4T H EDITION
MATHS QUEST
HSC Mathematics
General 2
Contents
Introductionvi
About eBookPLUS viii
Acknowledgementsix
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 4
Exercise 4A 98
4B Comparison of scores 100
Exercise 4B 101
4C Distribution of scores 103
Exercise 4C 105
Exercise 1A 5
1B Flat rate interest 7
Exercise 1B 9
1C Loan repayments 11
Exercise 1C 14
1D Present value and future
value16
Exercise 1D 18
Summary20
Chapter review 21
ICT activities 24
Answers25
CHAPTER 2
Exercise 2A 31
2B Present value of an annuity 32
Exercise 2B 35
2C Loan repayments 36
Exercise 2C 38
2D Loan repayment graphs 40
Exercise 2D 40
Summary43
Chapter review 44
ICT activities 46
Answers47
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 5
Exercise 5A 116
5B Samples and means 118
Exercise 5B 118
5C Estimating populations 120
Exercise 5C 121
Exercise 3B 57
3C Analysis of data sets 59
Exercise 3C 65
3D Comparison of data sets 69
Exercise 3D 72
3E Skewness76
Exercise 3E 77
Summary81
Chapter review 82
ICT activities 88
Answers89
Summary123
Chapter review 124
ICT activities 126
Answers127
CHAPTER 6
Exercise 6A 131
6B Area of parts of the circle 133
Exercise 6B 134
6C Area of composite shapes 136
Exercise 6C 138
6D Simpsons rule 141
Exercise 6D 143
6E Surface area of some prisms 146
Exercise 3A 52
3B Measures of location and spread 54
Summary108
Chapter review 109
ICT activities 113
Answers114
Exercise 6E 147
6F Surface area of cylinders and spheres 149
Exercise 6F 151
6G Volume of pyramids, cones and spheres 153
Exercise 6G 155
6H Volume of composite solids 157
Exercise 6H 159
6I Error in measurement 163
Exercise 6I 164
Summary167
Chapter review 168
ICT activities 173
Answers174
CHAPTER 7
Exercise 7A 182
7B Using the sine rule to find side lengths 183
Exercise 7B 187
7C Using the sine rule to find angles 189
Exercise 7C 191
7D Using the cosine rule to find side lengths 193
Exercise 7D 196
7E Using the cosine rule to find angles 197
Exercise 7E 200
7F Area of a triangle 202
Exercise 7F 204
7G Bearings206
Exercise 7G 210
7H Radial surveys 213
Exercise 7H 216
Summary219
Chapter review 221
ICT activities 225
Answers226
CHAPTER 8
Exercise 8A 230
8B Great circles and small circles 233
Exercise 8B 234
8C Latitude and longitude 237
Exercise 8C 239
8D Distances on the Earths surface 240
Exercise 8D 242
8E Time zones 243
Exercise 8E 245
Summary248
Chapter review 249
ICT activities 253
Answers254
CHAPTER 9
Exercise 9A 260
9B Tree diagrams 261
Exercise 9B 263
9C Probability and counting techniques 265
Exercise 9C 266
9D Expected outcomes 268
Exercise 9D 269
Summary272
Chapter review 273
ICT activities 276
Answers277
iv Contents
CHAPTER 10
expressions279
Exercise 10A 280
10B The index laws 281
Exercise 10B 283
10C Expanding and simplifying 285
Exercise 10C 285
10D Solving equations 286
Exercise 10D 287
10E Equations and formulas 290
Exercise 10E 291
Summary294
Chapter review 295
ICT activities 297
Answers298
CHAPTER 11
Modelling linear
relationships301
11A Linear functions 301
Summary321
Chapter review 322
ICT activities 324
Answers325
CHAPTER 12
Modelling nonlinear
relationships329
12A Quadratic functions 329
functions334
Exercise 12B 336
12C Direct variation 337
Exercise 12C 340
12D Inverse variation 341
Exercise 12D 343
12E Graphing physical phenomena 345
Exercise 12E 347
Summary350
Chapter review 351
ICT activities 354
Answers355
CHAPTER 13
Mathematics and
health361
Body measurements 361
13A Drawing scatterplots 361
Exercise 13A 366
13B Correlation370
Exercise 13B 374
13C Fitting a regression line 377
Exercise 13C 379
Medication382
13D Units of measurement 382
Exercise 13D 383
13E Dosage rate 384
Exercise 13E 385
Life expectancy 386
13F Life expectancy 386
Exercise 13F 387
Summary391
Chapter review 393
ICT activities 396
Answers397
Summary426
Chapter review 427
ICT activities 430
Answers431
Glossary435
Index437
Contents v
Introduction
Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2 Fourth Edition is specifically designed for the Mathematics
General Stage 6 Syllabus 2012.
There are five strands and two Focus studies:
Strand: Financial Mathematics
Strand: Data and Statistics
Strand: Measurement
Strand: Probability
Strand: Algebra and Modelling
Focus study: Mathematics and Health
Focus study: Mathematics and Resources
There is a suite of resources available:
a student textbook with accompanying eBookPLUS
a teacher edition named eGuidePLUS
flexisaver versions of all print products
a Solutions Manual containing fully worked solutions to every question.
Student textbook
Full colour is used throughout to produce clearer graphs and diagrams, to
provide bright, stimulating photos and to make navigation through the text
easier.
MATHS QUEST
HSC Mathematics
General 2
4TH E D ITION
ROBERT ROWLAND
Tutorial icons link to tutorials that provide students with a stepbystep guide through selected worked
examples.
Test yourself tests are also available and answers are provided for students to receive instant feedback.
MATHS QUEST
HSC Mathematics
General 2
SOLUTIONS MANUAL
NILGN SAFAK
4TH E D ITION
LEE TOLL
Introduction vii
About eBookPLUS
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Acknowledgements ix
x Acknowledgements
Chapter 1
1A
Credit cards
Credit cards are the most common line of daytoday credit that most people use. A credit card works as
a preapproved loan up to an amount agreed upon by the customer and the bank. The card can then be
used until the amount of the debt reaches this limit.
As with other types of loan, the bank charges interest upon the amount that is owed on the card, and
repayments must be made monthly. The way in which the interest is calculated varies with different
types of credit cards.
Some cards have interest charged from the day on which the purchase was made. Others have what is
called an interestfree period. This means that a purchase that is made will appear on the next monthly
statement. Provided that this amount is paid by the due date, no interest is charged. Hence, the customer
can repay the loan within a maximum of 55 days and be charged no interest.
Generally, credit cards without an interestfree period have a lower interest rate than those with an
interestfree period. These cards, however, generally attract an annual fee. This annual fee can in some
cases be waived if a certain amount is spent on the card over the year.
The minimum monthly repayment on most credit cards is 5% of the outstanding balance, or $10,
whichever is greater.
Annual rates
The annual percentage rates for some standard credit cards are:
16.90% for MasterCard/Visa (up to 55 interestfree days with an annual fee)
15.25% for MasterCard/Visa (no interestfree days with no annual fee).
Minimum payments
For the examples and exercises in this chapter, minimum credit card account payments are calculated as
follows.
Note: If the closing balance is greater than the credit limit of the card, then the minimum payment must
also include the excess of the balance over the credit limit.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Tutorial
int0900
Worked example 1
Find the minimum payment due for each of the following balances using the information
supplied previously.
a $23.40
b $1836.25
c $280.10
d $1960 with the credit limit being $1900
THINK
WRITE
be paid in full.
1.5
1836.25
100
= $27.54
2
1.5
1960
100
= 29.40
= 29
d 1.5% of $1960 =
To calculate the interest on a credit card the simple interest formula is used.
I = Prn
where P = initial quantity (Principal)
r = interest rate per period expressed as a decimal
n = number of interest periods.
Credit cards, as with most loans, have interest calculated more frequently than annually. In the following
examples you will see that interest is calculated at least monthly but often daily.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
The outstanding balance on a credit card is $2563.75. If the full balance is not paid by the due
date, one months interest will be added at a rate of 18% p.a. Calculate the amount of interest
that will be added to the credit card.
THINK
WRITE
I = Prn
1
= $2563.75 0.18 12
= $38.46
In practice, most credit cards calculate interest on the outstanding balance at a daily rate and then add
the interest monthly. If a credit card advertises its interest rate as 18% p.a., the daily rate is 0.049315%.
2 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Credit
Debit
Tutorial
int2410
Worked example 3
Balance
$900
$500
$850
$990
$400 repayment
$350 purchase
$140 purchase
??? interest
Calculate the interest that will be due for the month of June given that there is no interestfree
period.
THINK
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
1
I = 0.041096% of $900 9
= $3.33
I = 0.041096% of $500 5
= $1.03
I = 0.041096% of $850 7
= $2.45
I = 0.041096% of $990 9
= $3.66
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Interest = $3.33
Interest = $1.03
Interest = $2.45
Interest = $3.66
Total interest
= $3.33 + $1.03 + $2.45 + $3.66
= $10.47
When deciding which credit card is most suitable for your needs, consider if you will generally be able
to pay most items off before the interestfree period expires. The total cost in interest over a year will
vary according to the repayment pattern.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Kerry pays a $1200 bill for her council rates on her credit card. Kerry has a credit card
with aninterestfree period and interest is then charged on the outstanding balance at a rate
of18%p.a.
ai Kerry pays $600 by the due date. What is the outstanding balance on the card?
ii Calculate the interest Kerry must then pay for the second month.
bi
An alternative credit card charges 12% p.a. interest with no interestfree period. Calculate
the interest that Kerry would have been charged on the first month.
ii
Calculate the balance owing after Kerry pays $600 then calculate the interest for the second
month.
c Which credit card would be the cheapest to use for this bill?
THINK
WRITE
= $600
ii I = Prn
= $600 0.18 12
= $9.00
b i I = Prn
1
= $1200 0.12 12
= $12.00
= $612
I = Prn
1
= $612 0.12 12
= $6.12
Exercise 1A
Credit cards
Credit ($)
Debit ($)
Balance ($)
256.40
40 purchase
40 repayment
??? interest
a Complete the balance column. Calculate the balance owing on 10 July and 20 July.
b Calculate the interest due on 1 August and the balance on that date.
Chapter 1 Credit and borrowing 5
Credit ($)
Debit ($)
Balance ($)
1548.50
500 repayment
399 purchase
??? interest
??? repayment
??? interest
Calculate the daily rate of interest, correct to 4 decimal places (take 1 year = 365.25 days).
Calculate the interest added to the account on 1 February.
On 8 February the minimum repayment of 5% is made. Calculate the amount of this repayment.
Calculate the outstanding balance on the account on 1 March.
9 WE4 Kai has two credit cards. One has an interestfree period and interest is then charged on the
outstanding balance at a rate of 18% p.a. The other has no interestfree period with interest added from
the date of purchase at a rate of 14% p.a. Kai has $1500 worth of bills to pay in the coming month and
intends to use one of the cards to pay them, then pay the balance off in monthly instalments of $500.
a If Kai uses the card with the interestfree period and pays $500 by the due date, what is the
outstanding balance on the card?
b Calculate the interest Kai must then pay for the second month.
c Calculate the balance owing at the end of the second month and the balance owing at the end
ofthe third month, at which time Kai pays off the entire balance.
d Calculate the interest payable in the first month if Kai uses the card without the interestfree period.
e Calculate the balance owing after Kai pays $500 then calculate the interest for the second
month.
f Calculate the balance owing at the end of the second month and the balance owing at the end
ofthe third month, at which time Kai pays off the entire balance.
g Which card should Kai use for these bills?
Further development
10 A credit card has a minimum monthly repayment of the greater of $10 or 2.5% of the outstanding
balance. Calculate the largest outstanding balance for which the minimum monthly repayment
wouldbe $10.
11 Dan and Paul each have a credit card that charges interest at 18% p.a. calculated daily.
a Dan makes a $1000 purchase on 5 July. His credit card does not begin to charge interest until
the beginning of the month following the purchase. Calculate the interest that appears on Dans
statement at the end of July.
b Pauls credit card charges interest from the date of purchase. How much more interest must Paul
pay on the same purchase on the same date?
12 Mark has an outstanding balance of $1425 on his credit card. Mark is charged $6.83 for 10 days on
free period on her credit card and as such she will not have to pay interest until 1September.
Theinterest rate on the card is 21% p.a., and Kylie will make a $400 repayment on 1 September.
a Calculate the interest that will be charged in September.
b Kylie receives an offer from a rival credit card offering her an interest rate of 12% p.a. interest but
no interestfree period. Should Kylie accept the offer and transfer the balance of her current credit
card to the new card?
Digital doc
Investigation
doc2746
Researching credit
cards
14 Rob has an average credit card balance of $1000 and the choice of two credit cards. Each month Rob
1B
Flat rate interest is the borrowing equivalent of simple interest. Flat rate interest applies to many small
loans and hire purchase agreements.
When money is borrowed from a lending institution such as a bank at a flat rate of interest, the total
amount of interest is calculated as a percentage of the initial amount borrowed and then this is multiplied by
the term of the loan. The term of the loan is the length of time over which the loan is agreed to be repaid, n.
As we have just seen, the formula for calculating the amount of flat interest to be paid on a loan is the
same formula as for simple interest (I):
I = Prn
where P = initial quantity
r = percentage interest rate per period expressed as a decimal
n = number of periods.
interactivities
int0745
Effects of P, r, I
and t
int2770
Simple interest
As you work through the financial mathematics strand there are several formulas that use the same
pronumerals.
While the initial quantity (P) will be the principal in an investing scenario, it will represent the
amountborrowed in a loan situation.
All of these formulas use the same pronumerals and all of them require r to be expressed as a
decimal. It should be part of your normal practice when doing such questions to convert the interestrate,
expressed as a percentage, to a decimal. In simple or flat rate interest, r will always be a rate per annum
or per year and there will be no variation on this regardless of how often interest ispaid.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Calculate the flat interest to be paid on a loan of $20000 at 7.5% p.a. if the loan is to be repaid
over 5 years.
THINK
WRITE
r = 7.5 100
= 0.075
I = Prn
= $20000 0.075 5
Calculate.
= $7500
Once the interest has been calculated, we can calculate the total amount that must be repaid in a loan.
This is calculated by adding the principal and the interest.
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
THINK
WRITE
r = 9 100
= 0.09
I = Prn
= $8000 0.09 4
= $2880
Most loans are repaid on a monthly basis. Once the total amount to be repaid has been calculated, this
can be divided into equal monthly, fortnightly or weekly instalments.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Tutorial
int2408
Worked example 7
THINK
WRITE
amount borrowed.
c
= $300
= $2700
c I = Prn
= $2700 0.08 3
= $648
= $3348
= $93.00
If given the amount to be repaid each month, we can calculate the interest rate. The interest on the loan
is the difference between the total repaid and the amount borrowed. This is then calculated as a yearly
amount and written as a percentage of the amount borrowed.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
Theresa borrows $12000 to buy a car. This is to be repaid over 5 years at $320 per month.
Calculate the flat rate of interest that Theresa has been charged.
THINK
1
WRITE
Exercise 1B
1 WE5 Calculate the amount of flat rate interest paid on each of the following loans.
a $5000 at 7% p.a. for 2 years
b $8000 at 5% p.a. for 3 years
c $15000 at 10% p.a. for 5 years
d $9500 at 7.5% p.a. for 4 years
e $2500 at 10.4% p.a. for 18 months
2 Roula buys a used car that has a cash price of $7500. She has saved a deposit of $2000 and borrows
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 1.1
doc1284
Converting a
percentage to a
decimal
the balance at 9.6% p.a. flat rate to be repaid over 3 years. Calculate the amount of interest that
Roula must pay.
3 WE6 Ben borrows $4000 for a holiday. The loan is to be repaid over 2 years at 12.5% p.a. flat rate
lounge on the following terms: 30% deposit with the balance to be repaid at 9% p.a. flat interest over
2 years. Calculate:
a the deposit
b the balance owing
c the interest to be paid
d the total amount that they pay for the lounge.
6 WE7 Yasmin borrows $5000 from a credit union at a flat interest rate of 8% p.a. to be repaid over
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 1.2
doc1285
Finding a
percentage of a
quantity (money)
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 1.3
doc1286
Calculating simple
interest
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1287
Simple interest
7 Ian borrows $2000 from a pawnbroker at 40% p.a. interest. The loan is to be paid over 1 year in
$8000. They buy the system on the following terms: 25% deposit with the balance repaid over
3years at 12% p.a. flat interest in equal monthly instalments. Calculate:
a the deposit
b the balance owing
c the interest on the loan
d the total repayments
e the amount of each monthly repayment.
Digital doc
GC program
Casio
doc1288
Interest
Digital doc
GC program TI
doc1289
Interest
9 Sam buys an electric guitar with a cash price of $1200. He buys the
$110 per month. Calculate the flat rate of interest that Andy has been
charged.
13 Sandra buys a used car with a cash price of $12000 on the
Further development
15 Lennie and his sister are in a band. Lennie borrowed money to buy a new guitar and his sister, Lisa,
16 James borrowed $2500 to buy a new laptop computer. He repaid a total of $2725. The flat interest rate
charged was 4.5% p.a. charged monthly. Calculate the length of time that it took James to repay the loan.
17 MC A loan of $1000 is taken over 5 years. The simple interest is calculated monthly. The
totalamount repaid for this loan is $1800. The simple interest rate per year on this loan is closest to:
A 8.9%
B 16%
C 36%
D 5%
18 MC Emily borrowed $5000 with the intention of repaying it in 3 years. The terms of the loan
indicated that Emily was to pay 9% p.a. interest. The interest Emily paid on the loan was:
A $446.25
B $1350
C $121.88
D $1211.88
19 Ange and Jack decide to borrow money to improve their boat but cannot agree which loan is the
better value. They would like to borrow $2550. Ange goes to the Big Bank and finds that they will
lend her the money at 11.33% p.a. simple interest for 3 years. Jack finds that the Friendly Building
Society will lend the $2550 to them at 1% per month simple interest for the 3 years.
a Which institution offers the best rates over the 3 years?
b Explain why.
20 Michael borrows $40000 to buy a car. He is repaying the loan at 9% p.a. flat rate interest over
5years. One year into paying off the loan Michael wins $10000 in the lottery. Should Michael invest
the money or use the $10000 to pay off part of his loan?
1C
Loan repayments
When money is borrowed from a financial institution such as a bank, interest is charged.
A reducing balance loan is one where the interest is added monthly and repayments are made
monthly. Each month the balance owing on the loan is lower than the previous month and hence the
amount of interest owing each month is less.
Consider the case of a $2000 loan that is repaid at 15% p.a. (1.25% per month) over 1 year with equal
monthly repayments of $180.52.
The table below shows the interest and the balance remaining on the loan at the end of each month.
Atthe end of the 12 months the loan has a balance of $0.
Month
Opening balance
Interest
Closing balance
$2000.00
$25.00
$1844.48
$1844.48
$23.06
$1687.02
$1687.02
$21.09
$1527.59
$1527.59
$19.09
$1366.17
$1366.17
$17.08
$1202.73
$1202.73
$15.03
$1037.25
$1037.25
$12.97
$869.70
$869.70
$10.87
$700.05
$700.05
$8.75
$528.29
10
$528.29
$6.60
$354.37
11
$354.37
$4.43
$178.29
12
$178.29
$2.23
$0.00
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 1.1
doc11019
interactivity
int0194
Reducing balance
depreciation
Home loans
Home loans usually operate over a long period of time.
Consider a home loan of $250000 at 9% p.a. reducible interest. The monthly repayment on this loan
is $2500 per month. The interest rate of 9% p.a. converts to 0.75% per month.
First months interest =
=
Balancing owing =
=
In the second month the interest is calculated on the balance owing at the end of the first month.
Second months interest = 0.75% of $249 375
= $1870.31
Balancing owing = $249 375 + $1870.31$2500
= $248 745.31
The progress of this loan can be followed in the following computer application.
Computer Application 1
The actual calculation of the amount to be repaid each month to pay off the loan plus interest in the
given period of time is beyond this course. The most practical way to find the amount of each monthly
repayment is to use a table of repayments.
The progress of this loan can be followed in the following computer application.
Access the spreadsheet Home Loan from the Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2 eBookPLUS.
This spreadsheet will allow you to follow the progress of a home loan as it is paid off.
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
Mr and Mrs Grimes take out a $500000 home loan at 8% p.a. reducible interest over 25 years.
Interest is calculated and added on the first of each month. They make a payment of $3875 each
month. Calculate:
a the interest added after one month
b the balance owing after one month.
THINK
WRITE
subtractthe repayment.
2
= $499458.33
The table below shows the monthly repayment on a $1000 loan at various interest rates over various
terms. To calculate the repayment on a loan, we simply multiply the repay ment on $1000 by the number
of thousands of dollars of the loan.
Monthly repayment per $1000 borrowed
Year
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
5%
$85.61
$43.87
$29.97
$23.03
$18.87
$16.10
$14.13
$12.66
$11.52
$10.61
$9.86
$9.25
$8.73
$8.29
$7.91
$7.58
$7.29
$7.03
$6.80
$6.60
$6.42
$6.25
$6.10
$5.97
$5.85
6%
$86.07
$44.32
$30.42
$23.49
$19.33
$16.57
$14.61
$13.14
$12.01
$11.10
$10.37
$9.76
$9.25
$8.81
$8.44
$8.11
$7.83
$7.58
$7.36
$7.16
$6.99
$6.83
$6.69
$6.56
$6.44
7%
$86.53
$44.77
$30.88
$23.95
$19.80
$17.05
$15.09
$13.63
$12.51
$11.61
$10.88
$10.28
$9.78
$9.35
$8.99
$8.67
$8.40
$8.16
$7.94
$7.75
$7.58
$7.43
$7.30
$7.18
$7.07
8%
$86.99
$45.23
$31.34
$24.41
$20.28
$17.53
$15.59
$14.14
$13.02
$12.13
$11.42
$10.82
$10.33
$9.91
$9.56
$9.25
$8.98
$8.75
$8.55
$8.36
$8.20
$8.06
$7.93
$7.82
$7.72
Interest rate
9%
10%
11%
$87.45 $87.92 $88.38
$45.68 $46.14 $46.61
$31.80 $32.27 $32.74
$24.89 $25.36 $25.85
$20.76 $21.25 $21.74
$18.03 $18.53 $19.03
$16.09 $16.60 $17.12
$14.65 $15.17 $15.71
$13.54 $14.08 $14.63
$12.67 $13.22 $13.78
$11.96 $12.52 $13.09
$11.38 $11.95 $12.54
$10.90 $11.48 $12.08
$10.49 $11.08 $11.69
$10.14 $10.75 $11.37
$9.85 $10.46 $11.09
$9.59 $10.21 $10.85
$9.36 $10.00 $10.65
$9.17 $9.81 $10.47
$9.00 $9.65 $10.32
$8.85 $9.51 $10.19
$8.71 $9.38 $10.07
$8.59 $9.27 $9.97
$8.49 $9.17 $9.88
$8.39 $9.09 $9.80
12%
$88.85
$47.07
$33.21
$26.33
$22.24
$19.55
$17.65
$16.25
$15.18
$14.35
$13.68
$13.13
$12.69
$12.31
$12.00
$11.74
$11.51
$11.32
$11.15
$11.01
$10.89
$10.78
$10.69
$10.60
$10.53
13%
$89.32
$47.54
$33.69
$26.83
$22.75
$20.07
$18.19
$16.81
$15.75
$14.93
$14.28
$13.75
$13.31
$12.95
$12.65
$12.40
$12.19
$12.00
$11.85
$11.72
$11.60
$11.50
$11.42
$11.34
$11.28
14%
$89.79
$48.01
$34.18
$27.33
$23.27
$20.61
$18.74
$17.37
$16.33
$15.53
$14.89
$14.37
$13.95
$13.60
$13.32
$13.08
$12.87
$12.70
$12.56
$12.44
$12.33
$12.24
$12.16
$12.10
$12.04
15%
$90.26
$48.49
$34.67
$27.83
$23.79
$21.15
$19.30
$17.95
$16.92
$16.13
$15.51
$15.01
$14.60
$14.27
$14.00
$13.77
$13.58
$13.42
$13.28
$13.17
$13.07
$12.99
$12.92
$12.86
$12.81
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Calculate the monthly repayment on a loan of $85000 at 11% p.a. over a 25year term.
THINK
WRITE
This table can also be used to make calculations such as the effect that interest rate rises will have on a
home loan.
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
The Radley family borrow $360000 for a home at 8% p.a. over a 20year term. They repay
the loan at $3009.60 per month. If the interest rate rises to 9%, will they need to increase their
repayment and, if so, by how much?
THINK
WRITE
If this amount is greater than $3009.60, state the The Radley family will need to increase their
amount by which the repayment needs to rise.
monthly repayments by $230.40.
Exercise 1C
Loan repayments
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 1.5
doc1293
Calculating
compound interest
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 1.6
doc11020
Reading tables
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1299
Reducing balance
loans
Todetermine this, the bank has a rule that the maximum monthly repayment a customer can afford
is 25% of his or her gross monthly pay. Darren applies to the bank for a loan of $62000 at 12% p.a.
over 15 years. Darren has a gross annual salary of $36000. Will Darrens loan be approved? Use
calculations to justify your answer.
9 Tracey and Barry have a combined gross income of $84000.
a Calculate Tracey and Barrys gross monthly income.
b Using the rule applied in the previous question, what is the maximum monthly repayment on a
muchwill they need to increase the monthly repayment to pay the loan off in
15 years?
11 Mr and Mrs Bath borrow $375000 at 8% p.a. reducible over a 25year term, with repayments to be
made monthly.
a Calculate the amount of each monthly repayment.
b Calculate the total amount that Mr and Mrs Bath will repay over the term of the loan.
c What is the total amount of interest that Mr and Mrs Bath will pay on the loan?
d Calculate the average amount of interest that Mr and Mrs Bath will pay each year.
e Calculate the equivalent flat rate of interest by expressing your answer to part d as a percentage of
the amount borrowed.
12 A loan of $240000 is taken out over a 25year term at an interest rate of 7% p.a. reducible.
a Calculate the amount of each monthly repayment.
b Calculate the total repayments made on the loan.
c Calculate the amount of interest paid on the loan.
d Find the equivalent flat rate of interest.
e By following steps a to d above calculate the equivalent flat rate of interest if the term of the
loanis:
i 20 years
ii 15 years.
Chapter 1 Credit and borrowing 15
Further development
13 The average home loan in Australia at present is approximately $300000.
a Use the table of monthly home loan repayments to calculate the monthly repayment on a loan of
of a $400000 loan taken out over 25 years if interest rates are increased from 8% p.a. to9% p.a.
15 At a time when interest rates are 7% p.a. Chloe applies for a loan. To ensure that customers can cope
with higher rates the bank will only allow borrowers to borrow an amount where the repaymentis 13
of the borrowers gross monthly income if interest rates were 2% higher than their current level.
a Chloe earns $72000 per year. What is the maximum repayment that Chloe can afford
eachmonth?
b If interest rates were 2% higher, what would be the maximum amount that Chloe could borrow
over a 25year term (in thousands)?
16 Use the table on page 13 to estimate the monthly repayment on the average $300000 loan over
c 7.5% p.a.
d 7.25 p.a.
maintains her current repayment with the intention of paying the loan off quicker. Use the table
toestimate the number of years by which the loan will be shortened.
c Estimate the amount that will be saved on this loan.
18 Marcus borrows $300000 at an interest rate of 8% p.a. over a 20year period.
a Use the table of monthly home loan repayments to calculate the amount of each monthly repayment.
b Calculate the total amount to be repaid over the period of the loan.
c Marcus receives a lump sum payment of $20000 and uses it to reduce the amount of his loan.
Marcus hopes this will shorten his loan by two years if he maintains the current repayment.
Determine if Marcus will achieve this goal.
1D
In the Preliminary Course you learned about compound interest. The compound interest formula is:
interactivities
int0810
Compound interest
int2791
Compound interest
A = P(1 + r) n
where A = final amount,
P = initial amount (or principal),
r = interest rate per period expressed as a decimal
n = number of compounding periods.
In the financial world the initial amount P is called the present value, PV and the final amount A is
called the future value, FV. As such, the compound interest formula can be written as:
FV = PV(1 + r) n
Consider the case of $2000 invested today for 3 years at 8% p.a. with interest compounded annually.
FV = PV(1 + r) n
= $2000(1.08) 3
= $2519.42
This investment has a present value of $2000 as this is the value at the present time, the beginning of
the investment.
The future value of the investment is $2519.42 as this is what the investment will be worth at the end
of the investment period.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Rick has an investment with a present value of $5000. The terms of the investment are 5 years
with an interest rate of 6.5% p.a. with interest compounded annually. Calculate the future value
of Ricks investment.
THINK
WRITE
FV = PV(1 + r) n
PV = $5000, r = 0.065, n = 5
FV = 5000(1.065)5
= $6850.43
Michonne has $3000 to invest. She plans to invest this money for 4 years at an interest rateof
6.4%p.a. with interest compounded quarterly. Calculate the future value of Michonnes investment.
THINK
WRITE
FV = PV(1 + r) n
PV = $3000, r = 0.064 4, n = 4 4
= 0.016
= 16
FV = 3000(1.016)16
= $3867.41
Rearranging this formula will allow you to calculate the present value of an investment required to
generate a predetermined future value. That is, the amount that needs to be invested now if you want a
certain amount of money at the end of the given period of time.
Given that FV = PV(1 + r) n, making PV the subject of the formula gives
FV
.
PV =
(1 + r) n
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Herchelle wants a holiday in 2 years time that will cost $10000. Given that he can invest his
money at 7.4% p.a. with interest compounded six monthly, calculate the amount that Herchelle
needs to invest so that he will have $10000 at the end of the investment.
THINK
WRITE
FV
(1 + r) n
PV =
FV = $10000, r = 0.074 2, n = 2 2
= 0.037= 4
PV =
10000
(1.037) 4
= $8647.39
Exercise 1D
interactivity
int2400
Simple and
compound interest
1 WE12 Daryl has $2000 to invest. He invests the money at 6% p.a. for 6 years with interest
annually.
a Use the formula FV = PV(1+ r)n to calculate the amount to which this investment
will grow.
b Calculate the compound interest earned on the investment.
3 Use the formula FV = PV(1+ r)n to calculate the amount to which each investment will grow with
4 WE13 Calculate the future value of an investment of $14000 at 7% p.a. for 3 years with interest
compounded quarterly.
5 A passbook savings account pays interest of 0.3% p.a. Jill has $600 in such an account. Calculate the
compounding monthly.
a Convert the interest rate of 7% p.a. to a rate per month.
b Calculate the future value of the investment.
8 Calculate the compounded value of each of the following investments.
a $870 for 2 years at 3.50% p.a. with interest compounded sixmonthly
b $9500 for 2 years at 4.6% p.a. with interest compounded quarterly
c $148000 for 3 years at 9.2% p.a. with interest compounded sixmonthly
d $16000 for 6 years at 8% p.a. with interest compounded monthly
e $130000 for 25 years at 12.95% p.a. with interest compounded quarterly.
9 MC A sum of $7000 is invested for 3 years at the rate of 5.75% p.a., compounded quarterly.
D $8308
10 MC After selling their house, Mr and Mrs Fernhill have $73600. They plan to invest it at 7% p.a.
with interest compounded annually. The future value of their investment will first exceed $110000
after:
A 5 years
B 6 years
C 8 years
D 10 years
11 MC Maureen wishes to invest $15000 for a period of 7 years. The following investment alternatives
Further development
13 Daniel has $15500 to invest. An investment over a 2year term will pay interest of 7% p.a.
a Calculate the compounded value of Daniels investment if the compounding period is:
i 1 year ii 6 months
iii 3 months
iv monthly.
b Explain why it is advantageous to have interest compounded on a more frequent basis.
18 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
14 Jake invests $120000 at 9% p.a. for a 1year term. For such large investments interest is
compounded daily.
a Calculate the daily percentage interest rate, correct to 4 decimal places. Use 1 year = 365 days.
b Calculate the future value of Jakes investment on maturity.
c Calculate the amount of interest paid on this investment.
d Calculate the extra amount of interest earned compared with the case where the interest is
calculated only at the end of the year.
15 Lori invests $6000 for 4 years at 8% p.a. simple interest. Shane also invests $6000 for 4 years, but
his interest rate is 7.6% p.a. with interest compounded quarterly.
a Calculate the future value of Loris investment.
b Show that the future value of Shanes investment is greater than Loris investment.
c Explain why Shanes investment is worth more than Loris investment despite receiving a lower
rate of interest.
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 1.2
doc11021
Summary
Credit cards
A credit card is a preapproved loan up to a certain amount called the credit limit.
There are many kinds of credit cards and the most important difference is that some cards have an
interestfree period while others attract interest from the date of making a purchase.
Credit cards without an interestfree period generally have a lower rate of interest than those with
an interestfree period.
Each credit card will have a monthly statement and will require a minimum payment each month.
When evaluating the best credit card for your circumstances, you need to consider if you will be
able to pay most bills by the due date and consider any fees attached to the card.
A flat rate loan is one where interest is calculated based on the amount initially borrowed.
Flat rate loans have the interest calculated using the simple interest formula:
I = Prn
The total repayments on a flat rate loan are calculated by adding the interest to the amount
borrowed.
The monthly or weekly repayments on a flat rate loan are calculated by dividing the total
repayments by the number of weeks or months in the term of the loan.
Loan repayments
The interest on home loans is calculated at a reducible rate. This means that the interest is
calculated on the outstanding balance at the time and not on the initial amount borrowed.
The interest on home loans is usually calculated and added monthly while repayments are
calculated on a monthly basis.
To calculate the total cost of a home loan, we multiply the amount of each monthly payment by the
number of payments.
The amount of each monthly repayment is best calculated using a table of monthly repayments.
The monthly repayment on a $1000 loan at the given rate over the given term is multiplied by the
number of thousands of dollars in the loan to find the size of each repayment.
The present value of an investment is the amount that is invested at the beginning of the term.
The future value of a compound interest investment is the value the investment will have at the end
of the term.
The compound interest formula can be written as FV = PV(1 + r)n where
FV = future value
PV = present value
r = interest rate per period expressed as a decimal
n = number of interest periods.
Interest rates are usually expressed as a percentage per annum, however if interest is calculated
more frequently than annually the values of r and n need to be adjusted accordingly.
Chapter review
1 The total repayments for a $3400 loan on a flat rate interest of 8.5% p.a. over a 3year period are:
A $867
B $942.78
C $4267
D 4342.78
M U LT IP L E
C H O IC E
2 A $115000 loan is repaid over a 25year term at the rate of $1211.21 per month. The total amount of
B $145280.25
D $363363.00
3 A $150000 loan is to be taken out. Which of the following loans will have the lowest total cost?
A
B
C
D
Term
9%
10
15
20
25
$12.67
$10.14
$9.00
$8.39
$13.78
$11.37
$10.32
$9.80
12%
$14.35
$12.00
$11.01
$10.53
Daniel has an $80000 mortgage at 10% p.a. over 10 years. After interest rates rise to 12% Daniel
extends the term of his loan to 15 years. What is the change in Daniels monthly repayments?
A They increase by $1.13 per month.
B They decrease by $1.22 per month.
C They increase by $90.40 per month.
D They decrease by $97.60 per month.
1 Stephanie has a credit card with an outstanding balance of $423. Calculate the minimum payment to
S ho rt
a nsw er
2 Lorenzo has a credit card with an outstanding balance of $850. If the interest rate is 24% p.a.,
calculate the amount of interest that Lorenzo will be charged if the balance is not paid by the due
date.
3 Jessica pays for her car repairs, which total $256.50, using her credit card. The credit card has an
interest rate of 15% p.a. and interest is charged daily from the date of purchase. Calculate the amount
of interest charged after one month on this card.
4 Study the extract from the credit card statement below.
Credit ($)
Debit ($)
Balance ($)
2584.75
600 repayment
39.99 purchase
??? interest
??? repayment
425.85 purchase
??? interest
a Calculate the daily rate of interest. (Take 1 year = 365.25 days and answer correct to 4 decimal
places.)
c If the minimum monthly payment of 5% of the outstanding balance from January is made on
over 3 years.
7 Noel borrows $5600 at 7.6% p.a. flat rate interest to be repaid in monthly instalments over 3 years.
10 Mr and Mrs Buckley borrow $130000 to purchase a home. The interest rate is 8% p.a. and over a
Principal ($)
130000.00
129779.29
Interest ($)
866.67
Balance ($)
129779.29
b Mr and Mrs Buckley decide to increase their monthly payment to $1500. Complete the table
below.
Month
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Principal ($)
130000.00
129366.67
Interest ($)
866.67
Balance ($)
129366.67
c How much less do Mr and Mrs Buckley owe at the end of one year by increasing their monthly
repayment?
11 Use the table of repayments on page 13 to calculate the monthly repayment on each of the
followingloans.
a $25000 at 9% p.a. over a 10year term
b $45000 at 14% p.a. over a 15year term
c $164750 at 15% p.a. over a 25year term
d $425000 at 12% p.a. over a 15year term
12 Mr and Mrs Rowe take out a $233000 home loan at 12% p.a. over a 25year term.
a Use the table of repayments to calculate the amount of each monthly repayment.
b After 3 years the balance on the loan has been reduced to $227657. The interest rate then rises
to13% p.a. Calculate the new monthly repayment required to complete the loan within the
existing term.
13 Daniela is to invest $16000 for 2 years at 9% p.a. with interest compounded annually.
a Calculate the future value of this investment.
b Calculate the amount of interest that Daniela earned.
14 Natasha invests $7000 at 6% p.a. for 4 years with interest compounded six monthly. Calculate the
weekly instalments at 13% p.a. flat rate interest over a period of 4 years.
a Calculate the balance owing after David has paid the deposit.
b Calculate the total repayments that David must make on this loan.
c Calculate the amount of each weekly instalment.
(1 + r) n 1
d Use the formula E =
to calculate the equivalent reducible interest rate on this loan.
n
2 Mr and Mrs Tarrant borrow $186500 to purchase a home. The interest rate is 9% p.a. and the loan is
over a 20year term.
a Use the table below to calculate the amount of each monthly repayment.
Term
9%
10
15
20
25
$12.67
$10.14
$9.00
$8.39
$13.78
$11.37
$10.32
$9.80
Ex tended
R es p ons e
12%
$14.35
$12.00
$11.01
$10.53
b Calculate the total amount that they can expect to make in repayments.
c After 10 years the outstanding balance is $132463 and the interest rate is increased to 11%.
Calculate the amount of the monthly repayment they will need to make to complete the loan
within the term.
d The loan has a $5 per month account management fee. The Tarrants also had a $400 loan
application fee and $132.75 in stamp duty to pay in establishing the loan. Calculate the total cost
of the loan after 20 years.
3 Paul has a credit card that has an interestfree period. The interest rate is 21% p.a.
a If Paul has an outstanding balance of $275.50, calculate the minimum payment he must make by
month.
c Calculate the interest that Paul will be charged on his next months statement.
d If Paul pays the whole balance off next month, is this card cheaper than a card without an interest
Digital doc
Test Yourself
doc11022
Chapter 1
free period but an interest rate of 15% p.a.? Use calculations to justify your answer.
Chapter 1 Credit and borrowing 23
ICT activities
1A Credit cards
1CLoan repayments
Tutorial
WE1 int0900: Evaluate credit card repayments. (page 2)
WE3 int2410: Calculate interest payments from a credit card
statement. (page 3)
interactivity
int0914: Reducing balance depreciation. (page 11)
Digital docs
Investigation (doc2746): Researching credit cards. (page 6)
Digital docs
Spreadsheet (doc1291): Home loan. (page 12)
SkillSHEET 1.4 (doc1292): Finding values of n and r financial
formulas. (page 14)
SkillSHEET 1.5 (doc1293): Calculating compound interest. (page 14)
SkillSHEET 1.6 (doc11020): Reading tables. (page 14)
Spreadsheet (doc1299): Reducing balance loans. (page 15)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself (doc11022): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 23)
Answers chapter 1
Credit and borrowing
Exercise 1A
Credit cards
1
3
10 B
11 C
12 C
13 a i $17745.95
ii $17786.61
iii $17807.67
iv $17821.99
b The more frequently the interest is paid
charges 12%.
1 $40.95
20 It would be to Michaels financial
2 a $52.50
b $25.00
advantage to invest his winnings. As the
c $25.00 d
$25.00
loan is a flat rate loan, making a lump
e $138.08
sum payment will not reduce the amount
3 27.75
of interest that he must pay. If Michael
4 $18.13
the interest itself earns more interest.
invests, he will earn some interest, which
5 a $1800
b $31.50
14 a 0.0247%
would be to his financial advantage.
c $1831.50
d $1863.55
b $131319.81
6 a $1767.50 b
$1732.15
Exercise 1C Loan repayments
c $11319.81
c Interest = $20.79,
1 a $800 b
$79950
d $519.81
Balance owing = $2100.24
2 a $1125, $179456.38
15 a $7920
7 a $296.40, $256.40
b $543.62
b $8108.46
b $4.12, $260.52
c $1121.60, $178909.36
c Shanes interest is compounded meaning
8 a 0.0452% b
$19.34
d $547.02
his interest earns interest while Loris
c $73.34 d
$1411.36
3 $674.25
interest is paid on maturity and earns
9 a $1000 b
$15
4 a $90.46 b
$341.25
nothing.
c $530.23 d
$17.50
c $819.84 d
$1101.00
e $11.87 f
$535.55
e $1515.54
Chapter Review
g The card with the interestfree period
5 a $400 b
$3600
Multiple choice
10 $400
c $123.05
1 C
11 a $0 b
$13.31
6 They will not need to increase their
2 C
12 17.51% p.a.
repayments.
3 A
13 a $15.68
7 a $1510.20 b
$1620.14
4 D
b Kylie should not accept the offer as she
8 Yes. The repayment is $744 and the most
will be charged $21.71 in interest over
2 months compared to $15.68 with her
current card.
14 Card A charges 18% p.a. on $500 unpaid
balance, which equals $7.50 per month
interest. Card B charges 12% p.a. on
$1000 each month, which equals $10 per
month interest. Rob should choose Card A.
Short answer
9 a $7000 b
$1750
1 $21.15
c $178000
2 $17.00
10 a $733.40 b
$174.80
3 $3.21
11 a $2895 b
$868500
4 a 0.0534%
c $493500 d
$19740
b $34.82
e 5.264%
c $102.99
12 a $1696.80 b
$509040
d $32.65
c $269040 d
4.484%
Exercise 1B Flat rate interest
5 a $1120
e i4.3%
ii4.12%
1 a $700 b
$1200
b $7187.50
13 a $2121 b
$2316
c $7500 d
$2850
c $1281.60
c $2340 d
$45
e $390
d $39.60
14 $268
2 $1584
e $12285.00
15 a $2000 b
$238000
3 $5000
6 $6760
16 a $2325 b
$2508
4 a $4060 b
$21330
7 $191.02
c $2416.50 d
$2370.75
c $1803.75 d
$308.25
8 6.15%
17 a $2517 b
5 years
e $275000
9 a $1250
c $151020
5 a $1650 b
$3850
b $124873.64
18 a $2508 b
$601920
c $693 d
$6193
10 a
c Marcus would only need to pay $2450
6 a $1600 b
$6600
Principal
($)
Interest
($)
Balance
($)
130000.00
129779.30
129557.12
129333.47
129108.32
128881.67
128653.51
128423.83
128192.62
127959.87
127725.56
127489.70
866.67
865.20
863.71
862.22
860.72
859.21
857.69
856.16
854.62
853.07
851.50
849.93
129779.30
129557.12
129333.47
129108.32
128881.67
128653.51
128423.83
128192.62
127959.87
127725.56
127489.70
127252.26
Month
10
11
12
11 a $316.75 b
$599.40
c $2110.45 d
$5100
12 a $2453.49 b
$2618.06
13 a $19009.60 b
$3009.60
14 $8867.39
Extended response
1 a $4140 b
$6292.80
c $30.25 d
15.76%
$402840
2 a $1678.50 b
c $1825.34 d
$422193.55
3 a $13.78
b $261.72
c $4.58
d The card with this interestfree period
is cheaper as the card without the
interestfree period would have charged
$6.75interest.
c $5137.21
Chapter 2
2A
interactivity
int0193
Comparing
investment options
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
WRITE
P = $5000, r = 0.08, n = 4
A = P(1 + r)n
= $5000 (1.08)4
= $6802.44
An annuity takes the form of a sum of compound interest investments. Consider the case of a person
who invests $1000 at 10% p.a. at the end of each year for 5 years.
To calculate the total value of this investment we would need to calculate the value of:
The first $1000 invested for 4 years at 10% p.a.
The second $1000 invested for 3 years at 10% p.a.
Chapter 2 Annuities and loan repayments 27
2nd contribution
FV = PV (1 + r)n
= $1000(1.1)3
= $1331.00
3rd contribution
FV = PV (1 + r)n
= $1000(1.1)2
= $1210.00
4th contribution
FV = PV (1 + r)n
= $1000(1.1)
= $1100.00
(1 + r) n 1
f
r
(1.1) 5 1
0.1
= $6105.10
In this course you are not required to calculate the future value of an annuity using this formula. In
practice the future value of an annuity is calculated using a table of values that show the future value of
an annuity where $1 is contributed each period.
Suppose that an annuity is created where $1 is paid at the end of each year for a period of 20 years.
The interest rate is 8% p.a. with interest compounded annually.
Using the formula above
FVA = a e
FVA = 1 e
(1 + r) n 1
f
r
(1.08) 20 1
0.08
= 45.7620
This value can be used to calculate the future value of any similar annuity. For example consider an
annuity where a contribution of $2500 is made at the end of each year for 20 years at an interest rate of
8% p.a. with interest compounded annually.
FVA = 2500 45.7620
= $114 405
We can create a table of future values using the above formula and an Excel spreadsheet.
3. In cell B4 enter the formula =((1+B$3)^$A41)/B$3. (This is the future value formula from
Exercise2A with the value of M omitted, as it is equal to 1.) Format the cell, correct to
4 decimalplaces.
4. Highlight the range of cells B3 to M23. From the Edit menu, use Fill Down and Fill Right functions
to copy the formula to all other cells in this range.
This completes the table. The table shows the future value of an annuity of $1 invested for up to
10interest periods at up to 10% per interest period. You can extend the spreadsheet further for other
interest rates and longer investment periods.
The table overleaf is the set of future values of $1 invested into an annuity. This is the table you
should have obtained in Computer application 1.
A table such as this can be used to find the value of an annuity by multiplying the amount of the
annuity by the future value of $1.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Use the table on page 30 to find the future value of an annuity when $1500 is invested at the end of
each year at 7% p.a. with interest compounded annually for 9 years.
THINK
WRITE
Future value of $1
Interest rate per period
Period
1%
2%
3%
4%
5%
6%
7%
8%
9%
10%
11%
12%
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
2.0100
2.0200
2.0300
2.0400
2.0500
2.0600
2.0700
2.0800
2.0900
2.1000
2.1100
2.1200
3.0301
3.0604
3.0909
3.1216
3.1525
3.1836
3.2149
3.2464
3.2781
3.3100
3.3421
3.3744
4.0604
4.1216
4.1836
4.2465
4.3101
4.3746
4.4399
4.5061
4.5731
4.6410
4.7097
4.7793
5.1010
5.2040
5.3091
5.4163
5.5256
5.6371
5.7507
5.8666
5.9847
6.1051
6.2278
6.3528
6.1520
6.3081
6.4684
6.6330
6.8019
6.9753
7.1533
7.3359
7.5233
7.7156
7.9129
8.1152
7.2135
7.4343
7.6625
7.8983
8.1420
8.3938
8.6540
8.9228
9.2004
9.4872
9.7833 10.0890
8.2857
8.5830
8.8923
9.2142
9.5491
9.3685
9.7546 10.1591 10.5828 11.0266 11.4913 11.9780 12.4876 13.0210 13.5795 14.1640 14.7757
10
10.4622 10.9497 11.4639 12.0061 12.5779 13.1808 13.8164 14.4866 15.1929 15.9374 16.7220 17.5487
11
11.5668 12.1687 12.8078 13.4864 14.2068 14.9716 15.7836 16.6455 17.5603 18.5312 19.5614 20.6546
12
12.6825 13.4121 14.1920 15.0258 15.9171 16.8699 17.8885 18.9771 20.1407 21.3843 22.7132 24.1331
13
13.8093 14.6803 15.6178 16.6268 17.7130 18.8821 20.1406 21.4953 22.9534 24.5227 26.2116 28.0291
14
14.9474 15.9739 17.0863 18.2919 19.5986 21.0151 22.5505 24.2149 26.0192 27.9750 30.0949 32.3926
15
16.0969 17.2934 18.5989 20.0236 21.5786 23.2760 25.1290 27.1521 29.3609 31.7725 34.4054 37.2797
16
17.2579 18.6393 20.1569 21.8245 23.6575 25.6725 27.8881 30.3243 33.0034 35.9497 39.1899 42.7533
17
18.4304 20.0121 21.7616 23.6975 25.8404 28.2129 30.8402 33.7502 36.9737 40.5447 44.5008 48.8837
18
19.6147 21.4123 23.4144 25.6454 28.1324 30.9057 33.9990 37.4502 41.3013 45.5992 50.3959 55.7497
19
20.8109 22.8406 25.1169 27.6712 30.5390 33.7600 37.3790 41.4463 46.0185 51.1591 56.9395 63.4397
20
22.0190 24.2974 26.8704 29.7781 33.0660 36.7856 40.9955 45.7620 51.1601 57.2750 64.2028 72.0524
As shown in Chapter 1, when considering compound interest we need to consider the compounding
period and adjust the values of r and n accordingly. The same applies when calculating annuities.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Andrea invests $500 every six months into an annuity that pays 6% p.a. interest compounded
sixmonthly. Calculate the future value of this annuity after 5 years.
THINK
WRITE
r = 6% 2, n = 5 2
= 3%= 10
= $5713.95
Exercise 2A
1 WE1 Calculate the value after 5 years of an investment of $4000 at 12% p.a., with interest
compounded annually.
2 Calculate the value to which each of the following compound interest investments will grow.
a $5000 at 6% p.a. for 5 years, with interest calculated annually
b $12000 at 12% p.a. for 3 years, with interest calculated annually
c $4500 at 8% p.a. for 4 years, with interest compounded sixmonthly
d $3000 at 9.6% p.a. for 3 years, with interest compounded sixmonthly
e $15000 at 8.4% p.a. for 2 years, with interest compounded quarterly
f $2950 at 6% p.a. for 3 years, with interest compounded monthly
3 At the end of each year for four years Rodney invests $1000 in an investment fund that pays
that pays 7% p.a. interest, with the interest compounding every six months.
a Use the compound interest formula to calculate the amount to which the:
i first investment of $2000 will grow
ii second investment of $2000 will grow
iii third investment of $2000 will grow
iv fourth investment of $2000 will grow.
b If Caitlin then adds a final deposit of $2000 to her account immediately before her holiday, what
is the total value of her annuity?
5 WE2 Use the table of future values on page 30 to determine the future value of an annuity of $800
invested per year for 5 years at 9% p.a., with interest compounded annually.
6 Use the table of future values to determine the future value of each of the following annuities.
a $400 invested per year for 3 years at 10% p.a., with interest compounded annually
b $2250 invested per year for 8 years at 8% p.a., with interest compounded annually
c $625 invested per year for 10 years at 4% p.a., with interest compounded annually
d $7500 invested per year for 7 years at 6% p.a., with interest compounded annually
7 WE3 Samantha invests $500 every 6 months for 5 years in an annuity at 8% p.a., with interest
6% p.a. for 5 years will produce the greatest financial outcome. Explain your answer.
10 MC Use the table of future values to determine which of the following annuities will have the
Further development
11 Barbara currently has $60000 in an investment account that is averaging an interest rate of
6%p.a.,compounded annually. She wants to calculate the amount that she will receive after
20years.
a Use the compound interest formula to find the value of $60000 investment at maturity.
b If she deposits $9000 each year, use the table on page 30 to find the future value of this annuity.
Chapter 2 Annuities and loan repayments 31
c If she places her $60000 into a different savings account that can offer 8% p.a. compounded
annually and increases her deposits to $10000 each year, find the amount available to her after
20years.
d Over the 20year period, calculate the extra amount saved by investing $60000 in an investment
account and $10000 each year at 8% p.a. compared with $9000 each year at 6% p.a.
12 Find the final value of the following annuity investments by using the compound interest formula
2B
In Chapter 1 we learned about the present value of an investment under compound interest. In the
formula
elesson
eles0117
Small business
FV = PV(1 + r) n
PV is the present value of the annuity, that is, the single investment required at the current time to
produce the future value.
The same idea applies to an annuity. The present value of an annuity is the single sum investment
thatcan be made under compound interest that will produce the same future value as the annuity in
question.
As we learned in Chapter 1 the present value of an investment under compound interest can be
calculated using the formula
PV =
FV
(1 + r) n
Now let us consider the annuity in Worked example 2. In this example $1500 was invested at the end of
each year at 7% p.a., with interest compounded annually for 9 years. This investment has a future value
of $17967.
If we are to consider the present value of this investment we want to find the single sum that needs to
be invested at 7% p.a., with interest compounded annually for 9 years, that will produce this financial
outcome.
PV =
=
FV
(1 + r) n
17967
(1.07) 9
= $9772.86
This means that making a single investment of $9772.86 at the beginning of the term is equivalent to
investing $1500 each year for 9 years.
32 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
Future value
$17967
Investors contribution
$1500 9 = $13500
$9772.86
Interest
$4467
$8194.14
$17967
As you can see, a singlesum contribution generates more interest from a smaller contribution
than anannuity, however for the singlesum contribution the entire contribution is required at
thebeginningofthe investment, whereas for the annuity a much smaller annual contribution
is made.
FV
The formula PV =
is used to calculate the present value of an annuity when we know the
(1
+ r) n
future value.
(1 + r) n 1
f can be used to calculate the present value of an annuity when
r(1 + r) n
given the amount of each contribution. In this formula:
FVA = future value of the annuity
a = the contribution per period paid at the end of the period
r = interest rate per compounding period expressed as a decimal
n = number of compounding periods.
Now consider the annuity in Worked example 3. In this example a $500 contribution was being made
every six months. The interest rate is 6% p.a. compounded sixmonthly for a 5year term.
Therefore a = 500, r = 0.03 and n = 10
The formula PVA = a e
PVA = a e
(1 + r) n 1
r(1 + r) n
PVA = 500 e
(1.03) 10 1
0.03 (1.03) 10
= $4265.10
Also, as with future values, you will not be required to calculate present values using this formula.
The formula is used to also create a table of present values of $1 under various investments.
Consider the present value of an annuity where $1 is invested each interest period at 4% per interest
period for 20 interest periods.
PVA = a e
PVA = 1 e
(1 + r) n 1
r(1 + r) n
(1.04) 20 1
0.04 (1.04) 20
= 13.5903
This means that a $1 annuity at 4% per interest period for 20 interest periods is equivalent to a single
investment of $13.59
The table created in Computer application 2 shows the present value of an annuity $1 per interest
period for up to 12% per interest period and for up to 20 interest periods.
The table below shows the results that you should obtain for the above computer application and
should be used to complete the following exercise.
Present value of $1
Interest rate per period
Period
1%
2%
3%
4%
5%
6%
0.9901
0.9804
0.9709
0.9615
0.9524
0.9434
1.9704
1.9416
1.9135
1.8861
1.8594
2.9410
2.8839
2.8286
2.7751
3.9020
3.8077
3.7171
4.8534
4.7135
5.7955
9%
10%
11%
12%
0.9346 0.9259
0.9174
0.9091
0.9009
0.8929
1.8334
1.8080 1.7833
1.7591
1.7355
1.7125
1.6901
2.7232
2.6730
2.6243 2.5771
2.5313
2.4869
2.4437
2.4018
3.6299
3.5460
3.4651
3.3872 3.3121
3.2397
3.1699
3.1024
3.0373
4.5797
4.4518
4.3295
4.2124
4.1002 3.9927
3.8897
3.7908
3.6959
3.6048
5.6014
5.4172
5.2421
5.0757
4.9173
4.7665 4.6229
4.4859
4.3553
4.2305
4.1114
6.7282
6.4720
6.2303
6.0021
5.7864
5.5824
5.3893 5.2064
5.0330
4.8684
4.7122
4.5638
7.6517
7.3255
7.0197
6.7327
6.4632
6.2098
5.9713 5.7466
5.5348
5.3349
5.1461
4.9676
8.5660
8.1622
7.7861
7.4353
7.1078
6.8017
6.5152 6.2469
5.9952
5.7590
5.5370
5.3282
10
9.4713
8.9826
8.5302
8.1109
7.7217
7.3601
7.0236 6.7101
6.4177
6.1446
5.8892
5.6502
11
10.3676
9.7868
9.2526
8.7605
8.3064
7.8869
7.4987 7.1390
6.8052
6.4951
6.2065
5.9377
12
11.2551 10.5753
9.9540
9.3851
8.8633
8.3838
7.9427 7.5361
7.1607
6.8137
6.4924
6.1944
7%
8%
1%
2%
3%
4%
5%
6%
7%
8%
9%
10%
11%
12%
13
9.9856
9.3936
8.8527
8.3577 7.9038
7.4869
7.1034
6.7499
6.4235
14
9.8986
9.2950
8.7455 8.2442
7.7862
7.3667
6.9819
6.6282
15
9.7122
9.1079 8.5595
8.0607
7.6061
7.1909
6.8109
16
9.4466 8.8514
8.3126
7.8237
7.3792
6.9740
17
9.7632 9.1216
8.5436
8.0216
7.5488
7.1196
18
8.7556
8.2014
7.7016
7.2497
19
8.9501
8.3649
7.8393
7.3658
20
9.1285
8.5136
7.9633
7.4694
9.8181
This table can be used in the same way as the future values table.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Liam invests $750 per year in an annuity at 6% per annum for 8 years, with interest compounded
annually. Use the table to calculate the present value of Liams annuity.
THINK
WRITE
Exercise 2B
1 WE4 Use the table of present values on page 34 to determine the present value of an annuity of
the end of each quarter at 12% p.a., with interest compounded quarterly for 3 years.
4 Use the table of present values to find the present value of each of the following annuities.
a $400 invested every 6 months for 4 years at 14% p.a., with interest compounded sixmonthly
b $600 invested every 3 months for 2 years at 12% p.a., with interest compounded quarterly
c $100 invested every month for 1 year at 12% p.a., with interest compounded monthly
5 Calculate the present value of each of the following annuities.
a $1000 invested at the end of each year at 8% p.a. for 5 years with interest compounded annually
b $500 invested at the end of June and December for 5 years with interest compounded every six
months
c $250 invested at the end of each quarter for 5 years with interest compounded quarterly
6 Jonah invests $2500 each year into his employee superannuation fund. The find earns 6% p.a., with
interest compounded annually. Given that his employer matches this investment calculate the present
value of his superannuation assuming that Jonah will work for a further 20 years.
Chapter 2 Annuities and loan repayments 35
7 Bernice invests $2000 per year into a superannuation fund that pays 8% p.a., with interest
Further development
8 Justin is aged 42 and plans to retire at age 60. He estimates that he needs $680000 to provide for
his retirement. His current superannuation fund has a balance of $40000 and is returning 12% p.a.
compounded annually.
a Use the compound interest formula to find the future value of Justins current
superannuation.
b Use the future value table on page 30 to find the annual contribution needed to reach his target.
9 Johnny has an annuity of $1500 per year at 5.5% p.a., with interest compounded annually over a
20year period.
a Use the table on page 30 to estimate the future value of a $1 annuity over a 20 year period.
b Use your answer to part a to find the future value of Johnnys annuity.
c Use the table on page 34 to estimate the present value of this annuity.
10 Jodie has an annuity into which she pays $1800 every quarter. The interest rate is 10% p.a., with
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 2.1
doc11023
2C
Loan repayments
We studied loans and the way in which they are repaid in Chapter 1. We learned that most loans have
interest calculated and added each month and at the same time a monthly repayment is made. This monthly
payment is calculated so that the outstanding balance on the loan at the end of the term is exactly zero.
A loan can be considered much like an annuity where we need to calculate the amount of each
contribution (the monthly repayment) to generate a certain future value (amount of the loan).
To begin let us consider a simple example. $5000 is to be borrowed over a threeyear term at 9% p.a.
interest, which is added annually. The loan is to be repaid in three equal annual instalments.
The present value interest factor for 9% per interest period over three interest periods is 2.5313.
From our previous work we know that PVA = a PVIF so considering PFA to be the amount of the loan
and a the amount of each monthly repayment we form the equation.
Therefore $5000 = a 2.5313
a = $5000 2.5313
= $1975.26
We will now examine the progress of this loan with an annual repayment of $1975.26.
Opening balance
Interest
Closing balance
Year 1
$5000
9% of $5000
= $450
Year 2
$3474.74
9% of $3474.74
= $312.73
Year 3
$1812.21
9% of $1812.21
= $163.10
At the end of the third year the balance of the loan is zero (well almost!). The 5 cents that is still
owing on the loan is due to rounding to the nearest cent in each calculation. And yes, the bank will make
you pay the extra five cents in the last repayment.
36 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
In practice, because the interest and repayments on loans are made monthly the interest rates that are
used are much smaller and the interest periods much greater than those used in the table of future value
interest factors on page 30.
The table below shows the present value interest factors for common monthly interest rates and for
loans up to 25 years (300 months).
Table of present value interest factors
0.005
0.0055
0.006
0.0065
0.007
0.0075
0.008
0.0085
0.009
0.0095
0.01
12
11.6189
11.5818
11.5448
11.5080
11.4714
11.4349
11.3986
11.3625
11.3265
11.2907
11.2551
24
22.5629
22.4258
22.2899
22.1552
22.0216
21.8891
21.7578
21.6276
21.4984
21.3704
21.2434
36
32.8710
32.5791
32.2907
32.0060
31.7247
31.4468
31.1723
30.9012
30.6334
30.3689
30.1075
48
42.5803
42.0856
41.5988
41.1199
40.6486
40.1848
39.7284
39.2792
38.8372
38.4022
37.9740
60
51.7256
50.9865
50.2621
49.5520
48.8559
48.1734
47.5042
46.8481
46.2047
45.5738
44.9550
72
60.3395
59.3205
58.3253
57.3534
56.4041
55.4768
54.5710
53.6859
52.8212
51.9762
51.1504
84
68.4530
67.1236
65.8300
64.5713
63.3463
62.1540
60.9933
59.8634
58.7632
57.6918
56.6485
96
76.0952
74.4296
72.8149
71.2492
69.7310
68.2584
66.8300
65.4442
64.0995
62.7944
61.5277
108
83.2934
81.2702
79.3159
77.4277
75.6030
73.8394
72.1345
70.4860
68.8918
67.3497
65.8578
120
90.0735
87.6751
85.3666
83.1439
81.0035
78.9417
76.9552
75.0409
73.1955
71.4164
69.7005
132
96.4596
93.6720
90.9981
88.4326
85.9703
83.6064
81.3364
79.1558
77.0606
75.0468
73.1108
144 102.4747
99.2869
96.2396
93.3257
90.5383
87.8711
85.3180
82.8733
80.5317
78.2879
76.1372
97.8527
94.7395
91.7700
88.9366
86.2318
83.6489
81.1813
78.8229
98.6033
95.3346
92.2252
89.2659
86.4484
83.7644
81.2064
98.5934
95.2139
92.0070
88.9624
86.0704
83.3217
97.9300
94.4834
91.2203
88.1290
85.1988
96.7205
93.2479
89.9669
86.8647
98.7416
95.0688
91.6076
88.3431
96.7042
93.0723
89.6551
98.1728
94.3799
90.8194
99.4917
95.5473
91.8527
264 146.3969 139.0846 132.3123 126.0331 120.2044 114.7876 109.7479 105.0537 100.6762
96.5894
92.7697
276 149.5110 141.8067 134.6920 128.1136 122.0234 116.3781 111.1387 106.2699 101.7399
97.5198
93.5835
288 152.4441 144.3554 136.9068 130.0384 123.6963 117.8322 112.4027 107.3688 102.6952
98.3503
94.3056
300 155.2069 146.7418 138.9683 131.8193 125.2349 119.1616 113.5515 108.3615 103.5531
99.0918
94.9466
r
N
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Use the table of present value interest factors to calculate the monthly repayment of a loan of
$250000 at 0.5% per month over 20 years.
THINK
WRITE
r = 0.005, N = 240
PVIF = 139.5808
250000 = a 139.5808
a = $1791.08
It is important, however, to remember that unlike in Worked example 6, interest rates are usually
expressed as a percentage per annum (p.a.). These interest rates need to first be converted to a monthly
rate and then to a decimal before we are able to use the table of present value interest factors.
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Mr. and Mrs Grimes borrow $500000 to buy a home. The interest rate is 9% p.a. and is
calculated monthly. The loan is to be repaid over 25 years. Use the table of present value interest
factors to calculate the amount of each repayment.
THINK
WRITE
r = 0.09 12, N = 25 12
= 0.0075
= 300
PVIF = 119.1616
500000 = a 119.1616
a = $4195.98
The table can also be used to calculate the approximate length of time that it takes to repay a loan.
This is done using the same equation (PVA = a PVIF) but solving for the interest factor. The nearest
interest factor in the table will give the approximate time taken to repay the loan.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Use the table on page 37 to calculate the length of time that it will take to repay a $20000 loan at
an interest rate of 6% p.a. with a repayment of $900 per month.
THINK
WRITE
r = 0.005
PVIF = 22.2222
Exercise 2C
Loan repayments
To calculate monthly repayments in this exercise use the table of present value interest factors on
page 37.
1 WE5 Calculate the monthly repayment on a loanof$15000 over 5 years at 0.65% per month.
2 WE6 Yiannis takes out a $10000 loan over 5 years at 10.2% p.a. reducible interest
12% p.a.
4 Calculate the amount of each monthly repayment on each of the following loans.
a $2000 at 12% p.a. over 2 years
b $15000 at 9% p.a. over 5 years
c $120000 at 6% p.a. over 20 years
d $23000 at 9.6% p.a. over 5 years
e $210000 at 7.2% p.a. over 25 years
38 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
5 Jack and Diane take out a $275000 home loan. If the interest rate on the loan is 8.4% p.a. reducible
and the term of the loan is 25 years, calculate the amount of each monthly repayment.
6 Jiro purchases a computer on terms. The cash price of the computer is $3750. The terms are
a deposit of 10.00% with the balance paid in equal monthly instalments at 9% p.a.
reducible interest over 3years.
a Calculate Jiros deposit on the computer.
b What is the balance owing on the computer?
c Calculate the amount of each monthly repayment.
7 Jeremy and Patricia spend $15000 on new furnishings for their home. They pay a 15%
deposit on the furnishings with the balance paid in equal monthly instalments at 11.4% p.a.
interest over 4 years. Calculate the amount of each monthly repayment.
8 Thanh is purchasing a car on terms. The cash price of the car is $35000 and he pays a $7000 deposit.
a What is the balance owing on the car?
b If the car is to be repaid in equal monthly instalments over 5 years at an interest rate of 9% p.a.
9 Ron borrows $33500 to purchase a car. The loan is to be repaid in equal monthly instalments over a
3year term at an interest rate of 12% p.a. Calculate the total repayments made on the loan.
10 Calculate the total repayments on each of the following loans.
a $4000 at 8.4% p.a. reducible interest to be repaid over 2 years in equal monthly repayments
b $20000 at 6% p.a. reducible interest to be repaid over 6 years in equal monthly instalments
c $60000 at 7.2% p.a. reducible interest to be repaid over 15 years in equal monthly instalments
d $150000 at 10.8% p.a. reducible interest to be repaid over 20 years in equal monthly instalments
11 MC A loan of $5000 is taken out at 9% p.a. reducible interest over 4 years. Which of the following
A $266.93
D $16016.02
13 WE7 Use the table on page 37 to calculate the length of time that it will take to repay a $50000
15 A $150000 loan is taken out over a 25year term. The interest rate is 9.6% p.a.
a Calculate the minimum monthly repayment.
b Calculate the total repayments on the loan.
c Calculate the length of time that it will take to repay the loan at $1625 per month.
d Calculate the total saving on the loan by repaying the loan at $1625 per month.
16 Link borrows $148000 taken out over 10 years. The loan is to be repaid in monthly instalments.
Calculate the amount of each monthly repayment at each of the following rates.
a 6% p.a.
b 7.2% p.a.
c 9% p.a.
d 12% p.a.
17 A loan of $200000 over 20 years has interest charged monthly at a rate of 9% p.a.
a Calculate the monthly repayment.
b After 3 years the balance owing is $187676.80. The interest rate then rises to 9.6%. What will be
the new repayment required to pay the loan off in the remaining 17 years?
18 Ben took out of loan for $20000 to buy a new car. The contract required that he repay the loan over
5 years with monthly instalments of $420.00. Use a trialanderror method together with the PVIF
table to find the interest rate that Ben is paying. Give your answer as a percentage p.a. as close as the
table will allow.
2D
A reducing balance loan is structured in such as way that in the first month the majority of the
repayment is interest and only a small amount is reducing the principal. In each subsequent month the
amount of interest is slightly less and the amount coming off the balance slightly more.
Hence the graph of a reducing balance loan will show the bulk of the loan paid off in the final few years.
A graph that shows the outstanding balance on a loan will have time on the horizontal axis, the
balance on the vertical axis while the graph itself will be a smooth curve. The following exercise will
provide opportunities for you to examine loan repayment graphs and you will be able to see how the
balance declines over time and some of the strategies that can be used to pay them off more quickly.
Exercise 2D
1 The figure below tracks the balance owing on a loan of $250000. The interest on the loan is charged
$250 000.00
Balance ($)
$200 000.00
$150 000.00
$100 000.00
0
12
24
36
48
60
72
84
96
108
120
132
144
156
168
180
192
204
216
228
240
252
264
276
288
300
$50 000.00
Number of months
a
b
c
d
2 The Andersons take out a $300000 home loan. The terms of the loan are that interest is charged at a
rate of 8.4% p.a., which is calculated and charged monthly with a minimum monthly repayment of
$2396. The Andersons decide to increase their repayment to $2600 per month.
The effect of this extra payment is shown in the following graph.
40 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
$300 000.00
Balance ($)
$250 000.00
$200 000.00
$150 000.00
$100 000.00
0
14
28
42
56
70
84
98
112
126
140
154
168
182
196
210
224
238
252
266
280
294
$50 000.00
Number of months
a Approximately how many months does it take to repay the loan:
i at $2396 per month
ii at $2600 per month?
b What is the approximate total cost of repaying the loan:
i at $2396 per month
ii at $2600 per month?
c What is the saving made by paying the loan off at the higher monthly repayment?
3 The Shorrocks take out a $425000 home loan. The loan is over a 25year term at an interest rate of
7.2% p.a., with interest calculated monthly. The minimum monthly repayment is $3060.
a What is the total cost of repaying this loan?
b What is the balance owing after 1 year?
c After one year a oneoff $10000 repayment is made on the loan.
The effect of this extra payment is shown by the graph below.
Minimum repayment
Minimum repayment with one off
$10 000 payment after 1 year.
$400 000.00
$350 000.00
Balance ($)
$300 000.00
$250 000.00
$200 000.00
$150 000.00
$100 000.00
0
14
28
42
56
70
84
98
112
126
140
154
168
182
196
210
224
238
252
266
280
294
$50 000.00
Number of months
Further development
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1301
Loan repayments
Making increased repayments, oneoff extra payments or more frequent payments are methods that can
be used to repay a loan more quickly. The remaining questions require you to use the spreadsheet Loan
from eBookPLUS. Formulas in the spreadsheet work for the first 12 months of the loan. Use the Fill
Down function to complete these formulas for the length of each loan.
4 From the eBookPLUS open the spreadsheet Loan. The sheet titled Basic models a Loan. Use the
spreadsheet to draw graphs to model the following loans. In each case you will need to use the table
on page 37 to calculate what the minimum monthly repayment should be.
a A $20000 loan at 6% p.a. over 5 years
b A $500000 loan at 9% p.a. over 20 years
c A $1000000 loan at 8.4% p.a. over 25 years
5 From the eBook open the spreadsheet Loan. The sheet titled Higher payment allows you to
explore the effects of increasing the amount of the monthly repayment.
Consider a $275000 loan to be taken out at 9.6% p.a. over 20 years.
Draw a graph showing the path of the loan under the minimum monthly repayment and compare that
to paying an extra $400 per month.
6 From the eBook open the spreadsheet Loan. The sheet titled Extra payment allows you to explore
the effects of making a oneoff extra payment.
Consider a $395000 loan to be taken out at 7.2% p.a. over 25 years.
Draw a graph showing the path of the loan under the minimum monthly repayment and compare that
to making a oneoff $20000 repayment after 2 years. (In the balance owing extra payment column in
the cell for the 24th month include a subtraction of $20000 in the formula.)
Investigation: Types of loan arrangements
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 2.2
doc11024
Summary
Future value of an
annuity
Present value of an
annuity
The present value of an annuity is the single sum that would need to be
invested at the present time to give the same financial outcome at the end
of the term.
A table that shows the present value of $1 under an annuity is the method
used to find the present of an annuity.
The present of $1 must be multiplied by the contribution per period to
calculate its present or future value.
Loan repayments
Loan graphs
A loan graph shows the declining balance of a loan over the term of the
loan.
Reading these graphs can demonstrate the effect that making extra
payments or increasing the amount of each payment has on how quickly
aloan can be paid off.
Chapter review
MULTIPL E
C HOICE
1 Jenny invests $1000 per year for 20 years in an annuity. The interest rate is 6% p.a. and interest is
D $36785.60
2 Madeline invests $1000 per year for 20 years in an annuity. The interest rate is 7% p.a. and interest is
D $40995.50
3 Which of the following investments has the greatest future value after 5 years?
A
B
C
D
4 A loan of $80000 is taken out over a 20year term at an interest rate of 9% p.a. The monthly repayment
is $719.78. What would the approximate total saving be if the term were reduced to 15years?
A $91.63
B $16493.40
C $21991.20
D $26693.40
Sh ort
a nswer
1 Calculate the amount to which each of the following investments will grow.
a $3500 at 12% p.a. for 3 years, with interest compounded annually
b $2000 at 8% p.a. for 5 years, with interest compounded sixmonthly
c $15000 at 9.2% p.a. for 8 years, with interest compounded quarterly
d $4200 at 13.2% p.a. for 2 years, with interest compounded monthly
2 $400 per year is invested into an annuity at 7% p.a., with interest compounded annually. Use the
deposits every month for 15months. The interest rate is 12% p.a. and
interest is compounded monthly. Find the future value of the annuity.
5 Use the compound interest formula FV = PV(1 + r) n and solve the
compounded annually.
a What is the future value of the annuity in 15 years?
b What is the present value of this annuity?
8 Use the table future values of $1 to calculate the future value of an annuity of $4000 deposited per
10 Use the table present values of $1 to calculate the present value of an annuity of $500 invested per
Balance owing
$350 000.00
Balance ($)
$300 000.00
$250 000.00
$200 000.00
$150 000.00
$100 000.00
0
11
22
33
44
55
66
77
88
99
110
121
132
143
154
165
176
187
198
209
220
231
$50 000.00
Number of months
a
b
c
d
Use the table on page 37 to calculate the amount of each monthly repayment.
Calculate the total cost of repaying the loan.
Use the graph to find an approximation for the balance still owing after 10 years.
Use the graph to approximate when the loan is half paid.
1 Lien invests $2000 per year in an annuity. The term of the annuity is 10 years and the interest rate is
Ex tended
R es p ons e
2 Eddie has the goal of saving $1000000 in the next 20 years. Eddie expects to be able to obtain an
money into paying off a mortgage. At that time he makes a single contribution to catch up on the
annuity. What amount must Eddie deposit?
3 Jim and Catherine take out a $350000 loan. The interest rate on the loan is 12% p.a. and the loan is
Digital doc
doc11025
Test yourself
Chapter 2
ICT activities
2A Future value of an annuity
Interactivity
int0193: Comparing investment options. (page 27)
Digital docs
Spreadsheet (doc1301): Loan repayments. (page 42)
WorkSHEET 2.2 (doc11024): Apply your knowledge of loan
repayments and graphs. (page 42)
2C Loan repayments
Chapter review
Test Yourself (doc11025): Take the end of chapter practice test to test your
progress. (page 45)
Answers chapter 2
Future value of an annuity
1 $7049.37
2 a $6691.13
b $6859.14
c $6158.56
d $3974.56
e $17713.21
f $3530.21
3 $4472.93
4 a i$2217.44
ii
$2142.45
iii
$2070
iv
$2000
b $10429.89
5 $4787.76
6 a $1324.00
b $23932.35
c $7503.81
d $62953.50
7 a 4%
b 10
c $6003.05
8 a $4103.92
b $5335.38
c $7546.74
9 5% for 6 years. $1 will grow to $6.8019
10 D
11 a $192428.13
c $737277.43
12 a $289570.55
c $233356.13
13 a $1000
c 2%
b $4498.63
b $4211.82
b $4055.45
b $27180.60
b $6679.88
b $52395
Balance owing
$500 000.00
$450 000.00
$400 000.00
$350 000.00
$300 000.00
$250 000.00
$200 000.00
$150 000.00
$100 000.00
$50 000.00
0
11
22
33
44
55
66
77
88
99
110
121
132
143
154
165
176
187
198
209
220
231
240
b $23520.09
Loan repayments
1 $302.71
2 $213.46
3 $210.67
4 a $94.15
c $859.72
e $1511.14
5 $2195.87
6 a $375
c $107.32
7 $332.01
8 a $28000
9 $40056.46
10 a $4359.36
c $98285.02
11 A
12 B
13 6 years
14 a $2586.38
Balance owing
$20 000.00
$18 000.00
$16 000.00
$14 000.00
$12 000.00
$10 000.00
$8 000.00
$6 000.00
$4 000.00
$2 000.00
Number of months
c $7984.99
b $311.38
d $484.17
b $3375
b $581.23
b $23864.96
d $366700.35
$1 000 000.00
$900 000.00
$800 000.00
$700 000.00
$600 000.00
$500 000.00
$400 000.00
$300 000.00
$200 000.00
$100 000.00
Balance owing
0
14
28
42
56
70
84
98
112
126
140
154
168
182
196
210
224
238
252
266
280
294
300
Exercise 2C
b $12289.20
d $16604.40
b $419000
d $45080
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60
Number of months
1 $6918.50
2 a $1845.09
c $4455.79
3 $4997
4 a $2388.52
c $1125.51
5 a $3992.70
c $4087.85
6 $57349.50
7 a $13420.20
c 1.27%
8 a $307598.63
9 a $34.93
c $17955
10 a $34916.58
b $396297
d $123294
b $1733.70
d 2123.37
b $1869.32
1 a 25 years
c $190000
2 a i 300 months
b i $718800
c $102600
3 a $918000
c 18 months
4 a $386.66
Balance ($)
Exercise 2B
b $331070.40
d $213778.90
b $717465.20
d $122550.04
b $1020
Exercise 2D
Balance ($)
Exercise 2A
15 a $1320.98
c 14 years
16 a $1643.10
c $1874.80
17 a 1799.45
18 9.6% p.a.
Balance ($)
b 12 years
Number of months
2 $16398.20
3 a $36026.20
$250 000.00
b $33066.00
c $14578.44
Balance ($)
$200 000.00
d $49036.75
4 $8048.45
$150 000.00
5 a $6139.13
b $4298.72
$100 000.00
c $3219.64
d $36945.53
$50 000.00
6 $11654.84
0
11
22
33
44
55
66
77
88
99
110
121
132
143
154
165
176
187
198
209
220
231
240
7 a $146804.50
Number of months
8 $41039.20
9 a 4399.95
$400 000.00
b $34641.25
$350 000.00
c $1842.84
d $51014.25
$300 000.00
10 $2242.95
$250 000.00
11 a $1516.32
$200 000.00
b $14047.20
c $4055.45
$150 000.00
d $11177.64
$100 000.00
12 a $1676.85
$50 000.00
b $503055
13 a $3149.40
1
15
29
43
57
71
85
99
113
127
141
155
169
183
197
211
225
239
253
267
281
295
300
Balance ($)
b $40303.42
Number of months
Chapter Review
Multiple Choice
1 D
2 A
3 C
4 D
Short answer
1 a $4917.25
b $2960.49
c $31053.57
d $5461.06
b $755856
c $270000
d 160 months
Extended Response
1 a $28973.20
b $13420.20
c $804.90
2 a $214548.21
b $21852.19
c $316563.94
3 a $3853.80
b $574912
c $262949.76
Chapter 3
3A
Grouped data
Organising data
Previously you will have studied frequency tables, frequency histograms and frequency polygons, also
called ogives.
A frequency table is used to organise large data sets in a way that the nature of the distribution can be
seen easily and summary data can be easily calculated.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
The scores below represent the number of wickets that Mitchell has taken in his last 20 cricket
matches.
2
WRITE
Score
Frequency
(x) Tally
(f)
0
5

