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E-journal GEO

Vol. 10(1) 99-1142015

Cultural Vulnerability and Resilience for Preservation of


Altaic Kazakh Horse-Riding Falconry along Western Mongolia

SOMA Takuya
2015 3 11 2015 8 4

100

(1)(2)(3)

Traditional horse-riding falconry has been still practiced at a community of Altaic Kazakhs in Bayan-lgii Province in western Mongolia. However, eagle masters are now declining its population as well as traditional art and knowledge for taming and
hunting due to massive cultural alteration by tourism. This research discusses vulnerability and resilience of preservation for
Altaic Kazakh eagle falconry with reference to research results of ethnography and current social survey from long-term eldwork. Eventually, cultural sustainability of Altaic Kazakh falconry needs to be supported from the angles of three theoretical
frameworks; (1) Natural resource management, especially supporting the population of Golden Eagles, their potential prey animals, and their nesting environment (2) Sustainable development and improvement of animal herding productivity and herder s
livelihood, (3) Cultural affairs for protection based on the concept of nature-guardianship in its cultural domain. The series of
these sustaining procedures denes that eagle falconry is a hybrid culture which would not preserved only human actions, but
also maintenance of animal herding livelihood as crucial social context.
(TEK)
Key words: Altai Mountains, Western Mongolia, Bayan-lgii Province, Golden Eagle, Intangible Cultural Heritage, Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK)
I

(- )

1ad 2ab

Soma 2012a, 2013a; 2012a, 2013a

()67 51

2014a; Soma

16

2015a

100

99

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

1
Figure 1Eagle Master (Burkutchu) of Altaic Kazakhs in Bayan-lgii Province

2
Figure 2Golden Eagle for Eagle Falconry

(NHK) 2003, 2010,

2015

1990

90

Bodio 2003NHK

100

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

21

90

Soma 2012c,

2012d, 2013b; 2012b, 2013b

UNESCO

21

2000

10 (The

Golden Eagle Festival/ / )

Soma

2012b; Soma and Battulga 2014

Historical and Ethnologi-

cal Study of the Kazakhs of Mongolia

(1)

Molodin et al. 2008: 30UNESCO 2003 10


UNESCO

2 (2)

(The Convention for Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Her-

itage)

2005 5

Revival, Preservation and Development of Folk Art

and Traditional Crafts in the Altai Republic (20052010)


Okty-

abrskaya et al. 2009: 130

(defense identity)

II

Gonzlez 2008: 807

101

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

(oo) 2012 8 10

(1)

() 10

2014

9 10 ()

(2) (traditional

() ()

art and knowledge: TAK) (tradi-

() 42

tional ecological knowledge: TEK)

2011 8 2013 1

() 25

2014 10

5-R S-16 18

()

300

3
Figure 3Study Sites at Bayan-lgii Province

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E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

()

(2) 9 2

III

( )

1.

3 8

9 2 2

(1) 3 8

1/4

2/3

( )

12 2

4
Figure 4Correlation between Horse-Riding Falconry and Nomadic Animal Herding

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E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

61.5%(n=24)

2008

1137.5130.5 (g) 1 28.2%

2 3

(MeanS.E.)

(n=11) 232 n=4/23 n=5/3 n=2

1437.5223.2 (g)/1150.0176.8 (g)/1750.0230.2 (g)

89.7%(n=35)

541.4

70.8 (g)

(541.470.8 g) (1137.5130.5 g) 1
2.

(47.6%)

(1)

144.515.2 (kg)111.513.5 (kg)

22.9%

S-16

300 500 g

(MeanS.E.) 241.318.3 (kg)

136.kg 181.5 kg

Soma 2015a, 2015b

9.6 12.0

1 20
25 kg 7 8

54.5 kg 90.5 kg

7 12

2
300 500 g

3.

(TLP)

(2)

11

Soma, Buerkert, and Schlecht 2014

150

(HHs)

210

1
Table 1Quantity and Frequency of Feeding for a Hunting Eagle

(g)

2 3

(MeanS.E.)
1137.5130.5 1437.5223.2 1150.0176.8 1750.0230.2 1437.5223.2 12321.195.9

24
4
5
2
4
39
4 8

61.5%
10.3%
12.8%
5.1%
10.3%
(MeanS.E.)

9 3

541.470.8 1000.0204.1
35
3
89.7%
7.7%

104

2000
1
2.6%

614.177.2
39

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

42

Lg>201 Mg=101 200 Sg<100

23 8 4 1

10 Lg: 4.72 Mg:

4.49 Sg: 4.93

1 15 2014b

Lg: 78.3 Mg: 47.5 Sg:

9HHs Sg

15.2 5

100 200 40 45

HHs

9HHs Mg, 5

HHs

Lg

1/3

(AAC) Lg: 21.7 Mg: 18.0

Sg: 13.0 15.6

Sg 86.0%

24.0 9.6 12.0

AAC 33.0 36.0

TLP

100 150 /HHs

(Mg)

(Sg)

S-16 TLP

5
Figure 5Total Annual Consumption and New Born Livestock at each HHs (by Stratum)

105

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

4.

