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The Roman Republic & The Roman Empire

The Land of Rome

In the center of the Italian peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea

____________________ along the eastern coast, broad _________________________

The Founding of Rome

Roman legend says that Rome was founded by two sons,
_____________________________, of a Latin woman and the war god Mars.

They were abandoned and fed by a she-wolf

Rome sets up a Republic

The most powerful governing body was the _________________, made up of

patricians, landholding elite. Senators served for life.

Two consuls were nominated by senators to work together to supervise the

government and the army. Consuls served 1 year terms.

__________________ were appointed to have complete control during war-time


Roman Society
The male head of the family had ______________________________.
Women did participate in Roman society; they could ___________________ and
_________ _______________, but most worked at home.
All Roman children were educated, and the wealthy hired private tutors to extend
their education.
Roman religion was based on gods and goddesses similar to those of the Greek

Mars god of war; Neptune god of sea; Jupiter chief god

Roman Defense
Rome had a well-trained army made up of military units called ____________.

Operated with strong rewards and strong punishments

Conquests brought the entire Italian Peninsula under Roman control

Punic Wars: ___________________ (in Africa) resisted Roman control, forces led
by ______________ invaded from the North. When Hannibal returned home,
Romans were waiting & conquered his remaining forces.

By 133 BC, the Roman Empire spread from Spain to Egypt!!

Result of Imperial Rome

Conquests brought riches, but the widespread practice of enslaving the conquered
put farmers out of business.

Farmers fell into debt and went to find jobs in Rome and other cities. These
unhappy poor became angry, and the few wealthy became

Julius Caesar came to power as a ________________ during wartime. His popularity

made the Senate think he would try to become king of Rome, so they

The Roman Empire

Julius Caesar
Came to power as a _________________, and _________________________ to solve Romes

Caesar was told, Beware the Ides of March, and on March 15, 44 BC, he was killed in the

Romes First Emperor: Augustus

Caesars grandnephew (Augustus) and his chief general (Mark Antony) both wanted to
take over the empire.
Augustus defeated Mark Antony and was made the ___________________________ of Rome.

Introduced _____________________________ Added a group to enforce laws, high level

jobs available to men of all classes, public works projects gave jobs to the poor, and
a more fair tax system.

Census population count, to keep track of


Roman Pax Romana

The 200 years between Augustus & Marcus Aurelius was known as

Peace, order, unity, and prosperity were brought to the entire Empire

Trade: Silks from China, grain from Egypt, ivory & gold from other parts of Africa,
animals to entertain Romans.

Entertainments were offered to ________________________________ of the poor, Bread &


Chariot races at the Circus Maximus

Gladiator contests in which slaves would fight one another