1
5

2

4
3

3
4

1
5

2
Frequency
6
4
3
2
1
0
Score
The data in Worked example 1 is called ungrouped data. This is because the data is not organised into
groups but rather each score is counted individually. In most cases this is not practical and the data is
organised into groups of scores. This is referred to as grouped data.
The data should be grouped in such a way as to create typically between 5 and 10 classes or
groups. On the horizontal axis of the frequency table an extra value needs to be added for the class
centre. The middle of each grouping, the class centre, is found by averaging the first and last number in
each group.
When drawing the histogram and cumulative frequency histogram the class centres are graphed on
the horizontal axis.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
A sample of 40 people was surveyed regarding the number of hours per week spent watching
television. The results are listed below.
12
7
23
16
18
16
19
20
9
26
29
17
17
15
12
10
20
7
19
24
7
28
12
21
24
11
16
5
16
20
21
13
9
9
8
29
27
11
6
25
a
Organise the data into 5 class intervals and use these to create a frequency distribution table
b Construct a combined histogram and frequency polygon to represent the tabulated data.
THINK
WRITE
Hours of
television
watched
5<10
Class centre
7.5
Frequency
9
10<15
12.5
15<20
17.5
10
20<25
22.5
25<30
27.5
6
f = 40
8
Frequency
10
6
4
7.5
The ogive
From an ogive we are able to make estimates of important summary statistics such as the median, the
quartile data and the deciles.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
THINK
1
Volume (m3)
0.0<0.5
0.5<1.0
1.0<1.5
1.5<2.0
2.0<2.5
2.5<3.0
Frequency
15
12
10
8
2
3
WRITE
Volume
0.0<0.5
Class centre
0.25
f
15
cf
15
0.5<1.0
0.75
12
27
1.0<1.5
1.25
10
37
1.5<2.0
1.75
45
2.0<2.5
2.25
47
2.5<3.0
2.75
50
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Cumulative frequency
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.25
0.75
1.25
1.75
2.25
2.75
Volume
QU 1.6QL 0.4
Exercise 3A
Grouped data
1 WE2 In a survey, 40 people were asked about the number of hours a week they spent watching
Class centre
2
7
12
1519
2024
Tally
 

