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# FLUIDS

BELL RINGER:
Find 5 things that affect flight
Define them, and then tell how they affect flight
Lift upward force
Thrust pushing or pulling force
Wing Size bigger wings allow for more lift
Wing shape air foils produce more lift
Drag friction due to the air
Back to Particle Theory . . . The atoms or molecules in a fluid are not locked in a fixed position
and can move.
Therefore, a fluid can be
Liquid or Gas
Flows from high to low pressure
Expands to fill newly formed spaces
Exerts pressure evenly in all directions
Increases in density as pressure increases
Increases in pressure as depth increases

Air as a Fluid
What is air?
A mixture of nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and small amounts of other gases
like He, H2, and CO
What is in between the gas particles?
NOTHING!
Does air have mass?
Do the molecules of these substances have mass?
YES!
Prove it!
In your notes, describe this demonstration
Air Flows from high to low pressure
Inside a balloon is high pressure, feel it flow out
Air Expands to fill newly formed spaces
Inhaling makes your chest cavity larger and air flows in
Air Exerts pressure evenly in all directions
When blowing bubbles, they are spherical, not long
Pascals principle: a fluid in a contained vessel exerts pressure of equal intensity in all
directions.
(Explains how the brakes in a car work)
Air Increases in density as pressure increases
80% of all atmospheric gases are within 10km of the ground
Air Increases in pressure as depth increases
The atmospheric pressure decreases as you go up
< see how the air in the atmosphere changes> nasa.gov
Unit 7: Air as a FLUID*
Calculate Air Pressure by dividing the force exerted by the area it covers
Right now you have about 2 lbs of pressure pushing down on every 2 cm of your body!
P=Force
area

## Air as a FLUID: Application*

Why Airplanes fly
Bernoullis Principle: as a fluids velocity increases, its pressure decreases
> thats why the shower curtain sucks in
> Ball is pulled into flowing water
> 2 pieces of paper go together when you blow
Air Foil: The shape of a wing that causes the air to go faster across the top causing lift
Unit 7: Water as a FLUID*
What is water?
Molecules of H2O that are attracted to each other in a way that allows them to flow.
What is the shape of water?
It takes the shape of its container
BUT! It has a definite volume
What is the density of water?
1.0 g/cm3
Density = mass
Volume

## Unit 7: Water as a FLUID*

Water Flows from high to low pressure
From a garden hose into a bucket.
Water balloon with a hole in it.
Water pressure increases as depth increases
Fish in the deep ocean experience higher pressures than fish in shallow water.
Water Exerts pressure evenly in all directions
Pascals principle: a fluid in a contained vessel exerts pressure of equal
intensity in all directions.
Explains how the brakes in a car work
Buoyant Force:
The upward force that keeps an object floating (applies to air as well)
Archimedes Principle:
The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the water that is displaced by the floating
object.
Ex. If a floating log displaces 10 Newtons of water, than the buoyant force is 10 Newtons.
Ex. If the log displaces 10 Newtons of water, but the log itself weighs more than 10 Newtons, it
will sink.
Unit 7: Water as a FLUID Application*
Why Ships Float
The density of steel is more than water, so a block of steel will sink, But!
Ships float because . . .
Their shape decreases their overall density
The buoyant force on the ship is equal to the ships weight
They displace more water than they weigh
Submarines work by . . .
Adding water to increase their density to sink
Adding air to decrease their density to rise
Archimedes (287 BC) - ancient Greek Mathematician and physicist
Proposed the concept of buoyancy in his Archimedes Principle
Buoyancy (floating) is - the upward force that is contrary to gravity