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English/Literacy Program on writing a Narrative: Part 2

Recap of Part 1:
Curriculum area: The Arts drama specific.
Topic: Fairy tales.
Year level: Year 1.
State inquiry question: What is a fairy tale?
Part one diagram:

Building Knowledge of the


0ield:
Pior Knowledge activities:
1. Brain storming activity
2. Floor storming activity
Building on knowledge:
1. theatre performance
2. Photo story activity

Independent
construction

Modelling the genre

Joint construction of
a text

Figure 1: My adaptation of the Derewianka Curriculum Cycle

Part one detail:


Part one of my lesson planning, as figure 1 shows, consisted of building the field of
knowledge. The activities were focused around fairy tales. In order to gather the
current knowledge the students had, the initial activity invited students to brainstorm
answers to the question: What is a Fairy Tale. The answers were then to be placed
on large butchers paper and displayed for the class to view at any time. The next
brainstorming activity asked the question What is not a Fairy Tale to aid an
understanding of whether or not students grasp the concept of non-fiction and fiction
writing. Floor storming, the last prior knowledge activity, included the use of photos
of non-fiction and fiction book covers read in class being categorised by fairy tales or
not fairy tales. To build on knowledge I planned a theatre performance excursion and
to follow the creation of a photo story.

Modelling the genre

Building Knowledge of the


0ield:
Pior Knowledge activities:
1. Brain storming activity
2. Floor storming activity
Building on knowledge:
1. theatre performance
2. Photo story activity

Modelling the Narrative


1.Introduction.
2. The purpose of the
narrative.
3. Identifying the structure
of the story.
4. Language features of the
text.

Independent
construction

Joint construction of
a Narrative

Figure 2: My adaptation of the Derewianka Curriculum Cycle

Model of Narrative genre for Year 1 students:


Were Going on a Bear Hunt retold by Michael Rosen and Illustrated by Helen
Oxenbury. Published 1993:

Figure 3
Front page (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993)
I will model this story by following Derewiankas (1990) step-by-step
recommendations of modelling.
Introduction:
I will begin by introducing the story to the children during mat time. I will read the
story from beginning to end with an animated voice to highlight the detail in the
language of the book.
The purpose of the book:
The purpose of this book and all non-fiction narrative picture books is for children to
access a large range of literary skills from reading and writing in this genre. Possibly
the most important purpose is the ability to make meaning from the story. Booker
(2012) explains that young readers will often find different meanings from narratives
and new meanings each time they read it.

Narratives, if read for meaning, can aid children to become meaning makers (Hill,
2012, p. 199). As Hill (2012) explains picture books such as Rosen and Oxenburys
Were Going on a Bear Hunt can help students to attempt to find meaning through the
illustrations, sentence structure and print. It is imperative that readers understand and
can make their own meaning of a story as this aids the reading comprehension and
writing of ones own narrative. Teachers enhance (Hill, 2012) comprehension of the
narrative at hand by asking questions and initiating conversations at different stages
of the reading (Hill, 2012).
Identifying the structure of the story:
Upon researching The New Arrivals Program (NAP) Teaching, Learning and
Assessment Programs on Aboriginal Dreaming Stories: Developing a Narrative I
have found a suitable narrative structure to model for students. According to NAP
(2015) this structure can be found in dreaming stories and other narratives. The
structure includes: title, orientation, problem/complication and resolution. I will
highlight this in the following way when reading my story to the class (see figure 4
7).

Figure 4
Highlight the title at beginning of book. (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993)

Figure 5
Highlight the orientation in first page Were going on a Bear hunt. Were going to
catch a big one (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993)

Figure 6
There are a number of problems/complications within this text; this however is a
good example of a large complication.
Although the familys objective was to find a bear on their bear hunt, when they
finally found a bear they were scared and it chased after them. I will highlight the
scared looking dog, angry looking bear and scared family who are running away from
the bear to indicate that there is a problem.

Figure 7
I will use figure 7 to highlight the resolution. The family and their dog are safe in bed
away from the bear and have decided not to go bear hunting again.