Frequency
12

22
9
32
3 The number of phone calls made on average per week in a sample of 56 people are listed below.
21,
56,
52,
12,
50,
17,
17,
72,
8,
59,
54,
36,
64,
23,
78,
66,
33,
34,
69,
15,
58,
57,
53,
28,
35,
49,
2,
67,
61,
2,
42,
13,
3,
24,
52,
23,
51,
50,
28,
10,
5,
27,
67,
72,
62,
33,
25,
72,
16,
55,
48,
89,
44,
7,
63,
80
a Organise the data into a grouped frequency distribution table using a suitable class interval.
b Display the data as a combined histogram and frequency polygon.
4 WE2 The height, in centimetres, of 30 students in Year 12 was recorded as follows.
146, 163, 156, 168, 159, 170, 152, 174, 156, 163, 157, 161, 178, 151, 148,
167, 162, 157, 166, 154, 150, 166, 160, 155, 164, 157, 171, 168, 158, 162
a Organise the data into 7 classes, starting at 145 cm and draw up a frequency distribution table.
b Display the data as a histogram.
c How many students stood at least 160 cm tall?
d Reorganise the data into class intervals of 4 cm; that is, 145<148 cm.
e Draw a new histogram and compare it to the previous one. Discuss any advantages or
disadvantages of having a smaller class interval.
52 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
24
20
23
27
27
22
17
30
26
25
16
29
26
15
26
19
22
13
25
21
19
23
18
30
20
23
16
24
18
12
26
22
25
14
21
25
21
31
25
6 The following data give the length (in cm) of the forearm of 30 middleweight boxers.
24.0
26.5
31.4
30.8
25.7
26.9
27.2
29.9
25.2
26.3
28.4
26.3
29.2
30.5
26.0
27.2
26.0
24.9
25.8
24.7
28.3
26.3
25.7
26.9
27.8
25.7
25.0
29.3
25.8
28.0
a Construct a frequency distribution table for the data. Use a class size of 1 cm.
b Draw a histogram of the data.
7 The following data give the times (in seconds) taken for athletes to complete a 100m sprint.
12.2
12.0
11.9
12.0
12.6
11.7
11.4
11.0
10.9
11.7
11.2
11.8
12.2
12.0
12.7
12.9
11.3
11.2
12.8
12.4
11.7
10.8
13.3
11.7
11.6
11.7
12.2
12.7
13.0
12.2
a Construct a frequency distribution table for the data. Use a class size of 0.5 seconds.
b Draw a histogram of the data.
c Add a polygon to the data.
8 The data below show the fat content (%) of 20 packs of bacon selected from a supermarkets shelves.
13
15
18
13
25
21
13
18
20
16
15
18
12
a Construct a frequency distribution table for the data using a class size of 4.
b Construct a frequency distribution table for the data using a class size of 10.
c Comment upon how changing the size of the group affects the appearance of the histogram.
9 Use the ogive shown to determine the interquartile range of the data.
Cumulative frequency
40
30
50%
20
10
100
100%
50
180
10 WE3 The following frequency distribution table gives the amount of time spent by 50 people on
0<0.5
0.5<1
1<1.5
1.5<2
2<2.5
2.5<3
3<3.5
3.5<4
15
13
Further development
11 The following frequency distribution table shows the life expectancy of 40 household batteries.
Life (hours)
Frequency
50<55
4
55<60
10
60<65
12
65<70
8
70<75
5
75<80
1
3B
interactivities
int0084
Measures of centre
int2352
Measures of centre
int2362
Measures of centre
Class interval
Frequency
120<130
130<140
140<150
150<160
160<170
170<180
180<190
190<200
2
3
9
14
10
8
6
3
Consider the following set of scores that are the exam results for 10 students.
55, 57, 57, 58, 60, 60, 62, 63, 63, 65
To identify a score that is typical in this data set, we can use the mean or median.
The mean is calculated by adding all the scores and dividing by the number of scores in the set.
When the data is a small set of scores the mean is found using the formula
x=
ax
n
where x = mean
x = individual scores (Therefore, x represents the sum of individual scores.)
n = number of scores.
Where the data is presented in a frequency table we use the formula
x=
a fx
af
where x = mean
x = individual scores
f = frequency.
In this formula fx represents the sum of the frequency score column on the frequency table and f
represents the sum of frequency column.
The median is the middle score (odd number of scores) or the average of the two middle scores (even
number of scores).
For this set of scores:
Mean = 600 10
= 60
Median = 60
Both the mean and median are a measure of location within a data set.
54 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
For the set of scores 13, 19, 31, 40, 55, 65, 90, 92, 95, 100 calculate:
a the mean
b the median.
THINK
WRITE
a Total = 600
Mean = 600 10
= 60
b Median = (55 + 65) 2
= 60
We have now examined two data sets. Look at these data sets side by side.
Set A: 55, 57, 57, 58, 60, 60, 62, 63, 63, 65
Set B: 13, 19, 31, 40, 55, 65, 90, 92, 95, 100
Although both sets of scores have the same mean and median, they are very different sets of scores.
Clearly, in Set B the scores are more spread out than in Set A. To measure the spread of a set of scores,
we use one or all of the following.
Range: Highest score lowest score
Set A: Range = 65 55
= 10
Set B = 100 13
= 87
Interquartile range (IQR): The difference between the upper quartile and lower quartile.
Set A: Interquartile range = 63 57
Set B: Interquartile range = 92 31
= 6 = 61
Standard deviation: Found using the n (population) or sn (sample) functions on the calculator.
Set A: n = 3.07
Set B: n = 31.51
Each of these measures of spread show that in Set B the scores are more scattered than in Set A.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
For the set of scores 45, 62, 75, 69, 50, 87, 92 calculate:
a the range
b the interquartile range
c the standard deviation.
THINK
WRITE
a Range = 92 45
Tutorial
int2417
Worked example 5
= 47
Interquartile range = 87 50
= 37
c n = 16.36
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Nadia is a gymnast. For a routine she is given the following scores by 10 judges.
9.08.79.29.39.89.28.89.49.09.1
Use your graphics calculator to find
a the mean
b the median
c the mode
d the range
e the interquartile range
f the population standard deviation
g the sample standard deviation.
THINK
1
WRITE
Mean
Population
standard deviation
Sample
standard deviation
Number of scores
Lowest score
Lower quartile
Median
Upper quartile
Highest score
Mode
a The mean is denoted by the symbol x.
a x = 9.15
b Median = 9.15
= 1.1
= 0.3
f n 0.297
g n 1 0.314
xn.
xn1.
Exercise 3B
2, 1, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 6, 1.
a Calculate the mean number of goals scored.
b Calculate the median number of goals scored.
2 For each of the following sets of scores, calculate the mean, median and mode (if one exists).
a 56, 75, 88, 20, 37, 23, 44
b 2, 1, 7, 4, 6, 1, 1, 4, 5, 3
c 9.9, 9.4, 9.8, 9.6, 9.0, 9.2, 9.8, 9.9
Score
Frequency
d 13, 15, 16, 17, 10, 13, 15, 14, 19, 20
3 The table on the right shows the scores out of 10 by a class of
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
2
6
7
9
3
2
1
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 3.1
doc11026
Finding the mean
SkillSHEET 3.2
doc11027
Finding the mode
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 3.3
doc11028
Finding the median
over a season.
Score
15
610
1115
1620
2125
2630
Class centre
Frequency
Digital docs
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1333
One variable
statistics
GC program
Casio
doc1334
UV Stats
GC program TI
doc1335
UV Stats
Cumulative
frequency
2
4
8
7
3
1
28, 29, 27, 28, 30, 28, 25, 27, 23, 28, 27, 28
a Calculate the range of the distribution.
b Calculate the interquartile range.
c Use the statistics function on your calculator to find the mean and standard deviation.
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 3.4
doc11137
Finding the range
6 The following table shows the number of cars sold in a car yard each
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 3.5
doc11029
Finding the
interquartile range
SkillSHEET 3.6
doc11030
Choosing the
appropriate
standard deviation
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1339
Boxplots
No. of cars
Frequency
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
3
5
9
15
11
8
1
7 The table below shows crowds at each match for a team during football season.
Crowd
Class centre
1000015000
1500020000
2000025000
2500030000
3000035000
a
b
c
d
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
5
8
6
4
3
8 WE6 Below are the scores of two rugby league teams over a period of 10 matches.
Team A: 14, 16, 16, 20, 10, 12, 18, 16, 18, 20
Team B: 28, 12, 32, 2, 0, 8, 40, 10, 12, 16
a For each team calculate the mean score.
b For each team calculate:
i the range
ii the interquartile range
iii the standard deviation.
c Comment on the difference between the performance of the two teams over this 10game period.
The information below is to be used for questions 9 to 12.
A basketball squad has eight players. The mean height of the eight players is 1.8 m, and the standard
deviation in the heights of the players is 0.1 m. In the first game the tallest player, who is 1.9 m tall, is
injured and replaced in the squad by a player who is 1.98 m tall.
9 MC The mean height of the basketball squad will now be:
A 1.8 m
B 1.81 m
C 1.86 m
10 MC As a result of the substitution:
A
B
C
D
D 1.96 m
Further development
13 a On a particular day, the number of cars that stopped at the drivein area at a McFast restaurant
during each hour (from 8.00 am until 11.00 pm) is shown below.
15 10 4 13 12 28 25 15 19 29 24 22 25 30 15
Find the interquartile range of this set of data.
b At the nearby Kirbys Fried Chicken restaurant on the same day, the number of cars stopping
during each hour that the restaurant was open is shown below.
6 10 15 22 18 11 13 14 21 17 25 20 19 10 17
Find the interquartile range of these data.
c What do these values suggest about the two restaurants?
14 Consider the following two groups of people.
a Calculate the mean height,
Group A
median height and mode height
160 170 170 170 170 170 180
e
f
b
c
Group B
160 170 170 110 230 170 180
15 aWorkers are arguing for a pay rise but the management of the factory claims that workers are well
paid because the mean salary of the factory is $23100. Are they being honest?
Position
Machine operator
Machine mechanic
Floor steward
Manager
Chief executive officer
Salary ($)
Number of employees
19000
21000
25000
63000
81000
50
15
10
4
1
b Suppose that you were representing the factory workers and had to write a short submission
in support of the pay rise. How could you explain the managements claim? Quote some other
statistics in favour of your case.
3C
In the previous section we studied the mean, median and mode as well as the range, interquartile range
and standard deviation of a data set. You need to be able to use this information to compare data sets as
well as to examine the effect that individual scores have on them.
Consider the case of a basketball team. There are five players on the team, and their heights are: 2.01 m,
2.05 m, 1.52 m, 2.03 m and 2.19 m.
The teams mean height is 1.96 m. Only one of the five players in the team is shorter than the mean
height. This is because there is one member of the data set whose height is much less than the others.
Ascore in a data set that is either much smaller or much greater than all others is called an outlier.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
In a small street there are five houses. The values of these houses are:
$450000, $465000, $465000, $480000, $495000.
A new house is built and valued at $750000. Describe the effect that this outlier has on the:
a mean
b median
c mode.
Chapter 3 Interpreting sets of data 59
WRITE
THINK
is built.
Total = $2355000
Mean = $2355000 5
= $471000
house is built.
Median = $465000
is built.
In the case of the five basketball players the outlier was fairly obvious. The player who was 1.52 m tall
was much shorter than the other four players. Worked example 7 was similar in that when the $750000
house is added to the data set it is much greater than all others. It is difficult to exactly define an outlier
for such a small data set, however.
The question has to be asked, however, how much above or below all the other scores does a single
score need to be to be defined as an outlier.
The definition of an outlier is:
For a score lower than all others the score must be lower than QL 1.5 IQR
For a score higher than all others the score must be greater than QU + 1.5 IQR
Consider the following data.
There are 10 horses in a race.
Shannon checks the form guide and notes the number of races each horse has previously won
0, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 11, 22.
There are two scores in the data set, 0 which is significantly below all others and 22 which is much
greater than all others. The question is, are they actually outliers?
For the data set QL = 5, QU = 9 and IQR = 4
The lower limit for an outlier will be QL 1.5 IQR
= 5 1.5 4
= 1
and so 0 is technically not an outlier.
Mean
Median
Mode
Range
Interquartile Range
Standard deviation
When considering the measures of location, removing the outlier had the greatest effect on the mean,
a small impact on the median and no impact on the modes.
With measures of spread, removing the outlier had a huge effect on the range, a significant effect on
the standard deviation and no impact on the interquartile range.
These are the effects that will generally occur in most cases although the addition or removal of an
outlier may have a small impact on the interquartile range in some cases.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
The data below shows the marks achieved by a group of 10 students in an exam.
21, 45, 46, 48, 48, 52, 54, 59, 61, 75
a Identify any outliers in the data set.
b
Explain the effect that the removal of the outlier will have on the mean and standard deviation
without actually calculating their values.
THINK
WRITE
interquartile range.
QL = 46 QU = 59
IQR = 13
mean.
In this course the display of information is an important skill. In particular we need to be able to display
two data sets in a way that allows for comparisons to be made.
interactivity
int2773
Backtoback
stemandleaf
plots
Stemandleaf plots
Two sets of data can be displayed on the same stemandleaf plot. This is done by having the stem in
the centre of the plot, with both sets of data back to back.
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
The data shown below display the marks of 15 students in both English and Maths.
English: 45 67 81 59 66 61 78 71 74
Maths:
85 71 49 66 64 68 75 71 69
Display the data in a backtoback stemandleaf plot.
THINK
91
60
60
63
49
80
58
87
62
54
70
59
WRITE
Key: 4  5 = 45
English
95
98
49
76210
034689
8410
115
057
Maths
This stemandleaf plot allows for both distributions to be easily seen, and for a judgement on the
skewness of the distribution to be made.
Boxandwhisker plots
interactivity
int0802
Box plot and
fivenumber
summary
From a boxandwhisker plot we are able to determine where certain percentages of the population lie.
There are 5 critical values in a boxandwhisker plot, they are:
The lowest score
The lower quartile
The median
The upper quartile
The highest score.
Between each of these critical points lies 25% of the population.
25%
25%
25%
Lowest score
Q1
25%
Median
Q3
Highest score
1.1 m
1.2 m
0.7 m
0.1 m
The boxandwhisker plot below shows the heights of a sample of plants in a nursery.
Find the percentage of plants that are
between:
a 1.1 m and 1.2 m
b 0.1 m and 1.1 m
c 0.7 m and 1.5 m.
Heights of plants (m)
1.5 m
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
THINK
WRITE
in height.
b 50% of plants lie between 0.1 m and 1.1 m
in height.
75% of plants lie between 0.7 m and 1.5 m
in height.
A single axis can be used to draw two boxandwhisker plots that will allow the comparison of the
median, range and interquartile range of two distributions to be compared.
interactivity
int2788
Parallel box plots
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
a The median will be the eighth score in each
distribution.
b To calculate the range of each distribution, subtract
a English median = 66
Maths median = 68
b English range = 91 45
= 46
Maths range = 87 49
= 38
d 1 Draw a scale.
2
English
Maths
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Marks
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
The table below shows the number of admissions to two hospitals, each month, over a oneyear
period. Display both sets of data on a radar chart.
Month
Hospital A
Hospital B
January
3
15
February
6
12
March
7
9
April
9
10
May
10
8
June
15
7
July
14
9
August
16
6
September
10
8
October
5
5
November
3
9
December
7
2
THINK
1
WRITE
Hospital A
Jan
Dec 20
15
Nov
10
5
Oct
0
Hospital B
Feb
March
April
Sep
May
Aug
July
June
Area charts are another method of comparing information. In an area chart, line graphs are stacked on
top of each other, thus allowing the area between each line graph to serve as the comparison between the
data sets.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
The table below shows the amount of rainfall, in millimetres, in Sydney, Melbourne and
Brisbane each month throughout a year.
January
February
March
April
May
June
Sydney
103
117.1
133.7
126.6
120.4
131.7
Melbourne
49
47.7
51.8
58.4
57.2
50.2
159.6
158.3
140.7
92.5
73.7
67.8
July
August
September
October
November
December
Sydney
98.2
79.8
69.9
77.5
83.1
79.6
Melbourne
48.7
50.6
59.4
67.7
60.2
59.9
Brisbane
56.5
45.9
45.7
75.4
97
133.3
Brisbane
Tutorial
int2419
Worked
example13
Exercise 3C
Brisbane
Rainfall (mm)
Melbourne
Sydney
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Ja
n
Fe
b
M
a
Apr
Mr
ay
Ju
n
Ju
Au l
g
Se
p
Oc
No t
v
De
c
THINK
1 WE7 A business records the average weekly takings for five weeks. The results are $50000,
2 Ian is shopping for a new pair of shoes. His chosen shoe can be found in five stores in a shopping
listed below.
Boys: 1.65, 1.71, 1.59, 1.74, 1.66, 1.69, 1.72, 1.66, 1.65, 1.64, 1.68, 1.74, 1.57, 1.59, 1.60
Girls: 1.66, 1.69, 1.58, 1.55, 1.51, 1.56, 1.64, 1.69, 1.70, 1.57, 1.52, 1.58, 1.64, 1.68, 1.67
Display this information in a backtoback stemandleaf plot.
6 The number of points scored in each match by two rugby union teams are shown below.
Team 1: 34, 32, 24, 25, 8, 18, 17, 23, 29, 40, 19, 42
Team 2: 23, 20, 35, 21, 46, 7, 9, 24, 27, 38, 41, 30
Display these data in a backtoback stemandleaf plot.
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 3.8
doc11032
Finding the mean,
median, mode
from a stemandleaf plot
7 WE11 The stemandleaf plot below is used to display the number of vehicles sold by the Ford and
Holden
39
111668
2279
5
0
1
2
3
8 A motoring organisation tests two different brands of tyres. Twenty tyres of each brand are tested to
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 3.9
doc11033
Drawing a boxandwhisker plot
find out the number of kilometres each tyre could travel before the tread had worn down. The results
are shown in the stemandleaf plot below.
Key: 1  2 = 12000 km 1*  7 = 17000 km
Brand A
98
43110
777665
4431100
Brand B
0*
1
1*
2
2*
0011224
5678889
0134
55
Draw two boxandwhisker plots on the same scale to display this information.
66 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
9 The figures below show the ratings of two radio stations each week over a threemonth period.
Station A: 9.2, 9.4, 9.2, 9.5, 9.7, 9.9, 10.1, 9.1, 8.8, 8.7, 9.0, 8.5, 9.3
Station B: 8.5, 8.1, 8.2, 8.9, 9.0, 9.2, 8.4, 8.7, 8.8, 10.5, 11.2, 11.4, 8.7
a Display the information in a backtoback stemandleaf plot.
b Use the stemandleaf plot to display both sets of data on the same boxandwhisker plot.
10 WE10 The boxandwhisker plot drawn below displays statistical data for two AFL teams over a
season.
Team A
Team B
50 60 70 80 90 100 110120130140 150 160
Scores
a Which team had the higher median score?
b What was the range of scores for each team?
c For each team calculate the interquartile range.
11 The two fivenumber summaries below show the performance of Emad and Larry on their
13 WE12 This radar chart shows the average daily maximum temperature
M
A
14 This radar chart shows the number of customers in two different supermarkets at twohour intervals.
Supermarket Y
Supermarket X
Midnight
2 am
10 pm 120
100
80
60
8 pm
4 am
40
20
0
6 pm
6 am
4 pm
2 pm
Noon
10 am
8 am
15 WE13 This area chart shows the average number of rainy days
Brisbane
Melbourne
Sydney
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Jan
Fe
b
Ma
Apr
Ma r
Juny
J
Auul
g
Se
p
Oc
No t
Dev
c
Further development
16 The stemandleaf plot drawn below shows the marks obtained by 20 students in both English and
Maths.
Key: 7  1 = 71
English
7410
9976653110
87752
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
Maths
17
24799
133466
4448
36
4
oftime.
State the percentage of years
in which the number of wet
days was between:
a 61 and 98
b 56 and 147
c 56 and 98.
32
56 61
98
147
18 The boxandwhisker plot below shows the crowds at various matches in the 2013 NRL season.
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 3.1
doc11034
6500
16 000 19 000
35 000
80 000
Number of people
a
b
c
d
e
f
What was the highest number of people who attended a match of the season?
What was the range for the season?
What was the interquartile range for the season?
What was the median crowd attendance?
What percentage of matches had a crowd less than 16000?
What percentage of matches had a crowd greater than 16000?
1. From the Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2 eBookPLUS access the spreadsheet Fast
FoodSales.
2. In cell B12 use the spreadsheets inbuilt statistical function to find McDonalds average daily sales.
[=AVERAGE(B4:B10)]
3. In cell B13 use the spreadsheets inbuilt statistical function to find the standard deviation of
McDonalds daily sales. [=STDEV(B4:B10)]
4. Under Edit, use the Fill and Right functions to copy these formulas for KFC and Pizza Hut.
5. Use the charting facility to draw an area chart of the figures presented.
3D
When multiple data displays are used to display similar sets of data, comparisons and conclusions can
then be drawn about the data.
Multiple displays such as stemandleaf plots and boxandwhisker plots allow for comparison of
statistics such as the median, range and interquartile range, while radar charts and area charts allow for
trends and overall quantities to be compared.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
WRITE
= 2.45 minutes
Afternoon: Median = (1.6 + 1.6) 2
= 1.6 minutes
Chapter 3 Interpreting sets of data 69
= 3.8 minutes
Afternoon: Range = 5.7 0.7
= 5 minutes
Twoway tables can also be a meaningful way of displaying data. A twoway table allows for two
variables to be compared.
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
A survey of 25000 people is taken. The sex of each respondant is noted and whether they are a
smoker or nonsmoker is also noted. The results are displayed in the twoway table below.
Smokers
Nonsmokers
Totals
Males
4125
8436
12561
Females
4592
7847
12439
Totals
8717
16283
25000
WRITE
4592
100%
12 439
= 36.9%
=
4592
100%
8717
= 52.7%
=
The most common method, however, for comparing data sets is to compare the summary statistics from
the data sets. The measures of location such as mean and median are used to compare the typical score
in a data set. Measures of spread such as range, interquartile range and standard deviation are used to
make assessments about the consistency of scores in the data set.
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
Tutorial
int2420
Worked
example 16
Below are the scores for two students in eight Mathematics tests throughout the year.
Jane: 45, 62, 64, 55, 58, 51, 59, 62
Pierre: 84, 37, 45, 80, 74, 44, 46, 50
aUse the statistics function on the calculator to find the mean and standard deviation for
eachstudent.
b Which student had the better overall performance on the eight tests?
c Which student was more consistent over the eight tests?
THINK
WRITE
a Jane: x = 57, n = 6
better overall.
Cross tabulation
Cross tabulation is used to compare the variables within a data set. Consider the case
of an icecream business that has stores in both Sydney and Melbourne.
To consider how the business is performing the owners needtoconsider both the city
and if the weather is hot or cool.
To cross tabulate a data set, each of the variables must be organised separately.
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
Over a oneweek period the following results were obtained from an icecream business that has
a store in both Sydney and Melbourne.
Week
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
City
Sydney
Melbourne
Sydney
Melbourne
Sydney
Melbourne
Sydney
Melbourne
Sydney
Melbourne
Sydney
Melbourne
Sydney
Melbourne
Temperature
Hot
Hot
Cool
Hot
Hot
Cool
Cool
Cool
Hot
Cool
Hot
Cool
Hot
Hot
Sales
178
201
152
186
212
98
125
101
284
111
214
147
201
222
Organise the data into a twoway table and interpret the results.
THINK
1
WRITE
Hot
Cool
Sydney
178, 212, 284, 214, 201 152, 125
Melbourne 201, 186, 222
98, 101, 111, 147
Icecream sales
Data
Hot
Mean
217.8
Standard deviation
35.5
Melbourne Mean
203
Standard deviation
14.8
City
Sydney
Cool
138.5
13.5
114.25
19.5
Exercise 3D
The owner of the icecream business can see that while the
Sydney business is doing slightly better than the Melbourne
business the weather is a much greater factor in the number of
icecreams that each store is likely tosell.
1 WE14 The stemandleaf plot drawn below shows the marks obtained by 20 students in both
4
5
6
7
8
9
Maths
17
24799
133466
4448
36
4
M
A
1200
1000
Rainfall (mm)
800
600
400
200
0
mer tumn Winter Spring
Sum Au
Western region
Southern region
North/Eastern
region
North/Western
region
6 WE15 The twoway table below shows the results of random breath testing by Sydney police over
one weekend. A driver is charged if they record a reading of 0.05% prescribed concentration of
alcohol (PCA).
Over 0.05 PCA
Below 0.05 PCA
Totals
Males
Females
Totals
26
962
988
7
743
750
33
1705
1738
Won
Lost
Totals
Ashley playing
38
42
10
18
Totals
48
12
60
answer.
8 To compare the performance of city and country students in the HSC, the number of students
achieving a UAI of at least 90 is studied in six city and six country high schools.
City
Country
Totals
UAI 90
58
61
119
UAI < 90
551
569
1120
Totals
609
630
1239
11 Aaron and Sunil open the batting for the local cricket team. The number of runs they have scored in
Band A
Drug 1
Drug 2
Totals
124
32
156
136
45
181
260
77
337
Of those patients who recovered, the percentage who were treated with drug 1 was:
A 46.3%
B 47.7%
C 69.0%
D 79.5%
14 MC The figures below show the ages of the mens and womens
champions at a tennis tournament.
Mens: 23, 24, 25, 26, 25, 25, 22, 23, 30, 24
Womens: 19, 27, 20, 26, 30, 18, 28, 25, 28, 22
Which of the following statements is correct?
A The mean age of the mens champions is greater than the
mean age of the womens champions.
B The range is greater among the mens champions than
among the womens champions.
C The interquartile range is greater among the mens champions
than among the womens champions.
D The standard deviation is greater among the mens champions
than among the womens champions.
15 WE17 When training Craig either runs quickly or jogs slowly over either 1 km or 2 km. After each
run he records his pulse rate. The results are shown in the table below.
Distance
Speed
Pulse rate
1 km
Quick
111
2 km
Slow
96
1 km
Slow
80
2 km
Quick
120
1 km
Quick
101
2 km
Slow
109
1 km
Slow
88
2 km
Quick
132
1 km
Quick
100
2 km
Slow
104
Crosstabulate the data to show the mean and standard deviation of Craigs pulse rate for each
distance and speed.
16 A rugby league team plays some matches at night and others during daylight hours. According to
many people this team is very dependent on its star player named Joey. At the end of the season
the coach records the results of day and night games and whether or not Joey plays. The results are
shown below.
(A win by six points is shown as a +6, while a loss by six points is shown as 6)
Day/Night
Joey?
Result
Day/Night
Joey?
Result
Day/Night
Joey?
Result
Day
Yes
+6
Night
No
Night
Yes
+5
Night
Yes
+12
Night
No
+6
Day
No
+14
Night
Yes
Day
Yes
+12
Night
No
+6
Day
Yes
+14
Day
Yes
+20
Day
No
10
Night
No
+2
Night
Yes
+10
Night
Yes
+4
a Crosstabulate these results to find the mean and standard deviation for day and night matches and
used to distribute the matches into the boxes. The results from a sample taken from each machine are
shown in the stemandleaf plot below.
Key: 5  1 = 51 5*  6 = 56
Machine A
Machine B
4 4
9 9 8 7 7 6 6 5 4* 5 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
43222211100000 5
0000011111223
5 5 5* 9
a Display the data from both machines on a boxandwhisker plot.
b Calculate the mean and standard deviation of the number of matches distributed from both
machines.
c Which machine is the more dependable? Explain your answer.
Chapter 3 Interpreting sets of data 75
Further development
18 MC The twoway table has had one figure copied incorrectly.
Agree
Disagree
Total
Men
45
72
117
Women
92
93
195
Total
137
175
19 The twoway table shows the results of a study into whether men or women prefer to live alone.
Women
21
39
Total
35
Frequency
By examining a graph, we can make judgements about the nature of a data set.
Consider the first graph shown on the right.
This graph is symmetrical and we can see that the mean, median and mode
areall equal to 3. The majority of scores are clustered around the mean. This is
anexample of a normal distribution.
We can compare the standard deviation of data sets by looking at such graphs.
The more clustered the data set, the smaller the standard deviation.
The second graph is still normally distributed with the mean, median and
mode still equal to 3. However, there are more scores which are further away
from the mean and, hence, the standard deviation of the data set is greater.
The third graph shows a data set where the scores are not clustered and there
are two modes at either end of the distribution.
In this example, although it is still symmetrical there are two modes, 1 and 5,
while the mean and median are still 3. The standard deviation in this distribution
is greater than either of the two previous examples as there are more scores
further away from the mean.
The mean and median can be seen from the graph only because it is
symmetrical.
Frequency
Skewness
Frequency
3E
Men
12
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 x
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
Tutorial
int2418
Worked
example 18
Frequency
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
5
4
3
2
1
0
WRITE
6 7 8 9 10
Score
b Mode = 7 and 9
c Mean = 8, median = 8
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Frequency
Frequency
When a graph is not symmetrical, the mean and median cannot be easily seen from the graph. Consider
the distribution in the graph below on the left.
The way in which the data are gathered to one end of the distribution is called the skewness. A greater
number of scores are distributed at the lower end of the distribution. In this case, the data are said to be
positively skewed. Similarly, when most of the scores are distributed at the upper end, the data are said
to be negatively skewed, as shown in the graph below on the right.
1 2 3 4 5 x
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 x
20
16
12
8
4
0
51
6
61 0
7
71 0
8
81 0
91 90
1
00
The distribution on the right shows the results of the Maths Trial
HSC at a certain school.
a What is the modal class?
b Describe the skewness of the data set shown on the right.
Frequency
WORKED EXAMPLE 19
Maths results
THINK
WRITE
Skewness
Frequency
Frequency
their values?
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
4
5
10 9
15 14
1
20 9
25 24
2
9
Exercise 3E
Number of goals
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
No. of goals
Frequency
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
4
4
4
4
6
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
Frequency
Number of goals
5 For each of the following dot plots describe the skewness of the distribution.
a
b
c
x
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10 x
x
0 1 2 3 4 5
6 For the stemandleaf plots drawn below describe the distribution
a Key 3  5 = 35
b Key 4  3 = 4.3 4*  6 = 4.6
Stem
2
3
4
5
6
Leaf
259
0012589
2289
09
0
Stem
2*
3
3*
4
4*
Frequency
1120
2130
3140
4150
5160
3
6
7
23
21
standard deviation?
Frequency
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Frequency
10
8
6
4
2
0
1 23 4 5 x
1 23 4 5 x
Frequency
Frequency
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
12345 x
1 2 3 4 5 x
Leaf
9
04
5588
00011344
555678899
positively skewed
negatively skewed
symmetrical
normally distributed
Frequency
A
B
C
D
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 x
a
b
c
d
No. of people
Frequency
150
51100
101150
151200
10
201250
10
11 Year 12 at Wallarwella High School sit exams in Chemistry and Maths. The results are shown in the
table below.
a
b
c
d
Mark
Chemistry
Maths
3140
4150
5160
6170
7180
8190
91100
Further development
13 MC Match the box plot with its most likely histogram.
B f
A f
C f
D f
14 For each of the following, write down whether the mean or the median would provide a better
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 3.2
doc11035
Summary
Grouped data
Grouped data is used when scores spread across too large a range to remain ungrouped for the
frequency table.
Groups should be organised so as to create 5 to 10 classes.
A column for class centre needs to be created. The class centre is calculated by averaging the highest
and lowest score in each class. The class centre is then used in all calculations.
For grouped data the cumulative frequency histogram and ogive are used to estimate the median,
quartiles and deciles from the data set.
Measures of location Measures of location give the typical score in the data set. The mean, median and mode are measures
and spread
of location.
x
n
where x = the mean, x = individual scores and n = number of scores.
Where data is in a table, the mean is found using:
x=
x=
fx
f
Two sets of data can be displayed on a stemandleaf plot by displaying the data back to back.
The summary statistics from two data sets can be displayed by using the same scale and drawing two
boxandwhisker plots.
Two sets of data can be displayed on a radar chart to display related trends over a period of time.
An area chart can be drawn to display several sets of data. The area in each section of the graph then
displays the quantities for comparison.
Comparison of
datasets
The summary statistics from two data sets can be compared from a stemandleaf plot or boxandwhisker plot.
Twoway tables are used to compare data where there are two variables involved.
Data are most commonly compared using the mean and standard deviation.
Data where there are two variables can be analysed by cross tabulation. To cross tabulate data it is
broken into each subset and each subset analysed separately.
Skewness
When the data are symmetrical, they are said to be normally distributed.
The more clustered the data are around the mean, the smaller the standard deviation.
When most of the data are below the mean, the data are said to be positively skewed.
When most of the data are above the mean, the data are said to be negatively skewed.
Chapter review
mult ip le
ch oice
1 The table below shows the number of patients seen each day by a local doctor.
No. of patients
Frequency
12
13
14
15
16
17
3
8
15
23
18
13
2 The data below show the number of people that live in each house in a small street.
4, 4, 5, 3, 2, 5, 11, 2
The outlier in this data set has:
A the greatest effect on the mean
C the greatest effect on the mode
3 The two data sets below show the number of goals scored in 15 matches by two soccer teams.
Frequency
Manchester: 0, 2, 1, 2, 1, 6, 0, 0, 1, 5, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1
Liverpool:
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 x
Number of goals
perweek.
45 hours
> 45 hours
Totals
Men
Women
Totals
132
69
201
128
34
162
260
103
363
The percentage of men who work greater than 45 hours per week is closest to:
B 34%
C 51%
D 67%
A 28%
5 The figures below show the number of attempts that the boys and girls in a Year 12 class take to get
1 The figures below show the marks obtained out of 100 in an exam by 50 Year 12 students on their
halfyearly exam.
68
58
64
80
69
a
b
c
d
e
91
67
65
68
80
92
64
84
81
87
55
64
53
80
57
95
63
85
79
96
59
59
52
82
51
55
91
52
81
71
54
95
56
78
96
69
76
82
98
61
S ho rt
a nsw er
92
78
90
50
71
23, 28, 25, 19, 17, 28, 29, 29, 22, 21, 35, 30, 22, 27, 26
a Calculate the mean age of the players in the squad.
b Find the median age of players in the squad.
3 The table below shows the number of house calls that a doctor has been required to make each day
Frequency
1
6
8
9
6
2
Copy the table into your workbook and add a cumulative frequency column.
Calculate the mean number of house calls per day.
Find the median number of house calls per day.
What is the modal number of house calls per day?
4 The set of figures shown below shows the number of pages in a daily newspaper every day for
twoweeks.
72, 68, 76, 80, 64, 60, 132, 72, 84, 88, 60, 56, 76, 140
a What is the mean number of pages in the newspaper?
b What is the range?
c What is the interquartile range?
d Use the statistics function on your calculator to find the standard deviation.
5 The table below shows the number of rescues that are made each weekend at a major beach.
Number of rescues
Frequency
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
2
5
12
3
0
1
3
Use the statistics function on your calculator to find the mean and the standard deviation of thesedata.
Chapter 3 Interpreting sets of data 83
6 The table below shows the customer waiting time at 10 am each morning at a bank over an 8week
period.
Waiting time
01 minute
12 minutes
23 minutes
34 minutes
45 minutes
56 minutes
a
b
c
d
Cumulative frequency
7 The figures below show the marks obtained by 20 students in English and Maths.
English: 56, 45, 57, 56, 65, 82, 74, 80, 91, 84, 68, 52, 67, 64, 60, 66, 74, 77, 77, 66
Maths: 65, 66, 58, 60, 61, 70, 74, 66, 69, 68, 71, 55, 51, 49, 50, 71, 99, 85, 70, 66
a Display the data in a backtoback stemandleaf plot.
b For each subject find the median.
c For each subject state the range.
d For each subject find the interquartile range.
8 Betty runs a surf and ski shop. The table below shows the monthly sales of both types of equipment.
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
9 The data below give the cost per minute of a longdistance telephone call with three companies.
Telecomm
Omtus
Tel One
21c
18c
12c
25c
15c
12c
17.5c
17.5c
17.5c
Day
Economy
Night
11 The figure below shows a boxandwhisker plot showing the average number of weekly car sales
a
b
c
d
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Average weekly car sales
12 The twoway table below compares the number of men and women who are right and lefthanded.
Righthanded
Lefthanded
Totals
Men
158
17
175
Women
172
15
187
Totals
330
32
362
female lefthanders?
13 Hsiang compares her marks in 10 English exams and 10 Maths exams.
English: 76, 74, 80, 77, 73, 70, 75, 37, 72, 76
Maths: 80, 56, 92, 84, 65, 58, 55, 62, 70, 71
a Calculate Hsiangs mean mark in each subject.
b Calculate the range of marks in each subject.
c Calculate the standard deviation of marks in each subject.
d Based on the above data, in which subject would you say that Hsiang performs more consistently?
Chapter 3 Interpreting sets of data 85
14 Kelly is interested in the surf at his local beach. He wants to reference the size of the swell against
the direction of the wind, and if the weather is wet or dry. The results are shown in the table below.
Weather
Wind
Swell (m)
Weather
Wind
Swell (m)
Wet
North
1.5
Wet
South
1.8
Dry
South
1.4
Wet
South
2.6
Dry
East
2.3
Wet
North
1.8
Dry
West
1.0
Dry
South
1.6
Dry
West
0.9
Dry
East
1.9
Dry
North
1.7
Wet
North
1.7
Wet
West
1.2
Dry
West
1.2
Wet
South
1.4
Dry
North
1.9
15 The figures below show the number of points scored by a basketball player in six matches of a
tournament.
36, 2, 38, 41, 27, 33
16 Consider the data set represented by the frequency histogram on the right.
a Are the data symmetrical?
b Can the mean and median of the data be seen?
c What is the mode of the data?
Frequency
15 16 17 18 19 20 x
17 The table below shows the number of attempts that 20 members of a Year 12 class took to obtain a
drivers licence.
Number of attempts
Frequency
11
1 The data below show the weekly income among ten Year 12 boys and girls.
Boys: $80, $110, $75, $130, $90, $125, $100, $95, $115, $150
Girls: $50, $80, $75, $90, $90, $60, $250, $80, $100, $95
a Calculate the median of both sets of data.
b Calculate the range of both sets of data.
c Calculate the interquartile range of both sets of data.
d Display both sets of data on a boxandwhisker plot.
e Use the statistics function on the calculator to find the mean and standard deviation of both
setsofdata.
f Discuss whether the boys or girls have a more consistent average weekly income.
2 In the week leading up to the NRL grand final, Kylie records the number of points scored by both
teams in each game throughout the season and displays the information on the stemandleaf plot
below.
Key: 1  8 = 18
Sharks
8
84422
88644432200
886200
862
a
b
c
d
Bulldogs
0
1
2
3
4
5558889
0022226668889
000222
Digital doc
Test Yourself
doc11036
Chapter 3
ICT activities
3B Measures of location and speed
interactivities
int0084: Measures of centre. (page 54)
int2352: Measures of centre. (page 54)
int2362: Measures of centre. (page 54)
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 3.1 (doc11026): Finding the mean. (page 57)
SkillSHEET 3.2 (doc11027): Finding the mode. (page 57)
SkillSHEET 3.3 (doc11028): Finding the median. (page 57)
EXCEL Spreadsheet (doc1333): One variable statistics. (page 57)
GC program Casio (doc1334): UV Stats. (page 57)
GC program TI (doc1335): UV Stats. (page 57)
SkillSHEET 3.4 (doc11137): Finding the range. (page 57)
SkillSHEET 3.5 (doc11029): Finding the interquartile range. (page 58)
SkillSHEET 3.6 (doc11030): Choosing the appropriate standard
deviation. (page 58)
EXCEL Spreadsheet (doc1339): Boxplots. (page 58)
3ESkewness
Tutorial
WE18 int2418: Learn how to determine skewness. (page 76)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 3.2 (doc11035): Apply your knowledge of statistics to
problems. (page 80)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself (doc11036): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 87)
Answers chapter 3
Grouped data
Frequency
5<10
7.5
  
11
10<15
12.5
19
15<20
17.5

20<25
22.5

25<30
27.5

Total
40
Hours of TV watched
per week
Frequency
Class
interval
Class
centre
Tally
145<150
147.5

1215
13.5

1619
17.5
 
2023
21.5
  
11
2427
25.5
13
2831
29.5

7.5
17.5
27.5
12.5
22.5
Number of hours
Class
interval
Class
centre
Tally
157.5
 
160<165
162.5
 
165<170
167.5

3235
33.5
170<175
172.5

3639
37.5
175<180
177.5
Total
40
Total
30
c 16
d
146.5

148<151
149.5

 
151<154
152.5

Total
32
154<157
155.5

157<160
158.5

160<163
161.5

163<166
164.5

166<169
167.5

169<172
170.5

172<175
173.5
175<178
176.5
178<181
179.5
Total
30
59

1014
12
  
1519
17
2024
22
3 a
Class
interval
Class
centre
Tally
09
4.5
 
1019
14.5
 
2029
24.5
 
3039
34.5

4049
44.5

5059
54.5
  
12
6069
64.5
 
7079
74.5

4
2
Total
56
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
e
Frequency

Frequency
5
4
3
2
1
0
145<148
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
6 a Frequency column: 3, 7, 8, 3, 3, 3, 2, 1
b
12
 
Class
centre
84.5
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Class
interval
04
8089

