Temperature: increases with depth 400 C

*Roughly 100km think (varies depending on ocean or continental)

Plate tectonics

Asthenosphere
(upper mantle)
Mantle

State: Mainly solid, very strong but can flow (like silly putty or
an eatmore bar)
Composition: Dominant rock is ultramafic - Dominant rock
type is called peridotite
Density: 3.3 g/cm3 (increases in density as it goes deepersegregation)
Temperature: increases with depth to 3500 C.
*Is 2900 km thick The thickest layer!

Outer Core

State: liquid
Composition: iron and a small amount of nickel
Density: 11 g/cm3
Temperature: > 6700 C

* 2270 km thick
- convection currents exist within and contributes to origin of
magnetic field

Inner Core

*Hotter, denser and stronger that outer core


**State: solid
Radius = 1216 km

Temperature and Density


Increases with Depth

Temperature and Density Increases with Depth

Density inside Earth increases as depth


inside Earth increases.
Temperature inside Earth increases at a rate of
approximately 35 degrees celcius per kilometer.
This is referred to as the Geothermal Gradient.

Earth is a Dynamic Planet


It changes slowly over millions of
years (erosion of a mountain)
But it can also have dramatic quick
changes (volcanic eruptions and
earthquakes)

Biosphere

Geosphere

Hydrosphere

Atmosphere

Which layer do you think


developed 1st? 2nd? 3rd?

Order of development
Geosphere hydrosphere
atmosphere biosphere
Hydrosphere and atmosphere formed
from early outgassing, where
molten material cooled and released
dissolved gases into the atmosphere
(N2, H2O vapor, CO2, Ar)

The earth is a complex set of


interacting systems
Each sphere influences one another
and effects our daily lives

The earth is a complex set of


interacting systems
Ex. Water cycle
Ex. Volcanic eruption
How does each illustrate interactions
among Earths spheres?

All 4 spheres?

All 4 Spheres

All 4 Spheres
Shoreline