Language features of the text:


Finding language features of the text can help students to break the code of texts
(Luke & Freebody, 1999, p. 7) by recognising and using fundamental features and
architecture of written texts including: alphabet, sounds in words, spelling,
conventions and patterns of sentence structure and text (Luke & Freebody, 1999, p.
7). For this particular learning experience I will be focusing on the use of grammar as
a means of using linguistic choices (Derwianka, 2011, p. 1) to create certain
meaning (Derwianka, 2011, p. 1). I will do this by, as Derewianka (2011) suggests,
focusing on verbs as an expression of meaning.

Punctuation is also an important element to comprehending the meaning of a text as


punctuation, including full stops, question marks and exclamation marks signal
sentences that make statements, ask questions, express emotion or give commands
(ACARA, 2014 p.17). In other words, by viewing the punctuation used, we can
understand whether the character is asking a question, making a simple statement or a
strong statement (exclamation mark) and thus how the character must be feeling at
that time.

Method:
I will photocopy and laminate the pages of Rosen and Oxenburys book and highlight
the verbs, adverbs and adjectives.
In figure 5 I will highlight the verbs, adverbs and adjectives in the following
sentences:
Were going on a bear hunt (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993).
Long wavy grass (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993)
Weve got to go through it! (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993)
I will aid students in comprehending the narrative by identifying the range of
meanings (Derwianka, 2011, p. 2). For example, I can pin point that the family are
clearly going on a bear hunt and that they have encountered a hurdle within their hunt,
the grass. Because it is long and wavy the students can gather an understanding that
the grass will be difficult to go through.

In the first part of figure 6, as well as the verbs, adverbs and adjectives I will highlight
the punctuation, in this case the exclamation marks.
One shiny wet nose! (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993)
Two big furry ears! (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993)
Two big googly eyes! (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993)
ITS A BEAR!!! (Rosen & Oxenbury, 1993)
The adjectives and illustrations will help students to understand that the bear is a
frightening/exciting creature. I will use the exclamation marks to point out that the
family and their dog are not feeling calm about what they are seeing. I will also point
out that usually we only use capitals at the beginning of sentences or for names of
places and people but that the last sentence used all capitals to highlight the fear the
family and their dog feel when they see the bear. The use of capital letters to show
importance or strong feelings (Spandel, 2008, p. 253) is defined as using voice in
text.

Joint Construction of a Narrative:

Building Knowledge of the


0ield:
Pior Knowledge activities:
1. Brain storming activity
2. Floor storming activity
Building on knowledge:
1. theatre performance
2. Photo story activity

Modelling the Narrative:


1. Introduction.
2. The purpose of the
narrative.
3. Identifying the structure
of the story.
4. Language features of the
text.

Independent
construction

Joint construction of a
Narrative:
1.Bene0its of Joint
Construction.
2. My Method Reasoning.
3. Plan.
4. 7 Open-ended Questions.


Figure 8: My adaptation of the Derewianka Curriculum Cycle


Benefits of Joint Construction:
The Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD, 2008)
explains that joint construction requires the teacher and students to work
collaboratively in the construction of a text. The educator scaffolds the students
(DEECD, 2008, p. 1) during the joint writing of the text by asking questions,
thinking aloud (DEECD, 2008, p.1) and providing clarification throughout the
process.

DEECD (2008) explains that this is a writing strategy that has been formed and
supported by the Australian Curriculum and is based on a genre approach to teaching
writing(DEECD, 2008, p.1).
Derewianka (1990) describes joint construction as a useful prelude to independent
construction. It will usually involve researching the topic (Derewianka, 1990),
pooling information (Derewianka, 1990) and revising structure (Derewianka,
1990). These three elements are to take place once the joint construction of a text (in
this case a narrative) has been completed.

My Method Reasoning:
ACARAs (2013) Illustration of Personalised Learning involves a year one class of
27 students, 18 of these students are learning English as an Additional Language or
Dialect (EAL/D)(ACARA, 2013). As Wheadon (2015) suggests, as educators, we
should try not to make assumptions of what kind of students we are planning for.
With this in mind, I believe it wise to plan for possible EAL/D children, rather than
assume that every student I encounter in my classroom is going to know English as
their first language; after all 17.1 per cent of all Australian children (including
Australian Indigenous children) spoke languages other than English in the home, with
279 different languages spoken (AEDI, 2011, p. 4).
I have adapted my own version of The Australian Curriculum Assessment and
Reporting Authoritys (ACARA, 2013) Illustration of Personalised Learning and the
example (see figure 9) of joint construction in NAPs plan for developing a narrative.
The objective of my plan is to help students to further understand the structure of a
narrative.