Tally Frequency
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
24.5 25.5 26.5 27.5 28.5 29.5 30.5 31.5
Forearm length (cm)
7 a Frequency column: 2, 5, 8, 8, 5, 2
b, c
8
6
4
2
10.75 11.25 11.75 12.25 12.75 13.25
Time (s)
8 a Frequency
column:
1, 2, 4, 6,
4, 2, 1
b Frequency column:
Heights of Year 9 students
7, 10, 3
10
Fat content of
packs of bacon
8
6
4
2
Discuss in class.
4.5
Frequency
155<160
Frequency
152.5
150<155
Frequency
Frequency
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Tally
Frequency
Tally
Class
centre
Frequency
Class
Class
interval centre
Class
interval
Frequency
1 a
5 a
Frequency
Exercise 3A
4 a
Frequency
0 10 20 30
Fat content (%)
Cumulative frequency
9 22
10 0.6
11 a 40
6 a 6
b i9
iiLower quartile = 8,
Exercise 3C
iii2
c iMean = 9.04
iin = 1.44
d
upper quartile = 10
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
7 8
median
mode.
2 a $232
b The greatest effect will be on the mean
9 10 11 12
7 a
50 55 60 65 70 75 80
Cumulative frequency
b i62.5
iiQ1 = 58, Q3 = 67
iii9
iv14
v 6
12
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
500010000
1000015000 12500
1500020000 17500
13
2000025000 22500
19
2500030000 27500
23
3000035000 32500
26
15
610
1115
13
14
1620
18
21
2125
23
24
2630
28
25
Cumulative frequency
b 14.6
c
Median = 14
25
20
15
10
5
0
8 13 18 23 28
Class centre
5 a 7
b 1
c Mean = 27.3, n = 1.7
1256788
1.6
4467899
4421
1.7
6 Key: 1  8 = 18
Team 1
Team 2
0
1
9543
01347
42
058
20
16
Measures of location
Cumulative
Class
centre Frequency frequency
1.5
987
IQR = 24
Score
997
98665540
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Class interval
andspread
1 a 1.6
b 1
2 a Mean = 49,median = 44,
mode = no mode
b Mean = 3.4,median = 3.5,
mode = 1
c Mean = 9.575,median = 9.7,
mode = 9.8, 9.9
d Mean = 15.2,median = 15,
mode = 13, 15
3 a 6.5
b 6.5
c 7
4 a
b cf
Exercise 3B
Class
Cumulative
centre Frequency frequency
Crowd
75%
50%
25%
0
Q1 Q2
Q3
Crowd numbers
c 9500
d x = 21000, n = 6300
8 a Team A = 16, Team B = 16
b iTeam A = 10, Team B = 40
iiTeam A = 4, Team B = 20
iiiTeam A = 3.1, Team B = 12.5
c Both teams had the same mean score.
9 B
10 A
11 A
12 C
13 a 12
b 9
c The IQRs (middle 50%) are similar
79
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Scale
Brand A
Brand B
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Scale
9 a Key: 8  5 = 8.5
Station A
875
Station B
8
12457789
975432210
02
10
11
24
Station A
Station B
10 a Team A
b Team A: range = 60, Team B: range = 90
c Team A: interquartile range = 13,
11 a
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Scale
Exercise 3D
15
15
Month
January
12
13
February
12
14
March
13
15
April
12
12
11
May
12
14
10
June
12
14
July
10
15
August
10
16
September
10
15
October
12
14
November
11
12
10
December
12
11
12
than in English.
2 a
Pulse rate
Distance
1 km
2 km
104
Mean
1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 Scale
Quick
Standard
deviation
Boys
Girls
Data
Mean
16 a
84
5.0
126
Standard
deviation
Slow
4
Yes
No
Data
Mean
5.4
Day
13
Night
5.8
Standard
deviation
5.8
5.5
Mean
2.5
12
4.7
Standard
deviation
Men
Women
Total
Live alone
12
23
35
Share with
friends
16
25
21
39
60
Total
Exercise 3E
Skewness
1 a Yes
b 3
c Yes, both equal 3
2 a No
b 59 and 2024
c No
3 a
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Number of goals
b Yes
c 0 and 5
d Yes, both equal 2.5
4 a 12
b Positively skewed
5 a Negatively skewed
b Symmetrical
c Positively skewed
6 a Positively skewed
b Negatively skewed
7 a
25
20
15
10
5
0
103
RL Results
Joey
42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 Scale
11
2
21 0
3
31 0
4
41 0
5
51 0
6
0
Machine B
Number of goals
b Negatively skewed
8 A
9 A
10 a
10
8
6
4
2
0
1
51 50
10 100
1
15 150
1
20 200
1
25
0
Supermarket Y, range = 90
b Both supermarkets follow a similar
pattern. There are very few customers
from midnight to 6 am. Then the
number peaks between 10 am and noon,
remaining fairly constant until 8 pm,
when the number reduces.
Machine A
Frequency
c 21.7
17 a
Frequency
12 C
13 a July
b 13
14 a Supermarket X, range = 111
5 a Southern
b Western
c Similar peaks and troughs
6 a 43.2%
b 1.90%
c 0.93%
d 2.63%
e More evident in males with three times
Frequency
Number of people
b No
c 151200 and 201250
d Negatively skewed
11 a Chemistry is symmetrical.
b Maths is negatively skewed.
Chapter Review
Multiple choice
1 B, C and D
2 A
3 A
4 B
5 C
Short answer
Marks
Frequency
50<60
13
60<70
11
70<80
80<90
10
90100
10
b 73.6
c
Marks
55<60
60<65
65<70
70<75
75<80
80<85
85<90
90<95
95100
12
minutes
1.5
23
minutes
2.5
10
15
34
minutes
3.5
13
28
45
minutes
4.5
37
56
minutes
5.5
40
b x = 3.35, n = 1.17
c
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Q3
English
15
24
30
32
Maths
5
4
9
7662
5
0158
8766540
6
01566689
7744
7
00114
420
8
5
1
9
9
b English: median = 66.5,
Maths: median = 66
c English: range = 46, Maths: range = 50
d English: interquartile range = 18.5,
Maths: interquartile range = 11.5
8 a
Surf sales
Ski sales
D $25 000 J
frequency
$20 000
$15 000
$10 000
$5 000
$0
F
M
A
M
A
Tel One
Home
Away
Scale
12 a 9.7%
b 8.0%
c No significant difference
13 a English: x = 71, maths: x = 69.3
b English: range = 43, maths: range = 37
c English: n = 11.64, maths: n = 11.96
d English, because of the lower standard
Swell (m)
d 2
7 a Key: 5  6 = 56
Omtus
Company
deviation
Q1
10
14
0.51.52.53.54.55.5 x
Waiting time (minutes)
d 73.5
e In this example there is not much
Frequency
Night
20
0
Telecomm
0.5
75%
Economy
Day
30
01
minute
25%
50<55
Waiting Class
Cumulative
time
centre Frequency frequency
Cumulative frequency
1 a
b 2.59375
c 3
d 3
4 a 80.57
b 84
c 20
d 24.4
5 x = 10.3, n = 1.64
6 a
30
00
60
00
90
12 00
0
15 00
0
18 00
0
21 00
0
24 00
0
27 00
0
30 00
0
33 00
0
36 00
00
0
Weather
Wet
Data
Mean
Dry
1.67
1.93
Standard 0.12
deviation
0.50
Mean
1.8
1.5
2.1
1.03
Standard 0.1
deviation
0.1
0.2
0.12
15 a 29.5
b 34.5
c Outlier reduces the mean greatly.
16 a Yes
b Both are 17.5.
c 17 and 18
17 a
Frequency
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6
Class centre
b Positively skewed
18 A histogram that shows more columns to
Extended response
Boys
Girls
20
40
60
80
10
0
12
0
14
0
16
0
18
0
20
0
24
0
26
0
Scale
Chapter 4
4A
zscores
Symmetrical distributions
A normal distribution is a statistical occurrence where a data set of scores
is symmetrically distributed about the mean. Most continuous variables in
a population, such as height, mass and time, are normally distributed. In a
normal distribution, the frequency histogram is symmetrical and begins to
take on a bell shape as shown by the figure on the right.
x
The normal distribution is symmetrical about the mean, which has the
same value as the median and mode in this distribution. The graph of a normal distribution will extend
symmetrically in both directions and will always remain above the xaxis.
The spread of the normal distribution will depend on the standard deviation. The lower the standard
deviation, the more clustered the scores will be around the mean. The figure below, on the left, shows a
normal distribution with a low standard deviation, while the figure below, on the right, shows a normal
distribution with a much greater standard deviation.
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int0257
The normal
distribution
Standardised scores
To gain a comparison between a particular score and the rest of the population, we use the zscore. The
zscore (or standardised score) indicates the position of a particular score in relation to the mean. zscores
are a very important statistical measure and later in the chapter some of their uses will be explained.
A zscore of 0 indicates that the score obtained is equal to the mean, a negative zscore indicates that
the score is below the mean and a positive zscore indicates a score above the mean.
The zscore measures the distance from the mean in terms of the standard deviation. A score that is
exactly one standard deviation above the mean has a zscore of 1. A score that is exactly one standard
deviation below the mean has a zscore of 1.
To calculate a zscore we use the formula:
xx
z=
s
where x is the score, x is the mean and s is the standard deviation.
Chapter 4 The normal distribution 95
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
In an IQ test the mean IQ is 100 and the standard deviation is 15. Dales test results give an IQ
of 130. Calculate this as a zscore.
THINK
1
WRITE
z=
xx
s
130 100
15
=2
=
Dales zscore is 2, meaning that his IQ is exactly two standard deviations above the mean.
Not all zscores will be whole numbers; in fact most will not be whole numbers. A whole
numberindicates only that the score is an exact number of standard deviations above or below
the mean.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
A sample of professional basketball players gives the mean height as 192 cm with a standard
deviation of 12 cm. Dieter is 183 cm tall. Calculate Dieters height as a zscore.
Tutorial
int2438
Worked example 2
THINK
1
WRITE
z=
xx
s
183 192
12
= 0.75
=
The negative zscore in Worked example 2 indicates that Dieters height is below the mean but, in this
case, by less than one standard deviation.
When examining zscores, care must be taken to use the appropriate value for the standard
deviation.If examining a population, the population standard deviation (n) should be used and if
a sample has been taken, the sample standard deviation (n 1 or sn) should be used. Remember:
Your graphics calculator displays all of this information once data is stored and calculated using the
statisticsfunction.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
To obtain the average number of hours of study done by students in her class per week, Kate
surveys 20 students and obtains the following results.
12 18 15 14 9 10 13 12 18 25
15 10 3 21 11 12 14 16 17 20
a Calculate the mean and standard deviation (correct to 3 decimal places).
b
Robert does 16 hours of study each week. Express this as a zscore based on the above results.
(Give your answer correct to 3 decimal places.)
THINK
WRITE
x = 14.25
sn = 4.753
xx
s
16 14.25
=
4.753
= 0.368
b z=
Method 2: Technologyenabled
a 1 From the MENU select STAT.
Exercise 4A
zscores
1 WE1 In a Maths exam the mean score is 60 and the standard deviation is 12. Chifunes mark is 96.
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 4.1
doc11037
Finding the mean
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 4.2
doc11038
Finding the
standard deviation
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 4.3
doc11039
Choosing the
appropriate
standard deviation
19
17
18
21
21
20
20
17
17
19
19
18
21
22
22
22
21
20
12 A garage has 50 customers who have credit accounts with them. The amount spent by each credit
Class centre
Frequency
2
8
19
15
6
0< 20
20< 40
40< 60
60< 80
80< 100
zscore of 0?
b In a distribution the mean score is 60. If a mark of 76 corresponds to a standardised score of 2,
C 0.5
D 1
D 12
16 MC In a normal distribution, a score of 4.6 corresponds to a zscore of 2.4. It is known that the
standard deviation of the distribution is 0.8. The mean of the distribution is:
A 2.2
B 2.68
C 6.52
D 6.8
95
52
63
57
45
64
48
75
78
81
75
60
80
65
66
70
60
65
58
63
59
62
62
49
Subject
English
Maths
Biology
Computing studies
Visual arts
Music
Lukes mark
Mean
Standard deviation
72
72
76
60
60
50
60
55
64
70
50
58
12
13
8
5
15
10
Further development
19 To qualify for an elite sports camp an applicant must be able to run 3 km with a zscore less than
21 The following set of scores represent the ages of the members of a choir.
23
45 32 70 61 44 49 22 36 20
Find the mean and standard deviation of the data set.
Convert each of the scores to a zscore.
What is the mean and the standard deviation of the zscores found in part b?
Explain why you can give the answer to part c without doing any calculations.
22 Ten people are surveyed for their weekly income and the results are shown below.
$485, $623, $312, $1754, $86, $740, $595, $700, $490, $642
a Find the mean and standard deviation of the data set.
b Which scores in the data set could be identified as outliers?
c Find the zscore for any scores which you have identified as outliers.
23 John obtained a mark of 76 in an exam. The standard deviation on this test was 8 and Johns score
corresponded to a zscore of 1.
Find the zscore for each of the following students.
a Anthea, who scored 60
b Bianca, who scored 88
c Carl, who scored 68
d Demetria, who scored 40
24 The mean height for an adult male is 174 cm with a standard deviation of 8.4 cm. Barney, who is
165cm tall, is generally considered by most people to be short. Fred, who is 187 cm tall, is generally
considered by most people to be tall. Compare Freds tallness with Barneys shortness.
a
b
c
d
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 4.1
doc11040
4B
Comparison of scores
An important use of zscores is to compare scores from different data sets. Suppose that in your Maths exam
your result was 74 and in English your result was 63. In which subject did you achieve the better result?
It may appear, at first glance, that the Maths result is better, but this does not take into account the
difficulty of the test. A mark of 63 on a difficult English test may in fact be a better result than 74 if it
was an easy Maths test.
The only way that we can fairly compare the results is by comparing each result with its mean and
standard deviation. This is done by converting each result to a zscore.
xx
z=
If for Maths x = 60 and s = 12, then
s
74 60
=
12
= 1.17
xx
And if for English x = 50 and s = 8, then z =
s
63 50
=
8
= 1.625
The English result is better because the higher zscore shows that the 63 is higher in comparison to the
mean of each subject.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Tutorial
int2439
Worked example 4
Janine scored 82 in her Physics exam and 78 in her Chemistry exam. In Physics, x = 62 and
s=10, while in Chemistry, x = 66 and n = 5.
a Write both results as a standardised score. b Which is the better result? Explain your answer.
THINK
WRITE
xx
xx
Chemistry: z =
s
s
82 62
78 66
=
=
10
5
= 2
= 2.4
a Physics: z =
zscore.
In each example the circumstances must be read carefully to see whether a higher or lower zscore is
better. For example, if we were comparing times for runners over different distances, the lower zscore
would be the better one.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
In international swimming the mean time for the mens 100 m freestyle is 50.46 s with a
standard deviation of 0.6 s. For the 200 m freestyle, the mean time is 1 min 51.4 s with a
standard deviation of 1.4 s. Sams best time is 49.92 s for 100 m and 1 min 49.3 for 200 m. At a
competition Sam can enter only one of these events. Which event should he enter?
THINK
WRITE
xx
xx
200 m: z =
s
s
49.92 50.46
109.3 111.4
=
=
1.4
0.6
= 0.9
Exercise 4B
100 m: z =
= 1.5
Comparison of scores
1 WE4 Kens English mark was 75 and his Maths mark was 72. In English the mean was 65 with a
standard deviation of 8, while in Maths the mean mark was 56 with a standard deviation of 12.
a Convert the mark in each subject to a zscore.
b In which subject did Ken perform better? Explain your answer.
2 In the first Maths test of the year the mean mark was 60 and the standard deviation was 12. In the
second test the mean was 55 and the standard deviation was 15. Barbara scored 54 in the first test
and 50 in the second test. In which test did Barbara do better? Explain your answer.
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1412
One variable
statistics
3 MC The table below shows the mean and standard deviation in four subjects.
Subject
English
Maths
Biology
Geography
Mean
60
65
62
52
Standard deviation
12
8
16
7.5
Kellys marks were English 66, Maths 70, Biology 50 and Geography 55. In which subject did Kelly
achieve her best result?
A English
B Maths
C Biology
D Geography
4 MC The table below shows the mean and standard deviation of house prices in four Australian
cities. The table also shows the cost of building the same threebedroom house in each of the cities.
City
Sydney
Melbourne
Adelaide
Brisbane
Mean
Standard deviation
Cost
$230000
$215000
$185000
$190000
$30000
$28000
$25000
$20000
$215000
$201000
$160000
$165000
D Brisbane
Mean
Standard deviation
Matts time
8 Jan.
15 Jan.
22 Jan.
29 Jan.
10.21
10.48
10.14
10.22
0.15
0.28
0.09
0.12
10.12
10.30
10.05
10.11
D 29 Jan.
8 MC In which of the following subjects did Alyssa achieve her best standardised result?
Subject
Alyssas mark
Mean
Standard deviation
English
Maths
Biology
Music
54
50
60
53
60
55
65
62
12
15
8
9
A English
B Maths
C Biology
D Music
9 Shun Mei received a mark of 64 in her Maths exam and 63 in her Chemistry exam. To determine
how well she actually did on the exams, Shun Mei sampled 10 people who sat for the same exams
and the results are shown below.
Maths:
Chemistry:
56
55
45
63
82
39
90
92
41
84
32
46
65
47
60
50
55
58
69
62
a Calculate the mean and standard deviation for Shun Meis sample in each subject.
b By converting each of Shun Meis marks to zscores, state the subject in which she performed best.
10 Ricardo scored 85 on an entrance test for a job. The test has a mean score of 78 and a standard
deviation of 8. Kory sits a similar exam and scores 27. In this exam the mean is 18 and the standard
deviation is 6. Who is better suited for the job? Explain your answer.
11 a Cynthia scored a mark of 65 in English where the mean was 55 and the standard deviation is 8. In
Maths Cynthia scored 66 where the mean was 52 and the standard deviation 10. Convert the mark
in each subject to a zscore.
b In which subject did Cynthia achieve her best result?
102 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
Further development
12 Eamon is a swimmer who can swim 100m in 55s at the state championships. The mean time for his
age group at the championships is 58s with a standard deviation of 1.5 s. Stephanie swims 100 m in
61.5s, when the mean is 63s with a standard deviation of 1 s.
Whose performance is better? Explain your answer.
13 The mean price of a litre of milk is $1.30 with a standard deviation of 10c, and the mean price of a
loaf of bread is $3.10 with a standard deviation of 25c.
Joes convenience store charges $1.55 for a litre of milk and $3.70 for a loaf of bread. Determine
which of the milk and the bread is relatively more expensive.
14 The average number of tourists visiting Cairns each year is 240000 with a standard deviation of
15000. During 2009 the number of visitors fell to 205000.
a Find this number of visitors as a standardised score. (Give your answer correct to 2 decimal
places.)
b What does this tell you about the number of visitors for 2009?
c Suggest some possible reasons for this result.
15 The mean number of visitors on a weekday to a theme park is 2000 and on the weekend is 3500. The
number of visitors on a particular Saturday is 4550 and this corresponds to a zscore of 1.6.
a Find the standard deviation for the number of weekend visitors.
b On weekdays the standard deviation is 345. Calculate the equivalent number of
weekday visitors.
16 A liquid dispenser on a production line is responsible for pouring motor oil into 1.5L containers.
The mean amount poured is 1.5L and the standard deviation is 8mL.
To test that the each dispenser is working properly, a sample of five containers is taken and the
contents of each measured. If any container has a zscore of greater than 2.5 or less than 1.5, the
machine is closed down until further testing takes place.
From a sample of five the following results were obtained: 1490mL, 1508mL, 1519mL, 1486mL
and 1500mL.
Determine if the machine needs to be closed down for further testing.
17 Jerry and Sammy are brothers. Jerry lives in London where the mean January temperature is 8C
and the standard deviation is 1.5C. Sammy lives in Sydney where the mean January temperature is
27C with a standard deviation of 2.8C.
During a telephone call Jerry comments on how warm it is in London when the temperature is 11C
and Sammy says that it is cool in Sydney at 22C.
Explain what each of the two brothers mean by their comments, and compare the warmth in London
with Sydneys cool weather.
4C
Digital doc
Investigation
Comparison of
subjects
doc1413
Distribution of scores
In any normal distribution, the percentage of scores that lie within a certain number of standard
deviations of the mean is always the same, provided that the sample is large enough. This is true
irrespective of the values of the mean and standard deviation.
In any normal distribution, approximately 68% of the values will lie
within one standard deviation of the mean. This means 68% of scores
will have a zscore between 1 and 1. This can be shown on a normal
68%
curve as:
3 2 1
interactivity
int0182
The 689599.7%
rule of zscores
99.7%
0
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Tutorial
int2440
Worked example 6
Experience has shown that the scores obtained on a commonly used IQ test can be assumed to
be normally distributed with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Approximately what
percentage of the distribution lies:
a between 85 and 115? b between 70 and 130? c between 55 and 145?
THINK
WRITE
85 100
115 100
z =
15
15
= 1
= 1
68% of the scores will lie between
85 and 115.
70 100
130 100
z =
bz =
15
15
= 2
= 2
95% of the scores will lie between
70 and 130.
55 100
145 100
z =
c z =
15
15
= 3
= 3
99.7% will lie between 55 and 145.
az =
We can also make statements about the percentage of scores that lie in the tails of the distribution by
using the symmetry of the distribution and remembering that 50% of scores will have a zscore greater
than 0 and 50% will have a zscore less than 0.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
In an exam x = 60 and s = 12. What percentage of candidates in the exam scored above 84?
THINK
1
Calculate 84 as a zscore.
WRITE
xx
s
84 60
=
12
= 2
z =
2.5%
60
4
2.5%
95%
84
Some important terminology is used in connection with this rule. We can say that if 95% of scores have
a zscore between 2 and 2, then if one member of the population is chosen, that member will very
probably have a zscore between 2 and 2.
104 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
If 99.7% of the population has a zscore between 3 and 3, then if one member of that population is
chosen, that member will almost certainly have a zscore between 3 and 3.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
A machine produces tyres that have a mean thickness of 12 mm, with a standard deviation
of 1 mm. If one tyre that has been produced is chosen at random, within what limits will the
thickness of the tyre:
a very probably lie? b almost certainly lie?
THINK
WRITE
a If z = 2
If z
x
x = x 2s
= 12 2 1
= 10
=
=
=
=
2
x + 2s
12 + 2 1
14
If z
x = x 3s
x
= 12 3 1
= 9
=
=
=
=
3
x + 3s
12 + 3 1
15
Because it is almost certain that a member of the data set will lie within three standard deviations of the
mean, if a possible member of the data set is found to be outside this range one should suspect a problem.
For example, if a machine is set to deposit 200 mL of liquid into a bottle, with a standard deviation
of 5 mL, and then a bottle is found to have contents of 220 mL, one would expect there to be a problem
with the settings on the machine.
This knowledge of zscores is then used in industry by the quality control department. In the above
example a sample of bottles would be tested and the zscores recorded. The percentage of zscores
between 1 and 1, 2 and 2, and 3 and 3 are checked against the above rule. If these percentages are
not correct, the machinery needs to be checked for faults.
Exercise 4C
Distribution of scores
1 WE6 The temperature on a January day in a city is normally distributed with a mean of 26 and
standard deviation equal to 13. What percentage of marks on the exam were between:
a 44 and 70
b 31 and 83
c 18 and 96?
3 The mean thickness of bolts produced by a machine is 2.3 mm, with a standard deviation of
0.04mm. What percentage of bolts will have a thickness between 2.22 mm and 2.38 mm?
4 WE7 Experience has shown that the scores obtained on a commonly used IQ test can be assumed
to be normally distributed with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. What percentage of
scores lie above 115?
5 The heights of young women are normally distributed with a mean x = 160 cm and a standard
deviation equal to 8 cm. What percentage of the women would you expect to have heights:
b greater than 168 cm
c less than 136 cm?
6 The age at which women give birth to their first child is normally distributed with x = 27.5 years
and n = 3.2 years. From these data we can conclude that about 95% of women have their first child
between what ages?
Chapter 4 The normal distribution 105
7 Fill in the blanks in the following statements. For any normal distribution:
a 68% of the values have a zscore between ___ and ___
b ___% of the values have a zscore between 2 and 2
c ___% of the values have a zscore between ___ and ___.
8 MC Medical tests indicate that the amount of an antibiotic needed to destroy a bacterial infection
in a patient is normally distributed with x = 120 mg and n = 15 mg. The percentage of patients who
would require more than 150 mg to clear the infection is:
A 0.15%
B 2.5%
C 5%
D 95%
9 MC The mean mark on a test is 55, with a standard deviation of 10. The percentage of students who
C 34%
D 95%
10 In a factory, soft drink is poured into cans such that the mean amount of soft drink is 500 mL with
astandard deviation of 2 mL. Cans with less than 494 mL of soft drink are rejected and not sold to
the public. What percentage of cans are rejected?
11 The distribution of IQ scores for the inmates of a certain prison is approximately normal with a mean
120 (mm of mercury) and a standard deviation of 10 (mm of mercury). Determine the percentage of
women with a systolic blood pressure:
a between 100 and 140
b greater than 130
c between 120 and 130
d between 90 and 110
e between 110 and 150.
13 WE8 The mass of packets of chips is normally distributed with x = 100g and n = 2.5g. If I
purchase a packet of these chips, between what limits will the mass of the packet:
b almost certainly lie?
14 The heights of army recruits are normally distributed about a mean of 172cm and a standard
deviation of 4.5cm. A volunteer is chosen from the recruits. The height of the volunteer will very
probably lie between what limits?
15 A machine is set to deposit a mean of 500g of washing powder into boxes with a standard deviation
of 10g. When a box is checked, it is found to have a mass of 550g. What conclusion can be drawn
from this?
16 The average mass of babies is normally distributed with a mean of 3.8kg and a standard deviation of
0.4kg. A newborn baby will almost certainly have a mass between what limits?
Further development
17 The force required to tear a piece of fabric is normally distributed. A sample of the fabric is tested
and it is found that the mean breaking force was 6N with a standard deviation of 0.15N.
Write down the values between which:
a 68% of the scores would lie
b 95% of the scores would lie
c 99.7% of the scores would lie.
18 MC A distribution of scores is normally distributed with a mean of 42. It is known that 68% of
C 15
D 20
19 The salaries of a group of business people is normally distributed. The mean salary is $65000 with
20 In a school the number of days absent by students is normally distributed. The mean number of days
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 4.2
doc11041
Digital doc
Investigation
Examining a
normal distribution
doc1415
Summary
zscores
xx
s
Standardising both scores best compares scores from different data sets.
When comparing exam marks, the highest zscore is the best result.
Distribution of scores
A data set that is normally distributed will be symmetrical about the mean.
68% of scores will have a zscore of between 1 and 1.
95% of scores will have a zscore between 2 and 2. A score chosen from
this data set will very probably lie in this range.
99.7% of scores will have a zscore of between 3 and 3. A score chosen
from the data set will almost certainly lie within this range.
Chapter review
1 The mean time for 12yearold boys to swim 50 m is 50.5 s with a standard deviation of 4.2 s. Kyle
M U LTIP L E
CHOICE
Subject
English
Maths
History
Geography
Andreas
mark
65
62
75
50
Mean
50
52
58
44
Standard
deviation
12
6
15
4
Subject
English
Maths
History
Geography
Bretts
mark
Mean
Standard
deviation
40
48
49
42
50
52
58
44
12
6
15
4
A 34%
C 68%
B 47.5%
D 95%
Sh ort
a nswer
3 On an exam the results are normally distributed with a mean of 58 and a standard deviation of
7.5.Jennifer scored a mark of 72 in the exam. Convert Jennifers mark to a zscore, giving your
answer correct to 2 decimal places.
4 A set of scores is normally distributed with a mean of 2.8 and a standard deviation of 0.6. Convert
each of the following members of the data set to zscores, correct to 2 decimal places.
a 2.9
b 3.9
c 1
d 1.75
e 1.6
5 Anji conducts a survey on the water temperature at her local beach each day for a month. The results
21
19
22
21
18
17
23
17
16
20
21
18
22
17
16
20
20
22
19
22
20
20
20
21
21
22
23
24
20
Length of time
(hours)
Class centre
Frequency
0< 500
500< 1000
28
1000< 1500
59
1500< 2000
10
data set.
b A further sample of five light bulbs are chosen.
Ext end ed
R espons e
1 Theresa attempts to review her exam results in Physics and Chemistry. Theresa samples 10 of her
64
50
69
55
72
62
50
68
66
51
66
75
63
78
69
44
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Chapter 4
67
69
ICT activities
4A zscores
4C Distribution of scores
interactivity
int0257: The normal distribution. (page 95)
interactivity
int0182: The 689599.7% rule of zscores. (page 103)
Tutorial
WE2 int2438: Perform a calculation of a zscore. (page 96)
Tutorial
WE6 int2440: Estimate distribution scores. (page 104)
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 4.1 (doc11037): Finding the mean. (page 98)
SkillSHEET 4.2 (doc11038): Finding the standard deviation. (page98)
SkillSHEET 4.3 (doc11039): Choosing the appropriate standard
deviation. (page 98)
WorkSHEET 4.1 (doc11040): Apply your knowledge of zscores.
(page100)
Digital docs
WorkSHEET 4.2 (doc11041): Apply your knowledge of distribution
scores. (page 107)
Investigation (doc1415): Examining a normal distribution. (page 107)
4B Comparison of scores
Tutorial
WE4 int2439: Perform a comparison of scores. (page 100)
Chapter review
Test Yourself (doc11042): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 112)
Digital docs
Spreadsheet (doc1412): One variable statistics. (page 101)
Investigation (doc1413): Comparison of subjects. (page 103)
Answers chapter 4
The normal distribution
Exercise 4A
zscores
1 3
2 2
3 a 2
b 2
c 1.03
d 2.95
4 a 0
b 1
c 2
d 3
e 1
5 a 10.5
b 13.7
c 16.9
d 7.3
e 0.9
6 0.27
7 1.5
8 a 0.48
b 1.44
c 0.08
d 2.24
e 2.8
9 a 10.3 s
b 10.58 s
c 10.37 s
d 9.88 s
e 10.251 s
f 10.524 s
10 a One standard deviation above the mean
b Two standard deviations below the mean
11 a x = 19.55, sn = 1.76
b 1.68
12 a
Class
Amount ($)
0<20
20<40
40<60
60<80
80<100
centre
$10
$30
$50
$70
$90
Frequency
2
8
19
15
6
b x = 56, n = 20.1
c i 0.30
ii 2.2
iii 2.0
13 a 50
b 8
14 B
15 B
16 C
17 a x = 64.7, n = 11.4
b Highest score z = 2.66, Lowest score
z = 1.73
zscore of 1.27
23 a 1
b 2.5
c 0
d 3.5
24 Barneys height corresponds to a zscore of
1.07, and Freds height corresponds to a
zscore of 1.55. It can be said that Fred is
taller than Barney is short.
Exercise 4B Comparison of scores
1 a English 1.25, Maths 1.33
b Maths mark is better as it has a higher
zscore.
2 2nd test, Barbaras zscore was 0.33
compared to0.5 in the first test.
3 B
4 D
5 Course A, zscore of 0.8 compared to
0.75 on course B
6 a Sydney 0.44, Athens 1
b In Sydney because of the lower zscore
7 C
8 B
9 a Maths x = 59.5, sn = 17.9
Chemistry x = 59.6, sn = 16.8
b Maths 0.25, Chemistry 0.20. Maths is
the better result.
10 Kory is the better candidate with a zscore
of 1.5 compared with 0.875 for Ricardo.
11 a English 1.25, Maths 1.4
b Maths
12 Eamons zscore = 2; Stephanies
zscore = 1.5. Eamons performance is
better as he is more below the mean that
Stephanie.
13 Milk zscore = 2.5, Bread zscore = 2.4.
The milk is relatively more expensive.
14 a 2.33
b The number of visitors was extremely
low.
c Possible causes include weather, the
economy, airline schedules etc.
15 a 656.25
b 2552
16 The machine must be closed for further
testing. One bottle (1486 mL, z = 1.75)
has a zscore less than 1.5.
17 In London z = 2. In Sydney z = 1.78. It
is relatively warmer in London compared
to the average there than it is cooler in
Sydney relative to the average there.
Exercise 4C
Distribution of scores
1 a 68%
b 95%
c 99.7%
2 a 68%
b 95%
c 99.7%
3 95%
4 16%
5 a 68%
b 16%
c 0.15%
6 21.1 and 33.9
7 a 68% of the values have a zscore
between 1 and 1.
b 95% of the values have a zscore
between 2 and 2.
c 99.7% of the values have a zscore
between 3 and 3.
8 B
9 A
10 0.15%
11 a 16%
b 16%
12 a 95%
b 16%
c 34%
d 15.85%
e 83.85%
13 a 95 g to 105 g
b 92.5 g to 107.5 g
14 163 cm 181 cm
15 Faulty, as the one chosen has a zscore
greater than 3
16 2.6 kg 5 kg
17 a 5.85 N and 6.15 N
b 5.7 N and 6.3 N
c 5.55 N and 6.45 N
18 B
19 a 84%
b 0.15%
c 97.5%
d 97.35%
20 a 16%
b 0.15%
c 97.5%
d 81.5%
21 a 200
b 336
c 64
d 10
22 462
Chapter Review
Multiple choice
1 B
4 D
2 B
5 B
3 B
6 C
Short answer
1 2
2 a 0
b 1
c 2
d 3
e 1
3 1.87
4 a 0.17
b 1.83
c 3
d 1.75
e 2
5 a x = 20.1, n = 2.1
b Highest = 1.86, Lowest = 1.98
6 a x = 1130, n = 334.2
b i 0.39
ii 2.05
iii 2.62
iv 1.13
v 3.07
7 a 1.5
b 1
c Physics, higher zscore
8 a Geography: 0.8, Business
studies:0.53
Extended response
Chapter 5
5A
Sampling
A sample is taken from an entire population when it is not feasible to obtain information from every
member of the target population.
For example, suppose that you want to know the average number of attempts needed for people to get
their drivers licence. It is not feasible for us to survey every driver and so we could sample a selection of
drivers and if the sample is well chosen, the information obtained should be representative of the entire
population.
The selection of an appropriate sample can be done best by one of three methods.
1. Random sample. The participants in the sample are chosen randomly. If the sample is large enough
and the process repeated the sample characteristics should be similar to the entire population.
2. Stratified sample. The sample is deliberately chosen in the same proportion as the entire population.
For example in a workplace there may be 60% male workers. If a sample is chosen from within this
workplace then 60% of the participants should be male. Within each strata or group the participants
should be chosen randomly.
3. Systematic sample. A systematic method is used to select the sample. For example, a store may
sample every tenth person that makes a purchase.
interactivity
int0219
Classifying data
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
In each of the following state the type of sample that has been taken.
a
A school holds a public meeting. Present are 40 parents, 80 students and 20 teachers. A committee
is selected that consists of 2 parents, 4 students and 1 teacher.
b
When renewing a drivers licence every fifth person is asked the number of attempts they needed
to obtain their licence.
cA computer randomly selects two hundred telephone numbers and the people who have these
numbers are asked to complete a survey on their Internet usage.
THINK
WRITE
at the meeting.
b There is a systematic method in the way the people to be asked
are chosen.
c The participants in the sample are chosen randomly.
When selecting a random sample it is essential that the sample be free from any external bias. It is
therefore best to use a random number generator to select a sample.
Chapter 5 Sampling and populations 115
Interactivity
int0089
Random number
generator
Your calculator will have a random number generator function. You can use this function to generate a
random decimal between 0 and 1. This decimal is multiplied by the sample size and rounded up to the
next whole number to determine each participant.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
A factory has 500 workers and one person is to represent the factory at a union conference.
If the person is to be chosen using a random number generator on a calculator, show how
this would bedone.
THINK
WRITE
In the Preliminary course we also studied stratified samples and how the selection of the participants
needs to be in the same proportion as with the entire target population.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
The same factory with 500 workers has 350 male workers and 150 female workers. A union
committee of ten is to be selected using a stratified sample. How many of each sex should be
represented on the committee?
THINK
WRITE
Percentage male =
70% of 10 = 7
30% of 10 = 3
Exercise 5A
350
= 70%
500
Sampling
1 WE1 In each of the following state the type of sample that has been chosen.
a Every fiftieth person to pass through the gate at a sporting event is surveyed.
b Every person at a meeting is given a raffle ticket. Five are selected to participate in a further study.
c Participants for a poll are selected by a computer selecting phone numbers.
d From a group of 80 men and 40 women
are 260 men and 240women. If 50 athletes are to be drug tested how many of each sex should be
chosen in a stratified sample?
7 Kingston Park is a horse stud farm where there are 10 stallions, 140mares and 100 foals.
A vet health check on 25 horses is to be conducted. If those horses to be checked are chosen in the
form of a stratified sample, how many of each category should be examined?
8 A football club consists of 10 people in management, 5 on the coaching staff, 15 support staff and
30 players. A survey of 20 people from within the club is to be conducted. How many should be
selected from each category?
9 A survey is to be conducted on 20 staff at a factory. In each of the following, state what is wrong
a The first 20 people to arrive for work in the morning are surveyed.
b The 20 people who work the night shift are selected.
c All 20 participants are chosen from the office staff.
10 Explain the term stratified random sample.
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5B
When information needs to be obtained from a large population we usually complete a sample, as a
census, which involves the entire population, is impractical. We need to be as sure as possible that the
data obtained from the sample chosen reflects the data from the whole population.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Consider a group of four people. We are examining the average height of these four people.
The four people are:
Aiden 193 cmJake 187 cmIsaac 178 cmChaz 166 cm
a Calculate the mean height of the four boys.
b
A sample of two from the four is to be chosen. List all possible samples of two that could beselected.
c Calculate the mean of each possible sample of two.
d Calculate the mean of all samples taken.
THINK
WRITE
by 4.
b There are six pairs list each by
= 181 cm
b Aiden and Jake
Aiden and Isaac
Aiden and Chaz
Jake and Isaac
Jake and Chaz
Isaac and Chaz
= 190 cm
Aiden and Isaac: Mean = (193 + 178) 2
= 185.5 cm
Aiden and Chaz: Mean = (193 + 166) 2
= 179.5 cm
Jake and Isaac: Mean = (187 + 178) 2
= 182.5 cm
Jake and Chaz: Mean = (187 + 166) 2
= 176.5 cm
Isaac and Chaz: Mean = (178 + 166) 2
= 172 cm
= 1086 6
= 181 cm
What can be seen here is that the mean of each possible sample of two is equal to the mean of the entire
population.
This demonstrates an important result:
The mean of all possible samples taken will be the mean of the entire population.
In a wider context this demonstrates that a repeated sample will increasingly reflect the mean of the
population that we are attempting to sample.
Exercise 5B
2 In a family of five children the number of days off from school each had
in a year is recorded.
Dylan 10, Lachlan 16, Connor 21, Cameron 5, and Aiden 1.
a Calculate the mean number of days off from school.
b How many samples of two can be chosen from the five boys?
c Calculate the mean of each possible sample of two.
d Show that the mean of each possible sample is equal to the mean
number of days off found in part a.
3 A group of five students each have their monthly mobile phone spend
recorded.
Lane $215.00 Maya $154.00 Elly $119.00 Meridee $98.00
Maddy $54.00
a Calculate the mean spend among the five girls.
b Calculate the number of samples of three girls that could be selected.
c List each sample of three and find the mean of each sample.
d Verify that the mean of each possible sample is equal to the mean
mobile phone spend found in part a.
4 The figures below show the number of people that live in 20 homes in a particular street.
House No.
Number of residents
House No.
Number of residents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
2
5
6
2
1
6
4
2
3
4
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
4
4
5
6
5
3
2
2
3
4
household.
Use your calculator to randomly select three households from the street.
Find the mean of your sample of three and compare this to the mean found in part b.
Randomly select three more samples of three and find the mean of each sample.
What was the greatest and least of the four sample means found?
Find the mean of the four sample means and compare the result to the mean found in part b.
5 Craig is a big fan of horse racing. During the Melbourne Cup carnival he records the number of
horses that run in the 38 races during the week.
c
d
e
f
g
5C
Estimating populations
A group of marine biologists want to estimate the fish population in a lake. To do this, they catch
100 fish, tag them and release them back into the lake. The next day, they catch 200 fish and find
that 10 of them have been previously tagged. What would be their estimate of the population?
THINK
WRITE
10
100%
Percentage tagged = 200
= 5%
5% of population = 100
so1% of population = 20
and100% of population = 2000
Exercise 5C
Estimating populations
1 WE5 The fish population of a river is to be estimated. A sample of 400 fish are caught, tagged and
released. The next day another sample of 400 fish are caught and 40 of them have tags. Estimate the
fish population of the river.
2 A colony of bats live near a school. Wildlife officers try to estimate the bat population by catching
60bats and tagging them. These bats are then released and another 60 are caught, 9 of which had
tags. Estimate the size of the bat population living near the school.
3 A rivers fish population is to be estimated. On one day 1000 fish are caught, tagged and released.
The next day another 1000 fish are caught. Estimate the population of the river if in the second
sample of fish:
a 100 had tags
b 40 had tags
c 273 had tags.
4 A certain fish population is said to be endangered if the population falls below 15000. A sample
of 1000 fish are caught, tagged and released. The next day another sample of 1200 fish are caught,
60of which had tags. Is the fish population endangered?
5 To estimate the fish population of a lake, 300 fish were caught. These 300 fish (150 trout, 100 bream
and 50 perch) were tagged and released. A second sample of fish were then caught. Of 100 trout,
24had tags; of 100 bream, 20 had tags; and of 100 perch, 8 had tags.
a Estimate the number of trout in the lake.
b Estimate the number of bream in the lake.
c Estimate the number of perch in the lake.
6 The kangaroo population in a national park is to be estimated. On one day, 100 kangaroos were
Further development
7 MC The table below shows the results of a capturerecapture fish population estimate in four lakes.
Lake
Alpha
Bravo
Charlie
Delta
Number caught in
second capture
Number tagged in
second capture
100
200
100
200
100
200
200
100
2
5
3
1
population is captured the more that are tagged the greater the population. Is Kylie correct? Explain
your answer.
Chapter 5 Sampling and populations 121
9 Below are the steps for completing a capturerecapture task. Place the steps a, b, c and d in the
interactivity
int2790
Compare statistical
reports
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 5.2
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correct order.
a Capture a second sample.
b Capture and tag a sample of the population.
c Write the population as a percentage of the whole and use the unitary method to find the
population.
d Return the tagged samples to the general population.
10 Explain how a method similar to capturerecapture could be used to estimate a static population such
as trees in a national forest.
11 A lake is known to be populated with flathead and whiting. To estimate the population of each the
following capturerecaptures are performed.
Flathead: 100 are caught, tagged and released. In the second capture of 200 fish 4 are tagged.
Whiting: 200 are caught, tagged and released. In the second capture of 100 fish 4 are tagged.
Is the population of flathead or whiting greater?
12 Two bird populations are to be estimated.
In population A, 500 birds are tagged and released. A second capture of 200 population A birds
ismade.
In population B, 400 birds are tagged and released. A second capture of 100 population B birds
ismade.
Given that in both second captures the same numbers of tagged birds are found, which population is
greater and how many times greater is this population than the other?
Summary
Sampling
Exploring samples
andmeans
Estimating populations
Chapter review
MULTIPL E
C HOICE
1 A television ratings survey is conducted by surveying house number 1 in every street in a particular
A
B
C
D
2 When taking a sample, which of the following could be used to try and ensure the mean of the
sample of 50 fish is caught and it is found that only 2 fish are tagged. The best estimate of the fish
population in the lake is
A 200
B 250
C 1250
D 2000
Sh ort
a nswer
1 In each of the following state the type of sample that has been used.
a George is collecting statistics on Rugby League games. He samples the matches that are shown
Make
Number of cars
Holden
Ford
Mazda
Toyota
75
40
50
85
A sample of 20 cars is to be inspected. If a stratified sample is to be used how many cars of each
make should be selected?
3 Explain how to use a calculator to randomly select a number between 1 and 700.
4 Consider a group of four people. We are examining the average weight of these four people. The four
people are:
Luke 101 kg Lewis 92 kg Max 81 kg Jamie 68 kg
a Calculate the mean weight of the four boys.
b A sample of three from the four is to
be chosen. List all possible samples of
three that could be selected.
c Calculate the mean of each possible
sample of three.
d Calculate the mean of all samples taken.
5 Kimberley has a worm farm. To estimate
6 A sample of 200 fish are caught, tagged and released back into the
population. Later Barry, Viet and Mustafa each catch a sample of fish.
Barry caught 40 fish and 3 had tags.
Viet caught 75 fish and 9 had tags.
Mustafa caught 55 fish and 7 had tags.
a Find the estimate of the population that each would have calculated.
b Give an estimate for the population, based on all three samples.
Ex tended
R es p ons e
Digital doc
doc11045
Test Yourself
Chapter 5
ICT activities
5A Sampling
interactivities
int0219: Classifying data. (page 115)
int0089: Random number generator. (page 116)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 5.1 (doc11043): Apply your knowledge of samples and
populations to problems. (page117)
5C Estimating populations
interactivity
int2790: Compare statistical reports. (page 122)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 5.2 (doc11044): Apply your knowledge of samples and
populations to problems. (page 122)
Chapter review
Test Yourself (doc11045): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 125)
Answers chapter 5
Sampling and Populations
Exercise 5A
Sampling
1 a systematic
b random
c random
d stratified
2 a Stratified
b random
c systematic
d systematic
e stratified
3 130
4 Check with your teacher.
5 1
6 26 men and 24 women
7 1 stallion, 14 mares and 10 foals
8 3 managers, 2 coaching staff, 5 support
1 a 3
b Erin Tegan, Erin Madeline,
Tegan Madeline
3 a $128
b 10
c The 10 means are $162.67, $155.67,
10
20
15
18
f = 20 f x = 73
b Mean = 3.65
cg Check with your teacher.
5 a 13.5
bg Check with your teacher.
Exercise 5C
Chapter Review
Multiple Choice
1 B
2 D
3 C
Short Answer
1 a Systematic
b random
c stratified
2 Holden 6, Ford 3, Mazda 4,
Toyota 7
Estimating populations
1 4000
2 400
3 a 10000
b 25000
c 3663
4 No estimated population 20000
5 a 625
b 500
c 625
6 a 833
b 1000
c 882
d 905
7 D
8 Kylie is incorrect. The fewer tagged fish
1 a random
b Repeat the experiment a number of
times.
c 20
d A larger sample will usually obtain
2 a Categorical
b 1984
Chapter 6
Further applications of
area and volume
CHAPTER CONTENTS
6A Relative error
6B Area of parts of the circle
6C Area of composite shapes
6D Simpsons rule
6E Surface area of some prisms
6F Surface area of cylinders and spheres
6G Volume of pyramids, cones and spheres
6H Volume of composite solids
6I Error in measurement
6A
Relative error
How far is it from your house to school? If you live very close to school you may give your answer
in metres, or if you are a bit further away you would probably answer in kilometres. In either case the
answer you give would not be exact. In fact, no measurement is exact. We are able to measure a quantity
only to the degree of accuracy that our instruments allow.
All measurements are approximations.
In practice, we usually choose a degree of accuracy that is convenient. For example, you may
say that it is 4km from your home to school. In this case, the measurement would be given to the
nearestkilometre. The actual distance from your home to school could be anything between 3.5km
and 4.5km.
Someone who lives close to school may say it is 600m to school. This measurement is probably given
to the nearest 100m. The actual distance would be between 550m and 650m.
When rounding off measurements, the maximum error possible is half the degree of accuracy stated.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Hilary has her height measured at 164cm. This measurement is given to the nearest centimetre.
Between what values would her actual height be?
THINK
WRITE
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
The mass of a trailerload of soil is given as 260kg. The mass is given to the nearest 10kg.
Between what two masses would the true mass of the trailer load actually be?
THINK
WRITE
The true degree of accuracy in a measurement is found by determining the maximum percentage error.
To do this we find the greatest possible error and then write that as a percentage of the measurement
given.
Percentage error =
maximum error
100%
measurement
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
A cars fuel tank has a capacity of 65 litres. If this capacity is given to the nearest litre, find the
degree of accuracy as a percentage (answer correct to 2 decimal places).
THINK
WRITE
Percentage error =
0.5
100%
65
= 0.77%
Taylor has her height measured by 8 people. They obtain the following results:
169cm, 169cm, 168cm, 170cm, 169cm, 169cm, 168cm, 168cm.
What is the average result?
THINK
WRITE
Average = 1350 8
= 168.75cm
Exercise 6A
Relative error
1 WE1 Each of the following measurements are given to the nearest centimetre. State the
c 34cm
f 2m
2 WE2 Each of the following measurements are given to the nearest 10m. State the limits
c 250m
f 2km
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.1
doc11046
Writing one
quantity as a
percentage of
another
3 Each of the following measurements are given correct to 1 decimal place. State the limits
c 7.2km
f 0.1m
4 WE3 The distance between two towns is given as 45km, correct to the nearest kilometre.
a Between what two limits does the true distance lie?
b What is the greatest possible error in the distance?
c Write the degree of accuracy in this measurement as a percentage, correct to
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1461
Calculations with
percentages
2 decimal places.
5 For each of the following measurements, write the degree of accuracy as a percentage, correct
to2decimal places.
a A persons mass is given as 67kg, correct to the nearest kilogram.
b The capacity of a bucket is 7 L, correct to the nearest litre.
c The length of a park is said to be 180m, correct to the nearest 10m.
d The volume of water in a tank is 38.6 L, correct to 1 decimal place.
e The distance between Sydney and Melbourne is 1000km, correct to the nearest 100km.
6 a Measure each of the following lines to the nearest centimetre.
i ________________________
ii ____________________
iii _____________________________
b For each, find the maximum percentage error in the measurement, correct to
2 decimal places.
7 a Measure each of the lines in question 6, correct to the nearest millimetre.
b When the lines are measured correct to the nearest millimetre, what is the maximum
11 MC An aeroplane trip takes 17 hours, correct to the nearest hour. The degree of accuracy, correct
B 1.76%
D 5.88%
12 MC Which of the following four measurements has the greatest degree of accuracy?
A
B
C
D
13 A paddock needs a fence which is 30m long and 20m wide, when measured to the
nearest metre.
a Between what two measurements does the length lie?
b Between what two measurements does the width lie?
c What is the smallest possible length of fencing needed?
d What is the greatest possible length of fencing needed?
e What is the maximum error in the length of fencing needed?
14 For the paddock in question 13, the area is found by multiplying the length by the width.
a By multiplying the smallest possible length and width, find the smallest possible area.
b By multiplying the largest possible length and width, find the largest possible area.
c What is the maximum error in the area of the paddock?
15 WE4 The capacity of a jug is measured by 5 people to be 750mL, 752mL, 749mL, 753mL and
Further development
17 The mass of a gold nugget is found to be 230 grams. Find the percentage error (correct to one
measurement taken to the nearest whole number. By considering a measurement of 5.0 metres,
determine if Jonas is correct.
21 The length of a rectangle is given as 7 metres and breadth is given as 4 metres correct to the
nearestmetre.
a Find the area of the rectangle.
b What are the smallest possible length and breadth of the rectangle?
c What is the smallest possible area of the rectangle?
d Find the percentage error in the area of the rectangle if these measurements are used.
e What are the largest possible length and breadth of the rectangle?
f Find the largest possible area of the rectangle.
g What is the percentage error in the area of the rectangle if these measurements
are used?
h What is the greatest possible percentage error in the area of the rectangle?
22 Find the maximum possible percentage error in the area of a rectangle with a length of 4.8cm and
abreadth of 5.2cm.
132 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
In your class, get each person to measure the height of one class member. Each person writes down their
reading, without showing it to anyone else. When all readings are taken, answer the followingquestions.
1. What unit did you use to measure height?
2. What is the maximum error?
3. Calculate the percentage error using your reading.
4. What was the smallest height measured?