72.7%n=44 60 HHs

2014b

10 km

2008

IV

2013b; Soma 2014

1.

9 (HP-A HP-I)

6a HP-A HP-G HP-H

6.4 7.8 km

4 5

HP-A HP-I 20 km

HP-A HP-G 390 m

HP-A HP-I 450 m

S-16 HP-I

5.7 km 4.5 km

Harting 1871: 49

(socio-political

patronage system)

6b

(Caragana spp.)

III

1327 1377

1540

Bergstrom 1939:

686

916 1125

106

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

6
Figure 6Landscape of a Hunting Field of Agjal Mountain

16 18

(en-

19

closure movement)

Harting1891: 216

Bibliotheca accipitraria (1891)

107

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

S-16 S-16

S-05 65

S-11 51

S-02 74 U-01

73 2

T-01

95 1930

2.

(TAK)

(TEK)

3.

74.0%(n=35) 26.0%(n=12)

1/4

(1)

108

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

2008

9 1

5 10

1 500 1,000 KGS

1,500 3,000

( ) 7a

16 25

5 10

2,500 10,000 KGS 7,500

30,000

8 16 Soma

2013a (Castor ber)

( )

7b40C

(2)

7
Figure 7Head Gears made with Fox-Fur Material

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E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

(C1)

1
(C2)
1.

3 (condition) (C1)

(C2)

(C3)

7 12


(C3)

8
Figure 8Correlation among Versatile Conditions for Protection of Horse-riding Falconry

110

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

TEK

(R2)

1
2.

100 150

TLP100 Sg

60.0%

3 (R1 R3)

65.9%

90

(R1)

2014b

(R3)

(TAK/TEK)

2000

10

( )

111

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

( )

( )

23 24

Dr. Andreas

Brkert Dr. Eva Schlecht

VI

(1)(C1) (C2)
(C3)

2012a,

2013a; Soma 2012a, 2013a

2012b; Soma 2012d, 2014,

(2)

2015a, 2015b, 2015c

2013b

2014b, 2015; Soma, Buerkert, and Schlecht

2014

Soma 2012b, 2013b, Soma and Battulga 2014

(3)

Soma 2015a2014 8 21

(R1 R3)

Soma2015a: 51

98%

Bergstrom, E.A. 1939. English Game Laws and Colonial


Food Shortages. The New England Quarterly 12(4):
681690.
Bodio, S.J. 2003. Eagle Dreams: Searching for Legends in

112

E-journal GEO2015 Vol. 10(1)

Wild Mongolia. USA, Lyons PR.


Gonzlez, M.V. 2008. Intangible heritage tourism and identity. Tourism Management 29: 807810.
Harting, J. E. 1871. The Ornithology of Shakespeare. John
Van Voorst, Paternoster Row: 49.
Harting, J. E. 1891. Bibliotheca Accipitraria. Bernard
Quaritch: 216
Molodin, V.I., Mylnikov, V.P., & Oktyabrskaya, Irina V.
2008. The Kazakhs of Northwestern Mongolia Everyday
Life and Holidays in Summer Pastures. Archaeology
Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 35(3): 129142
Oktyabrskaya, I.V., Pavlova, E.Y., & Skovpen, Alexander
V. 2009. Modern Altai Craft. Archaeology Ethnology &
Anthropology of Eurasia 37(1): 129135.
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manuType=02
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org/offprints/accs2013-offprints/ACCS_2013_Offprint_
0108.pdf
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Soma. T., Buerkert, A., and Schlecht, E. 2014. Current Living Status and Social Use of Livestock in Nomadic
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National Folk Museum of Korea.
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Context of a Nomadic Society: Anthropological and Ethno-Ornithological Studies of Altaic Kazakh Falconry and
its Cultural Sustainability in Western Mongolia. University of Kassel Press, Germany (editorial from Ph.D. Thesis submitted to University of Kassel).
Soma, T. 2015b. Tradition and Transition of Altaic Kazakh
Eagle Falconry Culture in Western Mongolia, In Proceedings of Conference of International Falconry Festival 2014: (in press).
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East Falcon Research Group 45: 1215.
2008

2007 (16):
99106. http://bungakubu.kokushikan.ac.jp/chiri/PDF/
2008No16.pdf.
2012a

23
364371

2012b

32: 3847.
2013a

24 327334,

2013b =

35:
5866.
2014a

2014

ID: 505.
2014b
EJournal GEO 9(1): 102189.

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2015

41: (in press).


(NHK)2003

NHK 2003 12
13 10:0510:57 NHK-BS2 Television.

(NHK)2010

NHK
2010 1 1618:3018:50
NHK-BS1
Television.
(NHK)2015

NHK
2015 1 29 22:0022:50 NHK

(SOAS)
Watercope Project

Human and Raptor Interactions in the Context of a Nomadic Society: Anthropological and Ethno-Ornithological
Studies of Altaic Kazakh Falconry and its Cultural Sustainability in Western Mongolia. University of Kassel.
NHK 2015 1 29

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