Plan:

Initially, the class and I will construct a narrative together (during this process
I will ask the seven questions that are detailed below).

I will adapt my own version of NAPs (2015) suggestion in figure 9 and break
students into groups. Students will be given the task of writing or drawing
their own narrative as a group, while being able to view the seven questions
that will be displayed to help them to adhere to their narrative requirements.

Once the students have completed the narrative, the class will congregate to a
hula-hoops activity. This hula-hoop activity is an adaption from ACARA
(2013) and involves the use of 5 hula-hoops.

Each hula-hoop represents a section of the structure of a narrative; Title,


orientation, complication, resolution, ending.

I will nominate one person from each group to tell their groups story via the
hula-hoop prompts.

This student will start with the title of their story, then move onto the
orientation, the problem, the resolution and then the ending. One student from
each group will represent the numerous stories.

Over the course of the week every student will have the chance to complete
the hula-hoop activity to revisit the structure of a narrative and their groups
story.

Figure 9: from (NAP,2015, p.13)


file:///Users/alexschulz/Downloads/Aborig_Dream_Screen%20(1).pdf
6-8 Open-ended Questions:
Seven questions will be formulated to help students to develop an understanding of
the writing that they have to do (Wheadon, 2015). These questions will help to build
criteria for writing a narrative:

Question 1. What is the story about? (Mantel, 2008, p. 20)


Question 2. Who are the characters? (Mantel, 2008, p. 20)

*note: Questions one and two help writers to decide on the plot and character
development (Mantel, 2008, p. 20) involved within their narrative. This
can help when beginning the writing process.
2. Who is your main character?
3. What is he/she feeling and thinking in your story?
*note: Questions three and four will allow students to recognise that
texts are not neutral, and that they represent particular views (Luke
& Freebody, 1999, p. 7). This can help to add more in depth detail and
meaning into the narrative.
5.

What problem happens to your main character in the story?

6.

How is the problem fixed?


*note: I have adapted and simplified questions five and six for year one
level. My questions were adapted from the What problems does the
main character need to overcome? question (Department of Education
, 2013, p. 68).

7.

How will your story end (Department of Education , 2013).

Independent construction of a Narrative:

Building Knowledge of the 0ield:


Pior Knowledge activities:
1. Brain storming activity
2. Floor storming activity
Building on knowledge:
1. theatre performance
2. Photo story activity

Independent construction of a
Narrative:
1. Derewianka's Independent
Construction.
2. NAP's Independent
Construction.
3. My Independent Construction
Plan.
4. My Weekly Plan.
5. Assessment
6. Conclusion

Modelling the Narrative


1. Introduction.
2. The purpose of the narrative.
3. Identifying the structure of the
story.
4. Language features of the text.

Joint construction of a
Narrative:
1.Bene0its of Joint
Construction.
2. My Method Reasoning.
3. Plan.
4. 7 Open-ended Questions.


Figure 10: My adaptation of the Derewianka Curriculum Cycle


Derewiankas Independent Construction:
Derewiankas (1990) cycle depicts that once students have built knowledge of the
field, had the text modelled to them and jointly constructed the text, they may then
feel able to independently create their own text, in this case a narrative.

In order to cater for cultural differences and EAL/D or special needs students as the
Australian Curriculum (2015) suggests, educators must be aware that while some
students may feel confident in writing a narrative from start to finish, others may feel
confident in just writing out the characters and the title of the story. It is important to
differentiate teaching and activities to suit a range of students.
Derewianka (1990) reveals that during the independent construction process:

The children will begin by choosing a topic to base their narrative on.

The children will then go on to write drafts of their topic.