5. What was the greatest height measured?
6. Calculate the average reading.
6B
From previous work you should know that the area of a circle can be calculated using the formula:
A = r2
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Calculate the area of a circle with a radius of 7.2cm. Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
THINK
WRITE
A = r2
= (7.2)2
= 162.86cm2
A sector is the part of a circle between two radii and an arc as shown on the right.
To calculate the area of a sector we find the fraction of the circle formed
by the sector. For example, a semicircle is half of a circle and so the area
of a semicircle is half the area of a full circle. A quadrant is a quarter
of a circle and so the area is quarter that of a full circle.
For other sectors the area is calculated by using the angle between the
radii as a fraction of 360 and then multiplying by the area of the full
circle. This can be written using the formula:
A=
2
r
360
Calculate the area of the sector drawn on the right. Give your answer
correct to 1 decimal place.
5 cm
80
THINK
WRITE
A=
r2
360
80
52
= 360
= 17.5cm2
An annulus is the area between two circles that have the same centre (i.e. concentric circles). The area
of an annulus is found by subtracting the area of the smaller circle from the area of the larger circle. This
translates to the formula A = (R2 r2), where R is the radius of the outer circle and r is the radius of the
inner circle.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Calculate the area of the annulus on the right. Give your answer
correct to 1 decimal place.
Tutorial
int2411
Worked example 7
5.7 cm
3.2 cm
THINK
WRITE
A = (R2 r2)
= (5.72 3.22)
Calculate.
= 69.9cm2
Exercise 6B
1 WE5 Calculate the area of the following circle, correct to 1 decimal place.
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.2
doc11047
Area of a circle
6.4 cm
2 Calculate the area of each of the circles drawn below, correct to 2 decimal places.
a
b
c
33 mm
9 cm
7.4 m
d
26.5 cm
3.84 m
f
6.02 m
3 Calculate the area of a circle that has a diameter of 15m. Give your answer correct
to 1 decimal place.
4 WE6 Calculate the area of the sector drawn on the right. Give your answer correct
to 1 decimal place.
7.2 m
5 Calculate the area of each of the sectors drawn below. Give each answer correct to 2 decimal places.
a
b
c
5.2 cm
135
60
23 m
74 mm
20
9.2 mm
f
39 mm
240
150
19.5 m
72
6 Calculate, correct to 1 decimal place, the area of a semicircle with a diameter of 45.9cm.
7 WE7 Calculate the area of the annulus shown at right, correct to
12 cm
1 decimal place.
6 cm
8 Calculate the area of each annulus drawn below, correct to 3 significant figures.
a
b
c
9.7
m
20 cm
77 mm
18 cm
13 mm
4.2 m
9 A circular garden of diameter 5m is to have concrete laid around it. The concrete is to be 1m wide.
a What is the radius of the garden?
b What is the radius of the concrete circle?
c Calculate the area of the concrete, correct to 1 decimal place.
10 MC The area of a circle with a diameter of 4.8m is closest to:
A 15m2
B 18m2
C 36m2
D 72m2
11 MC Which of the following calculations will give the area of the sector
42
1
4
1
8
1
4
82
82
45
8m
Further development
12 A circular area is pegged out and has a diameter
of 10m.
a Calculate the area of this circle, correct to
1 decimal place.
b A garden is to be dug which is 3m wide around
the area that has been pegged out. Calculate the
area of the garden to be dug. Give your answer
correct to 1 decimal place.
c In the garden a sector with an angle of 75 at the
centre is to be used to plant roses. Calculate the
area of the rose garden, correct to 1 decimal place.
Chapter 6 Further applications of area and volume 135
13 The area in front of a building is rectangular in shape, measuring 50 metres by 15 metres. At night
a security light scans the area. The security light, if positioned vertically against the wall at ground
level, illuminates an area of the wall that is a sector of a circle of radius 15m and has an angle of 60
at the centre.
a What is the area of the rectangular frontage?
b What is the area that is illuminated at any one time by the security light? Give your answer correct
to 1 decimal place.
c What percentage of the frontage is illuminated at any one time? Give your answer correct to
1decimal place.
14 A circular island is in the centre of a circular lake such that the surface of the water in the lake forms
an annulus. The radius of the lake is 10m greater than the radius of the island.
a Given that the island has a radius of 20m, find the area of the surface of the water. Give your
answer correct to the nearest square metre.
b Tori claims that the surface area of the lake will remain the same regardless of the two radii as
long as the difference of 10metres remains unchanged. Is Tori correct? Use calculations to justify
your response.
15 An arc of length 1cm stands on a circle of radius 1cm. Find the size of the angle subtended at the
6C
Interactivity
int0005
Area
int2350
Area of a triangle
A composite shape is a shape that is made up of two or more regular shapes. The area of a composite
shape is found by splitting the area into two or more regular shapes and calculating the area of each
separately before adding them together. In many cases it will be necessary to calculate the length of a
missing side before calculating the area. There will sometimes be more than one way to split the
composite shape.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
6 cm
18 cm
10 cm
12 cm
THINK
1
WRITE
Copy the diagram and divide the shape into two rectangles.
6 cm
A1 8 cm
18 cm
A2
10 cm
12 cm
2
18 10 = 8cm
A1 = 6 8
= 48cm2
A2 = 10 12
= 120cm2
Area = 48 + 120
= 168cm2
Composite areas that involve triangles may require you to also make a calculation using Pythagoras
theorem.
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
13 m
10 m
Tutorial
int2412
Worked example 9
24 m
THINK
1
WRITE
13 m
a
12 m
a2 = c2 b2
= 132 122
= 169 144
= 25
a = !25
= 5m
A = 12 24 5
= 60m2
A = 24 10
= 240m2
Area = 60 + 240
= 300m2
Composite areas can also be calculated by using subtraction rather than addition. In these cases we
calculate the larger area and subtract the smaller area in the same way as we did with annuluses in the
previous section.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
20 cm
30 cm
THINK
WRITE
A = 30 20
= 600cm2
A = 62
= 113.1cm2
Exercise 6C
4m
1 WE8 Copy the figure on the right into your workbook and calculate
18 m
11 m
20 m
2 Find the area of each of the figures below. Where necessary, give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
5 cm
7 cm
18 cm
19 cm
12 cm
16 cm
25 cm
6 cm
40 cm
5 cm
22 cm
12 cm
4 cm
8 cm
8 cm
4 cm
4 cm
16 cm
10 cm
17 cm
the triangle.
b Calculate the area of the triangle.
6 cm
15 cm
8m
12 m
a Use Pythagoras theorem to find the perpendicular height of the triangle, correct to 1 decimal place.
b Calculate the area of the triangle.
5 Calculate the area of each of the triangles below. Where necessary, give your answer correct to
1decimal place.
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1306
Pythagoras
26 m
25 cm
48 cm
24 m
124 mm
Digital doc
GC program
Casio
doc1307
Mensuration
6 WE9 Find the area of each of the composite figures drawn below.
a
b
c
25 mm
13 cm
17 m
15 mm
13 m
12 cm
30 m
52 mm
48 mm
54 mm
139m2
257m2
314m2
414m2
10 m
36m2
54m2
72m2
144m2
12 m
6m
9 A block of land is in the shape of a square with an equilateral triangle on top. Each side of the block
of land is 50m.
a Draw a diagram of the block of land.
b Find the perimeter of the block of land.
c Find the area of the block of land.
10 WE10 In each of the following, find the area of the shaded region. Where necessary, give your
answer correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
12 m
4 cm
10 cm
9 cm
3 cm
16 cm
8m
9 cm
112 mm
cm
1
7.
3.1 m
1.9 m
7.4 m
36 mm
40 mm
10 cm
95 mm
11 An athletics track consists of a rectangle with two semicircular ends. The dimensions are shown in
82 m
The track is to have a synthetic running surface laid. Calculate the area which is to be laid with the
running surface, correct to the nearest square metre.
12 A garden is to have a concrete path laid around it. The garden is rectangular in shape and measures
40m by 25m. The path around it is to be 1m wide.
a Draw a diagram of the garden and the path.
b Calculate the area of the garden.
c Calculate the area of the concrete that needs to be laid.
d If the cost of laying concrete is $17.50 per m2, calculate the cost of laying the path.
Further development
13 Find the area of each of the following figures.
a
b
10 cm
c
20 m
30 cm
25 cm
20 cm
40 m
4 cm
24 cm
25 cm
12 cm
mm
cm
32
12
c
15
76
f
6 cm
40 cm
14 Convert the following areas to the units given in brackets.
a 20000mm2 (cm2)
b 3500000cm2 (m2)
2
2
c 0.005m (cm )
d 0.035m2 (mm2)
2
2
e 13400m (km )
f 375000m2 (hectares)
2
2
g 2750000000mm (m )
h 0.043km2 (m2)
15 Find the area of the regular hexagon shown in the diagram below.
0m
2.4
4.16 m
16 A cutting blade for a craft knife has the dimensions shown in the diagram. What is the area of steel
20 mm
32 mm
5 mm
38 mm
17 Emma left her horse tied to a railing in a paddock while she chatted to a friend.
a The horse is tied to one end of the railing as shown below.
Railing
2m
2m
Find the area that the horse has access to correct to 1 decimal place.
b The horse is now tied to the centre of the railing as shown below.
r=1m
r=2m
r=1m
Find the area that the horse now has access to.
140 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
19 m
4.5 m
2m
95 mm
32 cm
m
c
16 cm
20
24
cm
11 m
17 m
6.5
80 mm
20 cm
24 mm
14 m
5.5 m
30 m
42 cm
22 m
25 m
d 36 mm
3.5 m
10 m
6D
Simpsons rule
dm
dl
df
h
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
30 m
10 m
THINK
90 m
WRITE
Calculate h.
h = 90 2 = 45
df = 10, dm = 30, dl = 0
h
A (df + 4dm + dl)
3
Substitute.
Calculate.
= 15 130
1950m2
45
(10 + 4 30 + 0)
3
Could Simpsons rule be used to estimate the areas of these irregular shapes from nature?
Simpsons rule can be used to approximate the area of an irregular shape without a straight edge. This
is done by constructing a line as in the diagram in the worked example below and approximating the
area of each section separately.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
30 m
30 m
10 m
17 m
THINK
WRITE
h = 30
For the top area, write down the values of df , dm and dl.
df = 0, dm = 30, dl = 10
h
A (df + 4dm + dl)
3
Substitute.
10 130
1300m2
df = 0, dm = 17, dl = 0
h
A (df + 4dm + dl)
3
Substitute.
10 68
680m2
10
30
(0 + 4 30 + 10)
3
30
(0 + 4 17 + 0)
3
Simpsons rule approximates an area, it does not give an exact measurement. To obtain a better
approximation, Simpsons rule can be applied several times to the area. This is done by splitting the
areain half and applying Simpsons rule separately to each half.
142 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
105 m
THINK
WRITE
h = 105 4
= 26.25
df = 32, dm = 31, dl = 24
Substitute.
8.75 180
1575m2
df = 24, dm = 29, dl = 30
Substitute.
8.75 170
1487.5m2
10
Exercise 6D
30 m
29 m
24 m
31 m
32 m
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
Tutorial
int2413
Worked
example 13
h
A (df + 4dm + dl)
3
26.25
A
(32 + 4 31 + 24)
3
h
A (df + 4dm + dl)
3
26.25
A
(24 + 4 29 + 30)
3
Simpsons rule
18 m
9m
40 m
is of a part of a creek.
a State the value of h.
b State the value of df, dm and dl.
c Use Simpsons rule to
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.5
doc11050
Substitution into
formulas
60 m
16 m
0m
72 m
40 m
12 m
28 m
6m
12 m
10 m
35 m
54 m
48 m
3 WE12 The irregular area on the right has been divided into two areas
80 m
5 m 18 m
7m
30 m
19 m 11 m
A1
A2
21 m
31 m
27 m
27 m
40 m
21 m
16 m
12 m 10 m
16 m
27 m
23 m
45 m
14 m 6 m
17 m
45 m
12 m
22 m 11 m
4 Use Simpsons rule to find an approximation for each of the areas below.
a
b
c
18 m 18 m 18 m 18 m
87 m
102 m
22 m
33 m
21 m 21 m 21 m 21 m
45 m
63 m
54 m
60 m 60 m 60 m 60 m
11 m
50 m
44 m
20 m
71 m
42 m
8 Use Simpsons rule twice to approximate each of the areas drawn below.
a
b
c
10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m
27 m
crosssection.
36 m
of land.
b Use Simpsons rule twice to obtain a better approximation for the
32 m
15 m
25 m
36 m
10 m
45 m
50 m
22 m
51 m
7m
20 m
30 m
35 m
36 m
38 m
41 m
45 m
30 m
24 m
10 Apply Simpsons rule four times to approximate the area on the right.
9m 9m 9m 9m 9m 9m 9m 9m
Further development
11 Explain why Simpsons rule cannot be used to find the area of the figure below.
18 m
12 m
10 m
21 m
10 m
15 m
10 m
7m
1.8 m
1.9 m
6m
6m
15 m
8m
12 cm
12cm, while the first and last values are both zero. What answer does Joe get?
c Find the percentage error in using Simpsons rule to find the area of this semicircle.
15 A botanist needs to estimate the number of trees in a certain
35 m
20 m
17 m
60 m
The pool is symmetrical and has a length of 16 metres. At its two widest points the width of the pool
is 10 metres and at the narrow point in the middle it is 5 metres wide. The pool is 2.5 metres deep at
all points.
Use Simpsons rule to estimate the volume of the pool.
6E
Area usually refers to the space inside a 2dimensional shape. Surface area refers to the total area
occupied by the faces of a 3dimensional shape. Surface area is measured in square units as are
2dimensional area problems. In general, the surface area of a solid needs to be calculated by adding the
area of each face separately. However, for some solids there is a unique formula.
Cube
A cube has six identical faces, each of which is a square. Consider a cube of side lengths.
Each face can have its area calculated using the formula A = s2. Therefore, we have
the formula for the surface area (SA) of a cube:
SA = 6s2
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
4.3 cm
THINK
WRITE
SA = 6s2
= 6 4.32
= 110.94 cm2
Rectangular prism
Consider a rectangular prism with a length of l, a breadth of b and a
height of h.
Each pair of opposite faces are equal. Using the formula for a rectangle:
Front and back A = l h
Top and bottom A = l b
Left and right
A=bh
Adding these gives the formula for the surface area of a rectangular prism:
SA = 2(lh + lb + bh)
146 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
h
l
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
4.3 m
THINK
WRITE
SA = 2(lh + lb + bh)
= 173.02m2
For other prisms the surface area is found by adding the area of each face separately.
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
13 cm
5 cm
10 cm
12 cm
THINK
1
WRITE
A = 12bh
= 12 12 5
= 30cm2
2
A = lb
= 5 10
= 50cm2
SA = 2 30 + 50 + 120 + 130
= 360cm2
Exercise 6E
A = lb
A = lb
= 12 10
= 13 10
= 120cm2
= 130cm2
5 cm
9 cm
32 cm
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.6
doc11051
Surface area
of cubes and
rectangular prisms
2.7 cm
62 mm
2.8 m
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.7
doc11052
Surface area of
triangular prisms
2 WE15 Find the surface area of each of the following rectangular prisms.
a
b
c
12 cm
3m
4m
7.5 m
7m
42 cm
21 cm
3.5 m
2.5 m
4 cm
3.9 cm
4.1 cm
42 mm
20 cm
13 cm
14 cm
7 mm
7 mm
3 Oliver is making a box in the shape of a rectangular prism. The box is to be 2.5m long, 1.2m
has aceiling 2.5m high. The floor is to be covered with slate tiles, the walls are to be painted blue
andthe roof is to be painted white.
a Calculate the area to be tiled.
b Each tile is 0.25m2. Calculate the number of tiles needed.
c Calculate the area to be painted blue.
d Calculate the area to be painted white.
e One litre of paint covers an area of 2m2. How many litres of paint are needed to paint
the room?
6 MC Two cubes are drawn such that the side length on the second cube is double the side length
onthe first cube. The surface area of the larger cube will be:
A twice the surface area of the smaller cube
B four times the surface area of the small cube
C six times the surface area of the small cube
D eight times the surface area of the small cube
7 WE16 Calculate the surface area of the triangular
prism below.
5 cm
4 cm
3 cm
2 cm
3.2 m
1m
2m
6m
148 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
4m
9c
8 cm
10 cm
20 cm
6 cm
Further development
12 Find the width of the prism in the figure below:
8m
w=?
12 m
TSA = 592 m2
13 A cardboard box is designed to contain a clothes dryer
90
cm
60 cm
ARISCHOC
19.5 cm
3.5 cm
Find the area of cardboard used if the area is increased by 10% for overlap.
6F
From earlier work you should remember that surface area is the area of all surfaces
of a 3dimensional shape.
Consider a closed cylinder with a radius (r) and a perpendicular height (h).
The surface of the cylinder consists of two circles and a rectangle.
Area of top = r2
Area of bottom = r2
The rectangular side of the cylinder will have a length equal to the circumference
of the circle (2r) and a width equal to the height (h) of the cylinder.
Area of side = 2rh
The surface area of the closed cylinder can be calculated using the formula:
SA = 2r 2 + 2rh
interactivity
int2782
Surface area of
asphere
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
Calculate the surface area of the closed cylinder drawn on the right.
Give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.
10 cm
9 cm
THINK
WRITE
SA = 2r2 + 2rh
= 2 92 + 2 9 10
= 1074.4cm2
For cylinders, before calculating the surface area you need to consider whether the cylinder is open or
closed. In the case of an open cylinder there is no top and so the formula needs to be written as:
SA = r2 + 2rh
Note: On the formula sheet in the exam, only the formula for the closed cylinder is provided. You will
need to check the question and adapt the formula yourself if necessary.
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
Calculate the surface area of an open cylinder with a radius of 6.5cm and a height of 10.8cm.
Give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.
THINK
WRITE
SA = r2 + 2rh
= 573.8cm2
4r2
WORKED EXAMPLE 19
Calculate the surface area of the sphere drawn on the right. Give the answer
correct to 1decimal place.
2.7 cm
THINK
WRITE
SA = 4r2
= 4 (2.7)2
= 91.6cm2
Exercise 6F
1 WE17 Calculate the surface area of a closed cylinder with a radius of 5cm and a height of 11cm.
12 cm
20 cm
5 cm
1.6 m
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.8
doc11054
Circumference of
acircle
1.1 m
3 cm
5.9 cm
20 cm
1.5 m
5.9 cm
r
2.3 m
r = 5 cm
3 Calculate the surface area of a closed cylinder with a diameter of 3.4m and a height of 1.8m. Give
9.6 cm
r = 4.1 cm
20 cm
f
50 cm
23.2 cm
2.4 cm
3.2 m
30 cm
22 cm
13.3 cm
4m
4 cm
6 Find the outside surface area of a cylinder open at both ends with a radius of 5cm and a height
of 10cm.
7 A can of fruit is made of stainless steel. The can has a radius of 3.5cm and a height of 7cm. A label
2.1 cm
14 cm
1m
3.4 cm
1.8 m
10 Calculate the surface area of a sphere with a diameter of 42cm. Give your answer correct to the
A 62 + 2 6 15
C 122 + 2 12 15
Further development
14 A cylindrical can is to contain three tennis balls each having a diameter of 6cm.
a Calculate the surface area of each ball.
b The three balls fit exactly inside the can. State the radius and height of the can.
c The can is open and made of stainless steel, except the top which will be plastic. Calculate the
22 cm
on the right.
18 A tennis ball has a diameter of 7cm. Calculate
8 cm
4 cm
Challenge exercise
Use one of the other worksheets to find the most efficient dimensions to make a rectangular prism of
volume 1000cm3 and a cone of volume 200cm3.
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1311
Volume
Digital doc
Investigation
doc2747
Packaging
6G
Pyramids
interactivity
int1150
Maximising the
volume of a cube
The volume of any pyramid is onethird of the volume of the corresponding prism.
This leads us to the general formula for the volume of any pyramid:
V = 13Ah
where A is the area of the base and h is the height of the pyramid.
Chapter 6 Further applications of area and volume 153
WORKED EXAMPLE 20
Area = 45 cm2
WRITE
V = 13Ah
= 13 45 7
Calculate V.
= 105cm3
In other cases we may need to calculate the area of the base before we are able to use the general
formula for the volume of a pyramid.
Cones
A cone is a circular pyramid. By substituting the formula for the area of a circle into the general formula
for the volume of a pyramid, we find the formula for the volume of any cone.
A = r2 when substituted into V = 13 Ah becomes
V = 13r2h
WORKED EXAMPLE 21
Find the volume of the cone on the right, correct to 2 decimal places.
8.5 cm
3.2 cm
Tutorial
int2482
Worked
example21
THINK
WRITE
V = 13r2h
= 13 3.22 8.5
= 91.15cm3
Spheres
A sphere is a solid that looks like a ball. To find the volume of a sphere we need only the radius. The
volume is calculated using the formula:
V = 43r3
WORKED EXAMPLE 22
Find the volume of a sphere with a radius of 9.5cm, correct to the nearest cm3.
THINK
WRITE
V = 43r3
= 43 9.53
= 3591cm3
Exercise 6G
6m
A = 47 cm2
A = 25 cm2
d
2.5 m
9 cm
A = 62 cm2
A = 13.5 m2
2 For each of the following pyramids, calculate the volume by first calculating the area of the
baseshape.
a
8 cm
6 cm
15 cm
8 cm
14 cm
12 m
8 cm
6 cm
5 cm
6m
12 cm
10 m
1
3
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1482
Volume of a cone
6 cm
A = 46 cm2
10 cm
A = 30 cm2
c
14 cm
52 mm
A = 12 mm2
A = 150 cm2
4 WE21 Find the volume of each of the following cones, correct to the nearest whole number.
a
b
10 cm
5 cm
12 cm
12 cm
42 cm
33 mm
8 mm
42 cm
5 A cone has a base with a diameter of 9cm and a height of 12cm. Calculate the volume of that cone,
7 Calculate the volume of a sphere with a diameter of 2.3cm. Answer correct to 2decimal places.
8 MC Which of the following solids could not be described as a pyramid?
A
B
9 MC A triangular pyramid and a square pyramid both have a base area of 20cm2 and a height of
10 MC A spherical balloon has a volume of 500cm3. It is then inflated so that the diameter of the
A 1000cm3
D 4000cm3
11 Find the volume of the solid on the right. Answer correct to 1 decimal place.
12 A hollow rubber ball is to be made with a radius of 8cm, and the rubber to
4 cm
12 cm
13 The figure on the right is a truncated cone, that is, a cone with the top cut off.
a Calculate the volume of the cone before it was truncated.
b The portion cut off was itself a cone. Calculate its volume.
c Calculate the volume of the truncated cone.
14 Use the same method as in question 13 to find the volume
15 cm
3 cm
6 cm
6 cm
5 cm
3 cm
1 cm
3 cm
2.5 cm
of icecream.
a Calculate the volume of the cone.
b Calculate the volume of the scoop of icecream.
c Calculate the total volume of the shape. (Hint: Only half the sphere
8 cm
Further development
16 Find the volume of each of the following correct to one decimal place.
a
b
c
12.6
cm
22.4 cm
8.4
cm
18.5
cm
60 cm
64
cm
12 cm
80 cm
7 cm
17 The following diagram shows a tennis canister that contains four tennis balls each of
diameter 7cm.
a What is the radius and height of the canister?
b Find the volume of the canister correct to the nearest cm3.
c Find the amount of empty space in the canister.
18 A cosmetic eye mask is 12mm thick and filled will a special liquid. Find the volume of
the liquid given that the mask has a cross sectional area of 140cm2.
19 Fifty small chocolates are to be placed inside a spherical ball. Given that each chocolate
20 One hundred spherical marbles of diameter 1cm are put into a larger sphere
of diameter 10cm. Find the percentage of space inside the larger sphere that
is occupied.
21 The vase drawn on the right is a frustum, which is a cone with part cut off.
12 cm
24
cm
The height of the frustum is 24cm, which is twothirds the height of the full cone.
Find the volume of the frustum.
6H
Many solid shapes are composed of two or more regular solids. To calculate the volume of such a figure,
we need to determine the best method for each particular part. Many irregular shapes may still be prisms.
A prism is a shape in which every crosssection taken parallel to the base shape is equal to that
base shape. The base shape must be a polygon.
interactivity
int2754
Volume of prisms
V = Ah
where A is the area of the base shape and h is the height.
Remember that the base of the prism is not necessarily the bottom. The base is the shape that is
constant throughout the prism and will usually be drawn as the front of the prism. This means that the
height will be drawn perpendicular to the base. To calculate the volume of any prism, we first calculate
the area of the base and then multiply by the height.
Chapter 6 Further applications of area and volume 157
WORKED EXAMPLE 23
4 cm
6 cm
12 cm
10 cm
4 cm
12 cm
WRITE
A1
A2
6 cm
THINK
3 cm
10 cm
2
A1 = 4 12
= 48cm2
A = 48 + 36
= 84cm2
Substitute A = 84 and h = 3.
= 84 3
Calculate.
= 252cm3
A2 = 6 6
= 36cm2
V=Ah
If the shape is not a prism, you may need to divide it into two or more regular 3dimensional shapes. You
could then calculate the volume by finding the volume of each shape separately. You will need to use
important volume formulas that appear on the formula sheet:
Cone: V = 13r2hCylinder: V = r2h Pyramid: V = 13Ah Sphere: V = 43r3
WORKED EXAMPLE 24
WRITE
= (1.2)2 2.4
= 10.857cm3
V = r2h
V = 43r3 2
Substitute r = 1.2.
= 43 (1.2)3 2
= 3.619cm3
In many cases a volume question may be presented in the form of a practical problem.
WORKED EXAMPLE 25
A water storage tank is in the shape of a cube of side length 1.8m, surmounted by a cylinder of
diameter 1m with a height of 0.5m. Calculate the capacity of the tank, correct to the nearest
100litres.
THINK
1
WRITE
1m
0.5 m
1.8 m
2
V = s3
= 1.83
= 5.832m3
V = r2h
= 0.52 0.5
= 0.393m3
18 mm
6 cm
5 cm
Exercise 6H
20 cm
4 cm
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.9
doc11055
Volume of cubes
and rectangular
prisms
15 cm
6 mm
15 mm
14 mm
26.5 mm
8 mm
6 mm
15 cm
10 cm
4 cm
12 cm
20 cm
c
5 cm
0.7 m
25 cm
12 cm
2.3 m
40 cm
3 cm
2.1 m
4 m 0.5 m
12 cm
20 cm
0.4 m
0.6 m
5m
1m
2m
1.5 m
1.5 m
2m
40 cm
50 cm
12 cm
6 Calculate the volume of each of the figures drawn below, correct to 1 decimal place.
c
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.11
doc11057
Volume of
cylinders
3 cm
34 cm
r
5 cm
r =12 cm
50 cm
B
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.12
doc11058
Volume of a
sphere
718cm3
1437cm3
2155cm3
2873cm3
14 cm
7 cm
sewage outlet.
a Calculate the area of a crosssection of the pipe, shown in blue, correct to
2 decimal places.
b Calculate the amount of concrete needed to make a 10m length
of this pipe.
12 A commemorative cricket ball has a diameter of 7cm. It is to be preserved in
3m
2.5 m
a cubic case that will allow 5mm on each side of the ball.
a What will the side length of the cubic case be?
b Calculate the amount of empty space inside the case, to the nearest
whole number.
c Calculate the percentage of space inside the case occupied by the ball, to the nearest whole
number.
Further development
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.13
doc11059
Volume of a
pyramid
6 mm
the right. Each mm3 of the diamond has a mass of 0.04 g. Calculate the mass
of the diamond.
6 mm
14 Find the volume of these objects (to the nearest whole unit).
8 cm
a
b
m
5 cm
12 cm
9c
5 cm
r=
6 cm
c
5 cm
2.5 cm
3 cm
2 cm
3 cm
f
2m
4.2 m
20 cm
12 m
35 cm
5m
12 cm
21 m
19 m
3m
60 m
21 m
1.6 m
and a height of 5cm (not including the cups base). Find the volume of the cone
to the nearest millilitre, where 1cm3 = 1mL.
16 Tennis balls have a diameter of 6.5cm and are packaged in a cylinder that can
hold four tennis balls. Assuming the balls just fit inside a cylinder, find:
a the height of the cylindrical can
b the volume of the can (to 1 decimal place)
c the volume of the four tennis balls (to 1 decimal place)
d the volume of the can occupied by air
e the fraction of the cans volume occupied by the balls.
162 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
14 cm
15 cm
15 The medicine cup on the right has the shape of a cone with a diameter of 4cm
3
2
The operator stands in the middle of an oval. (Give all answers to the
nearest whole unit.)
a What is the maximum area of the oval occupied by the plane in
flight?
b If the plane can be manoeuvred in a hemispherical zone, find:
i the surface area of the airspace that the plane can occupy
ii the volume of airspace that is needed by the operator for controlling
the plane.
c Repeat part b with a new control string with a length of 15 metres.
6I
Digital docs
Investigation
doc2748
Maximising
volume
Error in measurement
Earlier in this chapter we saw that all measurements are approximations. The degree of accuracy
inany measurement is restricted by the accuracy of the measuring device and the degree of
practicality.
We have previously seen that the maximum error in any measurement is half of the smallest unit of
measurement. This error is compounded when further calculations such as surface area or volume
are made.
WORKED EXAMPLE 26
THINK
8 cm
15 cm
20 cm
WRITE
a V=lwh
= 20 15 8
= 2400cm3
prism.
V=lwh
= 19.5 14.5 7.5
= 2120.625cm3
V=lwh
= 20.5 15.5 8.5
= 2700.875cm3
WORKED EXAMPLE 27
THINK
WRITE
answer.
Exercise 6I
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.14
doc11060
Error in linear
measurement
8.4
100%
129.6
= 6.5%
Percentage error =
Error in measurement
1 WE26 In the figure on the right each measurement has been taken to
12 cm
Tutorial
int2414
Worked
example27
A swimming pool is built in the shape of a rectangular prism with a length of 10.2m, a width of
7.5m and a depth of 1.5m. The floor and the sides of the pool need to be cemented.
a Calculate the area that is to be cemented.
bThe concreter incorrectly measured the length of the pool as 9.4m. Calculate the error in the
area calculation.
c Calculate the percentage error (correct to 1 decimal place) in the area calculation.
16 cm
2 The radius of a circle is measured as 7.6cm, correct to 1 decimal place.
a What is the maximum possible error in the measurement of the radius?
b Calculate the area of the circle. Give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.
c Calculate the maximum possible error in the area of the circle.
d Calculate the maximum possible error in the area of the circle as a percentage of the area.
6 cm
Further development
11 The dimensions of a rectangular courtyard are 20 metres by 12 metres, correct to the nearest metre.
The area is to be paved with pavers that are squares of side length 50cm.
a Calculate the number of pavers that will be needed to ensure that the entire courtyard is paved,
allowing for possible measurement error in the courtyard measurements.
b If this number of pavers are ordered what would be the maximum number of pavers that could be
left over at the end of the job?
12 The area of a square is measured as being 4900m2, correct to the nearest 100m2. Find:
a the side length of the square
b the maximum possible side length (correct to 1 decimal place)
c the minimum possible side length (correct to 1 decimal place)
d the maximum percentage error in the side length (correct to 2 decimal places).
13 The volume of a sphere is found to be 23000cm3, correct to the nearest 1000cm3. Find the
maximum percentage error in:
a the volume of the sphere
b the radius of the sphere.
Give your answers correct to 2 decimal places.
14 A cylinder has given radius of 10cm and a height of 30cm, correct to the nearest centimetre.
a Find the volume of the cylinder, correct to the nearest cm3.
b A liquid is to be poured into the cylinder. The liquid can expand by as much as 10% in hot
weather. Allowing for possible error in measurement, what is the maximum amount of the liquid
that can be poured into the cylinder such that none will spill in the event of expansion? Give your
answer correct to the nearest 100mL.
15 a Find the area of a sector of a circle of radius 15cm and subtending a 74 angle at the centre.
b Find the length of the arc formed.
c Find the maximum percentage error in
i the area of the sector
ii the arc length
given that the radius was measured to the nearest centimetre and the angle was measured to
the nearest degree.
16 The figure below is of a field. The area is to be approximated using Simpsons rule.
5m
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 6.2
doc11061
30 m
30 m
18 m
67 m
of the field.
c Find the largest possible area of the field.
d Find the maximum percentage error.
Summary
Relative error
The area of a composite figure is calculated by dividing the figure into two or more
regular figures.
When calculating the area of a composite figure, some side lengths will need to be
calculated using Pythagoras theorem.
Simpsons rule
The surface area is the total area of all faces on the solid shape.
Surface area formulas
Cube:
SA = 6s2
Rectangular Prism SA = 2(lh + lb + bh)
Many solid shapes have their surface area calculated by separately calculating the area of
each face.
The surface area of a closed cylinder is found by using the formula SA = 2r2 + 2rh.
If the cylinder is an open cylinder, the surface area is found using SA = r2 + 2rh.
The surface area of a sphere is calculated using the formula SA = 4r2.
All pyramids can have their volume calculated using the formula V = 13Ah.
The volume of a cone is found using V = 13r2h.
The volume of a sphere is found using the formula V = 43r3.
Error in measurement
All measurements are approximations. The maximum error in any measurement is half
the smallest unit used.
Any error in a measurement will compound when further calculations using the
measurement need to be made.
Chapter review
1 MC A cube has a side length of 4cm.
20 m
25 m
15 m
30 m
mult ip le
ch oice
80 m
3 The following figure is an open cylinder. Which of the calculations below will
B 2 52 + 2 5 20
D 2 102 + 2 10 20
20 cm
10 cm
D 19.6m2
1 An elevator has a capacity of 1.3 tonnes. If 18 people who each weigh an average of 66kg are on the
52 mm
1.7 m
5 Calculate the area of each of the figures below. Give each answer correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
92 mm
237
12.5 cm
30
4.8 m
6 Calculate the area of each of the annuluses below. Give each answer correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
34 cm
3.7 m
81 mm
94 mm
1.3 m
17 cm
15 cm
35 cm
10 cm
12 cm
10 cm
8 Calculate the area of each of the figures below. Where appropriate,
3.9 m
0.9 m
4.1 m
3 cm
1.5 cm
36 cm
6 cm
50 m
13 m
42 m
42 m
57 m
96 m
62 m
57 m
31 m
2m
29 m
30 m
36 m
14 m
10 Use Simpsons rule to find an approximation for each of the areas below.
a
b
c
21 m
42 m
24 m
11 By dividing the area shown below into two sections, use Simpsons
30 m
30 m
25 m
19 m 11 m
50 m
62 m
27 m
23 m
2.1 m
0.8 m
3.9 m
4.2 cm
38 m
9m
15 m 15 m 15 m 15 m
44 m
33 m
12 Use Simpsons rule twice to find an approximation for the area below.
4.6 m
0.9 m
1.8 m
14 Calculate the surface area of each of the figures below, by calculating the area of each face separately
6 cm
5m
4m
10 cm
5 cm
4 cm
15 m
2m
12 cm
3.5 m
3m
5m
12 m
(1m3 = 1000 L)
50 m
22 m
3m
1m
2m
c
60 cm
25 cm
10 cm
7 cm
1.1 m
4 cm
17 Calculate the surface area of an open cylinder with a diameter of 9cm and a height of 15cm.
b a radius of 2.4m
19 Use the formula V = 3Ah to calculate the volume of each of the pyramids below.
a 9 cm
A = 16 cm2
19 mm
A = 126 mm2
2.3 m
A = 6.9 m2
20 Calculate the volume of each of the pyramids, cones and spheres below.
a
25 m
2.6 m
3.2 m
7.9 m
36 m
52 mm
19 mm
d
19.5 mm
23.5 mm
e
23 mm
f
70 cm
1.9 m
3.1 m
0.5 m
2.7 m
0.6 m
22 Calculate the volume of each of the solids drawn below. Where necessary, give your answer correct
17 cm
22 cm
40 cm
12 cm
3 cm
9 cm
20 cm
12 cm
19 cm
15 cm
10 cm
3 cm
3 cm
10 cm
15 cm
9 cm
24 A sphere has a diameter of 16cm when measured to the nearest centimetre.
a State the maximum error made in the measurement of the
radius.
b Calculate the volume of the sphere. Answer correct to the
the sphere.
25 An aluminium soft drink can has a diameter of 8cm and a
height of 10cm.
a Calculate the capacity of the can, in millilitres, correct to
the nearest 10 millilitres.
b The machine that cuts the aluminium for the can is
mistakenly set to 12cm. Calculate the percentage error
in the capacity of the can (correct to the nearest whole
number).
1 The figure on the right shows a section of a concrete drainage pipe.
a Calculate the area of the annulus, correct to 1 decimal place.
b Calculate the volume of concrete needed to make a 5m length of this pipe
Ex tended
R es p ons e
2.5 m
1.5 m
4.9 m
9.2 m
60 m
5.1 m
Digital doc
doc11062
Test yourself
chapter 6
ICT activities
6ARelative error
DIGITAL DOCS
SkillSHEET 6.1 (doc11046): Writing one quantity as a percentage of
another. (p. 131)
EXCEL Spreadsheet (doc1461): Calculations with percentages.
(p.131)
INTERACTIVITY
int1150: Maximising the volume of a cube. (page 153)
TUTORIAL
WE21 int2482: Learn how to calculate the volume of a cone.
(page154)
DIGITAL DOC
EXCEL Spreadsheet (doc1482): Volume of a cone. (page 155)
TUTORIAL
WE7 int2411: Learn to calculate the area of an annulus.
(page134)
DIGITAL DOC
SkillSHEET 6.2 (doc11047): Area of a circle. (page 134)
6D Simpsons rule
DIGITAL DOCS
WE13 int2413: Learn how to apply Simpsons rule.
(page 143)
SkillSHEET 6.5 (doc1308): Substitution into formulas.
(page 143)
INTERACTIVITY
int2754: Volume of prisms. (page 157)
DIGITAL DOC
SkillSHEET 6.9 (doc11055): Volume of cubes and rectangular prisms.
(page 159)
DIGITAL DOCS
SkillSHEET 6.10 (doc11056): Volume of triangular prisms. (page 160)
SkillSHEET 6.11 (doc11057): Volume of cylinders. (page 161)
SkillSHEET 6.12 (doc11058): Volume of a sphere. (page 161)
SkillSHEET 6.13 (doc11059): Volume of a pyramid. (page 162)
Investigation (doc2748): Maximising volume. (page 163)
6IError in measurement
TUTORIAL
WE27 int2414: Learn how to apply area concepts to a real
situation. (page 164)
DIGITAL DOCS
SkillSHEET 6.14 (doc11060): Error in linear measurement. (page 164)
WorkSHEET 6.2 (doc11061):Apply your knowledge of measurement
to problems. (page 166)
Chapter review
DIGITAL DOC
Test Yourself (doc11062): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 172)
Answers chapter 6
Further applications of
area and volume
Exercise 6A
Relative error
1 a 4.5cm to 5.5cm
b 11.5cm to 12.5cm
c 33.5cm to 34.5cm
d 58.5cm to 59.5cm
e 89.5cm to 90.5cm
f 199.5cm to 200.5cm
2 a 35m to 45m
b 85m to 95m
c 245m to 255m
d 295m to 305m
e 995m to 1005m
f 1995m to 2005m
3 a 5.25cm to 5.35cm
b 9.75m to 9.85m
c 7.15km to 7.25km
d 4.95mm to 5.05mm
e 9.85km to 9.95km
f 0.05m to 0.15m
4 a 44.5km to 45.5km
b 0.5km c
1.11%
5 a 0.75% b
7.14% c
2.78%
d 0.13% e
5%
6 a i 4cm
ii 3cm
iii 5cm
b i 12.5%
ii 16.67%
iii 10%
ii 27mm
iii 52mm
7 a i 40mm
b i 1.25%
ii 1.85%
iii 0.96%
8 a 1 h 15 min to 1 h 25 min
b 5 minutes c
6.25%
9 B
10 C
11 C
12 D
13 a 29.5m to 30.5m
b 19.5m to 20.5m
c 98m d
102m e
2m
14 a 575.25m2 b
625.25m2
c 25.25m2
15 750.4mL
16 79.25km
17 a 2.2% b
0.2% c
0.02%
18 a 2.67%
b Travis is correct as the percentage error
is the same.
19 11cm
20 Jonas is correct as a whole number gives a
percentage error of 10% while one decimal
place gives 1%.
21 a 28m2 b
6.5m and 3.5m
c 22.75m2 d
18.75%
e 7.5m and 4.5m
f 33.75m2
g 20.5%
h 20.5%
22 2%
Exercise 6B
1 128.7cm2
2 a 254.47cm2
b 3421.19mm2
c 172.03m2
d 2206.18cm2
e 46.32m2
f 113.85m2
3 176.7m2
Exercise 6E
1 248m2
1 a 150cm2 b
486cm2
2
2 a 222cm2 b
375cm2
c 6144cm d
43.74cm2
c 335cm2 d
228.5cm2
e 23064mm2 f
47.04m2
2
e 44.6cm2 f
130.3cm2
2 a 122m
b 107.5m2
3 a 8cm b
84cm2
c 3276cm2 d
95.98cm2
2
4 a 5.3m
b 31.8m2
e 1444cm f
1274mm2
5 a 120m2 b
168cm2
3 11.92m2
c 6658.2mm2
4 28125cm2
6 a 174cm2 b
510m2
5 a 17.5m2 b
70
c 4032mm2
c 42.5m2
d 17.5m2
7 A
e 30 L
8 B
6 B
9 a
b
250m c
3582.5m2 7 36cm2
8 95.6m2
9 486cm2
10 236cm2
11 568cm2
50 m
2
2
12 10m
10 a 80m b
109.7cm
13 6.615m2
c 12.2cm2 d
58.4cm2
2
2
14 2.65m2
e 4600mm f
20.1m
2
15 236.89cm2
11 2513m
42 m
12 a
1m
13 a 565cm2 b
452cm2
10 a
Chapter Review
2.5 cm
14 a 113cm2
Multiple choice
b r = 3cm, h = 18cm c
28cm2
2
2
1
D
d 368cm e
339cm
5 cm
2 B
15 3041cm2
3 A
16 4562cm2
4 C
17 201cm2
b 50mL c
20
18 693cm2
Short answer
11 a 8.64m2 b
86.4m3
19 a 5400cm2 b
47.64%
1 112kg
12 a 8cm b
332cm3 c
35%
Exercise 6G Volume of pyramids, cones
2 a 33.5cm to 34.5cm
13 5.76 g
and spheres
b 8.85kg to 8.95kg
14 a 3054cm3 b
840cm3
1 a 6666.7cm3 b
9400cm3
c 450km to 550km
c 48cm3 d
42cm3
c 186cm3 d
11.25m3
d 2.245 L to 2.255 L
e 10379cm3 f
312m3
2 a 96cm3 b
560cm3
e 795km to 805km
g 9448m3 h
33m3
c 120m3 d
100cm3
3 a 1.5% b
0.6%
15 770mL
3 a 100cm3 b
92cm3
c 10% d
0.2%
16 a 26cm b
862.8cm3
c 700cm3 d
208mm3
e 0.6%
c 575.2cm3 d
287.6cm3
2
4 a 262cm3 b
1810cm3
4 a 43.0cm2 b
8494.9mm2
e
3
2
c 2212mm3 d
77585cm3
c 2.3m
17 B
5 254.5cm3
5 a 2215.9mm2 b
18.1m2
18 a 314m2
2
2
3
6 a 904.8cm3 b
2144.7cm3
c 323.2cm
b i 628m
ii 2094m
c 8181.2m3 d
137.3m3
6 a 7147.1mm2 b
37.7m2
c i 1414m2
ii 7069m3
2
7 6.37cm3
c 2723.8cm
Exercise 6I Error in measurement
8 A
7 705cm2
1 a 1152cm3
9 C
8 a 5.75m2 b
27cm2
b 188.625cm3
2
10 D
c
1804.94
c
m
2 a 0.05cm b
181.5cm2
11 335.1cm3
9 1722m2
c 2.4cm2 d
1.3%
3
12 a 7cm b
2144.7cm
10 a 840m2 b
2672m2
3 a 4096mm3
2
c 1436.76cm3 d
707.9cm3
c 5548m
b 3723.875mm3
13 a 565.487cm3 b
84.83cm3
11 4190m2
3
c
4492.125
m
m
c 480.7cm3
12 2010m2
d 9.7%
14 14.33cm3
13 a 105.84cm2 b
25.98m2
e 1536mm2
2
15 a 52.4cm3 b
65.45cm3
c 19.44m d
18.18m2
f 1441.5mm2
2 b
c 85.1cm3
1
4
a
54
m
352cm2
g 1633.5mm2
2
16 a 1241.4cm3 b
1075.2cm3
c 340m
h 6.3%
c 768.9cm3 d
43306.7cm3
15 a 75m2 b
1650m3
4 a 302cm3 b
212cm3
17 a r = 3.5cm, h = 28cm
c 1650000 L d
1316.2
c 414cm3 d
37%
b 1078cm3 c
360cm3
16 a 747.7cm2 b
728.8cm2
5
24%
2
18 168cm3
c 11.7m
6 a 11.5m3 b
1.3m3
19 4.2cm
17 488cm2
c 11.3% d
24.6m2
20 10%
18 a 314cm2 b
72m2
e 1.8m2 f
7.3%
21 5227.6cm3
c 76454mm2
7 a 382 L b
89 L
19 a 48cm3 b
798mm3
Exercise 6H Volume of composite
c 23%
3
c
5.29
m
solids
8 a 39032cm3
20 a 10800m3 b
10.95m3
1 a 178cm2 b
712cm3
b 7890cm2
3 d
c
19
6
58
m
m
2339mm3
3
3
2 a 630mm b
420cm
c 60cm 40cm 20cm
3
e 50965mm f
179594cm3
c 3152.68mm3
d 23%
3
2
1
3.438
m
3
d 1319.47mm
e 11.5%
22 a 5797cm3 b
14283cm3
3 a 700cm3 b
3000cm3
9 a 27.72m2 b
28 L c
1L
3
c
1260
c
m
3
3
c 3720cm d
2.128m
10 a 17m 10m b
170m2
23 5343.85cm3
e 12.75m3 f
18m3
c $5142.50 d
$221.43
24 a 0.25cm b
2145cm3
3
3
4 a 8m b
2m
11 a 1025 b
128
c 9.7%
c 10m3
12 a 70m b
70.4m
25 a 500mL b
20%
5 a 22619cm3 b
6032cm3
c 69.6m d
0.57%
c 28651cm3
Extended response
13 a 2.17% b
0.74%
6 a 19000.4cm3 b
103.7cm3
14 a 9425cm3 b
7500mL
1 a 12.6m2 b
62.8m3
c 157724.9cm3
15 a 145.3cm2 b
19.4cm
c 62800mL d
125.7m2
7 B
c i 7.5%
ii 4%
2
2 a 292m b
233600m3
8 D
16 a 2910m2 b
2832m2
3
c
6.25%
9 a 16875cm b
16.875 L
c 2989m2 d
2.7%
Chapter 7
Applications of trigonometry
CHAPTER CONTENTS
7A Review of rightangled triangles
7B Using the sine rule to find side lengths
7C Using the sine rule to find angles
7D Using the cosine rule to find side lengths
7E Using the cosine rule to find angles
7F Area of a triangle
7G Bearings
7H Radial surveys
7A Review
of rightangled triangles
Previously we have studied rightangled triangles and discovered that we can calculate a side length of a
triangle when given the length of one other side and one of the acute angles.
To do this we need to use one of the formulas for the three trigonometric ratios.
opposite side
sin =
hypotenuse
adjacent
hypotenuse
opposite
cos =
tan =
Interactivity
int2405
SOHCAHTOA
adjacent side
hypotenuse
opposite side
adjacent side
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
a
THINK
1
43
WRITE
43
Adjacent
adjacent side
hypotenuse
a
cos 43 =
13.2
a = 13.2 cos 43
cos =
9.65m
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Find the length of the side marked x in the figure on the right
(correct to 1 decimal place).
42
29.2 cm
THINK
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
1
hyp
x
29.2 cm
opp
sin =
opposite side
hypotenuse
sin 42 =
x sin 42 = 29.2
29.2
x=
sin 42
x = 43.6m
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Press 3 (SOLV).
29.2
x
The same formulas can be used to calculate the size of an angle if we are given two side lengths in the
triangle.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Calculate the size of the angle marked in the figure on the right
(correct to the nearest degree).
47 mm
35 mm
THINK
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
1
Substitute values for the opposite side and the adjacent side.
Calculate .
Opposite = 47mm
Adjacent = 35mm
opposite side
tan =
adjacent side
tan =
47
35
= tan 1 a
= 53
47
b
35
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Press 3 (SOLV).
Using these results, we are able to solve problems that involve more than one rightangled
triangle.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Tutorial
int2415
Worked example 4
Greg stands 70m from the base of a building and measures the
angle of elevation to the top of the building as being 35. Julie is
standing 40m from the base of the building on the other side
of the building as shown in the following figure.
h
35
40 m
70 m
a
Calculate the height of the building, correct to 2 decimal places.
b
Calculate the angle of elevation of the top of the building that
THINK
WRITE
opposite side
adjacent side
h
tan 35 =
70
tan =
h = 70 tan 35
h = 49.01m
b
49.01 m
the sides.
40 m
opposite side
adjacent side
49.01
tan =
40
tan =
= tan 1 a
= 51
49.01
b
40
56
50 m
THINK
1
WRITE
56
50 m
Adjacent
tan =
2
tan 56 =
Opposite
Adjacent
x
50
50 tan 56 = x
x 74
The lighthouse is approximately 74metres tall.
Exercise 7A
1 WE1, 2 Calculate the length of the side marked with the pronumerals in each of the following,
38
314 mm
23
13.2 cm
142 mm
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 7.1
doc11063
Rightangled
trigonometry
finding a side
length
61
11.4 m
17
5
d
50
9.1 m
19.2 cm
2 WE3 Calculate the size of each of the angles marked with the pronumerals, correct to the nearest
degree.
9.5 m
113 cm
71 mm
11.4 m
61
cm
36 mm
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 7.2
doc11064
Using the inverse
trigonometric
ratios
3 Andrew walks 5km from point P to point Q. At the same time Bianca walks from P to R such that
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 7.3
doc11065
Rounding angles
to the nearest
degree
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 7.4
doc11066
Rightangled
trigonometry
finding an angle
the figure on the right. Sally is 40m from the base of the building and
sights the angle of elevation to the top of the building as 35. Tim is
60m from the base of the building.
a Calculate the height of the building, correct to 2 decimal
places.
b Calculate the angle of elevation at which Tim will sight the
building.
35
40 m
S
50 m
6 The angle of depression from the top of a cliff to a boat sailing 100m
offshore is 32. Calculate the height of the cliff, correct to the nearest
metre.
100 m
32
h
5 George and Diego are both flying a kite from the same point.
60 m
70
60 m
7 A lighthouse is 40m tall and the beacon atop the lighthouse is sighted
150 m
Further development
9 MC The shadow cast by a statue 2metres tall is 0.6metres. The angle of the sun to the ground is
closest to:
A 17
C 72
B 18
D 73
10 In the diagram find x (to 1 decimal place), and (to the nearest degree).
11 The sun is overhead, casting a shadow of length 90cm from a 1.75m
60
8m
6.5 m
7B
In this section you will be learning about trigonometry as it applies to triangles which are not right
angled.In rightangled triangles you have been able to find the length of sides and the size of angles
usingthe sine,cosine and tangent ratios and in doing so you have applied these ratios to acute
anglesonly.
A nonrightangled triangle can be drawn with three acute angles, or with one obtuse angle and two
acute angles.
For this reason we need to explore trigonometric ratios as they apply to obtuse angles.
5. Find each of the following using your calculators, giving your answers correct to three decimal places.
(a) sin 60 and sin 120
(b) cos 40 and cos 140
(c) tan 20 and tan 120
6. What do you notice about each of the angle pairs in question 5?
7. Use what you have discovered to complete each of the following using an acute angle.
(a) sin 150 = sin ___
(b) sin 115 = sin ___
(c) sin 166 = sin ___
C
C
b
A
a
B
a
b
c
=
=
sin A sin B sin C
A, B and C represent the three angles in the triangle ABC and a, b and c
represent the three sides, remembering that each side is named with the
lowercase letter of the opposite vertex.
Construct a line from C to a point, D, perpendicular to AB. CD is the
perpendicular height of the triangle, h.
Now consider ACD and BCD separately.
C
a
h
D
c
D D
c
. Try it!
sin C
This formula allows us to calculate the length of a side in any triangle if we are given the length of
one other side and two angles. When using the formula we need to use only two parts of it.
184 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Calculate the length of the side marked x in the triangle on the right,
correct to 1 decimal place.
A
80
B
THINK
40
16 cm
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
1
a
b
=
sin A sin B
x
16
=
sin 80 sin 40
16 sin 80
x=
sin 40
x = 24.5cm
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Press 3 (SOLV).
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
130
30
7 cm
WRITE
130
C
30
Tutorial
int0465
Worked example 7
c = 7 cm
A
b=x
Confirm that it is the sine rule that can be used as you have the angle
opposite to the unknown side and a known side ratio.
angle
a
b
c
=
=
sin A sin B sin C
b=x
B = 130
c = 7cm C = 30
x
7
=
sin 130 sin 30
7 sin 130
sin 30
x = 10.7246
x = 10.7
x=
Note: Some questions may ask for you to give the answer in a form other than a number and as such
thegraphics calculator method cannot be used. For example, the question above could be worded to,
16 sin 80
say, show x =
, in which case you must manipulate the equation to arrive at the desired
sin 40
expression.
To use the sine rule we need to know the angle opposite the side we are finding and the angle opposite
the side we are given. In some cases these are not the angles we are given. In such cases we need to use
the fact that the angles in a triangle add to 180 to calculate the required angle.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
Calculate the length of the side labelled m in the figure on the right,
correct to 4 significant figures.
A
65
m
B
THINK
1
Calculate.
75
16 m
WRITE
C = 180 65 75
= 40
a
c
=
sin A sin C
16
m
=
sin 65 sin 40
m=
16 sin 40
sin 65
= 11.35m
As mentioned in the previous investigation, we need to apply the sine rule to obtuseangled triangles.
Insuch examples the method used is exactly the same with the substitution of an obtuse angle.
Using the sine rule allows us to solve a number of more complex problems. As with our earlier
trigonometry problems, we begin each with a diagram and give a written answer to each.
186 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
60
G
THINK
75
20 km
WRITE
A = 180 60 75
= 45
x=
x = 24.495km
g
a
=
sin G sin A
x
20
=
sin 60 sin 45
20 sin 60
sin 45
Exercise 7B
1 Write down the sine rule formula as it applies to each of the triangles below.
a
b X
c P
A
c
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 7.5
doc11067
Angle sum of a
triangle
2 WE6 Use the sine rule to calculate the length of the side marked with the pronumeral in each of the
16 cm
50
45
1.9 km
C
R
52
63
59
84
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 7.6
doc11068
Solving fractional
equations
89 mm
3 WE7 In each of the following, use the sine rule to calculate the length of the side marked with the
pronumeral, correct to 1 decimal place, by first finding the size of the third angle.
x
H
74 74
N
80
18.2 mm
m
62 P
35.3 cm
I
B
19.4 km
a G
85
y
27
42 sin 28
sin 117
B m =
42 sin 117
sin 35
D m =
42 sin 35
sin 117
42 cm
35
42 sin 117
B n =
sin 35
42 sin 28
sin 117
D n =
28
35
28
42 m
42 sin 35
sin 117
6 ABC is a triangle in which BC = 9cm, BAC = 54 and ACB = 62. Calculate the length of side
7 WE8 XYZ is a triangle in which y = 19.2m, XYZ = 42 and XZY = 28. Calculate x, correct
8 WE7 X and Y are two trees, 30m apart on one side of a river. Z is a tree on the opposite side of the
59
X
72
30 m
It is found that XYZ = 72 and YXZ = 59. Calculate the distance XZ, correct to 1 decimal
place.
Further development
9 WE9 From a point, M, the angle of elevation to the top of a building, B, is 34. From a point, N,
80 sin 30
.
sin 40
80 sin 30 sin 70
b Show that h can be found using the expression
.
sin
40
c Calculate h, correct to 1 decimal place.
a Show that XY can be given by the expression
h
W
30
80 m
70
X
0.8 m
shipping yard.
The struts in the truss shown are each made from 0.8m steel lengths
130 130 130
and are welded at the contact points with the upper and lower sections
of the truss.
a On the lower section of the truss, what is the distance (to the nearest centimetre) between each
pair of consecutive welds?
b What is the height (to the nearest centimetre) of the truss?
12 A scenic flight leaves Town A and flies west of north for the 80km direct journey to Town B. At
Town B the plane turns 92 to the right to fly east of north to Town C. From here the plane turns
129 to the right and flies the 103km straight back to Town A. Find the distance (to the nearest km)
of the direct flight from Town B to Town C.
188 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
7C Using the
Finding angles
Using the sine rule result, we are able to calculate angle sizes as well. To do this, we need to be given the
length of two sides and the angle opposite one of them. For simplicity, in solving the triangle we invert
the sine rule formula when we are using it to find an angle. The formula is written:
sin A sin B sin C
=
=
a
b
c
Your formula sheet has the sine rule to find a side length. You need to invert this formula when finding
an angle. As with finding side lengths, we use only two parts of the formula.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Find the size of the angle, , in the figure on the right, correct to the
nearest degree.
A
6 cm
110
20 cm
B
THINK
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
1
sin A sin C
=
a
c
sin 110 sin
=
20
6
6 sin 110
sin =
20
sin = 0.2819
= 16
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Press 3 (SOLV).
As we saw earlier that a triangle can be drawn with three acute angles or one obtuse angle with two
acute angles
Consider finding the angle in the triangle below
10
15 m
C
17 m
sin A sin B
=
a
b
sin sin 10
=
17
15
17 sin 10
sin =
15
0.1968
10
B
159
17 m
10
15 m
C
A
169
17 m
15 m
1
In this course, when asked to find an angle, if two answers are possible you will be told whether to find
the acute or obtuse angle.
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
10 m
20
A
THINK
1
Subtract the acute angle from 180 to find the obtuse angle .
12 m
WRITE
sin B sin C
=
c
b
sin B sin 20
=
12
10
sin B =
12 sin 20
10
0.4104
B = sin 1 1 0.4104 2
24
180 24
= 156
Note: When using the graphics calculator, you do not need to remember to invert the sine rule.
If you enter 20 sin 110 = 6 sin x, the graphics calculator will still solve the equation.
As with finding side lengths, some questions will be problems that require you to draw a diagram to
extract the required information and then write the answer.
190 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
P is a point that is due north of a second point Q. A ship (S) is located 12.4km from
Pand31.2km from Q such that QPS = 43.
Find PQS correct to the nearest degree.
THINK
1
Tutorial
int2416
Worked
example12
WRITE
Draw a diagram.
12.4 km
43 S
31.2 km
Q
2
sin Q sin P
=
q
p
sin Q sin 43
=
12.4
31.2
sin Q =
sin Q = 0.271
Exercise 7C
12.4 sin 43
31.2
Q = 16
1 WE10 Find the size of the angle marked with a pronumeral in each of the following, correct to the
nearest degree.
a
29.5 m
46 cm
R
Q 60
18.9 m
V
23.6 km
23.6 km
75
27.6 cm
86
C sin =
36 sin 13
7
7 sin 36
B sin =
13
D sin =
117
170
27 mm
156 mm
2 MC Which of the statements below give the correct value for sin ?
13 sin 36
A sin =
7
153 mm
79 mm
16.5 cm
32 cm
100
B
7
36
13
7 sin 13
36
Chapter 7 Applications of trigonometry 191
3 MC In which of the triangles below is the information insufficient to use the sine rule?
A
14.8 m
12.7 m
57
45
12.6 m
115
16.2 m
6.2 m
12.7 m
8.7 m
9
12.9 m
4 In Questions ac find the size of the angle marked , correct to the nearest degree.
a
b
c
44 cm
65 cm
23
41 m
4.9 m
31
60
32 m
3.6 m
5 WE11 Find the size of the angle in the triangle drawn below.
4.1 m
4.5 m
22
10.1 cm
3.6 m
3.3 cm
19
20
9.2 m
c
12.1 cm
8.7 cm
33
7 In PQR, q = 12cm, r = 16cm and PRQ = 56. Find the size of PQR, correct to the nearest degree.
8 In KLM, LM = 4.2m, KL = 5.6m and KML = 27. Find the size of LKM, correct to the
12 Construct a suitable triangle from the following instructions and find all unknown sides and angles.
The smallest side is 17cm and one of the other sides is 25cm. The smallest angle is 32.
13 MC A yacht sails the threeleg course shown.
15 km
The smallest angle between any two legs within the course, to the nearest
degree, is:
78
A 34
B 55
C 45
D 78
13 km
14 MC The correct expression for angle S in the given triangle is:
A sin 1 a
40
sin 41
30
B sin 1 a
30
sin 41
40
18 km
41
30
40
41 sin 41
30
D sin 1 a
b
b
30
40 sin 41
15 Ben is planning to hike in the mountains out of the snow season. From a position in front of the ski
lodge, Ben can see the chairlift station and the start of the ski run in the distance. He notes that in
moving his eye from the ski lodge station to the start of the run, the angle is 34. Ben then walks in
a straight line to the chairlift station, a distance of 365m, turns and walks the 230m straight line
distance to the start of the ski run. From here, what angle (to the nearest degree) would he note
between the ski lodge and the chairlift station?
C sin 1 a
7D
When given the length of one side and two angles in a triangle, we can use the sine rule to find another
side length. However, in many cases we do not have this information and need another method of
calculating the side lengths. The cosine rule allows us to calculate the length of the third side of a
triangle when we are given the length of the other two sides and the included angle.
a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A
b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cos B
c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C
The formula sheet gives the third version of this formula only. The others are an adaptation of the samerule.
It is important to notice that the formula is given in terms of a2, b2 or c2. This means that to find the
value of a, b or c we need to take the square root of our calculation.
C
a
B
c x
h
D
c
x
b
Therefore:
x = b cos A
Substituting for x in [2]: a2 = c2 2c(b cos A) + b2
a2 = c2 + b2 2bc cos A
This becomes the formula for the cosine rule. A similar formula can be used for finding sides b and c.
You may like to try it for yourself.
Chapter 7 Applications of trigonometry 193
b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cos B.
Find the length of the side marked b in the triangle below, correct to 1 decimal place.
B
70
10 m
A
THINK
12 m
b
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cos B
= 161.915
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Press 3 (SOLV).
b = !161.915
= 12.7 m
As with sine rule questions, we can apply the cosine rule to obtuseangled triangles. You should recall
from the earlier investigation that the cosine ratio of an obtuse angle is negative. The method of solution
remains unchanged.
194 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Find the unknown length (to 2 decimal places), x, in the following triangle.
7 cm
Tutorial
int0468
Worked
example14
80
6 cm
THINK
WRITE
B
a=x
c=7
A
80
b=6
b = 6 A = 80
c = 7
a=x
x = !70.4136
= 8.391
x = 8.39
The unknown length is 8.39cm, correct to
2decimal places.
The cosine rule also allows us to solve a wider range of practical problems. The important part of
solving such problems is marking the correct information on your diagram. If you can identify two side
lengths and the included angle, you can use the cosine rule.
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
A surveyor standing at a point, X, sights a point, M, 50m away and a point, N, 80m away. If the
angle between the lines XM and XN is 45, calculate the distance between the points M and N,
correct to 1 decimal place.
THINK
1
WRITE
X
50 m
45
80 m
N
M
2
x2 = m2 + n2 2mn cos X
= 802 + 502 2 80 50 cos 45
= 3243.15
x2.
x = !3243.15
= 56.9m
Exercise 7D
1 Write down the cosine rule formula as it applies to each of the triangles below. In each case, make
m
l
2 WE13 Find the length of the side marked with a pronumeral in each of the following, correct to
3significant figures.
a
12 m
35
42
13 cm
r
C
14 m
21 cm
12 m
60
12 m
R
Y
3 WE14 In each of the following obtuseangled triangles, find the length of the side marked with the
112 cm
114 cm
110
Z
x
R
q
6.1 m
B
130
9.7 m
63 mm
160
43 mm Q
4 MC In which of the following triangles are we unable to use the cosine rule to find x?
A
B
14.8 cm
132
16.4 m
16.2 cm
x
x
32
18.2 m
63
8.3 km
9.6 km
10.5 m
63
9.7 m
50
8m
9m
60
8 cm
12 cm
a
D Line 5
7 In ABC, a = 14cm, c = 25cm and ABC = 29. Calculate b, correct to 1 decimal place.
196 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
8 In PQR, PQ = 234mm, QR = 981mm and PQR = 128. Find the length of side PR, correct to
3significant figures.
9 Len and Morag walk separate paths that diverge from one another at an angle of 48. After three
hours Len has walked 7.9km and Morag 8.6km. Find the distance between the two walkers at this
time, correct to the nearest metre.
10 A cricketer is fielding 20m from the batsman and at an angle of 35 to the pitch. The batsman hits
a ball 55m and straight behind the bowler. How far must the fieldsman run to field the ball? (Give
your answer to the nearest metre.)
11 The sides of a parallelogram are 5.3cm and 11.3cm. The sides meet at angles of 134 and 46.
a Draw a diagram of the parallelogram showing this information and mark both diagonals on it.
b Calculate the length of the shorter diagonal, correct to 1 decimal place.
c Calculate the length of the long diagonal, correct to 1 decimal place.
12 The cord supporting a picture frame is 58cm long. It is hung over
58 cm
a single hook in the centre of the cord and the cord then makes an
angle of 145 as shown in the figure on the right. Calculate the length
of the backing of the picture frame, to the nearest centimetre.
145
Further development
7 km
105
If the angle between the two radii that meet at the point of
intersection of the circumferences is 110, find the distance
between the centres of the circles (to 1 decimal place).
15 Two hikers set out from the same point. The hikers walk 1200m
and 1500m respectively and diverge at an angle of 100. How far apart
to the nearest metre are the two hikers?
16 An advertising balloon is attached to two ropes 120m and 100m long.
4 cm
7 cm
110
The shorter rope makes a 70 angle with the ground and is attached
tothe bottom of the balloon. The longer rope makes an 80 angle
withthe horizontal and is attached to the top of the balloon. How tall is
the balloon? Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
7E Using the
Finding angles
Digital doc
doc11069
WorkSHEET 7.1
We can use the cosine rule to find the size of the angles within a triangle. Consider the cosine rule formula.
a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A
We now make cos A the subject of this formula.
a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A
2
a + 2bc cos A = b2 + c2
2bc cos A = b2 + c2 a2
b2 + c2 a2
cos A =
2bc
In this form, we can use the cosine rule to find the size of an angle if we are given all three side lengths.
We should be able to write the cosine rule in three forms depending upon which angle we wish to find.
b2 + c2 a2
cos A =
2bc
a2 + c2 b2
cos B =
2ac
a2 + b2 c2
cos C =
2ab
Again, the formula sheet gives the third version of this formula only. The others are an adaptation of
the same rule.
Chapter 7 Applications of trigonometry 197
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
Find the size of angle B in the triangle, correct to the nearest degree.
A
7 cm
5 cm
9 cm
THINK
C
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
1
Substitute a = 9, b = 5 and c = 7.
Calculate B.
a2 + c2 b2
2ac
92 + 72 52
cos B =
297
105
cos B =
126
= 0.8333
B = cos1(0.8333)
cos B =
B = 34
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Press 3 (SOLV).
Your formula sheet will give you two versions of the cosine rule, one for finding a side length and one
for finding an angle. When using the equation solver it does not matter which version you use to find a
side or an angle.
Try using the solver on the equation 52 = 92 + 72 2 9 7 cos B.
As we found earlier, the cosine ratio for an obtuse angle will be negative. So, when we get a negative
result to the calculation for the cosine ratio, this means that the angle we are finding is obtuse. Your
calculator will give the obtuse angle when we take the inverse.
198 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
Find the size of angle Q in the triangle, correct to the nearest degree.
Q
4 cm
3 cm
6 cm
THINK
WRITE
cos Q =
p2 + r2 q2
2pr
cos Q =
32 + 42 62
243
Substitute p = 3, q = 6 and r = 4.
11
24
= 0.4583
Q = cos1(0.4583)
Calculate Q.
Q = 117
cos Q =
In some cosine rule questions, you need to work out which angle you need to find. For example, you
could be asked to calculate the size of the largest angle in a triangle. To do this you do not need to
calculate all three angles. The largest angle in any triangle will be the one opposite the longest side.
Similarly, the smallest angle will lie opposite the shortest side.
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
4.9 m
S
5.7 m
THINK
1
Calculate R.
T
WRITE
cos R =
s2 + t2 r2
2st
R = 85
The largest angle in the triangle is 85.
WORKED EXAMPLE 19
Two paths diverge from a point, A. The first path goes for 1.25km to a point, B. The second path
goes for 1.4km to a point, C. B and C are exactly 2km apart. Find the angle at which the two
paths diverge.
THINK
1
WRITE
Draw a diagram.
2 km
1.25 km
A
2
Exercise 7E
1.4 km
cos A =
b2 + c2 a2
2bc
cos A =
1.42 + 1.252 22
2 1.4 1.25
0.4775
3.5
= 0.1364
A = cos1(0.1364)
cos A =
= 98
The roads diverge at an angle of 98.
1 For each of the following, write the cosine rule formula as it applies to the triangle drawn with the
b P
P
B
2 WE16 Find the size of the angle marked with the pronumeral in each of the following triangles,
A
8 cm
11 cm
3.2 m
2.8 m
M
4.5 m
5.4 m
C
B
13 cm
4.0 m
6.2 m
3 WE17 In each of the obtuseangled triangles below find the size of the angle marked with the
6m
9.6 m
8m
4.2 m
11 m
c
12.9 m
6.1 m
4.2 m
9.2 m
5 cm
7 cm
4 cm
3 cm
5 cm
4 cm
3 cm
4 cm
4 cm
4 cm
3 cm
4 cm
6 cm
6 In PQR, p = 7m, q = 9m and r = 6m. Find QRP, correct to the nearest degree.
7 In KLM, k = 85mm, l = 145mm and m = 197mm. Find the size of the smallest angle, correct to
12 The backing of a picture frame is 50cm long and is hung over a picture
52 cm
Further development
50 cm
for goal. Within what angle must the shot be made if it is to score a goal?
15 A plane flies 80km and then turns 120 right and flies a further 150km.
a How far is the plane from its starting point?
b What angle must the plane then turn to return to its starting point?
16 Three circles of radii 5cm, 6cm and 8cm are positioned so that they just touch one another. Their
centres form the vertices of a triangle. Find the largest angle in the triangle.
17 From the top of a vertical cliff 68m high, an observer notices a yacht at sea. The angle of depression
to the yacht is 47. The yacht sails directly away from the cliff, and after 10min the angle of
depression is 15. How fast is the yacht sailing?
7F
Area of a triangle
You should be familiar with finding the area of a triangle using the
formula Area = 12 bh. In this formula, b is the base of the triangle and h is
the perpendicular height. This formula cannot be used in triangles where
we do not know the perpendicular height. Trigonometry allows us to find
the area of such triangles when we are given the length of two sides and
the included angle.
Consider the triangle drawn on the right. In this triangle:
A
c
h
D
C
a
1
Area = bh[1]
2
sin C =
WORKED EXAMPLE 20
9m
37 6 m
THINK
1
WRITE
A
b=9
B
37 a = 6
C
a=6
b=9
C = 37
Areatriangle =
1
ab sin (C)
2
1
= 6 9 sin (37)
2
= 16.249
WORKED EXAMPLE 21
Two paths diverge at an angle of 72. The paths lengths are 45m and 76m respectively.
Calculate the area between the two paths, correct to the nearest square metre.
THINK
1
WRITE
Draw a diagram.
45 m
72
Area =
76 m
1
ab sin C
2
Calculate.
= 1626m2
1
45 76 sin 72
2
Exercise 7F
Area of a triangle
1 Write down the formula for the area of a triangle in terms of each of the triangles drawn below. Write
2 For each of the triangles drawn below, state whether the area would be best found using the formula
Area =
a
1
1
ab sin C or Area = bh.
2
2
6 cm
1.9 m
60
12 cm
2.6 m
6.2 m
9.1 m
8.3 m
60
12.4 m
3 WE20 Find the area of each of the following triangles, correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
11 cm
196 mm
40
207 mm
117 mm
120
92 mm
10
12 cm
1
1
ab sin C or Area = bh to find the area of each of the following triangles.
2
2
Where necessary, give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
38 cm
32 cm
19 cm
66
38 cm
14 cm
32 cm
1
5 MC In which of the following triangles can the formula Area = ab sin C not be used to find the
2
area of the triangle?
A
4 cm
4 cm
60
9 cm
9 cm
4 cm
75
9 cm
120
4 cm
9 cm
6 MC The area of the triangle on the right (correct to 1 decimal place) is:
A
B
C
D
4.4cm2
14.7cm2
17.1cm2
20.5cm2
5 cm
7 cm
78
6 cm
makes the following notebook entry. Calculate the area of the block of
land, correct to the nearest square metre.
18 m
20 m
90
80 70
15 m
120
25 m
Further development
11 Find the area of an equilateral triangle with a side length of 10cm.
12 MC
4m
30 6 m
50
The correct expression for the area of the shape above is:
1
6 4 sin 80
2
1
B
6 4 cos 80
2
1
C 6 4 sin 30
2
1
D 6 4 sin 100
2
A
13 MC The correct expression for the area of the octagon shown is:
11 sin 45
88 sin 67.5
88 sin 45
11 sin 67.5
14 Consider the triangle ABC drawn below.
A
B
C
D
5.5
B
15 m
105
18 m
2
point A from the line BC.
15 The triangle PQR has side lengths PQ = 15cm, QR = 22cm and PQR = 75.
a Find the area of the triangle.
b Betty draws the triangle by mistake with PQR = 105. Show that Betty will still get the correct
answer.
c Explain why the same answer for the area of the triangle is obtained.
16 Penny is making a triangular display case as shown in the diagram.
30 cm
30 cm
The two sides are to be 30cm in length. Find the angle between the two
sides that will maximise the area of the triangular crosssection.
7G
Bearings
A bearing is an angle used to describe direction. Bearings are used in navigation and are a common
application of trigonometry to practical situations. We can therefore apply our trigonometrical formulas
to make calculations based upon these bearings. There are two types of bearing that we need to be able
to work with: compass bearings and true bearings.
Compass bearings
Interactivity
int0190
Navigation and
specifications of
locations
N
NW
Compass bearings use the four points of the compass. With compass
bearings there are four main directions: north, south, east and west. In
between each of these main directions there are four others: northeast,
southeast, southwest and northwest. Each of these directions is at 45 to
two of the four main directions.
Trigonometry can then be used to solve problems about distances and
angles using these eight basic directions.
NE
SW
SE
S
WORKED EXAMPLE 22
A ship (A) is 10 nautical miles due east of a lighthouse. A second ship (B) bears SE of the
lighthouse and is due south of the first ship. Calculate the distance of the second ship from the
lighthouse, correct to 1 decimal place.
THINK
1
WRITE
adj
10 M
45
hyp
x
opp
adj
hyp
10
cos 45 =
x
cos =
x cos 45 = 10
x=
10
cos 42
= 14.1 M
The second ship is 14.1 nautical miles from
the lighthouse.
These eight compass points do not allow us to make calculations about more precise directions. For this
reason an alternative method of describing bearings is needed for any direction other than these basic
eight points.
True bearings
270
090
180
WORKED EXAMPLE 23
A ship sails on a bearing of 130 for a distance of 10 nautical miles. Calculate how far south of its
starting point the ship is, correct to 2 decimal places.
THINK
1
WRITE
N
130
50
adj
x
hyp
10 M
opp
cos =
adj
hyp
x = 10 cos 50
x = 6.43 M
cos 50 =
x
10
We can also use our methods of calculating angles to make calculations about bearings. After solving the
rightangled triangle, however, we need to provide the answer as a bearing.
Chapter 7 Applications of trigonometry 207
WORKED EXAMPLE 24
On a hike Lisa walked south for 3.5km and then turned west for 1.2km. Calculate Lisas bearing
from her starting point.
WRITE
hyp
3.5 km
adj
THINK
1.2 km
opp
opp
adj
1.2
tan =
3.5
= 0.3429
tan =
Calculate .
Bearing = 180 + 19
= 199
= tan1(0.3429)
= 19
With many bearing questions it will be necessary to use the work completed or sine rule and/or
cosinerule.
WORKED EXAMPLE 25
Tutorial
int0473
Worked
example25
Soldiers on reconnaissance set off on a return journey from their base camp. The journey
consists of three legs. The first leg is on a bearing of 150T for 3km; the second is on a bearing of
220T for 5km. Find the direction (to the nearest minute) and distance (correct to 2 decimal
places) of the third leg by which the group returns to its base camp.
THINK
1
WRITE
N
Base
camp
150
3 km
N
220T
5 km
B
3 km
110
150
30
30
30
5 km
110
220
40
40
A
3
B
N
40
A
40
b2 + c2 a2
2bc
52 + 44.260 604 32
2 5 !44.260 604
cos (A) = 0.9058
A = 25.07
= 254
cos (A) =
= 40 254
= 1456
Bearing is N1456E.
Exercise 7G
Bearings
25
W
E
10
S
S
c
E
310
E
12
S
e
12
W
12
W
S
2 Specify the following directions as true bearings.
a
b
N
22 12
45
S
S
c
67 12
135
W
112 12
W
SW
22 12
S
3 WE22 A road runs due north. A hiker leaves the road and walks for 4.2km in a NW direction.
a Draw a diagram of this situation.
b How far due east must the hiker walk to get back to the road? (Give your answer correct to
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 7.7
doc11070
Converting
nautical miles to
kilometres
3decimal places.)
4 A driver heads due south for 34km, then turns left and drives until he is SE of his starting point.
a Draw a diagram to show the drivers journey.
b Calculate the distance the driver travelled in an easterly direction from his starting point.
5 Two boats, A and B, sail from a port. A heads due west, while B heads NW for a distance of
43nautical miles, where it drops anchor. Boat A drops anchor due south of boat B.
a Draw a diagram showing the positions of boats A and B.
b Calculate the distance between boats A and B in nautical miles, correct to 1 decimal place.
c Calculate the distance in kilometres between A and B.
6 MC A true bearing of 315 is equivalent to a compass
bearing of:
A NE
B NW
C SE
D SW
7 MC A compass bearing of SE is equivalent to a true bearing
of:
A
B
C
D
045
135
225
315
5 km
8 WE23 Two hikers, Adrian and Bertrand, set out on a walk. Adrian
52
eight nautical miles due north, the yacht is due west of the lighthouse.
a Draw a diagram of this situation.
b Calculate the distance from the yacht to the lighthouse when it is due west of it (correct to
1decimal place).
10 An aeroplane takes off from an airport and flies on a bearing of 220 for a distance of 570km.
Calculate how far south of the airport the aeroplane is (correct to the nearest kilometre).
11 A camping ground is due east of a car park. Eden and Jeff walk 3.8km due south from the camping
will be:
A 070
B 160
C 200
D 250
13 MC A camping ground is SW of a car park. The bearing of the car park from the camping ground
will be:
A NE
B NW
C SE
D SW
14 WE24 A search party leaves its base and head 4km due west before turning south for 3.5km.
a Draw a diagram of this situation.
b Calculate the true bearing of the search party from its base, correct to the nearest degree.
15 WE25 A ship is two nautical miles due west of a harbour. A yacht that sails 6.5 nautical miles from
that harbour is due north of the ship. Calculate the true bearing (correct to the nearest degree) of the
course on which the yacht sails from the harbour.
16 A plane takes off at 10.00 am from an airfield and flies at 120km/h on a bearing of 325. A second
plane takes off from the same airfield and flies on a bearing of 100 at a speed of 90km/h. How far
apart are the planes at 10.25 am?
17 a Two lighthouses are 17kilometres apart on an eastwest line. From lighthouseA, a ship is seen
on a bearing of 130. From lighthouse B, the same ship is spotted on a bearing of 200. Which
lighthouse is the ship closer to? How far is that lighthouse from the ship?
b Two lighthouses are 25 kilometres apart on a southnorth line. From lighthouse A, a ship is
reported on a bearing of 082T. The same ship is detected from lighthouse B on a bearing of
165T. Which lighthouse is closer to the ship and how far is that lighthouse from the ship?
c Two firespotting towers are 33km apart on an eastwest line. From Tower A a fire is spotted on a
bearing of 63, while from Tower B the same fire is spotted on a bearing of 290T. How far away
from the nearer tower is the fire? Which tower is this?
18 Two lighthouses are 25km apart on a northsouth line. The northern lighthouse spots a ship on a
bearing of 1200. The southern lighthouse spots the same ship on a bearing of 050T.
a Find the distance from the northern lighthouse to the ship.
b Find the distance from the southern lighthouse to the ship.
19 A light aircraft has strayed into a major
air corridor. It has been detected by two air
traffic control towers.
Tower 1 has the light aircraft on a bearing of
315T.
N
Tower 2 has the light aircraft on a bearing of
Tower 2
north.
E
The two towers are 300 kilometres apart on a
N
300 km
NE line as shown. How far is the light plane
from each tower?
Tower 1
Further development
20 Two army camps A and B are on the same eastwest line. Radio tower T is located 20km from camp
A, SE of camp A. The tower is a distance of 15km from camp B. Find the bearing of the radio tower,
T, from camp B.
21 Maria cycles 12km in a direction 292 and then 7km in a direction of 034E.
a How far is she from her starting point?
b What is the bearing of the starting point from her finishing point?
22 For each of the following, find how far north/south and east/west position A is from position O.
N75E
a
b
N 40E
100 m
N 50E
100 m
N
200 m
200 m
O
c
240T
d O
30 km
A
750 m
N10W
150 m
25 cm
S60E
160T
A
23 The distances covered in a yachting regatta are shown in the diagram.
N
Starting
point
0.5 km
N50W
N40W
3 km
1.5 km
S15W
7H
Radial surveys
In the preliminary course we examined the offset survey. In this survey method an area is measured
by drawing a traverse line and measuring offsets at right angles to the traverse line. Because the offset
survey created rightangled triangles, the length of each boundary could be calculated using Pythagoras
1
theorem and the area could be calculated using the formula Area = bh.
2
An alternative survey method to this is a radial survey. One type of radial survey is the plane table
radial survey. The following steps are taken in a plane table survey.
1. A table is placed in the centre of the field to be surveyed, each corner of the field is sighted and a line
is ruled on the paper along the line of sight.
2. The distance from the plane table to each corner is then measured.
20
25
26 m
28 m
3. The angle between each radial line is then measured and the radial lines joined to complete the
diagram.
m
115
60
115
70
28
26 m
20
25
The field will then be divided into triangles. The length of each side of the field can then be calculated
by using the cosine rule. The perimeter of the field is then found by adding the lengths of each side.
WORKED EXAMPLE 26
The figure on below is a plane table survey of a block of land. Calculate the perimeter of the
block of land, correct to the nearest metre.
A
23
m
30 m
110
125 4017 m
85
28 m
D
THINK
WRITE
For AXB:
x2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos X
= 302 + 232 2 30 23 cos 110
= 1900.99
x = 43.6m
The length of AB is 43.6m.
For BXC:
x2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos X
= 172 + 302 2 17 30 cos 40
= 407.63
x = 20.2m
The length of BC is 20.2m.
For CXD:
x2 = c2 + d2 2cd cos X
= 282 + 172 2 28 17 cos 85
= 990.03
x = 31.5m
The length of CD is 31.5m.
For DXA:
x2 = d2 + a2 2da cos X
= 232 + 282 2 23 28 cos 125
= 2051.77
x = 45.3m
The length of DA is 45.3m.
Calculate the perimeter by adding the length of Perimeter = 43.6 + 20.2 + 31.5 + 45.3
each side and rounding the answer to the nearest
= 140.6m
metre.
= 141m (correct to the nearest metre)
A similar approach is used to calculate the area of such a field. The area of each triangle is found using
the formula Area = 12 ab sin C. The total area is then found by adding the area of each triangle.
WORKED EXAMPLE 27
52
48
96
144 120
67 m
C
THINK
WRITE
1
For AXB: Area = ab sin X
2
1
= 48 52 sin 96
2
= 1241.2m2
1
bc sin X
2
1
= 67 48 sin 120
2
= 1392.6m2
1
ca sin X
2
1
= 52 67 sin 144
2
= 1023.9m2
An alternative to the plane table radial survey is the compass radial survey. In this survey the bearing of
each radial line is calculated and this bearing is used to calculate the angle between each radial, as in the
Chapter 7 Applications of trigonometry 215
worked example below. The method of calculating the perimeter and area of the field is then the same
asfor the plane table radial survey.
WORKED EXAMPLE 28
338
B
49
58
067
55
57 m
114
239
THINK
WRITE
a 22 + 67 = 89
b For AXB:
x2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos X
= 5665.8
Calculate x.
Radial surveys
Exercise 7H
1 WE26 The figure below is a plane table radial survey of a block of land. Use the cosine rule to
15
m
20
10
m
calculate the perimeter of the block of land, correct to the nearest metre.
100
70 80
110
25
80
95 75 m
115
150
92 m
1
12
45
m
100 m
114
m
60
55 m
70
85 80
125
45
2 Calculate the perimeter of each of the following areas, correct to the nearest metre.
a
b
c
90 40
60
89 m
140 30
78
3 WE27 The figure below is a plane table survey of a block of land. Calculate the area of the block,
11
216 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
160
0m
60 100 8
40
100 m
0m
90 m
4 For each of the plane table surveys shown in question 2 calculate the area, correct to the nearest
square metre.
A
315
50
60
40 m
m
X
70 m
170
040
110 C
D
6 Calculate the perimeter of the field given by the compass radial survey
100 m
90 m
30 m
110
250
7 Calculate the perimeter of each of the compass radial surveys shown below.
a 327
b 339
c 319
030
020
m
8
63
085
226
49 m
38
097
215
m
29
99 m
38 m
10
42
72
114
53
24 m
052
170
196
8 For each of the compass radial surveys in question 7 calculate the area, correct to the nearest square
metre.
Further development
9 The figure below is that of a triangular field.
A000
20 m
B240
30 m
35 m
C120
a+b+c
. Use this formula and compare the result
2
10 ABCD is a square field. O is a point in the centre of the square such that it is 10metres from each corner.
a Use the cosine rule to find each side length.
b Find the area of triangle OAB and find the area of the square by multiplying this result by the
c Compare the answer to part b to the area of the square found using A = l 2.
Chapter 7 Applications of trigonometry 217
11 A surveyor, at point S sights two trees, A and B, on the opposite side of a river as being a distance of
Distance to feature
25m
35m
20m
40m
65m
Digital doc
doc11071
WorkSHEET 7.2
Summary
Review of rightangled
triangles
adjacent side
hypotenuse
opposite side
adjacent side
To calculate a side length, you need to be given the length of one other side and one angle.
To calculate the size of an angle, you need to be given two side lengths.
If a question is given as a problem, begin by drawing a diagram and give a written answer.
Sine rule to find side
lengths
C
C
a
c
When finding an angle you need to be given two side lengths and one angle.
sin A sin B sin C
The sine rule formula when finding an angle is
=
=
a
c
b
Cosine rule
The cosine rule allows you to calculate the length of sides and size of angles of nonrightangled
triangles where you are unable to use the sine rule.
To find a side length using the cosine rule, you need to be given the length of two sides and the
included angle and use the formula c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C.
To find an angle using the cosine rule, you need to be given the length of all three sides and use
a2 + b2 c2
the formula cos C =
.
2ab
Area of a triangle
When you do not know the perpendicular height of a triangle, you can calculate the area using the
1
formula Area = ab sin C.
2
To calculate the area using this formula, you need to be given the length of two sides and the
included angle.
Bearings
A plane table radial survey sights each corner of a field and draws a
radial line in that direction. This divides the field into triangles.
20
The length of each radial line and the angle between radial lines are
m
then measured.
The cosine rule can then be used to calculate the length of each
boundary.
1
The formula Area = ab sin C can be then used to calculate the area
2
of the field.
A compass radial survey takes the bearing of each radial line and this
is then used to calculate the angles between them.
A
338
B
49
58
067
55
239
57 m
114
25
115
60
115
26 m
Surveying
70
28
Chapter review
1 In the following figure, which of the following will give the value of x?
13 sin 36
A x =
sin 64
13 sin 64
13 m
B x =
64
sin 36
13 sin 64
C x =
x
sin 80
36
13 sin 80
D x =
sin 64
2 In the following figure, which of the following will give the value of cos ?
62 + 72 82
A cos =
267
7m
6m
2
6 + 82 72
B cos =
268
2
7 + 82 62
C cos =
8m
278
62 + 72 82
D cos =
278
3 Maurice walks 3 km on a true bearing of 225. To return to his starting point he must walk on a
compass bearing of:
A northeast
B northwest
C southeast
D southwest
4 The following figure is a compass radial survey. AXB is:
A
B
C
D
B 80
305 A
35
55
85
135
M U LT IP L E
C H O IC E
C 174
1 Find the length of the side marked with the pronumeral in each of the rightangled triangles below,
t
72
S ho rt
a nsw er
7.9 cm
42 km
45
60
x
2 In each of the following rightangled triangles, find the size of the angle marked with the
c
35 cm
16 m
24.8 cm
20.1 km
9m
3 An aeroplane at an altitude of 2500m sights a ship at an angle of depression of 39. Calculate, to the
nearest metre, the horizontal distance from the aeroplane to the ship.
Chapter 7 Applications of trigonometry 221
31
4.6 cm
4.6 km
28
117
19
136 mm
20
9 In XYZ: x = 9.2cm, XYZ = 56 and YXZ = 38. Find y, correct to 1 decimal place.
10 Use the sine rule to calculate the size of the angle marked with a pronumeral, correct to the nearest
degree.
a
8 cm
9 cm
9.7 cm
123
4.1 cm
63
c
7.1 m 9
1.2 m
11 In ABC: b = 46cm, c = 37cm and BAC = 72. Find the area of the triangle, correct to the nearest
square centimetre.
12 Find the area of a triangular field with two sides of 80m and 98m, which meet at an angle of 130
(correct to the nearest hundred square metres).
13 Use the cosine rule to find each of the following unknown sides, correct to 3 significant figures.
a
b
c
6.9 cm
6.2 cm
9m
a
50
b
5.7 m
117
11 m
4.6 m
128
c
6 cm
6 cm
6 cm
b
4.2 m
5.3 m
7.9 m
c
9 cm
7 cm
15 cm
17 In XYZ: x = 8.3m, y = 12.45m and z = 7.2m. Find YZX,
60 m
70 m
30
40
80
120 50
110
0
15
160 m
080
140 m
260
90 m
190
1 The distance between football goal posts is 7m. If Soon Ho is 20m from one goal post and 25m
Ex tended
R es p ons e
c Show that the height of the building can be given by the expression h =
d Calculate the height of the building correct to 1 decimal place.
T
h
A
Digital doc
Test Yourself
doc11072
Chapter 7
20
30 m
35
110 m
80 m
D 250
X 30 m
30
m
B
085
125 C
30 sin 20 sin 35
.
sin 15
ICT activities
7AReview of rightangled triangles
7FArea of a triangle
Interactivity
int2405: SOHCAHTUA. (page177)
Tutorial
WE 20 int0469: Calculate the bearing of a ship from a specified
position. (page203)
Tutorial
WE 4 int2415: Use trigonometric ratios to solve problems.
(page180)
7GBearings
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 7.1 (doc11063): Rightangled trigonometry finding a
side length. (page 182)
SkillSHEET 7.2 (doc11064): Using the inverse trigonometric ratios.
(page 182)
SkillSHEET 7.3 (doc11065): Rounding angles to the nearest degree.
(page 182)
SkillSHEET 7.4 (doc11066): Rightangled trigonometry finding
anangle. (page 182)
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 7.7 (doc11070): Converting nautical miles to kilometres.
(page211)
7HRadial surveys
Tutorial
WE 7 int0465: Learn how to apply Simpsons rule. (page185)
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 7.5 (doc11067): Angle sum of a triangle. (page 187)
SkillSHEET 7.6 (doc11068): Solving fractional equations. (page 187)
Interactivity
int0190: Navigation and specifications of locations. (page206)
Tutorial
WE 25 int0473: Apply knowledge of bearings to solve problems.
(page208)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 7.2 (doc11071): Apply your knowledge of the sine and
cosine rules to problems. (page218)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself (doc11072): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 224)
Answers chapter 7
b 2.659km
4 a 28.01m
5 52
6 62m
7 15
8 a
c 5.663km
b 25
b 16
239 m
65 m
9 D
10 = 20, x = 4.0m
11 59
12 56
13 a 1.43m
14 41
b 12
2 a 14.8cm
3 a 10.0mm
4 B
5 C
6 9.8cm
7 27.0m
8 37.8m
9 a B
b 1.98km
b 22.1cm
c 112mm
c 39.6km
b2 + c2 a2
2bc
p2 + r2 q2
b cos Q =
2pr
a2 + m2 p2
c cos P =
2am
b 43.2m
c 33m
10 a WYX = 40
XY =
80 sin 30
sin 40
h
XY
80 sin 30
sin 70
sin 40
c 58.5m
11 a 145cm
12 68km
Exercise 7C
angles
2 a 85
b 83
3 a 103
b 137
4 A
5 D
6 42
7 23
8 82, 54, 44
9 a
W 9.2 cm
X
80
XY
=
sin 40 sin 30
b In YXZ sin 70 =
h=
1 a 43
d 75
13.6 cm
b 34cm
c 27
f 2
9.2 cm
b 73
10 32
11 a 38.94
14 cm
13.6 cm
b 25.26
c 4660.9mm2
4 a 133cm2
b 555.4cm2
c 608cm2
5 D
6 B
7 3.865cm2
A
B
8 a
70
5.2 m
c 45
c 10
b 12.2m2
9 a 72
b 59cm2
10 710m2
11 43.3cm2
12 C
13 B
14 a 130.4cm2
b 14.5m
15 a 159.4cm2
b Check with your teacher.
c Because sin 75 = sin 105
16 90
Exercise 7G
1 a cos A =
N 20 m
In WYX
c 15.5cm
12 55cm
13 13.6km
14 9.2cm
15 2218m
16 27.65m
angles
1
yz sin X
2
1
c Area = am sin G
2
1
2 a Area = ab sin C
2
1
b Area = bh
2
1
c Area = bh
2
1
d Area = bh
2
3 a 42.4cm2
b 3522.6mm2
b Area =
b S22.2E
Area of a triangle
1
ab sin C
2
1 a Area =
Exercise 7D
Exercise 7E
34
49
Exercise 7F
b 6.73m2
5 km
148
a 356'
22.94
a 130km
7049'
1.14km/h
2.5
b 56
28
b 110.9mm
d 409.9mm
f 19.3cm
c 57
c 131
12
13
14
15
16
17
Bearings
1 a N25E
c N50W
e N78E
2 a 135T
c 135T
e 202.5T
3 a
x
4.2 km
4 a
34 km
Review of rightangled
c 32
cm
Exercise 7A
triangles
1 a 12.2cm
c 10.0m
e 29.8m
2 a 27
3 a R
2 B
3 B
4 a 43
b 50
5 19.96
6 a 119
b 95
7 38
8 20
9 84
10 a 57
b 63
11 54
12 51.2, 96.8, 31.85
13 C
14 B
15 63
5.3
Applications of
trigonometry
45
45
x
b 34km
5 a B
x
43 M
45
b 30.4 M
c 56.3008km
6 B
7 B
b S10W
d S78W
f S78E
b 247.5T
d 292.5T
f 247.5T
b 2.970km
8M
8 6.4km
9 a
60
b 13.9 M
10 437km
11 a CP
70
b 11.1km
290
3.5 km
12 D
13 A
14 a
3.8 km
CG
4 km
b 229
15 342
16 80.98 km
17 a B, 11.6km
b A, 6.5km
c A, 15.4km
18 a 20.38km
b 23.04km
19 199.47N
20 199.47
21 a 12.57km
b 5341E
22 a 276.6m north, 64.28m east
b 154.44m north, 249.80 east
c 38.49km south, 17.43km west
d 227.28m south, 623.47m east
23 a 1428m
b 1358m
c 1970m
d N4334E
Exercise 7H
1 102m
2 a 286m
c 540m
3 3087m
4 a 106m
5 56.569km
6 21.7km
7 a 297
8 a 1.67cm
c 9.81km
9 12.4cm
10 a 52
11 809cm2
12 3000m2
13 a 8.64m
c 11.8cm
14 84.0cm
15 985m
16 a 60
17 34
18 29
19 a 284m
20 a 783m
b 117
b 81.7mm
b 21
c 68
b 8.80m
b 112
c 139
b 4020m2
b 34910m2
25
20
b Approximately at an angle of 13
2 a ABT = 15
Multiple choice
1 D
2 B
3 A
4 D
1 a 8.6cm
2 a 61
b 28
Extended response
1 a A
Chapter review
30 sin 20
sin 15
30 sin 20
c h =
sin 35
sin 15
d Approximately 22.7m
3 a Approximately 100.3m
b Approximately 1625m2
b BT =
Short answer
Radial surveys
b 432m
3 12992m2
4 a 4923m2
b 8861m2
2
c 18382m
5 a 85
b 75m
6 389m
7 a 214m
b 531m
c 301m
8 a 2719m2
b 12425m2
c 5809m2
9 a 1017.58m2
b 148.16m
c You should obtain the same result.
10 a 14.14m
b 50m2, 200m2
c You should obtain the same result.
11 a 67.26m
b 1563.65m2
c 46.5m
12 a Check with your teacher.
b i 100m
ii 66m
iii 50m
iv
90m
v 86m
c i 270
ii 310
iii 240
d 4300m2
13 a Radial
b Check with your teacher.
c A, 123; B, 136; C, 152; D, 180
d 3160m2
14 a Check with your teacher.
b i 212
ii 270
c i 107m
ii 77m
d 3800m2
b 13.6km
b 66
c 11.2cm
c 45
Chapter 8
Spherical geometry
CHAPTER CONTENTS
8A Arc lengths
8B Great circles and small circles
8C Latitude and longitude
8D Distances on the Earths surface
8E Time zones
8A
Arc lengths
An arc is a section of the circumference of a circle. To calculate an arc length we must first revise finding
the circumference of a circle. The circumference of a circle can be found using either of the formulas:
C = d, where d is the diameter
C = 2r, where r is the radius.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Calculate the circumference of a circle that has a radius of 6m. Give your answer correct to
2decimal places.
THINK
WRITE
C = 2r
C=26
C = 37.70m
The length of an arc can be calculated as the fraction of the circle determined by
the angle subtended by the arc at the centre, as shown in the figure on the right.
The arc length, l, can be calculated using the formula:
l=
2r
360
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
7.1 cm
60
Tutorial
int2443
Worked example 2
THINK
WRITE
2r
360
60
=
2 7.1
360
= 7.4cm
l=
The arc length formula is used to make calculations about the distance between points on the Earths
surface.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
WRITE
a C = 2r
= 2 6400
= 40212km
b d=
2r
360
5
2 6400
360
= 559km
Exercise 8A
Arc lengths
1 decimal place.
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 8.1
doc11073
Circumference of
acircle
4 cm
62 mm
9m
e
13.9 km
8.3 m
4.1 km
2 Calculate the circumference of a circle with a radius of 100km. Give your answer correct to the
nearest 10km.
230 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
3 Calculate the circumference of each of the following circles. Give your answer correct to
3significant figures.
14 cm
60 km
39 m
117 mm
3.7 km
219 km
4 Calculate the circumference of a circle that has a diameter of 3000km. Give your answer correct to
50
10 cm
8 Calculate the lengths of each of the arcs drawn below, correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
43
mm
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 8.2
doc11074
Calculating arc
length
45
120
72 cm
13 m
220
72 km
150
.2 cm
7.9 km
4
Further development
14 Find the radius of each of the following circles given the circumference. Give each answer correct to
3 significant figures.
a 100cm
b 26.7m
c 12000km
15 An arc has a length of 24cm and subtends an angle of 45 at the centre of the circle. Find, correct to
1 decimal place, the radius of the circle on which the arc stands.
16 A 42metre long arc stands on a circle of radius 30 metres. Find the angle that is subtended at the
centre of the circle by this arc. Give your answer correct to the nearest degree.
17 A sphere has a diameter of 50cm. Two points A and B on the surface of the sphere subtend an angle
of 125.
a Calculate the distance AB correct to the nearest centimetre.
b Calculate the length of the larger arc AB (i.e. the arc formed by travelling from A to B in the
opposite direction).
232 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
18 The Earth has a radius of approximately 6400km. Two points on the Earths surface are 5000km
apart.
a Calculate the angle subtended by these two points at the centre of the Earth. Give your answer to
the nearest minute.
b A circle between the two points can be drawn on the Earths surface that has a radius of 4000km.
Calculate the angle that is subtended at the centre of this circle.
19 Two points on the surface of the Earth are 1675km apart. A circle can be drawn on the surface of the
Earth that passes through the two points and the two points subtend an angle of 1926' at the centre
of this circle. Find the radius of this circle, correct to the nearest 10km.
8B
Consider the sphere drawn on the right. The axis of the sphere is a diameter of
that sphere. The ends of the axis are called the poles.
If we draw any lines around the sphere passing through both poles,
a great circle is formed. A great circle is the largest possible circle that can
be drawn around the sphere.
Pole Axis
Great circle
Pole
The length of a great circle is found using the formulas for the circumference of a circle:
C = d, where d is the diameter of the sphere
or C = 2r, where r is the radius of the sphere.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Calculate the length of a great circle on a sphere with a radius of 40cm. Give your answer
correct to the nearest centimetre.
THINK
WRITE
C = 2r
= 2 40
= 251cm
Now consider a circle drawn perpendicular to the axis of the sphere. Only one circle, called the
equator, will be a great circle. The centre of the equator will be the centre of the sphere as
shown below.
Equator
Other circles that are perpendicular to the axis of the sphere will be smaller than a great circle and are
called small circles.
Small circle
Equator
To calculate the length around a small circle, we need to know the small circles radius. The small
circle will have a radius smaller than that of the great circle, as shown in the figure below.
Radius of small circle
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
2m
1.5 m
THINK
WRITE
C = 2r
Substitute for r.
= 2 1.5
= 9.4cm
Exercise 8B
1 WE4 Calculate the length of a great circle around a sphere of radius 7cm. Give your answer correct
to 2 decimal places.
2 Calculate the length of a great circle on each of the spheres drawn below. Give each answer correct
to 3 significant figures.
a
9m
30 m
74 mm
3 The Earth is a sphere with a radius of approximately 6400km. Calculate the length of a great circle
5 Below are the diameters of the other planets in our solar system. Calculate the length of a great circle
d Jupiter 142984km
6 WE5 Calculate the length of a small circle on a sphere of radius 4m if the radius of the small circle
6400 km
9m
10
8.8 m
8 MC The diameter of the moon is 3476km. The length of a great circle on the moons surface is
closest to:
A 5460km
B 10920km
C 21840km
D 43680km
9 The diameter of the sphere drawn on the right is 50cm. Calculate the
50 cm
distance along the surface from one pole to the other. Give your answer
correct to the nearest centimetre.
10 Calculate the distance between the north and south poles along the Earths
surface, correct to the nearest 100km. (Take the radius of the Earth to be
6400km.)
11 A and B are two points on a small circle of radius 60cm, as shown in the
60 cm
1000 km
100 Y
50 m
60
Q
P
Further development
13 The sphere below has four circles on it, labelled (a), (b), (c) and (d).
(b)
(c)
(a)
(d)
14 The figure on the right shows a great circle and a small circle drawn on a
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 8.1
doc11075
50 cm
Find the size of the angle marked .
40
50 cm
b Use trigonometry to find the radius of the small circle correct to the
nearest centimetre.
c Find the circumference of the small circle correct to the nearest
centimetre.
15 The radius of a small circle can be found using the formula r = Rcos, where r is the radius
ofthesmall circle, R is the radius of the great circle and is the angle subtended by the small
circlewith the great circle at the centre of the sphere.
a Verify this formula using the information given in question 14.
b Use the formula to find the radius and circumference of a small circle that subtends a 25
angle at the centre of the sphere radius 5.2m with a great circle. Give each answer correct
to1decimalplace.
16 The Earth has a radius of approximately 6400km.
a Use the formula given in question 15 to find the radius of a small circle that makes
a 20 angle with a great circle. Give your answer correct to the nearest
kilometre.
b X and Y are two points on the small circle in 16a that subtend an angle of 40 at the centre
ofthesmall circle. Find the length of arc XY correct to the nearest 10km.
17 a Find the radius of a small circle that makes a 45 angle with a great circle of radius 6400km.
Give your answer correct to the nearest kilometre.
b Find the distance to the nearest kilometre between two points on the small circle in 17a
thatsubtend a 75 angle at the centre of the small circle.
18 X and Y are two points on a great circle upon the Earths surface that subtend a 65 angle at the
centre. X and Z lie on the same small circle that has a radius of 3200km and subtendan angleof
65 at the centre of the same small circle. Jude claims thatthedistanceXYwill be
twicethedistance XZ. Is Jude correct? Explain your answer.
8C
As the Earth is a sphere, great circles and small circles on the surface of the
Earth are used to locate points on the surface.
Consider the axis of the Earth to be the diameter joining the North Pole and the
South Pole. The only great circle that is perpendicular to this axis is theequator.
The angular distance either north or south of the equator is the latitude.
Small circles parallel to the equator are called parallels of latitude. These
small circles are used to describe how far north or south of theequatora
placeis.For example Sydney lies close to the small circle 30S.
This means Sydney subtends a 30 angle at the centre of the Earth and is
southof the equator.
The maximum latitude for any point on the Earth is 90N or 90S. The
north and south poles lie at these points.
For latitude, the equator is the line of reference for all measurements.
To locate a place on the globe in an eastwest direction, the line of
30S
reference is the Greenwich Meridian. The Greenwich Meridian is half a
great circle running from the North to the South Pole.
North Pole
Equator
eLESSON
eles0138
Understanding
map scales and
distances
South Pole
30
Sydney
Equator
G re
enwich Meridia
North Pole
South Pole
The Greenwich Meridian is named after Greenwich, a suburb of London through which the circle runs.
All other places on the globe are located by the half great circle on which theylie. These half great
circles are called meridians of longitude.
Each meridian of longitude is identified by the angle between it and the Greenwich Meridian and by
whether it is east or west of Greenwich.
40
The meridian of longitude opposite the Greenwich Meridian is the International Date Line. The
International Date Line has longitude 180 eithereast or west. On either side of the International Date
Line the day changes.(This will be explained in more detail later in the chapter.)
For the convenience of some small island nations and Russia, the International Date Line is bent so as
not to pass through them.
World maps or globes are drawn with both parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude shown. Any
location on a map or globe can be given a pair of coordinates: the first is the parallel of latitude that it lies
on, the second is the meridian of longitude. For example, the coordinates of Sydney are 30S, 150E.
Greenwich
Meridian
International
Date Line
30S
30N
60N
30W
FRANCE
30W
1000
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
Equator
30E
Johannesburg
NAMIBIA
2000
3000
SOMALIA
IRAQ
Baghdad
30E
4000 km
60E
MADAGASCAR
KampalaUGANDA
KENYA
ANGOLA
NIGER
Cairo
LIBYA
EGYPT
SOUTH AFRICA
Cape Town
MALI
ALGERIA
ITALY
Rome
PORTUGAL Madrid
SPAIN
FINLAND
ICELAND
SWEDEN
NORWAY
Oslo
UNITED
KINGDOM
Moscow
IRELAND
NETHERLANDS
Amsterdam
London
60W
INDIAN
OCEAN
90E
Perth
120E
Sydney
Brisbane
150E
Hobart
Adelaide
Melbourne
AUSTRALIA
EAST
TIMOR
Darwin
INDONESIA
PAPUA NEW
GUINEA
Port Moresby
PHILIPPINES
Manila
TAIWAN
180
180
120W
150W
PACIFIC
OCEAN
120W
Hawaii (U.S.A.)
90W
Montreal
60W
BRAZIL
30W
URUGUAY
Buenos Aires
ARGENTINA
60W
Santiago
CHILE
BOLIVIA
PERU
Lima
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
PARAGUAY
JAMAICA
New York
30W
COLOMBIA
Quito
ECUADOR
90W
MEXICO
Mexico City
UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA
CANADA
Los Angeles
Vancouver
Alaska
(U.S.A.)
Anchorage
150W
NEW
ZEALAND
Wellington
FIJI
Suva
ARCTIC OCEAN
150E
NORTH KOREA
SOUTH KOREA
Tokyo
JAPAN
120E
SINGAPORE
Shanghai
Beijing
90E
CHINA
SRI LANKA
Colombo
INDIA
RUSSIA
60E
30S
30N
60N
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Identify the major cities closest to each of the following locations using the map on page 238.
a 30S, 30E
b 30N, 120E
c 45N, 75W
THINK
WRITE
a Look for the city closest to the intersection of the 30S parallel of latitude
a Johannesburg
b Shanghai
c Montreal
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Write down the approximate coordinates of each of the following cities using the map on page 238.
a Singapore
b Perth
c Los Angeles
THINK
WRITE
Exercise 8C
1N, 104E
b
32S, 115E
c
35N, 118W
Further development
3 For each of the following points on the Earths surface, state whether the two points lie on (or close
4 The following cities are close to lying on the same great circle. Use the map on page 238 to estimate
8D
From the previous section on latitude and longitude it can be seen that
angular geometry is of great importance when making measurements on the
Earths surface.
Now consider a meridian of longitude on the Earths surface with two
points on it. The angular distance between them will be the difference between
their latitudes.
The angular distance is calculated by subtracting the latitudes of points if
both are on the same side of the equator and adding the latitudes if on opposite
sides of the equator.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
The coordinates of A are (20S, 130E) and the coordinates of B are (15N, 130E). Find the
angular distance between them.
THINK
WRITE
Angular distance = 20 + 15
= 35
Now consider two points on the same great circle that have an angular distance of 1 minute. (Remember
60 = 1.) The distance between these two points is defined to be 1 nautical mile (M). Therefore, an
angular distance of 1 on a great circle will equal 60 nautical miles.
1 nautical mile 1.852km
Using this information, we are able to calculate the distance between two points on a great circle on
the Earths surface in both nautical miles and kilometres.
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
P and Q are two points on the Earths surface with coordinates (27N, 30W) and (39N, 30W)
respectively.
a Calculate the distance between P and Q in nautical miles.
b Use 1 M 1.852km to give the distance, PQ, to the nearest kilometre.
THINK
WRITE
Angular distance = 39 27
= 12
Distance = 12 60
= 720 M
Tutorial
int2445
Worked example 9
= 1333km
We can also calculate the distance between two points on the same great circle, in kilometres, using the
fact that the radius of the Earth is 6400km.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
X and Y are two points on the Earths surface with coordinates (32N, 120E) and (45S, 120E).
Calculate the distance, XY, correct to the nearest 100km.
THINK
WRITE
Angular distance = 32 + 45
= 77
l=
2r
360
77
2r
360
77
2 6400
360
= 8600km
In marine and aerial navigation, speed on the Earths surface is measured in knots.
1 knot = 1 nautical mile/hour
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
The coordinates of two points on the Earths surface are given by the coordinates A (50N, 120W)
and B (30S, 120W). Calculate the time taken for a ship to sail the shortest distance between
thesetwo points at an average speed of 40 knots.
THINK
WRITE
Angular distance = 50 + 30
= 80
Distance = 80 60
= 4800 M
Exercise 8D
distance
to calculate the time
speed
Time =
distance
speed
4800
40
= 120 hours (5 days)
=
1 WE8 Two points, A and B, on the Earths surface are at (30N, 25W) and (20S, 25W). Calculate
10W) respectively.
a Calculate the distance between P and Q in nautical miles (M).
b Use 1 M = 1.852km to calculate the distance, PQ, correct to the nearest km.
5 Calculate the distance between each of the points below in nautical miles.
a A (10N, 45E) and B (25S, 45E)
b C (75N, 86W) and D (60S, 86W)
c E (46S, 52W) and F (7S, 52W)
d G (34N, 172E) and H (62S, 172E)
6 The city of Osaka is at (37N, 135E) while Alice Springs is at (23S, 135E).
a Calculate the distance between Osaka and Alice Springs in nautical miles.
b Use 1 M = 1.852km to write this distance, correct to the nearest kilometre.
1
7 The Tropic of Cancer is at latitude 222N while the Tropic of Capricorn is at latitude 222 S.
Calculate the distance between these two tropics along the same great circle in:
a nautical miles
b kilometres (correct to the nearest km).
8 WE10 M and N are two points on the Earths surface with coordinates (56N, 122W) and
(3S,122W). Calculate the distance, MN, correct to the nearest 100km, using the arc length
formula. (Take the radius of the Earth to be 6400km.)
9 Calculate the distance between each of the points below, correct to the nearest kilometre, using the
arc length formula and taking the radius of the Earth to be 6400km.
a P (85S, 89E) and Q (46S, 89E)
b R (24N, 0) and S (12S, 0)
c T (34S, 17W) and U (0, 17W)
242 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
10 MC Perth is at approximately (31S, 115E) while Hong Kong is at approximately (22N, 115E).
D 3180 M
11 MC Rachel is a flight navigator. She is responsible for calculating the distance between
Stockholm(60N, 18E) and Budapest (47N, 18E). Rachel calculates the distance using the
arclength formula, assuming the radius of the Earth is 6400km. Rachels answer would be
closestto:
A 1445km
B 1452km
C 11952km
D 11890km
12 WE11 The coordinates of two points on the Earths surface are X (40S, 30E) and Y (10S, 30E).
Calculate the time taken for a plane to fly from X to Y at a speed of 240 knots.
13 Quito (0, 78W) and Kampala (0, 32E) are two cities on the Equator.
a Calculate the angular distance between Quito and Kampala.
b Calculate the distance between them in nautical miles.
c Use 1 M = 1.852km to find the distance, correct to the nearest 100km.
d Calculate the time taken to fly from Quito to Kampala at a speed of 480 knots.
14 Calculate the distance between the North Pole and the South Pole in nautical miles.
15 The city of Kingston is at approximately (18N, 76W). Ottawa is at approximately (46N, 76W).
a Calculate the angular distance between Kingston and Ottawa.
b Calculate the distance between Kingston and Ottawa in nautical miles.
c Use 1 M = 1.852km to calculate the distance, correct to the nearest kilometre.
d Use the arc length formula to calculate the distance between the two cities, correct to the nearest
kilometre.
e Explain the discrepancy between the two answers.
Further development
16 The point X has coordinates (25N, 20E).
a Give the coordinates of two possible points on the globe that have a difference in latitude of
35to point X.
b Find the distance (in km) between X and these two points
17 Two places on the equator have an angular distance of 200. What is the shortest distance between