Once the drafting is completed the students will liaise with the educator or
peers in order to receive comments on what he or she has achieved
(Derewianka, 1990, p. 7). Derewianka (1990) points out that during this
section of independent construction, the educator may find that more
modelling or joint construction is necessary.

The final step to Derewiankas (1990) independent construction is optional


publishing. Derewianka (1990) suggests that as long as the educator has
permission from the writers, public publishing can be beneficial to extended
learning in the genre. Publishing can encourage more conversation to extend
the narrative language even further.

NAPs Independent construction in Aboriginal Dreaming Stories: Developing a


Narrative:
NAP (2015) suggests that independent construction of a narrative involves the
following:

Students join together to develop a grid of story ideas. They will be able to do
this by accessing their prior knowledge from the building the field of
knowledge, modelling and joint construction activities.

Once the grid of story ideas is completed students will individually select their
own story lines, using the grid as an aid.

Students will then embark on planning by drawing pictures, painting or the use
of any other classroom resource to plan their story.

Once this is completed, the student will tell their story to a classmate.

With the classmates feedback the student will make a map relating to the
narrative theyre writing.

The student will draft and edit the finished narrative.

Once completed the student can display the narrative to an audience via
written narrative(NAP, 2015, p.14); oral narrative with power point(NAP,
2015, p. 14) or role play(NAP, 2015, p.14).

My Independent Construction Plan:


My Independent construction plan includes elements of both NAPs (2015) and
Derewiankas (1990) plans. I have also included suggestions made by Wheadon
(2015) in the topic workshops along with other resources to be mentioned below:
Weekly Plan:
Monday: Planning Story Grids:

Planning will involve the process of students getting out all their initial ideas
for their narrative. Figure 11 gives an example of how story ideas can be set
out. The Halloween Story Grid is one of many styles of narrative that can be
written.

Figure 11 focuses on setting (time and place) and Characters. I have adapted
my own version of this (see figure 12) to include a few more elements that
have been mentioned throughout my planning and some pictures to help year
ones with guidance.

Many story grids with a range of different stories will be displayed through
out the classroom in order for the children to refer to when drafting their own
stories.

Figure 11: Halloween story grid from Pinterest https://s-media-cacheak0.pinimg.com/236x/8b/0b/04/8b0b04c982ba46409882348a710a60c1.jpg


Halloween Story Grid:
Place:

Orientation: Complication/Problem
Once upon
a time there
lived a

Resolution:

Characters:

Monster

Once there
was a..
Haunted house

Dark Gloomy streets

The sky in daylight

Once upon a
time there
lived a boy
who was
scared of
monsters.
There once
lived a sad
and lonely
monster.

The boy woke the


monster up by accident
in the haunted house and
this made the monster
angry.

A good witch
cast a spell
taking the
monsters anger
away.

The monster was lonely


and was chasing the boy
for company but the boy
thought the monster
wanted to eat him.

On
Halloween a
boy decided
to go into the
haunted
house.

The monster thought the


boy wanted to tease him
like other children did,
he didnt realise that the
boy wanted to be
friends.

The good
Boy
witch
explained to
the boy that the
monster was
nice.
The good
Good witch
witch
explained to
the monster
that the boy
wanted to be
friends.

Figure 12: My Adaptation to the Halloween Story Grid


Tuesday and Wednesday: Drafting:

I have chosen to cover drafting within two days as the way I have planned it, it will be
a longer process. I believe it is too much to ask for year one students to take in and
put out in just one day. The drafting session will move in the following order, how
much is covered each day will be dependent on the individual students progress:

I will begin the drafting session by providing the students with a planning
template for the details of their story to be placed on. The template will be
almost identical to figure 12 but will be blank of details until the student has
filled out their own narrative details with pictures or written text.

Once the students have filled out their template I will encourage them to write
their first draft. The story will be hand written for drafting.

When students have completed composing their first draft, I will model
editing draft work for the students. As per Wheadons (2015) instructions, I
will have the students all sit down on the mat and display my own short
narrative on the white board. I will purposely make mistakes, such as missing
punctuation like full stops, exclamations or capital letters to start a sentence. I
will also neglect the inclusion of structural elements of the story such as the
title. I will prompt the students to point out my errors and tell me how to
correct them. All of these elements have been covered within modelling the
genre and joint construction so students should have the prior knowledge to
notice some of my errors.