b Find the angle subtended between these two points at the centre of the small circle.
c Find the distance along the small circle between these two points.
21 Point A on the Earths surface has coordinates (45S, 75E). Point B is 5000km due north of A. Find
8E
Time zones
As the Earth rotates, different parts of the globe are experiencing day and night. This means that each
meridian of longitude on the Earths surface should have a different time of day. To simplify this, the
Earth is divided into time zones.
Time zones are all calculated in relation to Greenwich. The time on the Greenwich Meridian is
known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Time zones are then stated in terms of the number of
interactivity
int0006
Day, night and
time zones
hours they are ahead or behind GMT. All places with longitudes east of Greenwich are ahead of
GMT,while all place with longitudes west of Greenwich are behind GMT. For example, Eastern
Standard Time is GMT +10, meaning that Sydney is 10 hours ahead of GMT. When GMT is noon,
EST is10.00 pm.
The International Date Line is 12 hours ahead of Greenwich when travelling east and 12 hours behind
when travelling west, so this totals 24 hours, or one day. Therefore, the day changes on either side of the
International Date Line.
The time difference between two places is calculated by subtracting the comparative time with GMT.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Sydney is GMT +10 while New York is GMT 5. Calculate the time difference between Sydney
and New York.
THINK
WRITE
Once we have calculated the time difference, we are able to calculate the time in one place given the
time in another. To calculate the time in a city further ahead of GMT we add time, or to calculate the
time in a city further behind GMT we subtract time.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
Perth is GMT +8 while Cape Town is GMT +1. When it is 11.00 am in Cape Town, what is the
time in Perth?
THINK
WRITE
Time difference = 8 1
= 7 hours
Perth is 7 hours ahead of Cape Town.
The time as calculated by the longitude is called the standard time. Time zones are calculated to
approximate all the standard times within a region.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Calculate the time in Los Angeles (34N, 120W) when it is 8.00 am on Wednesday in Sydney
(33S, 150E).
THINK
WRITE
Tutorial
int2446
Worked
example14
It is important to note that, for convenience, places that have almost the same longitude have the same
time. An example of this is Australias time zones where all of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria
and Tasmania are in the same standard time zone although there is a difference of 12 in longitude from
the easternmost and westernmost points in this zone.
These calculations can then be used to calculate the arrival and departure times for international travel.
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
A plane leaves London (50N, 0) at 9.00 am Sunday, London time, and flies to Sydney (33S, 150E).
The flight takes 20 hours. Calculate the time in Sydney when the plane arrives.
THINK
WRITE
More challenging examples will require you to allow for daylight saving time. When daylight saving
time applies, we add one hour to the standard time at that location.
Exercise 8E
Time zones
1 WE12 The time zone in New Zealand is GMT +12 while in Turkey it is GMT +2. Calculate the
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 8.3
doc11076
Converting units
of time
3 WE13 Sydney is GMT +10, while San Francisco is GMT 8. When it is 5.00 pm on Tuesday in
5 Jane is in Sydney (GMT +10) and wants to telephone her friend in Paris (GMT) at 7.00 pm Friday,
6 Carl is holidaying in Hawaii (GMT 11). If he wants to call his parents in Sydney (GMT +10) at
7 Neville is in Sydney (GMT +10). He wants to set his video recorder to tape the Superbowl which
is being played in Atlanta (GMT 5) and televised live in Sydney. The Superbowl is due to begin
at7.00pm on Sunday in Atlanta. At what day and time will Neville need to set his video to begin taping?
B GMT +3
C GMT 9
D GMT +9
coordinates (51N, 120E), what is the time if daylight saving time applies at Y?
A 9.00 pm Monday
B 10.00 pm Monday
C 1.00 am Wednesday
D 2.00 am Wednesday
246 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
14 WE15 A plane leaves Sydney (32S, 150E) at 2.00 pm on Tuesday. If it is an 18hour flight to Los
Angeles (33N, 120W), at what time will the plane touch down in Los Angeles?
15 A plane leaves Perth (32S, 120E) on an 8hour flight to Cape Town (33S, 15E) at 3.00 pm
Wednesday.
a At what time will the plane arrive in Cape Town?
b The return flight leaves Cape Town at 5.00 pm Saturday. At what time will it arrive in Perth?
16 A flight leaves Melbourne (40S, 150E) at 5.00 pm Tuesday on an 18hour flight to Frankfurt
(50N, 15E). Calculate the time of arrival in Frankfurt if it is:
a daylight saving time in Melbourne
b daylight saving time in Frankfurt.
Further development
17 Robert lives in eastern Australia (longitude 150E) and
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 8.2
doc11077
Summary
Arc lengths
2r
360
An axis of the sphere is any diameter. A diameter must pass through the centre of the sphere.
Theendpoints of the axis are called the poles.
A great circle is any circle of maximum diameter that can be drawn on the surface of a sphere.
Thecircumference of a great circle can be found using the formula C = 2r.
A small circle is any circle on the surface of the sphere that is smaller than a great circle.
Latitude and
longitude
Distances on the
Earths surface
If two points lie on the same great circle, the angular distance between them can be found by finding
the difference between their latitudes.
The distance between two points can then be found in nautical miles using 1 = 60 M.
1 M 1.852km.
The distance between two points can also be found in kilometres using the arc length formula.
Speed can be measured in knots, where 1 knot = 1 M/h.
Time zones
Chapter review
1 A circle has a diameter of 12cm. An arc is drawn on the circumference of the circle such
thatthearcsubtends an angle of 45 at the centre of the circle. The length of the arc is
closest to:
A 4.7cm
B 9.4cm
C 14.1cm
D 37.7cm
M U LT IP L E
C H O IC E
2 A great circle on the surface of a planet has a circumference of approximately 10700km. The
B 1700km
D 6800km
3 Point X on the Earths surface has coordinates (69S, 12E), while point Y is at (8S, 12E).
B 77 M
D 4620 M
4 The coordinates of two points, M and N, on the surface of the Earth are (45N, 45W) and
(30S, 60E). Which of the following statements is correct about the time difference between
M and N?
A M is 5 hours behind N.
B M is 5 hours ahead of N.
C M is 7 hours behind N.
D M is 7 hours ahead of N.
1 Calculate the circumference of each of the following circles, correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
19.2 cm
8.6 cm
S ho rt
a nsw er
92 mm
2 Calculate the length of each of the following arcs, correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
9m
40
260
6.2 cm
135
9.3 m
7 cm
9.2 m
5 Calculate the circumference of a great circle that lies on the surface of a sphere with a radius of
7 Calculate the circumference of each of the small circles drawn below, correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
c
2.8 m
48
7 cm
8.1 m
1500 km
3000 km
20
6.6 cm
8 Use the world map on page 238 to identify the cities at each of the following locations.
a (14N, 121E)
b (12S, 76W)
c (33S, 71W)
9 Use the world map on page 238 to give the approximate coordinates of each of the following cities.
a Madrid
b Singapore
c Hobart
10 The points X and Y on the Earths surface have coordinates (32N, 120E) and (26S, 120E).
a Calculate the angular distance through which the ship must sail to reach port.
b Calculate the distance the ship must sail, in nautical miles.
c Use 1 M = 1.852km to calculate the distance, correct to the nearest kilometre.
12 The angular distance between two points on the same great circle is 120. Calculate the time that it
16 In Dhahran (GMT +4) the time is 10.00 pm on Wednesday. Calculate the time in Tokyo (GMT +9).
17 Ann is on a skiing holiday in Winnipeg, Canada (GMT 6). She needs to call her parents at 7.30 pm
on Tuesday night, Sydney time. At what time should she make the call from Winnipeg?
19 A plane is flying from Munich (48N, 15E) to New York (41N, 75W). The flight departs Munich
at 6.00 pm and takes 7 hours. Calculate the time of arrival in New York.
Ext end ed
R esp ons e
1 The city of St Petersburg is at approximately (60N, 30E), while the city of Johannesburg has
Digital doc
Test Yourself
doc11078
Chapter 8
Activities
8AArc lengths
8ETime zones
Tutorial
WE2 int2443: Perform a calculation of an arc length.
(page 229)
Interactivity
int0006: Day, night and time zones. (page 243)
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 8.1 (doc11073): Circumference of a circle. (page 230)
SkillSHEET 8.2 (doc11074): Calculating arc length. (page 231)
Tutorial
WE14 int2446: Perform a calculation using time zones.
(page245)
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 8.3 (doc11076): Converting units of time. (page 245)
WorkSHEET 8.2 (doc11077): Apply your knowledge of time zones.
(page 247)
Chapter review
Test Yourself (doc11078): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 252)
Elesson
eles0138: Understanding map scales and distances. (page 237)
Tutorial
WE9 int2445: Perform a calculation of a distance on the Earths
surface. (page 241)
Answers chapter 8
Spherical geometry
g Tokyo h
Beijing
3 11:00 pm Monday
i Rio de Janeiro j
Oslo
4 a 8:00 pm
Exercise 8A Arc lengths
2 These answers are approximate.
b 1:00 pm Friday
1 a 25.1cm b
56.5m
a (38S, 145E)
c 5:00 pm Wednesday
c 389.6mm d
25.8km
b (40N, 75W)
d 11:00 pm Tuesday
e 87.3km f
52.2m
c (18N, 76W)
e 3:45 pm Monday
2 630km
d (26S, 28E)
5 5:00 am Saturday
3 a 44.0cm b
123m
e (42N, 12E)
6 11:00 pm Tuesday
c 188km d
368mm
f (35S, 57W)
7 10:00 am Monday
e 11.6km f
688km
g (33N, 44E)
8 a 10:00 pm b
GMT + 11
4 9400km
h (55N, 40E)
c i 3:00 pm Monday
5 31.83cm
i (2N, 104E)
ii 8:00 am Friday
6 a 25.5m b
6.73cm c
796km j (18S, 178E)
9 a 18 h b
19 h c
17 h
7 8.73cm
3 a Small circle b
Great circle
10 7 h
8 a 33.8mm b
20.4m
c Great circle d
Great circle
11 a 10 h 20 min b
24 min
c 150.8cm d
27.6cm
e Small circle f
Great circle
c 2 h 48 min
e 5.0km f
20.7km
4 a 71 b
71
12 C
9 a 40200km b
4470km
c 110 d
30
13 D
10 a 52km b
136km
5 a 162 b
132
14 2:00 pm Tuesday
c Circumference of circle = 2r =
c 159 d
140
15 a 4:00 pm Wednesday
188km = sum of two arcs
b 8:00 am Sunday
Exercise 8D Distances on the Earths
11 a 251cm b
62.8cm
16 a 1:00 am Wednesday
surface
12 a 5.2cm b
4.3m
b 3:00 am Wednesday
1
50
c 5696.8km
17 Midnight
2 a
40
b
40
c
71
13 112km
18 a Noon Wednesday
d
21
e
80
14 a 15.9cm b
4.25m
b 1 hour earlier
3
60
c 1910km
c 27 hours
4 a
1800
M
b
3334
k
m
15 30.6cm
19 a Check with your teacher.
5 a 2100 M b
8100
M
16 80
b Sydney
c 2340 M d
5760
M
17 a 54.5cm b
102.5cm
c Add 7 hours and go back 1 day
6 a 3600 M b
6667km
18 a 4446 b
3549
20 a i 11.00 am to 7.00 pm
7 a 2700 M b
5000
k
m
19 4940km
ii 7.00 pm to 3.00 am
8 6600km
Exercise 8B Great circles and small
iii 12.00 am to 8.00 am
9 a 4356km b
4021km
circles
iv 7.00 am to 3.00 pm
c 3798km
1 43.98cm
b The stock market is always open in
10 D
2 a 56.5m b
465mm c
188m
some part of the world.
11 B
3 40210km
21 a The difference in their latitudes is so
12 7 hours 30 minutes
4 314cm
similar they are placed in the same
13 a 110
5 a 15320km b
38010km
timezone.
b 6600 M
c 21350km d
449200km
b Sydney is 150E and Honolulu is
c 12200km
e 378690km f
160590km
155W, meaning that there is a 20hour
d 13 hours 45 minutes
g 154250km
time difference. Honolulu is closer than
14 10800 M
6 12.6m
London to Sydney but is on the opposite
15 a 28 b
1680 M
7 a 55.3m b
40.2m
side of the International Date Line.
c 3111km d
3128km
c 6911.5km
c When flying west across the
e 1 M 1.852km and radius Earth
8 B
International Date Line, you go back
6400km. We are therefore working with
9 79cm
one day.
approximations.
10 20100km
16 a (60N, 20E) (10S, 20E)
11 a 377cm b
94.25cm
b 3889.20km
Chapter Review
12 a 1750km b
52.4m
17 17779.20km
Multiple choice
13 a Great circle b
Small circle
18 a 6889.44km to South Pole
1
A
c Great circle d
Great circle
b 4555.92km to North Pole
2 C
14 a 50 b
38cm c
239cm c 4889.28km to North Pole
3 C
15 a Check with your teacher.
d 8889.6km to South Pole
4 C
b r = 4.7cm, C = 29.6
19 a 2482km b
3247km
16 a 6014km b
4200km
c 2872km d
427km
Short answer
17 a 4525km b
5924km
e 16374km f
6481km
1 a 120.6cm b
54.0cm
18 Jude is correct. The distance XY is
20 a 5243km b
35
c 289.0mm
7260km, and the distance YZ = 3630km,
c 3203km
2 a 6.3m b
28.1cm
so XY is twice YZ.
21 (0, 75E)
c 21.9m
Exercise 8C
Extended response
12 6 days 6 hours
6 71cm
13 a i 3060 M
7 a 41.5cm b
17.6m
1 a 85 b
9500km c
8h
ii 5667km
c 9424.8km
2 a Small circle. They lie on the same small
b 6.375 h or 6 hrs 22.5 mins
8 a Manila b
Lima
circle because they lie on the same
14 6000km
c Santiago
parallel of latitude.
15 a 8 h b
11 h c
17 h
9 a (41N, 3W)
b 12:20 pm Saturday
16 3:00 am Thursday
b (1N, 104E)
c 9:40 am Wednesday.
17 3:30 am Tuesday
c (43S, 147E)
18 a 11:00 am the same day
10 58
b 11:00 am the same day
11 a 16 b
960 M
19 7:00 pm the same day
c 1778km
Chapter 9
9A Counting techniques
Fundamental counting principle
Tom is a football fan. Tom likes all codes of football and enters a competition to select the winner of
the NRL (16 teams), AFL (18 teams) and Super Rugby (15 teams) competitions. In how many different
ways can Tom select his entry in the competition?
During the Preliminary course we studied at the Fundamental Counting Principle, which states that
The total number of ways that a succession of choices can be made is found by multiplying the
number of ways each choice can be made.
In the case of Tom selecting the winners of the three football codes, the number of possible
selectionsis:
Interactivity
int0089
Random number
generator
Maya has 5 albums on her MP3 player. The albums have 18, 12, 15, 10 and 7 songs on them
respectively. If Maya is to select one song to play from each album calculate the number of ways
in which Maya can select the five songs.
Think
Write
Number of combinations = 18 12 15 10 7
= 226 800
The fundamental counting principle depends upon each event being independent. In the case where
Tom is selecting football teams, the result of the NRL has no effect on the result of either the AFL or Super
Rugby competitions. The sets from which each selection is made have no common elements.
If several selections are being from the same group the events are no longer independent and a
different method of counting needs to be used.
Ordered arrangements
1. Select three people and stand them in a line.
2. Now get the three people to stand in a different order.
3. In how many different orders can the three people be placed?
Chapter 9 Multistage events and applications of probability 257
WRITE
8! = 40 320
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Six people are standing in a line. In how many ways can the six people be arranged?
THINK
1
2
WRITE
The answer is 6!
6! = 720
To calculate the number of ordered selections that can be made, we multiply, starting from the number
of possible first selections, then reducing by one with each multiplication until each position is filled.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
In a cricket team of eleven players, a captain and vicecaptain are to be chosen. In how many
ways can this be done?
THINK
1
WRITE
Number of arrangements = 11 10
= 110
Committee selections
On a committee of five people, a president and a vicepresident are to be chosen. The five committee
members are Andreas, Brett, Cathy, Dharma and Emiko.
1. Use the method shown in Worked example 4 to calculate the number of ways in which the president
and the vicepresident can be chosen.
2. Now use a tree diagram to list the sample space of all possible selections of president and vicepresident.
3. Check that the number of elements in the sample space corresponds to the answer obtained in part 1
of this investigation.
Consider a case where two representatives to a committee are chosen from a class of 20 students. This
is an example of an unordered selection. If Sue is chosen, followed by Graham, this is the same choice
as if Graham is chosen and then Sue.
To calculate the number of unordered selections that can be made, we calculate the number of ordered
selections that can be made and then divide by the number of arrangements of these selections. This is
calculated using factorial notation as in Worked example 3. In the case of choosing the committee:
Number of ordered selections is 20 19 = 380.
Two people can be arranged in two (2!) ways.
Number of unordered selections = 380 2
= 190
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
From a group of eight athletes, three are to be chosen to represent the club at a carnival. In how
many ways can the three representatives be chosen?
THINK
WRITE
Ordered selections = 8 7 6
= 336
Arrangements = 3 2 1
=6
Tutorial
int2424
Worked example 5
Unordered selection
A rowing team has six members: Mark, Norman, Olaf, Pieter, Quentin and Raymond. Two are to be
chosen to be the crew in a pairs race.
1. Use the method described in Worked example 5 to calculate the number of pairs that could be chosen.
2. Use a tree diagram to list the ordered selections and then write the sample space of unordered
selections by ignoring any repeated pair.
3. Check that the number of elements of the sample space corresponds to the answer obtained in part 1
of this investigation.
Chapter 9 Multistage events and applications of probability 259
Exercise 9A
Counting techniques
1 WE1 April is going out to dinner. The banquet menu has a selection of 5 entrees, 6 main courses,
4desserts and a selection of 3 drinks. How many meal combinations is it possible to choose?
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 9.1
doc11079
Fundamental
counting principle
2 At a high school there are 5 classes in each year from 7 to 12. If one class from each year is to be
a pair of shoes from a choice of 30. How many possible combinations of outfit could Merridee
choose?
b Bryces task is to select a shirt from a choice of 8, a pair of pants from a choice of 5, one of three
ties. Bryce only has one pair of shoes. How many combinations could Bryce possibly select?
c When they go out together how many possible combinations of outfits are possible?
4 WE2 Use your calculator to calculate the value of the following.
a 3!
b 5!
c 9!
5 WE3 Four people are involved in a race. In how many different orders can they complete
the race?
6 The letters A, B, C, D and E are written on cards. In how many different orders can the cards be
placed?
7 A threedigit number is formed using the digits 3, 6 and 8. If no number can be repeated, how many
Melanie and Victoria. In how many different ways can the captain and vicecaptain be chosen?
10 In the Melbourne Cup there are
many ways can a person choose an entree, main course and dessert from the menu?
15 MC Which of the following is an example of an unordered selection?
A Five students are placed in order of their exam results.
B From a group of five students, a contestant and a reserve are chosen for a Mathematics
competition.
C From a group of five students, two are chosen to represent the class on the SRC.
D From a group of five students, two are awarded 1st and 2nd prizes in Mathematics.
16 MC The numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 are used to form a threedigit number such that no digit can be used
more than once. The number of threedigit numbers that can be formed is:
A 4
B 6
C 12
D 24
17 MC Gavin, Dion, Michael, Owen and Shane try out for two places on a tennis doubles team. The
C 20
D 25
18 A small play has three characters. Six people, Wendy, Rebecca, Thai, Yasmin, Andrea and Ophelia,
Further development
20 A rowing crew consists of four rowers who sit in a definite order. How many different crews are
volunteered for any of these positions. In how many different ways can the positions be filled?
Note:One person cannot take on more than 1 position.
22 There are four people in a race. Explain why the number of ways that the first three places can be
filled is the same as the number of ways that all four places can be filled.
23 A rugby union squad has 12 forwards and 10 backs in training. A team consists of 8 forwards and
7backs. How many different teams can be chosen from the squad?
24 Lotto is a gambling game played by choosing 6 numbers from 45. Gamblers try to match their
choice with those numbers chosen at the official draw. No number can be drawn more than once and
the order in which the numbers are selected does not matter.
a How many different selections of 6 numbers can be made from 45?
b Suppose the first numbers drawn at the official draw are 42, 3 and 18. How many selections of
6numbers will contain these 3 numbers?
c Suppose the first numbers drawn at the official draw are 42, 3, 18 and 41. How many selections of
6 numbers will contain these 4 numbers?
Note: This question ignores supplementary numbers.
25 Explain why the number of ways that three people can be selected from 10 is the same as the number
9B
Tree diagrams
If an event has more than one stage to it, then a tree diagram can be drawn to list the sample space
accurately. In a tree diagram, the tree branches out once for each stage of the experiment. At each stage
the number of branches is the same as the number of possible outcomes.
To list the sample space we then follow the tree to the end of each branch and record the outcome at
each stage.
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
A coin is tossed three times. Draw a tree diagram and use it to list the sample space for this
experiment.
THINK
1
WRITE
1st
coin
toss
2nd
coin
toss
3rd
coin
toss
Heads
Tails
Heads
Tails
Heads
Tails
Heads
Tails
Heads
Heads
Tails
Heads
Tails
Tails
4
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
A twodigit number is formed using the digits 4, 5, 7 and 9 without repetition. Draw a tree
diagram and use it to list all possible numbers that can be formed.
THINK
WRITE
1st digit
4
5
7
9
2nd digit
5
7
9
4
7
9
4
5
9
4
5
7
Sample space
45
47
49
54
57
59
74
75
79
94
95
97
Once the tree diagram is completed, the probability of an event can be calculated using the formula:
P(event) =
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
A coin is tossed and a die is rolled. Calculate the probability of tossing a tail and rolling a
number greater than 4.
THINK
WRITE
Coin toss
Heads
Tails
Die roll
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
2
P(tail and no. > 4) = 12
Simplify.
Exercise 9B
Sample space
Heads 1
Heads 2
Heads 3
Heads 4
Heads 5
Heads 6
Tails 1
Tails 2
Tails 3
Tails 4
Tails 5
Tails 6
= 16
Tree diagrams
1 WE6 A family consists of four children. Draw a tree diagram to show all possible combinations of
3 There are two bags each containing a red, blue, yellow and green
conference. The boys nominate George, Frank, Stanisa and Ian; the
girls have nominated Thuy, Petria, Joan, Wendy and Amelia. Draw a tree diagram and list the sample
space for all possible choices of representatives.
5 WE7 A twodigit number is to be formed using the digits 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 such that no digit may be
repeated. Draw a tree diagram to list all possible numbers that can be formed.
6 A committee needs to elect a president, secretary and treasurer. The four nominations for these
positions are Belinda, Dean, Kate and Adrian. Given that no person is allowed to hold more than one
position, use a tree diagram to list all ways in which these three positions can be filled.
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 9.3
doc11081
Informal
description of
chance
7 The digits 3, 5, 7 and 8 are used to form a threedigit number. If no digit can be used more than once
number of ways that the captain and vicecaptain can be chosen is:
A 5
B 10
C 20
D 25
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 9.4
doc11082
Equally likely
events
9 WE8 The four aces from a deck of cards are placed face down on a table. One card is chosen
followed by a second card without the first card being replaced. Calculate the probability that the ace
of hearts is one of the two cards chosen.
10 A twodigit number is formed using the digits 2, 3, 4 and 7 without repetition.
a Use a tree diagram to list the sample space.
b Calculate the probability that the number formed is greater than 35.
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1364
Tree diagrams
11 A tennis team consists of three men, Andre, Yevgeny and Jonas and two women, Martina and
Lindsay. From the team the captain and the vicecaptain are to be chosen. Calculate the probability
that the captain and vicecaptain are:
a Andre and Lindsay
b both men
c the same sex
d different sex.
12 Find the probability that all three children in a family will be the same sex.
13 MC A threedigit number is formed using the digits 5, 6, 8 and 0. No digit can be repeated and the
0cant be first. The probability of the number formed being greater than 800 is:
1
1
3
1
A
B
C
D
4
3
16
2
14 An airline offers holidays to three destinations: Brisbane, Gold Coast or Cairns. The holiday can
be taken during two seasons: Peak season or Offpeak season. The customer has the choice of three
classes: Economy, Business or First class. There is no First class to Cairns, however.
a Use a tree diagram to list all combinations of holiday that could be taken by choosing a
destination, season and class.
b Terry takes a mystery flight, which means he is allocated a ticket at random from the above
combinations. Calculate the probability that Terrys ticket:
i goes to Brisbane
ii is First class
iii is in Peak season, flying First class.
Further development
15 A threedigit number is to be formed using the digits 5, 7 and 8.
a If the same digit cannot be used twice, how many threedigit numbers can be formed?
b If repetition is allowed, how many numbers can be formed?
c Kevin claims that the probability of an even number will be the same regardless of whether
repetition of digits is allowed or not. Is Kevin correct? Explain why or why not.
16 In a family of four children there can be:
more boys
more girls
an equal number of boys and girls.
a Is each of these outcomes equally likely to occur?
b Dan claims that if there is an even number of children the probability of there being an equal
number of boys and girls is the same. Is Dan correct? Explain your answer.
17 Give a brief explanation of why, when two dice are rolled, that each total is not equally likely
tooccur.
18 Tanya is allergic to peanuts. On a menu there are 4 entrees, 6 main courses and 4 desserts. Of these,
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 9.1
doc11083
2 entrees, 3 main courses and 2 desserts contain traces of peanuts. Tanya says that that the number of
combinations of meals that she may choose is halved. Is Tanya correct? Explain your answer.
19 Ingrid tosses a coin 10 times and claims that there is exactly a 90% chance that she will throw at
9C
Once the counting techniques done in the previous section have been completed, we can calculate the
probability of certain events occurring. To do this we go back to using the probability formula:
P(event) =
Interactivity
int2787
A pack of cards
int0085
Random numbers
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
The letters A, H, M, S and T are written on cards. The cards are shuffled and then laid out face
up. Calculate the probability that the cards form the word MATHS.
THINK
WRITE
No. of arrangements = 5!
=54321
= 120
1
P(MATHS) = 120
We also need to be able to calculate the probability of a particular ordered or unordered arrangement
occurring.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
From Francis, Gary, Harley, Ike and Jacinta, a school captain and vicecaptain need to be
elected. Calculate the probability that Ike and Jacinta occupy the two positions.
THINK
1
WRITE
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
A bag contains a red, green, yellow, blue, orange and purple marble. Three marbles are selected
from the bag. Calculate the probability that the red, yellow and orange marbles are chosen.
THINK
1
WRITE
Tutorial
int2425
Worked
example 11
1
20
Popular gaming
There are many different forms of lottery that depend upon ordered or unordered arrangements.
1. Lotto This requires the player to select six numbers out of 45. In how many ways can the
sixnumbers be chosen? Remember order does not matter.
2. Similar games to Lotto are:
a. Oz Lotto seven numbers are chosen from 45.
b. The Pools six numbers are chosen from 38.
In how many ways can the six numbers for each of these games be chosen?
3. Powerball This requires the player to choose six numbers from 40 in an unordered selection.
Aseventh ball (the powerball) is chosen from a second barrel containing 20 balls. In how many ways
can this be selected?
4. Lotto Strike The player must select the first four balls drawn from 45 in the correct order. In how
many ways can this ordered selection be made?
Exercise 9C
1 WE9 Four people, Craig, Barry, Anne and Dimitri, are arranged in a line. Calculate the probability
2 The numbers 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are arranged to form a fivedigit number such that no digit can be
repeated. Calculate:
a how many fivedigit numbers can be formed
b the probability that the number formed is 54867
c the probability that the number formed is 86574.
3 A threedigit number is formed using the digits 6, 8 and 9 and no digit may be repeated. Calculate
4 WE10 There are five candidates in an election for SRC president. The second placed candidate
will be made vicepresident of the SRC. If Lauren and Meta are two of the candidates, calculate the
probability that they will occupy the two positions.
5 Seven surfers enter a competition. If two of the surfers are Kurt and Paul, calculate the
probabilitythat:
a Kurt comes first and Paul comes second
b Paul comes first and Kurt comes second
c Kurt and Paul fill the first two places.
6 From the digits 1 to 9 a twodigit number is formed such that no digit can be repeated. Calculate the
7 WE11 From a deck of cards, the four aces are laid face down on a table. Two of the aces are then
turned face up. Calculate the probability that the two aces turned face up are the ace of clubs and the
ace of spades.
8 An icecream parlour offers a choice of 25 flavours. A triple
Further development
11 To win Lotto you must correctly select the six correct winning numbers from a possible 45 numbers.
a Find the probability of winning Lotto when selecting a single set of six numbers.
b To increase their chances of winning some players take a systems entry. This means selecting more
than six numbers. For example, a system 7 is where 7 numbers are chosen and is equivalent to all
combinations of six numbers that can be chosen within 7. Find the probability of winning Lotto if:
i a system 7 entry is played
ii a system 8 entry is played
iii a system 15 entry is played.
12 A second game that is played within Lotto is called Lotto Strike. This involves selecting the first four
Lotto balls drawn in the correct order. Determine whether Lotto or Lotto Strike is harder to win.
13 Oz Lotto is another similar game where the player has to select seven numbers from 45.
John thinks that, because you need to select one extra ball, Oz Lotto will be 17 or 14.3% harder
towin.
Peter thinks that, because you need to select one extra ball, Oz Lotto will be 16 or 16.7% harder
towin.
Bruce thinks that both Peter and John are incorrect and that Oz Lotto will be about 450% harder
to win.
Who is correct? Explain your answer.
14 Powerball is a game where the player must select six numbers out of 40 from one barrel and then a
player selecting 10 numbers and those 10 numbers being among the 20 drawn.
a In approximately how many ways can the player select 10 numbers from 80? Give your answer in
scientific notation correct to 3 significant figures.
b How many winning combinations of 10 numbers from 20 are there?
c Find the probability of selecting a winning combination in scientific notation correct to
3significant figures.
16 In the game of Keno find the approximate probability, as a decimal, of winning the:
a 2 number game
b 3 number game
c 5 number game.
Chapter 9 Multistage events and applications of probability 267
9D
Expected outcomes
Suppose that we toss a coin 100 times. How many times would you expect the coin to land Heads? As
each outcome is equally likely, we would expect there to be 50 Heads and 50 Tails. How can this be
shown to be true?
The number of times that we expect a certain outcome to occur is found by multiplying the
probabilityof each outcome by the number of trials. In the above case, the probability of the coin
landing heads is 12, and this is multiplied by the number of trials (100). The result is an expectation of
50Heads in 100 tosses of the coin.
The expected outcome is the number of times that we expect a particular outcome to occur in a
certain number of trials.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
A die is rolled 120 times. How many 6s would you expect to occur in 120 rolls of the die?
THINK
WRITE
P(six) = 16
If the expected number of 6s is 20 in 120 rolls of a die, this does not mean that this is what will occur.
It may be that on one occasion we may get 25 sixes in 120 rolls, another occasion we may get only
10sixes. However, we expect that if we repeat the experiment often enough, we would get an average of
20 sixes in 120 rolls.
Rolling a die
1. Each person is to take a die and roll it 120 times and record the
number of 6s rolled.
2. What is the most number of 6s rolled by anyone in 120 rolls of
thedie?
3. What is the least number of 6s rolled by anyone in 120 rolls of
thedie?
4. What is the average number of 6s rolled by the class in 120 rolls of the
die? How does this compare with the expected outcome of 20?
The expected outcome does not need to be a whole number. In many
cases this will not be so. Consider the example below.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
Roger draws a card from a standard deck, notes the suit and replaces the card in the deck. If
Roger repeats this process 50 times, how many spades can Roger expect to have drawn?
THINK
WRITE
P(spade) = 14
Obviously, after drawing 50 cards, Roger could not have drawn 12.5 spades. The number of spades
drawn must of course be a whole number. However, if this experiment were repeated a number of times,
we would expect to have drawn an average of 12.5 spades in every 50 cards.
The expected outcome method can be applied to any probability experiment. This includes multistage
events in which it may be necessary to draw a tree diagram or probability tree to calculate the probability
of a particular outcome.
268 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
A psychologist is conducting a study on the upbringing of boys. For the study, the psychologist
selects 100 couples with exactly three children. How many of these couples would the
psychologist expect to have three boys?
THINK
1
WRITE
Boy
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
P(three boys) = 18
Exercise 9D
Tutorial
int2426
Worked
example 14
Expected outcomes
1 WE12 Calculate the number of times that a coin can be expected to land Tails in 40 tosses.
2 A die is rolled 300 times. Calculate the expected number of 6s to be rolled.
3 A card is drawn from a standard deck, its suit is noted and the card is replaced in the deck. Calculate
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 9.6
doc11085
Single event
probability
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 9.7
doc11086
Tree diagrams
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 9.8
doc11087
Probability trees
7 Kevin buys a ticket in a meat raffle every week. There are 100 tickets and four prizes.
a Calculate the probability of Kevin winning a prize in the raffle.
b How many prizes can Kevin expect to win in one year?
8 Janice buys a ticket in every lottery. In each lottery there are 180000 tickets, a first prize and
3384cash prizes. One lottery is drawn every weekday for 52 weeks a year. Calculate the number of
times in 10 years that Janice can expect to win:
a first prize (as a decimal, correct to 3 significant figures)
b a cash prize (as a decimal, correct to 3 significant figures).
Chapter 9 Multistage events and applications of probability 269
9 MC A meeting is attended by 350 men and 150 women. At the meeting 100 people will be chosen
D 20
11 WE14 Four coins are tossed simultaneously in the air. If this were repeated 80 times, on how many
occasions would you expect the coins to land with four Heads?
12 The digits 2, 5, 6, 7 and 9 are written on cards and placed face down. Three are then chosen and
arranged to form a threedigit number. If this is repeated 150 times, what is the expected number of:
a odd numbers
b numbers greater than 600
c multiples of five?
13 Two dice are rolled 100 times. Copy and complete the table below to calculate the expected number
of occurrences of each total in 100 rolls of the dice. Give each answer correct to 1 decimal place.
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc2749
Die rolling
Outcome
Probability
Expected no.
10
11
12
14 A barrel contains 15 blue marbles and 5 red marbles. Two marbles are selected from the barrel, the
first not being replaced in the barrel before the second is chosen. This experiment is repeated 100
times. On how many occasions (correct to 2 decimal places) would you expect the two marbles
chosen to be:
a both blue
b both the same colour
c different colours
d selected with at least one being blue?
Further development
15 A die is biased as shown in the table below. What average outcome would you expect for a large
Probability
1
2
3
4
5
6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
16 Anthony is a basketball player and has a probability of 0.7 of shooting a basket from the freethrow
line. During a match Anthony goes to the freethrow line 10 times. On each occasion he receives two
free throws.
a What is the expected number of successful free throws that Anthony will make?
b What is the expected number of times that Anthony will be successful with both free throws?
17 Eldrick is a golfer and is playing the par three 17th hole. Eldrick has a 80% chance of hitting his first
shot onto the green and a 45% of sinking a putt from any point on the green.
a Find the probability that Eldrick is able to get the ball in the hole in two shots. (This score of one
under par is called a birdie.)
b If Eldrick plays the 17th hole four times during a tournament, what is the expected number of
birdies?
18 Every Friday night a local club runs a meat raffle. In the raffle there are 1000 tickets, and
Rhondabuys 5 tickets. There are 70 prizes in the raffle. Find the number of prizes that Rhonda can
expect to win:
a in one night
b over a year if she buys the same number of tickets each week.
270 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
19 A criminal gang has the technology to copy peoples ATM cards. They do not have the technology to
identify peoples PINs. If they try to use the card they can have three attempts at the PIN before the
bank will deactivate the card.
a What is the probability that the gang is able to guess the 4digit PIN?
b How many cards does the gang need to copy before they can expect to be able to guess one PIN?
20 A telephone insurance salesperson has a 0.16 probability of being able to sell an insurance policy.
How many telephone calls does the salesperson need to make so they can expect to sell 60 insurance
policies?
Digital doc
Worksheet 9.2
doc11088
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc2750
Simulations
2. The first worksheet has a coin toss simulation. In cell B3 enter the number of times you wish to toss
the coin, in cell F4 enter the expected number of heads and in cell F5 enter the expected number
oftails.
3. How do the simulation results compare with the expected outcome? Complete 10 simulations
and average the results. Is this answer closer to the expected number of outcomes that you have
calculated?
4. Repeat this process for each one of the other simulations on rolling a die and rolling two dice.
Summary
Counting techniques
The fundamental counting principle states that the number of ways a multiple selection can be
made is found by multiplying the numbers of ways each individual selection can be made.
The number of ways that n objects can be arranged in order is:
n! or n (n 1) (n 2) ... 2 1.
In an ordered selection, a number of objects are chosen and are arranged in order. The number of
ordered selections can be calculated by multiplying the number of first choices that can be made by
the number of second choices possible and so on until all choices have been included.
In an unordered selection, the order in which the objects have been chosen is not important. The
number of unordered selections that are possible is calculated by dividing the number of ordered
selections by the number of ways the ordered selection can be arranged.
Once the number of selections has been determined, the probability of particular selections can be
determined.
Tree diagrams
A tree diagram is used in any probability experiment where there is more than one stage to the
experiment.
The sample space can be determined from a tree diagram by following the paths to the end of each
branch.
The probability of an event can then be calculated by the probability formula:
P 1 event 2 =
Probability and
counting techniques
When we have calculated the number of arrangements and the number of ordered or unordered
selections that are possible, we can then calculate the probability of a certain selection using the
probability formula.
Expected outcomes
The expected number of times that an event will occur in a number of trials is calculated by
multiplying the number of trials by the probability of that event occurring.
The expected number of outcomes is the average number of times that the event is expected to
occur. It does not mean this is the number of times the event will occur.
Chapter review
1 Which of the following is an example of an ordered selection?
A
B
C
D
multip l e
c ho ic e
2 Six people are arranged in a line. The number of ways in which this can be done is:
A 6
B 12
C 120
D 720
3 In a race there are six runners. In how many ways can the first three places be filled?
A 6
B 12
C 120
D 620
4 A group of six people consists of Darren, Shintaro, Jim, Damien, John and Allan. From these six
people a group of three is chosen. The probability of choosing Darren, Jim and John is:
3
1
1
1
A
B
C
D
6
20
12
120
5 A bag contains 3 red marbles, 13 blue marbles and 4 yellow marbles. A marble is chosen from the
bag and then replaced in the bag. In 90 selections, the expected number of blue marbles selected is:
A 13
B 20
C 58.5
D 59
S ho rt
a nsw er
space if:
a no digit can be used more than once
3 There are three births in the maternity ward of a hospital. Calculate the probability that the
babiesare:
a all boys
4 A twodigit number is formed using the digits 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9. No digit is allowed to be repeated.
a Use a tree diagram to list the sample space.
b Find the probability that the number formed is:
i 86
ii odd
iii greater than 65.
5 In a barrel there are three black marbles and three white marbles. A marble is drawn and its colour
noted, and it is then replaced in the barrel. A second marble is then drawn. Find the probability of
selecting:
a two marbles of the same colour
b at least one black marble.
Chapter 9 Multistage events and applications of probability 273
6 A rowing crew has eight rowers. In how many different ways can the crew be seated in the boat?
7 From the rowing crew of eight, a captain and vicecaptain are to be selected. Calculate the number of
14 Two dice are rolled. The score in each roll is the total of the two dice. In 90 rolls of the dice,
Ex tended
R es p ons e
2 A golf team is to be made by selecting two males from a group of 5 and two females from a
groupof4.
a How many teams is it possible to select?
b What is the probability that Issac is one of the male players and Tegan is one of the female
players? What is the probability that Issac and Tegan are both selected?
c If a new team is selected to play each weekend over a year on how many occasions can:
i Issac expect to play
ii Tegan expect to play?
Digital doc
Test Yourself
doc11089
Chapter 9
ICT activities
9A Counting techniques
INTERACTIVITY
int0089: Random number generator. (page 257)
Tutorial
WE5 int2424: Learn about ordered selections. (page 259)
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 9.1 (doc11079): Fundamental counting principle.
(page 260)
9BTree diagrams
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 9.2 (doc11080): Listing the sample space. (page 263)
SkillSHEET 9.3 (doc11081): Informal description of chance.
(page263)
SkillSHEET 9.4 (doc11082): Equally likely events. (page 263)
EXCEL Spreadsheet (doc1364): Tree diagrams. (page 263)
WorkSHEET 9.1 (doc11083): Apply your knowledge of multistage
events to problems. (page 264)
Tutorial
WE11 int2425: Learn to calculate probabilities. (page 265)
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 9.5 (doc11084): Single event probability. (page 266)
9DExpected outcomes
Tutorial
WE14 int2426: Learn to calculate expected outcomes. (page 269)
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 9.6 (doc11085): Single event probability. (page 269)
SkillSHEET 9.7 (doc11086): Tree diagrams. (page 269)
SkillSHEET 9.8 (doc11087): Probability trees. (page 269)
EXCEL Spreadsheet (doc2749): Die rolling. (page 270)
WorkSHEET 9.2 (doc11088): Apply your knowledge of multistage
events to problems. (page 271)
EXCEL Spreadsheet (doc2750): Simulations. (page 271)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself (doc11089): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 275)
Answers chapter 9
Multistage events
and applications of
probability
Exercise 9A
1st
child
3rd
child
Boy
Boy
Girl
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Boy
Girl
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
1st die
1
R
B
Y
G
R
B
Y
G
R
B
Y
G
R
B
Y
G
Yellow
Green
Male
Female
Thuy
Petria
Joan
Wendy
Amelia
Thuy
Petria
Joan
Wendy
Amelia
Thuy
Petria
Joan
Wendy
Amelia
Thuy
Petria
Joan
Wendy
Amelia
George
Frank
Stanisa
Ian
1st digit
2nd digit
2
4
5
7
1
4
5
7
1
2
5
7
1
2
4
7
1
2
4
5
4th
child
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
Boy
Girl
2nd die
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
2nd bag
Blue
Tree diagrams
2nd
child
1st bag
Red
Counting techniques
1 360
2 15625
3 a 1440
b 120
c 172800
4 a 6
b 120
c 362880
5 24
6 120
7 6
8 720
9 12
10 12144
11 35
12 210
13 15
14 72
15 C
16 D
17 B
18 a 20
b 6
19 a 362880
b 504
c 36
20 120
21 3024
22 After the first three places have been filled
Exercise 9B
4
5
7
Belinda
Dean
Kate
Adrian
Dean
Belinda
Kate
Adrian
Kate
Belinda
Dean
Adrian
Adrian
Belinda
Dean
Kate
Kate
Adrian
Dean
Adrian
Dean
Kate
Kate
Adrian
Belinda
Adrian
Belinda
Kate
Dean
Adrian
Belinda
Adrian
Belinda
Dean
Dean
Kate
Belinda
Kate
Belinda
Dean
8 C
1
2
1st digit
10 a
2
3
4
7
2nd digit
3
4
7
2
4
7
2
3
7
2
3
4
1
20
2
c
5
1
12
4
7
12
3
10
3
d
5
11 a
13 B
14 a S = {Bris Peak EC, Bris Peak
BC, Bris Peak FC, Bris Offpeak EC, Bris Offpeak BC,
Bris O
ffpeak FC, GC
Peak EC, GC Peak BC, GC
Peak FC, GC Offpeak EC,
GC Offpeak BC, GC
Offpeak FC, Cairns Peak EC,
Cairns Peak BC, Cairns Offpeak EC, Cairns Offpeak BC}
3
1
1
b i
ii
iii
4
8
8
15 a 6
b 27
c Kevin is correct. In each case the
probability is 13 as there is one chance
inthree that the 8 is in the final
position.
5
16 a P(more boys) = , P(equal numbers)
16
6
5
=16
, P(more girls) = 16
. Each outcome
Exercise 9C
techniques
1
24
2 a 120
1
6
3 a
1
10
1
120
2
b
3
1
120
2
c
3
1
42
2
b
9
1
42
1
6 a
72
1
7
6
1
8 a
13 800
5 a
1
21
2
c
9
1
2300
1
9 a 20 b
20
1
3
3
10 a
b
c
10
10
5
1
11 a
8 145 060
7
28
5005
b i
ii 8 145
iii
8 145 060
060
8 145 060
1
76 767 600
1 20
2 50
3 25
4 a 35
5 1.25
6 a 25
d 30.77
1
7 a
b 10000
6 40320
7 56
8 70
9 a 120
1
10
20 375
b 28
1st coin
b 50
e 1.92
c 7.69
2nd coin
Heads
Tails
b 30
b 25
e 3.85
b 15
e 25
b 37.5
16 a 12
Tails
Tails
1 a
1st coin
2nd coin
Heads
c 30
10
11
12
Probability
1
36
1
18
1
12
1
9
5
36
1
6
5
36
1
9
1
12
1
18
1
36
2.8
5.6
8.3
8.3
5.6
2.8
Heads
Tails
Tails
3 a
b 90
c 7.5
c 50
c 15
Extended response
b S = {
55, 57, 58, 59, 75, 77, 78, 79, 85,
1
8
c 20
c 7.69
1
12
1
b
360
1
e
3
1
b
1048576
19 36
Heads
Outcome
Expected no.
11 18
12 a 10
13 a 50
d 30.8
14 a 2.5
d 15
15 a 12.5
1
d
15
1
18 a
1024
3
4
b 60
17 a 360
Heads
c 7
iii
120
Short answer
1 a
2
5
3
b
4
ii
1
2
b 4.9
b 1.44
b 18.2
1
10 000
1
20
5 a
Multiple choice
25
13
19 a
b i
1 C
2 D
3 C
4 B
5 C
Expected outcomes
b 2.08
8 a 0.0144
9 B
10 B
11 5
12 a 90
b 60.53
d 94.74
Chapter Review
15 a 1.65 1012
b 184756
c 1.12 107
16 a 0.06
b 0.014
c 6.45 104
Exercise 9D
14 a 55.26
c 39.47
15 3.1
16 a 14
17 a 0.36
18 a 0.35
Heads
Tails
2 a 16
1 1 4
b , ,
10
6 15
c i 5.2 times
ii 0.6666 times
3rd coin
Heads
Tails
Heads
Tails
Heads
Tails
Heads
Tails
3
8
7
8
Chapter 10
10A
WRITE
a 4j 5c + c + 3j
= 4j + 3j 5c + c
= 7j 4c
b d2 + 9d 12d 15
= d2 3d 15
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
WRITE
2x x
3
2
2 1 2x 2 3 1 x 2
6
6
4x 3x
6
x
=
6
x+1 x+4
+
b
3
5
31x + 12 51x + 42
+
15
15
31x + 12 + 51x + 42
15
3x + 3 + 5x + 20
15
8x + 23
=
15
Exercise 10A
b
d
f
h
b
e
h
k
n
6m + 9m + 10f + 6f
2f + 3h + 2f + 5h
12d + 8 + 3d + 5
5y + 6h2 + h2 + 9y
14a 6a + 11f 8f
10r + 15 11r 10
10w 6w + 14 10
2k + 14m 5k 10m
4x3 2x3 + 3x4 9x4
3 MC
a 2q + 6p 5q p simplifies to:
c
f
i
l
o
5k + 11 3k 9
6v 8v + 12 17
4c 8 + 3c 9
d + 5c 2c 3d
c2 2c2 + 5 + 7
A 7q + 5p
B 7q 5p
C 3q + 5p
D 3q 5p
A 9r 9y
B r 9y
C r + 9y
D 9r + 9y
A 2j2 2j
B 2j4 2j
C 3j2 2j
D 2j6
b 4r 6y 3y + 5r simplifies to:
c j2 6j 3j2 + 4j simplifies to:
4 Simplify the following.
a x2 + 5x + 2x + 6
c v2 2v 8v 6
e u2 + 4u 3u 12
280 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
b d2 3d + 7d 10
d a2 4ab + 2ab + b2
f 5n4 12n2 + 6n2 25
2y y
3
4
2w
w
e
14 28
x+1 x+3
i
+
2
5
a
y y
8 5
y
y
f
20 4
x+2 x+6
j
+
3
4
b
4x x
3
4
12y y
g
+
7
5
2x 1 2x + 1
k
6
5
c
8x 2x
+
9
3
10x 2x
h
+
5
15
3x + 1 5x + 3
l
+
3
2
d
Further development
6 Given that x = 8a 7b and y = 7b 8a what is the value of
a x + y
b x y
c y x
d 3x 4y?
10B
3x 5y
+ .
5y 3x
When a number or pronumeral is repeatedly multiplied by itself, it can be written in a shorter form
called the index form with a base and power or index. For example, 3 3 3 3 = 34.
Patterns in powers when multiplying and dividing pronumerals can be summarised using index laws.
When multiplying algebraic terms with the same bases the indices should be added.
First Index law: am an = am + n
Interactivity
int2360
Indices
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
WRITE
5e10 2e3
The order is not important when multiplying, so place the numbers first.
= 5 2 e10 e3
= 10e13
When there is more than one pronumeral involved in the question, we apply the First index law to each
pronumeral separately.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
WRITE
= 7 3 2 m3 m8 n5 n4
= 42m11n9
Since division is the inverse of multiplication, we subtract indices when dividing bases that are thesame.
Second Index Law: am an = am n
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
WRITE
712
74
= 78
As with multiplication of algebraic expressions, when dividing we divide the coefficients normally
before applying the Second Index Law to each pronumeral separately.
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
WRITE
36d7 12d4
= 3d3
WRITE
a (74)8
= 732
b (3a2b5)3
= 33a6b15
= 27a6b15
Zero index
Any base that has a power of zero has a value of one. It does not matter whether the base is a number
or a pronumeral. If the power is zero; its value is one. We can show this by looking at the following
example which can be simplified using two different methods.
282 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
Method 1
23 23 =
=
Method 2
222
222
23 23 =
8
8
23
23
=1
=1
WRITE
260
=1
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
WRITE
(12a9b7c2)0
=1
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
WRITE
12b2c0
= 12b2
Exercise 10B
c 9y6 7y4
f 4q2 q5 5q8
c 2m3 5m2 8m3
3 WE5 Simplify each of the following using the Second Index Law.
a 53 52
b 79 72
c s8 s4
6
45
42
d z z
e i i
f 675 674
g 1023 1019
j
h78
h
c13
c9
b77
k
b7
h
i
l
t456
t423
f 1000
f 100
4 WE6 Simplify each of the following, giving your answer in index form.
a 4x5 x3
b 6y7 y5
c 9w12 w5
e 20f 12 2f 3
48g8
f 100h100 10h10
12b7
8b2
5 Simplify each of the following.
i
6g5
15p12
g 40j15 20j5
k
3p8
45p14
9p4
100n95
l
70n5
81m6
18m2
18r6
3r2
60b7
100r10
d
e
20b
10r6
6 WE7 Simplify each of the following.
a (x2)3
b (f 8)10
12
12
d (r )
e (a2b3)5
g (g3h2)5
h (3w9q2)4
7 Simplify each of the following.
a (p5)2 (q3)2
b (r5)3 (w3)3
d (j6)3 (k4)3
e (q2)2 (r4)5
4
4
7
3
g (f ) (g )
h (t5)2 (u4)2
8 WE8 Find the value for each of the following.
a 30
b 50
c p0
9 WE9 Find the value of each of the following.
a (3p)0
b 50t0
c (2w2)0
10 Find the value of each of the following.
a 3p0
b 5x0 + 7
c (a0)6 + 3
11 WE10 Find the value of each of the following.
a 4r3g0
b 2p0 + 3g0
a
d 12q34 4q30
45a5
9a2
9q2
f
q
c
c (s25)4
f (pq3)5
i (5e5r2q4)2
c (x5)2 (n3)6
f (h3)8 (j2)8
i (i3)5 (j2)6
d d0
d (5x8)0
d (2y0)3 + 9
c 6t0 + 7f0
Further development
12 Simplify each of the following.
a 2a2 3a4 e3 e4
d 2gh 3g2h5
g 9y8d y5d3 3y4d7
j 10h10v2 2h8v6 3h20v12
b 4p3 2h7 h5 p3
e 5p4q2 6p2q7
h 7b3c2 2b6c4 3b5c3
8p6 3p4
16p5
27x9y3
12xy2
8p3 7r2 2s
g
6p 14r
12b5 4b2
18b2
16h7k4
12h6k
25m2 4n7
15m2 8n
12j8 6f 5
8j3 3f 2
81f 15 25g12 16h24
27f 9 15g10 12h30
3b4 2
5h10 2
2k5 3
b a
c a
b
b
b
d3
2j2
3t8
7p9 2
5y7 3
4a3 4
d a
e a
f a
b
b
b
22
13
8q
3z
7c5
15 Simplify each of the following giving your answer in fractional form.
a x5 x8
b b6 b10
c z z7
d q2 q9
20pq
5m2
e m0 m4
f 12m3 4m5
g
h
2
4p
30m3
a a
16 Use the index laws to simplify each of the following. Give each of your answers in fractional form.
a a3 a4
b 12p2 3p3
c 7g5h2 3gh1
d 4p 5p2
e s2 s3
10C
f 42p2q3 6p2q
g 6r2 2r4
h 45a2b3 c 3abc
Brackets are used to group terms and are sometimes referred to as grouping symbols. When there are
multiples of a group of terms, for example two groups of (x + 4y), this is written as 2(x + 4y).
Expanding the algebraic expression is achieved by multiplying the term outside the brackets by each
of the terms inside.
For example, 2(x + 4y) = 2 x + 2 4y
= 2x + 8y
Interactivity
int0075
Expanding
brackets
Expand:
a 7(m 4)b 6(a 3).
THINK
WRITE
a 7(m 4)
b 6(a 3)
= 7(m) + 7(4)
= 7m 28
= 6(a) 6(3)
= 6a + 18
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
WRITE
= 6m 24r 4m 14r
= 2m 38r
Exercise 10C
b
e
h
k
n
7(m + 4)
12(h 5)
5(6t + 5)
8(4y 3f )
k(i + ef )
c
f
i
l
o
4(y + 7)
2(k 6)
8(2k 11)
6(3v + 7w)
6p(2j 3m)
b 5(d + 2)
e 4(3k 2m)
h k(k + 2)
b
e
h
k
n
b w(w + 2) 6(w + 2)
e f (3f + 2) 8(3f + 2)
c 6(m + 11)
f 7(2 3x)
i x(x 3)
12(k + 1) + 5(k + 6)
7(t + 2) 5(t + 5)
6(d 3) 5(d 2)
2(3y 8) + (4y 3)
c + 3 + 5(c + 7)
5 MC
a y(3 2y) simplifies to:
c
f
i
l
o
8(m + 2) + 5(m + 5)
9(m + 7) + 4(m 6)
12(w 4) 8(w + 8)
5(2x + 3) (x 12)
2(m 9) (3m 4)
c x(2x 5) 4(2x 5)
f 2a(4a 3) + 3(4a 3)
A 3 2y2
B 6 y2
C 3y 6y2