Thursday: Editing and proof reading:

For the editing segment of the joint construction I will place students into pairs
and have them edit each others work.

When editing one anothers work I will ask the students to focus on a few
questions in order to improve the message of their story:

o Whats the piece about? (Hill, 2012, p. 340)


o How did you get started? (Hill, 2012, p. 340)
o What is your favourite part? (Hill, 2012, p. 340) and why?
o Does the story make sense when you read it aloud?

I will implement Wheadons (2015) proposal to use two stars and wish
(ESA, 2015) within the paired editing. Once students have read one anothers
story, they will reflect on their work by offering two positive aspects (ESA,
2015) and expressing a wish about what the peer might do next time in order
to improve another aspect of the work(ESA, 2015).

When the students receive their edited work back, I will ask them to proof
read their work on their own to make sure it all makes sense to them.

Once the peers have edited each others work, I will look at each piece of
work in my own time, correcting only major mistakes and ignoring others so
as not to over correct and cause the student to lose confidence in their writing.

Friday and Monday: Publishing:


For the final section, the publishing of the stories, I will have the students complete a
photo story/ voice over of their narrative (see figure 13). The students will already
have prior knowledge of this activity as it was planned in the building the field of
knowledge section. Hill (2014) explains that this is a multimodal option of learning
and also involves the use of technology within the literacy curriculum, which is
highly necessary in contemporary times.

Photo stories can also help students to Understand that texts can take many forms,
can be very short (for example an exit sign) or quite long (for example an information
book or a film) (Australian Curriculum, 2015):

The students use a voice over system that is connected to the photo story
program in the class computer (or a better option would be a computer lab so
they can do this all at once).

They will tell their personal narrative through the voice over.

The student then attaches pictures (which are available on the computer) that
align with the sequence of the story.

Once the photo stories have all been completed, I will organise a time to invite
the parents and families to come to view their childrens stories.

Figure 13: Hills example of a student creating a photo story. (Hill, 2012, p.
376)
Assessment:
I will be drawing from Blooms Taxonomy during the assessment of the students.
Blooms Taxonomy includes a table, which provides a list of cognitive skills that is
used by teachers to determine the level of thinking their students have achieved,
(Study.com, 2015). The list of cognitive skills that can be assessed are displayed
below in figure 14.

Figure 14: Blooms revised Taxonomy chart. From


http://study.com/academy/lesson/blooms-taxonomy-and-assessments.html
The chart in figure 14 reflects that the students should master each skill that
demonstrates lower order thinking before they move on to the more advanced skills
that demonstrate higher order thinking (Study.com, 2015). For example, educators
should be looking for students to be remembering a learning activity before they
understand it, then understanding the activity before they apply it themselves and so
on.

My three assessment outcomes will begin at the lower order thinking end;
remembering, understanding and applying. See the rubric below for more detail:

The students ability Still Developing


to remember the
photo story activity
from building the
field of knowledge to
publishing their work
Ability to
understand the
purpose of writing a
narrative and what it
is: Identify some
differences between
imaginative and
informative texts
(Australian
Curriculum, 2015)

Satisfactory

Competent

Highly Competent

Ability to apply the


prior knowledge on
narratives by creating
their own fully
structured narrative:
Create short texts to
explore, record and
report ideas and
events using familiar
words and beginning
writing knowledge
(Australian
Curriculum, 2015)

Figure 15: My Rubric Adapted from Blooms Taxonomy and the Australian
Curriculum.

Conclusion:
I believe that my curriculum cycle for writing a narrative will provide a rich learning
experience for young children who learning to write creative stories. This model of
the Derewianka curriculum cycle has provided ample information and extended upon
prior knowledge in order for students to create a narrative that makes meaning. As
Mantel (2008) reveals We cannot expect anyone to come up with imaginative
thoughts if they have never been given time and opportunity to feed their
imagination (Gleeson, 2007, p.22 in Mantel, 2008, p.22). Using the teaching learning
cycle as a guide for programming has enabled me to form a rich learning experience.


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