D 3y 2y2
A 5k 15
B 5k + 15
C 5k + 3
D 5k 8
A 2b 16
B 2b + 8
C 2b 1
D 2b 8
Further development
6 Expand and simplify the following expressions.
a 2(x + 2y) + 3(2x y)
c 7(2a + 3b) + 4(a + 2b)
e 6(a 2b) 5(2a 3b)
g 4(2p 4q) 3(p 2q)
i 7(2x 3y) (x 2y)
b
d
f
h
j
x(y + 4) + y(x 2)
p(q 5) + p(q + 3)
7a(b 3) b(2a + 3)
4c(d 5) + 2c(d 8)
5c(2d 1) (3c + cd)
2p(p 4) + 3(5p 2)
10D
Interactivities
int2778
Solving equations
int2373
Solving equations
int2764
Solving equations
b
d
f
h
j
l
Solving equations
Equations are mathematical statements that show two equal expressions. This means that the lefthand
side and the righthand side of the equation are equal.
Linear equations contain pronumerals whose highest power is 1. For example, 2x + 1 = 5.
Linear equations can be solved using inverse operations.
+ and are inverse operations
and are inverse operations
When solving equations, the last operation performed on the pronumeral when building the equation
is the first operation undone by applying the inverse operation.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
4x
=5
9
THINK
WRITE
a 5y 6 = 79
5y = 85
y = 17
b
4x
=5
9
4x = 45
x = 1114
Many equations have the pronumeral on both sides. In such cases they are solved by transposing all
pronumerals to the lefthand side of the equation, as shown in the examples below.
Interactivity
int0077
Keeping equations
balanced
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
WRITE
a 5h + 13 = 2h 2
3h + 13 = 2
3h = 15
h = 5
b 14 4d = 27 d
Exercise 10D
14 3d = 27
3d = 13
d = 413
Solving equations
e h + 0.84 = 1.1
g t 12 = 7
1 1
h q + =
3 2
c g + 9.3 = 12.2
f i + 5 = 3
i x 2 = 2
f
= 3
4
i
= 6
10
d 9v = 63
e 6w = 32
g 4a = 1.7
m 7
=
19 8
c 6z = 42
k
5
=
12 6
y
3
i
=5
8
4
f
15
22
4 Solve the following.
a 5a + 6 = 26
d 7f 18 = 45
g 6s + 46 = 75
g !g =
b y2 = 289
c !q = 2.5
4
7
196
h j2 =
961
e !h =
f p2 =
9
64
7
i a2 = 2 9
b 6b + 8 = 44
e 8q + 17 = 26
h 5t 28 = 21
c 8i 9 = 15
f 10r 21 = 33
i 8a + 88 = 28
2 + 6 = 16
4
m
d
12 = 10
9
6 Solve the following.
a 6(x + 8) = 56
d 3(2k + 5) = 24
a
g
+ 4 = 9
6
n
e + 5 = 8.5
8
r
+6=5
10
p
f
1.8 = 3.4
12
b 7(y 4) = 35
e 5(3n 1) = 80
c 5(m 3) = 7
f 6(2c + 7) = 58
3k
= 15
5
8u
d
= 3
11
a
7p
= 8
10
4v
f
= 0.8
15
9m
= 18
8
11x
e
= 2
4
b
8 MC
p
+ 2 = 7 is:
5
A p = 5
B p = 25
b If 5h + 8 = 53, then h is equal to:
1
A
B 12.2
5
c The exact solution to the equation 14x = 75 is:
A x = 5.357142857
5
C x = 5
14
9 Solve the following equations.
a x = 5
b 2 d = 3
d 7 x = 4
e 5h = 10
v
r
1
=
g = 4
h
12 4
5
10 Solve the following equations.
a 6 2x = 8
b 10 3v = 7
a The solution to the equation
d 3 2g = 1
C p = 45
D p = 1
C 225
D 9
e 5 4t = 17
8j
k
= 9
h 3 = 6
3
4
11 WE14 Solve the following equations.
a 6x + 5 = 5x + 7
b 7b + 9 = 6b + 14
d 8f 2 = 7f + 5
e 10t 11 = 5t + 4
g 12g 19 = 3g 31
h 7h + 5 = 2h 6
g
b 10 3c = 8 2c
e 5y + 8 = 13y + 17
h 4m + 7 = 8 m
c 5 p = 2
f 6t = 30
i 4g = 3.2
c 9 6l = 3
3e
= 14
5
4f
i + 1 = 8
7
f
c 11w + 17 = 6w + 27
f 12r 16 = 3r + 5
i 5a 2 = 3a 2
c 3r + 13 = 9r 3
f 17 3g = 3 g
i 14 5p = 9 2p
b 8(y + 3) = 3y
e 12(f 10) = 4(f 5)
h 5(h 3) = 3(2h 1)
14 MC
a The solution to 8 4k = 2 is:
1
2
A k = 2
b The solution to
1
2
B k = 2
6n
+ 3 = 7 is:
5
1
1
B n = 3
3
3
c The solution to p 6 = 8 4p is:
2
4
A p =
B p = 2
5
5
A n = 3
c 6(t 5) = 4(t + 3)
f 2(4r + 3) = 3(2r + 7)
i 2(4x + 1) = 5(3 x)
1
2
C k = 1
D k = 1
1
3
C n = 8
D n = 8
2
3
C p = 4
D p =
1
2
1
3
2
3
Further development
15 Solve each of the following linear equations.
a 6(4x 3) + 7(x + 1) = 9
c 8(5 3x) 4(2 + 3x) = 3
e 6(4 + 3x) = 7(x 1) + 1
g 8(x + 4) + 2(x 3) = 6(x + 1)
i 7.2(3x 1) + 2.3(5 x) = 34.3
k 9(2x 5) + 5(6x + 1) = 100
b
d
f
h
j
l
x 4x 1
+
=
3
3
5
3x x 1
d
+ =
8 4
5
2 x 3x
g =
7 8
8
1 4 5
j
+ =
3 x x
a
x x 3
=
4 5 4
2x x 3
e
=
3
4
6
4 1 2
h =
x 6 x
b
2x 4
x
+6=
2
5
3(x + 1) 5(x + 1)
2(x + 1) 3(2x 5)
+
= 4
b
+
= 0
7
3
8
2
8(x + 3) 3(x + 2)
5(7 x) 2(2x 1)
d
=
e
=
+ 1
7
4
2
5
5(x 2) 6(2x 1) 1
9(2x 1) 4(x 5)
g
= h
=
7
3
3
3
5
3
5
5
3
1
1
j
+
=
k
=
x
x+1 x4 x+1
x1
x1
a
x+2 x5
=
3
6
2x 4 11 x
d
=
2
5
a
x + 11 2(x + 14)
=
3
9
4x + 66 13 3x
e
=
3
4
b
6x + 7 5x + 1
=
+ 1
4
5
9x + 28 7x 6
d
=
5
2
5
a
2x + 29 x + 44
=
+ 2
3
8
7x 9 21 x
e
=
18
9
3
b
x 4x
=2
7
4
5x
2x
f
8=
8
3
15
2
i
4=
x
x
c
4x 1 2x + 5
=0
3
2
2(4x + 3) 6(x 2) 1
=
2
2
5
2(6 x) 9(x + 5) 1
f
=
+
3
3
6
3
8
1
i
+
=
x1 x+1 x+1
5 1
4
l
=
x
2x 1 x
c
x 1 3x 17
=
8
12
2(7
3x)
x + 10
f
=
9
5
c
7x 9 5x + 3
=
+6
2
4
17 x 49 + 2x
f
=
+5
2
5
c
10E
The purpose of solving an equation is to find the value of an unknown value that makes that statement
true. In solving an equation every process that has been performed on the pronumeral is reversed until
itbecomes the subject of the equation. In many cases, an equation arises as the result of substitution
intoa formula.
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
In the formula C = 2r, find the value of r when C = 100, correct to 2 significant figures.
THINK
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
1
C = 2r
100 = 2r
100
r=
2
= 16
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Press 3 3 (Solver).
Some equations involve powers and roots. In the solution to an equation, remember that the opposite
function to taking a square is to take the square root and vice versa. When solving such an equation, both
the positive and negative square roots are possible solutions.
For example, the equation x2 = 9 has the solution x = 3. This differs from !9, which equals 3.
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
WRITE
d = 5t2
Take the square roots of each side, considering both the positive
and negative answers.
320 = 5t2
t2 = 64
t = 8
Note: If the solver function on your graphics calculator is used, only the positive solution is given. It is
important to remain aware that equations of this type have a positive and negative solution.
With such examples, consider both the positive and negative cases only where appropriate. In practical
cases where measurements are being considered, only the positive answer is given.
Using the same process as this, the subject of a formula can be changed. The subject of the formula is
the single pronumeral usually written on the lefthand side of the formula. For example, in the formula
A = r2, A is the subject. It is possible to make another pronumeral the subject of the equation by moving
all other numbers and pronumerals to the other side of the formula, as if we were solving an equation.
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
WRITE
Divide each side by 5 (and write the new subject of the formula
on the lefthand side).
y = 5x 2
y + 2 = 5x
x=
y+2
5
This method is also used for quadratic formulas but, as with equation solving, it is important to
remember to use both the positive and negative square root where appropriate.
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
The formula A = 4r2 is used to find the surface area of a sphere. Make r the subject of the formula.
THINK
WRITE
Exercise 10E
A = 4r2
A
= r2
4
r=
A
4
1 WE15 The formula C = d is used to calculate the circumference of a circle. Find the diameter of a
circle that has a circumference of 40 cm. Give your answer correct to 3 significant figures.
2 The formula P = 2l + 2w is used to calculate the perimeter of a rectangle. Calculate the length of a
3 In each of the following, find the value of the unknown after substitution into the formula. Where
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 10.1
doc11091
Raising a power to
a power
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 10.2
doc11092
Solving linear
equations
5 WE16 The formula A = r2 is used to calculate the area of a circle. Find the radius of a circle,
correct to 2 decimal places, given that the area of the circle is 328 cm2.
6 Substitute into each of the formulas and solve the equation to find the value of the unknown. Where
necessary, give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
a V = r2h; find r when V = 1.406 25 and h = 2.5.
b A = (R2 r2); find R when A = 12 and r = 1.
4
c V = r3, find r when V = 136.
3
1
d E = mv2; find v when E = 254 and m = 23.
2
e P = I 2R; find I when P = 0.54 and R = 1.5.
7 WE17 Make x the subject of the formula y = 2x + 1.
8 Make l the subject of the formula A = l b.
h
9 In the formula A = (a + b):
2
a make a the subject of the formula
b make h the subject of the formula.
10 WE18 Make r the subject of the formula A = r2.
11 In the formula E = mc2:
a make m the subject of the formula
b make c the subject of the formula.
Questions 12 to 14 refer to the following information.
The volume of a squarebased pyramid with the side of the base, s, and the height, h, is given by
1
the formula V = s2h.
3
12 MC The side length of the base of a squarebased pyramid with the height, h, and volume, V, is
given by:
V
3V
D s =
h
3h
13 MC The height of a squarebased pyramid with the side of the base 5 cm and the volume 75 cm3 is:
A 8 cm
B 9 cm
C 10 cm
D 12 cm
14 MC If both the side of the base and the height are doubled the volume is:
A doubled
B increased by 4 times C increased by 6 times D increased by 8 times
15 In each of the following, make the subject of the formula the pronumeral indicated in brackets.
4
a V = r2 [r]
b v2 = u2 + as[u]
c V = r3[r]
3
L
d T = 2
[L]
e c2 = a2 + b2[a]
g
V
h
A s = 3
B s =
h
3V
C s =
Further development
16 In each of the following make the pronumeral in brackets the subject and then substitute the given
T = 4, g = 9.8, = 3.14
f = 2, l = 15
h H = U + PV [V ]
H = 26, U = 4.5, P = 2
c2
[c]
K = 6.9, = 0.05
1
Hi v
j
= [u]
Hi = 34, Ho = 4, v = 40
Ho u
17 The perimeter P of a rectangle of length l and width w may be found using the equation P = 2(l + w).
a Find the perimeter of a rectangle of length 16 cm and width 5 cm.
b Rearrange the equation to make w the subject.
c Find the width of a rectangle that has perimeter 560 mm and length 240 mm.
18 The net force F measured in newtons (N) acting on a mass m measured in kilograms (kg) is found
using the equation F = ma, where a is the acceleration of the mass measured in metres per second.
a Find the net force required to accelerate a 2.5 kg rock at the rate of 4 m/s2.
b Make a the subject of the equation.
c Find the acceleration produced by a 700 N force acting on a 65 kg person.
i K =
1 1 1
+ + ,
u v f
where u is the distance of the object from the lens and v is the distance of the image from the lens.
a Make f the subject of the equation.
b Make u the subject of the equation.
c How far from the lens is the image when an object is 30 cm in front of a lens of focal length
25cm?
19 The object and image positions for a lens of focal length f are related by the formula
Digital doc
Worksheet 10.2
doc11093
Summary
Addition and subtraction
of algebraic expressions
Expanding and
simplifying
When expanding brackets multiply each term inside the brackets by the term immediately
outside the brackets.
When there is a negative term outside the brackets change the sign of each term inside the
brackets.
After expanding collect all like terms.
Solving equations
After substituting into a formula an equation may be created when you are finding the value of
a pronumeral that is not the subject.
Using the same method as solving equations a formula can be rearranged to make another
pronumeral the subject.
Chapter review
1 The number of like terms in the expression 8xy2 + 2x + 8y2 5 is:
A 0
B 1
B 10d + 2r
C 2
D 4
C 10d 4r
D 2d + 4r
m u lti p l e
c hoic e
1
1
1
1
B
C 3
D 6
4
2
4
2
4 The total surface area of a cone is given by the formula A = r (r + s), where r is the radius and s is
the slant height of the cone. The formula with s as the subject is:
A r
A
Ar
A
A s =
r
B s =
C s =
D s =
+r
r
r
r
r
A
5 The total surface area of the squarebased pyramid with side of the base b and the height of the
triangular face h is given by A = b2 + 2bh. If the total surface area of the pyramid is 64 cm and the
length of the side of the base is 4 cm, the height of the triangular face is:
A 6 cm
B 10 cm
C 20 cm
D 24 cm
5y y
3
2
b
d
f
h
j
+
+
8ab + 3b2 + 2ab
5x + 6xy x + 3xy
7x2y 8 2x2y + 2
8ab + 2a2b2 5a2b2 + 7ab
7m2
2m2
x+4 x+2
+
2
5
m2
5
1
3x 5x
c k3 k5
g 5w3 7w2 w14
d f2 f8 f4
h 2e2p3 6e3p5
c r19 r12
d 27q7 3q3
10a
2
5m4
m
24xy
6y
20x2y
15xy2
5 Simplify.
a (b4)2
e (a5b2)3
b (a8)3
f (m7n12)2
c (k7)10
g (2st6)3
d (j100)2
h (qp30)10
6 Simplify.
a 50
b t0
c 2x0
d (5y)0
c x(3 2x)
d 4m(2m + 1)
b 2(5m 1) 3
d 2x(3 2x) (4x 3)
b 12t 11 = 4t + 5
d 2(4p 3) = 2(3p 5)
S ho rt
a nsw er
b 8(3x 2) + 4(4x 5) = 7x
12 The formula C = 2r is used to find the circumference of a circle given the radius. Find the radius of
a circle with a circumference of 136 m. Give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.
13 In the formula A = 6s2, find s when A = 216.
1
14 The volume of a squarebased pyramid can be found using the formula V = s2h, where s is the side
3
length of the square base and h is the height of the pyramid. Find the side length of a squarebased
pyramid with a volume of 108.864 cm3 and a height of 6.3 cm.
Extend ed
R e spons e
1 Simplify
3
2
+
2x 3x
b Verify your answer to Part a by substituting x = 5 into both expressions.
c Jack claims that if you double the value of x you will double the value of the final expression.
Explain whether or not Jack is correct.
2 The time taken for an investment to double in value when invested at 7.5% p.a. can be found by
solving the equation (1.075)n = 2.
a Use the method of substitution to find the solution to this equation, correct to the nearest
wholenumber.
b Write an equation that can be used to find the amount of time that it will take for the value of an
item to halve in value if it depreciates at 15% p.a.
c Solve this equation, correct to 1 decimal place.
a
Digital doc
Test Yourself
doc11094
Chapter 10
ICT activities
10B The index laws
INTERACTIVITY
int2360: Indices. (page 281)
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 10.1 (doc11091): Raising a power to a power. (page 291)
SkillSHEET 10.2 (doc11092): Solving linear equations. (page 291)
WorkSHEET 10.2 (doc11093): Apply your knowledge of algebra to
problems. (page 293)
Chapter review
Test Yourself (doc11094): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 296)
INTERACTIVITies
int2778: Solving equations. (page 286)
int2373: Solving equations. (page 286)
int2764: Solving equations. (page 286)
int0077: Keeping equations balanced. (page 287)
Answers chapter 10
Further algebraic skills
and techniques
c 1 d
1
c 18a + 29b d
19c + 22d
9 a 1 b
1
e 4a + 3b f
4x y
c 1 d
1
g 5p 10q h
8c + 9d
10 a 3 b
12
i 13x 19y j
8c + d
c 4 d
17
7 a 2m 11n b
6x 11y
11 a 4r3 b
5 c
13
c 9x + 5y d
14p 8q
12 a 6a6e7 b
8p6h12
e 7p + 11q f
5a + 3b
8 a 2ab + 2a 3b b
2xy + 4x 2y
c 80m9 d
6g3h6
c 2cd + 3c d
2qp 2p
e 30p6q9 f
48u9w7
e 5cd 11c f
5ab 21a 3b
g 27d11y17 h
42b14c9
g 5m h
6cd 36c
i 24r16s18 j
60h38v20
2
i
6m
+
6m
10
j
9cd 8c
5
3p
8b5
5m0n6
2
2p2 + 7p 6
13 a
b
c k 12m 20m 4 l
2
3
6
m 7x2 + 41x 6
9x8y
4hk3
9 a 15a2 + 2b2 9ab
d
e
f
3j5f3
b 8c2 + 3d2 + 22cd
4
3
2
6
2
5
3
c 10y2 6y 12
4p rs
20f g
9a b c
g
h i
b4
x3
z6
2 a f = 12 b
i = 60
9
28
5
1
1
3
c z = 7 d
v=7
89y
d e
f
32x
7x + 17
1
g
h
i
q7
m4
m2
e w = 5 f
k = 10
10
35
15
3
5q
1
7x + 30
2x 11
19x + 7
5
g
h
j
k l
m = 16
g a = 0.425 h
p
6m
12
30
6
8
21g6
1
36
6 a 0 b
16a 14b
16 a b
c i y = 211
a
c 14b 16a d
56a 49b
h3
p5
2
4
7 a 4x 2z b
6x 2y + 6z
3 a t = 100 b
b = 17
7p
20
d e
s f c q = 6.25 d
f = 1.2
x2 + 1
x2 1
p
4
q
8 a
b
16
3
x
x
p=
e
h
=
f
15a
g 3r6 h
8
49
9x2 + 25y2
9
b4
14
225
15xy
j=
g g =
h
Exercise 10C Expanding and simplifying
31
484
Exercise 10B The index laws
2
1 a 5k + 5 b
7m + 28
i a = 1
1 a 25p11 b
15x8 c
63y10
c 4y + 28 d
8d 72
3
d 18p8 e
70t6 f
20q15
4 a a = 4 b
b=6
e 12h 60 f
2k 12
6
9
7
12
8
2 a 6a e b
8p h c
80m
c i = 3 d
f=9
g 20m 8 h
30t + 25
1
2
d 6g3h7 e
30p6q8
i 16k 88 j
5m + 5n
e q = 1 f
r=5
3 a 5 b
77 c
s4
8
k 32y 24f l
18v + 42w
5
d z5 e
i3 f
6
5
4
m bc bd n
ki + kef
g s = 4 h
t=9
g 104 h
c4 i
t33
o 12pj 18mp
6
5
j h77 k
b70 l
f 900
1
2 a 3c 3 b
5d 10
i
a
=
7
2
2
7
4 a 4x b
6y c
9w
c 6m 66 d
8c 8d
2
d 3q4 e
10f9 f
10h90
e 12k + 8m f
14 + 21x
5 a f = 40 b
g = 30
10
10
3
g 2j h
5p i
8g
g 50 + 10y h
k2 2k
c r = 10 d
m = 18
3b5
9m4
10n90
i x2 + 3x
e n = 28 f
p = 62.4
j
k
l
1
3 a 5c + 23 b
17k + 42
7
2
2
6 a
x
=
1
b
y=9
c 13m + 41 d
j 16
5 a 5p4 b
6r4
3
2
1
e 2t 11 f
13m + 39
c 5a3 d
3b6
k=1
c m = 4 d
g 16c 14 h
d8
e 10r4 f
9q
2
5
2
1
i 4w 112 j
18h + 22
6 a x6 b
f 80
e
n
=
5
f
c
=
1
k 10y 19 l
9x + 27
c s100 d
r144
3
3
m 7h 5 n
6c + 38
e a10b15 f
p5q15
7 a k = 25 b
m = 16
3
1
o 5m + 22
g g15h10 h
81w36q8
c p = 11 d
u = 4
4 a y2 4y 12 b
w2 4w 12
i 25e10r4q8
7
8
8
c 2x2 13x + 20 d
3h2 + 8h + 5
7 a p10q6 b
r15w9 c
x10n18
x
=
e
f
v
=
3
e 3f 2 22f 16 f
8a2 + 6a 9
d j18k12 e
q4r20 f
h24j16
11
5 a D b
B c
D
g f 16g21 h
t10u8 i
i15j12
8 a B b
D c
C
6 a 8x + y b
10p + 8q
8 a 1 b
1
9 a x = 5 b
d = 1
c p = 7 d
x = 11
e h = 2 f
t=5
g v = 20 h
r = 3
i g = 0.8
10 a x = 1 b
v=1
c l = 2 d
g = 2
1
3
e t = 3 f
e = 23
3
g j = 3 h
k = 36
8
1
i f = 12
4
11 a x = 2 b
b = 5 c
w=2
1
d f = 7 e
t = 3 f
r=2
3
1
1
h = 2 i
g g = 1 h
a=0
3
5
2
12 a x = 1 b
c = 2 c
r=2
3
1
y = 1 f
d k = 1 e
g=7
8
2
1
g w = 1 h
m = i
p=1
3
5
4
13 a x = 15 b
y = 4 c
t = 21
5
5
1
1
d u = 2 e
f = 12 f
r=7
7
2
2
g d = 6 h
h = 12 i
x=1
1
3
i x = 1.5 j
x = 4
k x = 3 l
x=1
18 a x = 12 b
x = 5
c x = 7 d
x=7
e x = 9 f
x = 117
59
19 a x = 3 b
x = 4
c x = 5 d
x=8
e x = 9 f
x = 7
Exercise 10E
1 12.7 cm
2 38 m
3 a 7.2 b
12.4 c
4.1
d 26 e
20.4
4 5
5 10.22 cm
6 a 0.75 b
2.20 c
3.19
d 4.70 e
0.6
y1
2
A
8 l =
b
2A
2A
h=
9 a a =
b b
h
a+b
7 x =
10 r =
A
,r > 0
11 a m =
c2
8
10
f
x=
11
43
3
4
11
j x = 2 k
x = 2 l
x = 6
12
5
16 a x =
b
x = 15
17
10
2
c x = 6 d
x=
9
19
1
e x = 1 f
x = 192
2
4
g x = h
x = 12
7
1
i x = 3 j
x=3
4
5
k x = 52 l
x=1
8
5
31
x=1
17 a x =
b
19
58
1
15
c x = 21 d
x = 3
2
17
20
10
e x = 5 f
x = 1
43
13
2
9
x4
g x = 1 h
61
26
g x = 5 h
x = 5 i
x = 2
15 a r =
c r =
E
m
c=
b
V #
, r > 0 b
u = "v2 as
gT2
3 3V
L=
d
4
42
e a = "c2 b2
16 a l = !A, 7.746
3v
, 6.204
4
b r = 3
mg F
, 59.161
k
vu
, 4.167
d a =
t
S
S r2
r or h =
, 17.108
e h =
r
r
2
T
f l = ga b , 3.976
2
c v =
HU
, 10.75
P
(1 )K
i c =
, 2622
2
h v =
F
m
a=
18 a 10 N b
c 10.769 m/s2
fv
uv
b
u=
u+v
vf
c 150 cm
19 a f =
Chapter Review
1 A
2 B
3 C
4 A
5 A
Short answer
1 a 17p b
10m2
2
c 5y 2y d
10ab + 3b2
e 3 s2t f
4x + 9xy
g 16c2d 2cd h
5x2y 6
i n2 4p2q + 6 j
15ab 3a2b2
7y
7x + 18
22
b
c
6
10
15x
3 a b10 b
m11 c
k8
d f14 e
h10 f
6q17
g 35w19 h
12e5p8
4 a a3 b
t4 c
r7
d 9q4 e
5a f
5m3
4x
g 4x h
3y
5 a b8 b
a24 c
k70
d j200 e
a15b6 f
m14n24
g 8s3t18 h
q10p300
6 a 1 b
1
c 2 d
1
7 a 10x + 15 b
y + 6
c 3x + 2x2 d
8m2 4m
8 a 3x + 3 b
10m 1
c 4m2 9m 5 d
4x2 10x + 3
9 a b = 4 b
t=2
c x = 6.5 d
p = 2
1
2
10 a x = 0.5 b
x = 1 c
x = 12
11
9
11 15
12 21.6 m
13 s = 6
14 7.2 cm
2 a
12 D
14 a A b
C c
B
20
29
5
13 B
15 a x =
b
x = 3 c
x=
14 D
31
8
36
d x = 7 e
x = 2
H ov
, 4.706
Hi
17 a 42 cm
P
P 21
b w = l or w =
2
2
c 40 mm
j u =
Extended response
1 a 13/6x
b Both answers equal 13/30.
c Incorrect. The result is halved.
2 a n = 10 b
(0.85)n = 0.5
c n = 4.3
Chapter 11
11A Linear
functions
A linear function is a function in which the highest power of both independent and dependent variables
is 1. When graphed, these values form a straight line.
An example of a linear function is y = 2x 1. One method of graphing the function is to create a table
of values, plotting the pair of coordinates that are formed on a number plane, and joining them with a
straight line. The independent variable is x, and as such, values of x are substituted into the equation to
find the corresponding values of y.
If we recognise the function as linear, we need to plot only three points. Two points are sufficient to
fix a line and the third is a check. If all three points are not in a straight line, we know that an error has
been made.
Interactivities
int2378
Graphs of linear
functions
int1020
Drawing a graph
int2399
Slope and
equation of a line
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Method 1: Technologyfree
1 Draw a table of values for x. (Choose three
values of x.)
2
WRITE
x
y
x
y
1
1
2
3
1
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5
y
5
4
3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5
y = 2x 1
1 2 3 4 5
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
The straight line in Worked example 1 has the equation y = 2x 1, which is written in
gradientintercept form. Any equation in the form y = mx + b is said to be in gradientintercept
form,becausethe gradient of the straight line is represented by m and the yintercept is
representedby b.
This can be used to sketch any straight line. Considering Worked example 1, we can begin by
plotting the point (0, 1) as the yintercept. Other points can then be plotted using the gradient,
byplotting points 1 across and 2 up. That is, starting with (0, 1), we plot (1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 5)
andso on.
At this point it is worth remembering the gradient formula:
m=
Interactivity
Int0804
Application of
linear modelling
We use this formula when we know two points on the graph, and this is useful on many occasions to
help us find the equation of a straight line.
Many reallife situations can be modelled by a linear function and/or graph. Once the equation
orrulehas been established, it can be used to make predictions or calculate specific values as
required.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
The Avanti car rental company charges $80 for the hire of a car plus 22 cents per kilometre
travelled.
a How much will it cost to travel 300 kilometres?
b Determine the cost ($C) equation for a distance of x kilometres.
c Graph the function for 0 x 1000.
d If the final cost was $245, what distance was covered during the hiring period?
THINK
WRITE
a 22 cents = $0.22
Total cost:
C = 80 + 66
= $146
distancex.
0.22 x
Total cost:
C = 0.22x + 80
c For 0 x 1000:
when x = 0,
C = 0.22 0 + 80
= 80
when x = 1000, C = 0.22 1000 + 80
= 300
So the points are (0, 80) and (1000, 300).
C($)
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 x (km)
d C = 0.22x + 80
When C = 245:
245 = 0.22x + 80
165 = 0.22x
165
x=
0.22
= 750
Hence, 750 kilometres were covered.
In Worked example 2 both the gradient and yintercept were known, so it was a simple matter of
substituting given values into the general rule y = mx + b to establish the equation of the cost.
Sometimes, however, we know the gradient only, or the y intercept only, and sometimes neither of them
is given. In such cases there will always be some extra information describing the relation between the
variables which will enable you to find the equation.
Chapter 11 Modelling linear relationships 303
When two linear functions are graphed on the same pair of axes, the intersection of the two graphs
shows the point where both equations hold true. This can have applications in a practical context.
Graphing linear functions can be used to determine profit, loss or breakeven points. If cost
andreceipts are graphed, the difference between the yvalues at any point will determine the
profitorloss. The point where the graphs intersect will be the breakeven point, where no profit or
loss is made.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Interactivity
int2780
Simultaneous
linear equations
The cost of producing shoes in Asia is given by the equation C = 2000 + 15n, where n is the
number of pairs of shoes produced per day. The cost of producing shoes in Australia is given by
the equation C = 1000 + 20n.
a
On the same pair of axes, graph the cost equations for producing shoes in Asia and
Australia.
b When is it more cost efficient to produce the shoes in Asia?
THINK
WRITE
Method 1: Technologyfree
a 1 Draw a table of values for each cost
equation.
a C = 2000 + 15n
0
2000
n
C
100
3500
200
5000
100
3000
200
5000
C = 1000 + 20n
0
1000
n
C
2
C
10 000
8000
C = 1000 + 20n
C = 2000 + 15n
6000
4000
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
10
00
80
60
40
20
2000
From this we can see that the intersection occurs at x = 200 and y = 5000. Interpreting this result in
terms of the question shows us that when 200 pairs of shoes are produced the cost will be $5000 in either
Australia or Asia. From that point on it will be cheaper to produce the shoes in Asia.
Exercise 11A
Linear functions
x
y
c y = x
1
f y = 1 4x
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 11.1
doc11095
Substitution into a
formula
d
C
10
30
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 11.2
doc11096
Recognising linear
functions
5 A concert promoter finds that the profit made on a performance is given by the equation
10000
6 It is found that the number of icecreams that will be sold during a day at the beach decreases as the
price of the icecreams increases. The number of icecreams that will be sold can be determined by
the equation N = 1000 5P, where P is the price of the icecreams in cents.
a Graph the function.
b How many icecreams will be sold at $1 each?
c If the icecream salesman has only 100 icecreams to sell, at what price should he sell them?
7 Two linear functions are represented by y = 4 x and y = 3x.
a Graph both linear functions on the same pair of axes.
b What is the point of intersection of the two graphs?
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 11.3
doc11097
Gradient of a
straight line
SkillSHEET 11.4
doc11098
Graphing linear
equations
Digital doc
EXCEL Spreadsheet
doc1391
Plotting linear
graphs
8 By graphing both functions on the same pair of axes, find the point of intersection of the graphs
y = 2x 6 and y = x 1.
b Sales research shows that twice as many copies of game A will sell as game B. This can be
represented by the equation 2A = B. On the same pair of axes, graph this function.
c Find the point of intersection of the two graphs and make a conclusion about the number of each
C = 1.2d. A new refrigerator will cost $900 but the cost to run will be only 30c per day. This can be
represented by the equation C = 900 + 0.3d.
a Copy and complete the table below.
d
C (old)
C (new)
1000
2000
is the number of calculators produced. When selling the calculators the receipts can be given by the
equation C = 20n.
a Graph both linear functions on the same pair of axes.
b Determine the number of calculators that need to be sold in order for the manufacturer to
breakeven.
Further development
13 Amex Car Rentals charges $75 per day plus $15 per hundred kilometres.
a How much would it cost to rent a car for one day if the car travelled 265 km?
b The bill for one days rental came to $142.50. How many kilometres did the car travel?
c Sketch a graph of the cost of renting the car for one day (C) versus the number of kilometres
travelled (d).
14 An employee of a telecommunications company sells mobilephone plans. She is offered two
Salary package A
Salary package B
b On the same set of axes sketch the graph of salary (S) versus number of plans (n) for both
Conversion of temperature
To convert a temperature from degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit, you can use the formula
9C
+ 32. A simpler but less accurate way is to double degrees Celsius and add 30. This
F=
5
approximation written as a formula becomes F = 2C + 30.
1. Use a spreadsheet or graphics calculator to graph each function on the same set of axes.
2. Describe the accuracy of the simpler formula and state the value(s) for which it is accurate.
306 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
11B Direct
variation
A variation occurs when one quantity is proportional to another. Consider the following variation
problem.
The number of cars produced on an assembly line varies directly with the number of workers
employed on the line. Twenty workers can produce 30 cars per week.
From this information, we can determine that the number of cars produced each week will be 1.5 times
the number of workers employed on the assembly line. Using this, we can draw the table below.
No. of workers (N)
10
20
30
40
50
15
30
45
60
75
C
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Interactivity
Int2399
Slope and
equation of a line
20 40 60 80 100 N
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
The distance travelled by a car is directly proportional to the speed at which it is travelling. If
the car travels 225km in 3 hours, draw a graph of distance travelled against time.
THINK
WRITE
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time
If we examine the gradient of a variation function, we see that the gradient is equal to the constant of
variation. For example in Worked example 11, the gradient is 75. This is the speed at which the car is
travelling.
Any variation can be graphed using the form y = ax where a, the gradient, is also the constant of
variation.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Tutorial
Int2317
Worked example 5
THINK
WRITE
y
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
b 1 Gradient =
2
20 40 60 80 100
12
b Gradient = 30
= 0.4
Simplify.
c y = 0.4x
gradient.
Exercise 11B
Direct variation
1 WE4 The distance travelled by a car varies directly with the time that the car has been travelling.
Ifthe car travels 400km in 5 hours, draw the graph of distance against time.
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 11.5
doc11099
Substitution
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 11.6
doc11346
Graphing linear
equations
Further development
9 For each of the following, state if the graph could be a direct variation. For those which are not give
a reason.
a y
b y
c y
d y
f y
e y
10 The directions on a bottle of kitchen mould remover recommend that you dilute half a cup of the
10
15
20
30
(Hint: You may or may not need to draw the graph to answer this question.)
12 Mika is going to polish all the floors in her unit, except for the kitchen, laundry and bathroom, where
Co
rri
do
Bathroom
Bedroom
2
Bedroom
1
2m
Laundry
Backyard
2m
3m
Living
3m
Kitchen
Dining
4m
3m
Entrance
10 m
a Find the area that is to be polished.
b A particular type of varnish is sold in 3 L cans. If one can covers 17.25 m2 of flooring, how many
cans of varnish will Mika need to purchase in order to do the floors twice?
c How much varnish will be wasted?
13 The following graph shows the relationship between acceleration (a) of a
F (N)
(2,1600)
1600
a (m/s2)
Find out the current rate of conversion for each of the following foreign currencies and draw a linear
function that will convert between Australian dollars and each currency.
1. US dollars
2. Euro
3. Pound Sterling
4. Japanese yen
5. New Zealand dollars
Linear modelling
Distance
11C
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
The graph below represents the exchange rate between the Australian
dollar and the Euro.
Australian dollar versus the Euro
70
60
Euro
50
40
30
20
10
0
20
40
60
80
Australian dollar
100
120
Find the gradient of the function. What does the gradient represent?
THINK
WRITE
m=
Many real life applications such as fees charged for services, cost of manufacturing or running a
business, patterns in nature, sporting records and so on follow linear relationships. These relationships
may take the form of a linear equation; for example, F = 50 + 30t may be used by a tradesperson to
calculate her fee for t hours of work.
310 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
Here, F is the fee in dollars, and t the time in hours. The 50 represents an initial fee of $50 for simply
turning up, while the 30t is the amount charged for the time spent on the job.
For example, if t = 2 hours, 30t = 60, so the total charged for the work would be $(50 + 60) = $110.
Equations like F = 50 + 30t are sometimes referred to as linear models, a common form which is
Total cost = Fixed cost + Cost per unit Number of units.
This is, of course, similar to y = mx + b, where m is the gradient and b is the vertical intercept.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Gemhaven hirecompany charges a $200 delivery fee, and a rental fee of $1500 per week for a
power generator.
a What would it cost to rent the power generator for 4 weeks?
b
Write an expression relating total charge (C) to the number of weeks (w) for which the generator
is hired.
c Sketch a graph of the relationship.
THINK
WRITE
4 lots of $1500.
= $6200
linearmodel.
The cost (C) of the
generator is $1500 per
week (m) while the
fixed cost is $200 (b).
b y = mx + b
C = 1500w + 200
9000
8000
7000
Cost ($)
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Exercise 11C
Linear modelling
3
Number of weeks
Hire Ch
arges
Book
in
Hour g fee $5
ly rate
$10
2 A singing telegram service charges a $60 appearance fee, and $8 per minute sung.
a Write an equation for the total cost of a singing telegram in terms of the number of minutes sung.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship.
c What would be the charge for a 5minute singing telegram?
3 Colleen delivers junk mail. She is paid $32 to traverse a particular route and a further 10 cents per
leaflet delivered.
a Write an equation for the total payment she receives.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship expressed in (a).
c What would be Colleens pay if she delivers 1650 leaflets along the route?
4 Josh works weekends delivering pizza. Josh is paid $40 for each shift plus $5 per delivery.
a Write an equation for Joshs pay (P) each shift where he delivers p pizzas.
b Draw a graph to represent this equation.
c Use your graph to find
i Joshs pay for delivering 12 pizzas
ii The number of pizzas delivered when Josh earns $55.
d What is the meaning of the gradient and vertical intercept in this graph.
5 The Scarford High School Social committee is organising the Year 12 farewell. Venue hire will cost
$800, a band will cost $600, DJ will cost $400 and a cake will cost $250. The meal for the evening
will cost $35 per head.
a Complete the table of values for the number attending (n) and total cost (C).
n
C
50
100
150
200
250
payTV connected.
Write an equation and graph the salesmans potential earnings.
8 The weekly cost of running a car (C) is given by C = 0.8k + 80 where k is the number of kilometres
driven.
a Draw a graph of this function.
b What is the gradient and vertical intercept of this function?
c Explain the meaning of the gradient and vertical intercept in this context.
Further development
9 The cost (C) of a taxi fare is given by the equation C = 2.5 + 0.4d where d is the distance of the
journey.
a What is the gradient and vertical intercept of this linear model?
b Explain why negative values of d have no meaning in this case.
10 The salvage value of a computer (V) after n years can be found using the formula
S = 3000 500n.
a Find the value of S when n = 0.
b Explain the meaning of this value in this context.
c Find the value of S when n = 5.
d Explain why values of n > 6 have no meaning.
11 The cost of a taxi fare is C = 3 + 0.4d where d is the distance in kilometres. Explain why a 20 km
Digital doc
Worksheet 11.1
doc11100
12 The equation T = 10 0.5n is used to calculate the time (in days) taken to erect a garage wheren
isthe number of workers on the job. For what values of n would this linear model have no
meaning?
11D Problem
solving
A builder finds that the time taken to build a house decreases in a linear pattern as the number of
assistants increases.
A builder can build a house in 80 days without any assistants.
With five assistants the building time is reduced to 20 days. How many assistants would be required
to complete the building in 12 days?
1
WRITE
THINK
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
3
4
5
6
No of assistants (a)
3
4
5
6
No of assistants (a)
90
80
Number of days (d)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
y = mx + b
d = 12a + 80
12 = 12a + 80
12a = 68.
a = 5.6
Exercise 11D
Problem solving
1 Springfield High School needs to purchase textbooks for its very large Year 10 class. The supplier
quotes a price of $4400 for 110 books, and $2200 for 55 books.
a Find a linear equation relating cost to number of books.
b If it turns out that the school needs 89 books, what is the cost?
2 WE8 A builder can complete a building in 40 days without any assistants, but if he hires four
assistants he can build it in 30 days. How many assistants would be required to complete the building
in 25 days?
3 A printer quotes a price of $400 to print 700 brochures and a price of $500 to print 1000 brochures.
a Find a linear equation relating cost to number of brochures.
b Find the cost of printing 150 brochures.
4 A chef can cater for 100 people is she is given 1 hour in preparation time, while if she caters for 200
book sells for $35 and each additional 10 pages increases the price by $1.
a Find a linear equation relating the selling price to number of pages.
b Predict the cost of a 264 page book.
314 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
6 Angela Shyster, a barrister, charges $160 per hour for her legal services.
a Find the linear equation relating charge to time.
b Predict the cost for a 14hour legal case.
7 A computer program can be written in 50 days if there are
Further development
9 Five students can clean the cafeteria in 15 minutes, while
11E Simultaneous
equations
When a point belongs to more than one line, the coordinates of that point satisfy both equations.
Theequations of the lines are called simultaneous equations.
Simultaneous equations can be solved using a number of different methods:
Graphically by drawing a graph
Algebraically by substitution
Algebraically by elimination
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
WRITE
2x 3y = 6
yintercept: let x = 0
2(0) 3y = 6
3y = 6
y = 2
xintercept: let y = 0
2x 3(0) = 6
2x = 6
x = 3
(0, 2), (3, 0)
x+y=3
yintercept: let x = 0
(0) + y = 3
y=3
xintercept: let y = 0
x + (0) = 3
x=3
(0, 3), (3, 0)
y
4
x+y=3
3
2
(3, 0)
1
110 1 2 3 4 5 x
2 2x 3y = 6
3
2x 3y = 6
LHS = 2(3) 3(0)
=6
LHS = RHS
The solution is correct.
x+y=3
LHS = 3 + 0
=3
LHS = RHS
WRITE
y = x + 3 [1]
y = 2x + 5 [2]
At point of intersection:
[1] = [2]
x + 3 = 2x + 5
x + 3 x = 2x + 5 x
3=x+5
35=x+55
2 = x
y1 = x + 3
= (2) + 3
=1
WRITE
x 5y = 17 [1]
2x + 3y = 5
[2]
Solve for x.
(a)Subtract 9 from both sides of the equation.
(b)Divide both sides of the equation by 2.
Solution: x = 2, y = 3 or (2, 3)
y=3
Substituting y = 3 into [2]:
2x + 3(3) = 5
2x + 9 = 5
2x = 4
x = 2
In many cases linear models and simultaneous equations can be used to solve problems.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
THINK
WRITE
RentaChef
C = 120 + 30t
[1]
Greased lightning C = 65t [2]
c
500
400
C = 65t
300
C = 120 + 30t
200
100
0
4
Exercise 11E
Simultaneous equations
1 WE9 Solve the following pairs of simultaneous equations by graphing the equations and identifying
c 2y = 12x + 16
3y =
6x
24
d 2x y = 1
3x + y = 11
2 WE10 Solve the following pairs of equations simultaneously using the substitution method.
a 2x + y = 17
b y + 4x = 6
c 3x 2y = 5
d y = 1 2x
x = 2y + 1
e y = 2x 5
5x y = 1
y = 2x 3
f y = x + 4
y = 3 4x
y = 3 4x
5x = 3y
3 WE11 Use the elimination method to solve the following simultaneous equations.
a 3x + 2y = 13
b 4x 2y = 7
c y x = 5
d x + y = 20
x
+ 3y = 8
e 3x + 2y = 10
12x 5y = 14
3x + 2y = 14
f 2x + 5y = 4
7x + 15y = 9
3x 5y = 21
3x + 11y = 100
4 WE12 A computer firm, SuperComputers Inc., offers a backup plan covering the ongoing service
and troubleshooting of its systems after sale. The cost of signing up for the service plan is $125, and
there is an hourly rate of $65 for the servicepersons time. Purchasers not signing up for the plan are
charged a flat rate of $150 per hour for service. Would it be advisable to sign up for the service plan
if you expected to need 3 hours of service assistance during the life of a computer purchased from
SuperComputers Inc?
5 A telephone company, Opus, offers calls to Great Britain for a connection fee of $14, and thereafter
$1 per minute. Its rival, Belecom, offers calls for $2 per minute (no connection fee) to the same
country.
a Compare the cost of a 10 minute call to Great Britain using each company.
b At what point would it be cheaper to use Opus?
318 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
6 It costs you $6 to get into a taxi (the flagfall), and $1.50 per kilometre if you use Pink Cabs, while
brochure.
$8.00 entry
$12 entry
$1.50 per ride
Further development
10 At the candy store Katrina buys 10 chocolates and a
In total there are 57 animals and 196 feet. How many chickens are there?
Chapter 11 Modelling linear relationships 319
12 From a sports store a school orders 16 cricket balls and 24 basketballs for $826.80.
Digital doc
Worksheet 11.2
doc11101
A second school paid $633 for 12 basketballs and 32 cricket balls. Find the cost of each item.
Summary
Linear functions
Linear functions have powers of 1 for both the independent and dependent variables and are graphed
as straight lines.
To graph a linear function, a table of at least three values is drawn; the points generated are plotted
on a number plane and then joined in a straight line.
The intersection of two linear functions will give the point where both conditions hold true.
Direct variation
When two quantities vary directly with one another, the variation can be graphed as a linear function.
The variation will be in the form y = ax.
The graph is drawn from the point (0, 0) to one other point that is given.
The gradient of the function will be the constant of variation.
Simultaneous
equations
Chapter review
mult ip le
ch oice
B y = 2x2
C 2y = x + 1
D x + 2y + 1 = 0
2 Beth lives 5 km from the nearest post office. At noon one day she rides from home at a speed of
20km/hr in a direct line away from the post office. Her distance at any time from the post office can
be found using the linear model
A D = 20t
B D = 5t + 20
C D = 20t + 5
D D = 20t 5
3 Which of the following points represents the solution to the pair 2x + 3y = 18 and 5x y = 11?
B (3, 4)
A (6, 2)
Sh ort
a nswer
C (3, 9)
D (3, 4)
c y = 2 x
d y = 5 3x
2 The cost, C, of a taxi fare is given by the formula C = 3 + 0.4d, where d is the distance travelled by
10
15
20
C
b Graph the cost function.
3 At a fete, 400 cans of soft drink are purchased for $320. The cans are then sold for $1.25 each.
a Write, as a linear function, an expression for the profit on the sale of the cans, where n is the
2 loaves of bread costs $9.95 while 2 cartons of milk and a loaf of bread costs $5.85.
322 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
movie. The cost of hiring the cinema is $500. People are then charged $10 to
attend the movie.
a Write a function for the profit or loss made on the movie in terms of the
number of people attending.
b Graph the function.
c Use the graph to calculate the number of people who must attend the
movie for the school to break even.
d A rival cinema offers to waive the hire fee but the school will receive
only $5 per person attending. On the same axes graph the function P = 5n.
e The school chose to pay the $500 and receive $10 per person. How many
people must attend the premiere to make this the better of the two options?
2 A physics student conducts an experiment to find out how much a spring
stretches when various weights are hung from it. Her results are shown in the
table below.
Length of spring (cm)
4
7
12
16.5
20.5
25
a
b
c
d
Ex tended
R es p ons e
e On the same set of axes you used in part b, plot the results of the second experiment and join the
second spring.
The gradients of graphs such as the ones you have drawn give an indication of the stiffness of a
spring. The greater the gradient, the harder it is to stretch the spring. The lower the gradient, the
easier it is to stretch the spring.
g Comment on the stiffness of the two springs investigated by the students.
h Is it likely that these two springs will ever be the same length at a given force, that is, is it likely
the intersection of the two graphs could ever really happen? Explain your answer.
Digital doc
Test Yourself
doc11102
Chapter 11
ICT activities
11A Linear functions
INTERACTIVITies
int2378: Graphs of linear functions. (page 301)
int1020: Drawing a graph. (page 301)
int2399: Slope and equation of a line. (page 301)
int0804: Application of linear modelling. (page 302)
int2780: Simultaneous linear equations. (page 304)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 11.1 (doc11100): Apply your knowledge of linear
relationships to problems. (page 312)
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 11.1 (doc11095): Substitution into a formula. (page 305)
SkillSHEET 11.2 (doc11096): Recognising linear functions. (page 305)
SkillSHEET 11.3 (doc11097): Gradient of a straight line. (page 305)
SkillSHEET 11.4 (doc11098): Graphing linear equations. (page 305)
EXCEL Spreadsheet (doc1391): Plotting linear graphs. (page 305)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself (doc11102): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 323)
Answers chapter 11
Modelling linear
relationships
1000
800
600
400
200
10
5 3 1
1 1
3 x
2 a
y
4
3
2 y = 2x
1
4 2 0 1 2 3 x
2
3
y y = 3x 2
4
3
2
10
4 2 1 1 2 3 4 x
2
3
4
y
4
3 y = x
2
1 0
3 1 1 2 3 x
2
3
4
f
y
5
4
3 y = 1 x + 3
2
2
10
1
3 1 1 2 3 4 x
3 a
C($)
120
100
80
A + B = 120
40
20
40
120 A
80
10
30
10.5
18
48
C = 3 + 1.5d
40
0 1000 2000
C (old)
0 1200 2400
C (new)
C = 1.2d
C
1500
C = 900 + 0.3d
1000
500
0
c $33
d 14 km
5 a
P P = 3n 24 000
C = 20n
C = 15n + 1500
6000
24000
6000
b 300
13 a $114.75
b 450 km
50
10000
30
8000
2000
$600
15
$775
$825
20
$900
$1050
Plan B
Plan A
5 10 15 20
Number of plans
sold (n)
Direct variation
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 t
2 a n
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 p
3 a y
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 x
b 8
c y = 8x
4 a D
4000
20
10
10 000
b $36 000
000
000
50 000
40 000
30 000
20 000
10 000 0
10 000
20 000
30 000
20
00
40
10
00
20
10
$650
b 1.5
c n = 15p
2000
20
10
1 D
2A = B
$375
Exercise 11B
60
$525
c 13
Intersection (5, 4)
9 (0, 2)
10 a, b B
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
5 y=x1
4
3
2
1
3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x
y = 2x 6
3
200 400
d(km)
b ($)
b (1, 3)
8
y
5
y = 3x
4
3
2
1
3 1 01 2 3 4 5 x
y=4x
3
y
5
4 3x + 2y 6 = 0
3
2
10
x
3 1
1 1 2 3 4 5
2
3
4 a
y
5
4
3
1
2 y = 1 _x
4
1
0
x
3 11 1 2 3 4
2
3
Number of
Salary
Salary
plans sold package A package B
b 500
c $1.80
y
7 a
y
5 y = 5 2x
4
3
2
1 0
x
3 1
1 1 2 3 4
60
14 a
150
120
90
N = 1000 5P
20
0
Linear functions
y
5
3 y=x+3
12
0
40
Exercise 11A
c $9000 loss
d 8000 people
6 a
N
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 s
b D = 3s
3 a P = 0.1n + 32
5 W
500
400
300
200
100
0
b Payment
0 10 20 30 40 50 h
6 a L (L)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10 20 Number
of leaflets
0 00 00 00 00 00 d (km)
1 2 3 4 5
c $197
b 30L
7 a h (m)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
4 a P = 5p + 40
b 100
b 16.8m
8 $US
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
90
80
70
60
P 50
40
30
20
10
0
8 12 16 20 g (m)
c 1.6m
0 00 00 00 00 00 A$
1 2 3 4 5
($)
34
33
32
1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 30
1
10
1
5
3
10
2
5
1
2
1 1 1 2 3
2
1
10
1 a $35
c Cost ($)
Linear modelling
b C = 10t + 5
25
20
15
10
5
6
p
10
12
c i$100
ii 3
d The vertical intercept indicates that Josh will receive $40 even if
5 a
b C = 35n + 2050
c m = 35, b = 2050
d The gradient is the additional cost per person who attends and the
500
1 2 Time (h)
2 a C = 8t + 60
b Cost ($)
76
68
60
400
C 300
200
100
1 2 Time (min)
c $100
6
n
10
12
8 a
600
500
Cost ($)
y
y + 2x = 8
300
200
y
10 2y = 12x + 16
5
100
0
100
200
300
400
Distance (km)
500
1 a P = 40n
b $3560
2 6
1 a
y = 2x + 3
(1, 5)
y = 8 3x
2
y
40 31 = y 2x
30
20
(8, 15)
10
0
20 10 10 20 x
2x + 2y = 14
y = 2x 3
(2, 1)
2 4 6x
3
2
2 a (7, 3)
2 4x
(2, 5)
3x + y = 11
220
4
Simultaneous equations
2x y = 1
y
8
y
10
8
6
4
2
4 220
3 a C = n + 166.67
Exercise 11E
3y = 6x 24
Problem solving
1
3
b $216.67
4 a T = 0.005n + 0.5
b 2 hours 45 minutes
5 a P = 0.1p 5
b $21.40
6 a C = 160t
b $2240
7 30 days
8 a C = 2.5n + $2.50
b $502.50
9 39 minutes
10 a C = 0.8d + 3.25
b $15.49
c 17.69 km
2 4x
4 250
(2, 4)
10
600
b m = 0.8, b = 80
c The gradient is the cost per kilometre to run the car while the
1 2x
5 4 3 2 120
(3, 2)
4
400
y = 2x + 4
4
2
4x
c (1, 1)
b Q , 0R
4
23
d (1, 1)
e Q ,
3 a (5, 1)
b Q3, R
5
2
3 5
2 2
f Q , R
c (2, 3)
d (15, 5)
e (2, 2)
f (3, 2)
4 Yes cost under the plan $320 without the plan $450
5 a Opus $24, Belecom $20
b After 14 min
6 a Pink cabs $28.50, No Top $26.00
b 6.7 km
7 After 4 rides
8 6
9 Savus would be cheaper for less than 9days.
10 Chocolate 15c and Sherbert 35 c
11 16 chickens and 41 cattle
12 Basketballs $28.46, Cricket balls $9.11
Chapter Review
Multiple choice
1 B
2 C
3 D
Short answer
d
y
4
3 y=2x
2
10
x
3 1
1 1 2 3 4
3
2
3
4
f
y
3
2
1 0 2y = 4x 3
x
3 1
1 1 2 3 4
3
4
5
2 a
10
15
20
11
y
5
4 y = 5 3x
3
2
10
11 1 3 4 x
2
3
y
5
4
3 3x 2y + 6 = 0
10
x
3 1
1 1 2 3 4
2
3
C = 3 + 0.4d
18
12
6
0
P = 1.25n 320
80
16
0
24
0
32
0
40
0
400
Cost ($)
c i $55 profit
ii $142.50 loss
d 256
4
5 a
0
1
2
3
c $302.50
7 a C = 250 + 55j
b 13
8 11 m 6 m
9 Milk $1.75, Bread $2.35
0 10 20 30 40 50
Amount of petrol (L)
P = 10n 500
P = 5n
n
c 50
e More than 100 people
2 a 4 cm
b, c, e
60
50
40
30
20
Student 1
Student 2
10
5
10 15 20 25 30
Length of spring (cm)
95
.
13
f Answers will vary. One possible answer is y = 2x 10.
g The first spring is stiffer than the second, as the gradient of its
graph is greater than that of the second spring.
h The graphs intersect at the point (8.75, 27.5). It is not possible
for the springs to have a negative length, so this point is not
achievable.
d Answers will vary. One possible answer is y =
Extended response
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1000
200
300
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
200
0
500
3 a P = 1.25n 320
b P
0
100
400
2000
1500
1000
500
0 10 20 30 40 50 d
200
100
600
1 a P = 10n 500
b, d
P
b C
24
6 a C = 75 + 65t
b
c
50
10
0
15
0
20
0
y
b
y
4
4
3 y=x+3
3
2 y = 3x
10
1
x
5 3 1
3 1 01 2 3 4 x
1 1 2 3
2
3
3
4
1 a
8 12 16 20 p
b 3
c q = 3p
30
x
13
Chapter 12
12A
Quadratic functions
A quadratic function is a function in which the highest power of the independent variable (x) is2.
Thegraph of a quadratic function is a parabola, a curved line that comes to either a minimum or
maximum point.
The graph of a quadratic function can be drawn by creating a table of values and plotting the pairs of
coordinates generated. Because the graph is not a straight line, it is necessary to plot more than just three
points to show the shape of the curve.
The most basic quadratic function is y = x2. The table of values is drawn showing at least nine values
of x, to ensure there one enough points to accurately demonstrate the shape.
x
3 2 1
12
1
4
1
2
1
4
Interactivity
int2785
Sketching
parabolas
y
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Plotting these points gives the graph shown on the right. The points are joined
with a smooth curve.
This graph has a minimum at (0, 0) and forms the basic shape for all parabolas.
In general, the form of a quadratic function is y = ax2 + bx + c, and for now
we need consider only positive values of x.
y = x2
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
1
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Method 1: Technologyfree
a Substitute each value of x into the function.
WRITE
x
y
0
7
1
4
2
3
3
4
4
7
5
12
y
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1 0
1
graph turns.
1 2 3 4 5
c For y = x2 4x + 7,
minimum value= 3.
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Notes:
1. When setting the view window you do not have to get the limit right the first time. It may take a bit of
trial and error, especially with the yvalues to make sure that you have the minimum (or maximum)
point in your display.
2. Any question that has a negative value of x2 (such as Worked example 2) will be concave downwards
and as such will have a maximum point and not a minimum point. In step 5 after pressing !5
[GSolv] you will need to press 2 (MAX).
Shape of a parabola
For quadratic functions that have a positive x2 term, the parabola is concave up. This means that the
graph has a minimum point. When the x2 term is negative, the graph is concave down and the graph has
a maximum point.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
WRITE
Tutorial
int2432
Worked example 2
5
4
3
2
1
1 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
2
3
4
5
A ball is thrown in the air. Its height, h, after t seconds can be given by the formula h = 20t 5t2.
Graph the function to calculate the maximum height the ball will reach.
THINK
1
WRITE
15
20
15
25
20
12
h
16
8
4
1 0
1
1 2 3 4 5
Exercise 12A
Quadratic functions
x
y
2 For the quadratic function y = x2 4x 2, draw up a table of values and use the table to draw the
c y = (x 2)2
4 On the one set of axes, graph the following quadratic functions for x 0.
1
a y = x2
b y = 2x2
c y = 2 x2
5 On the one set of axes, graph each of the following quadratic functions for x 0.
a y = x2
b y = x2 + 2
c y = x2 3
6 Use your answers to questions 5 and 6 to answer the following.
a Describe the effect a coefficient of x2 has on the graph of a quadratic function.
b Describe the effect adding a constant term has on the graph of a quadratic function.
7 Graph the function y = (x 1)2 + 4. Compare this with the graph of y = x2 2x + 5. Explain why
this occurs.
c y = (2 x)2
B y = (x 4)2
C y = (x 2)(x + 2)
D y =
x2
x+2
11 MC The graph drawn on the right could have the equation:
A y = (x 2)2 + 3
B y = (x 2)2 3
2
C y = 4 (2 x)
D y = (2 x)2 3
12 MC Which of the following functions will produce the
16 A rectangular field is to be made out of 100m of fencing. If the length of the field is x metres:
a show that the width of the field is (50 x) metres
b show that the area is given by the quadratic function A = 50x x2
c draw the graph of the function
d find the maximum area of the field and what dimension the field must be to give the maximumarea.
17 Another rectangular field is to be built with 100m of fencing using a
River
x
100 2x
Further development
18 State whether each of the following graphs is wider or narrower than the graph of y = x2, and state
f y = 0.25x2
e x2
c y = 7x2
d y = 10x2
g y = 1.3x2
h y = !3x2
19 In each of the following state whether the graph is wider or narrower than y = x2 and whether it has a
f y = 0.25x2
4 2
x
3
j y =
1 2
x
5
0.16x2
d y =
k y =
l y = !11x2
g y = !3x2
200x2
c y = 2 x2
"5x2
h y =
20 The distance, d, of a rocket from a satellite is given by the equation d = 5t2 100t, where t is the
number of hours since the rocket was launched. At what value of t will the rocket reach the satellite?
21 Julie breeds sea monkeys. The number of sea monkeys, N, in Julies tank is found to follow the
equation N = 0.0751h2 + 0.69h + 200, where h is the number of hours since the tank was supplied
with food and stocked with sea monkeys.
a How many sea monkeys were there initially (i.e. at h = 0)?
b Copy and complete the table below.
h
N
10
15
20
30
50
Maximising areas
1. Sketch ten rectangles that each have a perimeter of 40m.
2. Show the length, width and area of each rectangle in a table.
3. If the length of the rectangle is x:
12B
interactivity
int1149
Exponential graphs
When considering modelling situations it is useful to be familiar with other nonlinear graphs.
Cubic functions
A cubic function has the independent variable (x) raised to a power of 3. Its equation is of the form y = ax3.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
WRITE
x
y
0
0
1
2
2
16
3
54
y
100
80
60
40
20
0
y = 2x 3
1 2 3 4
Hyperbolas
a
The equation of a hyperbolic function is of the form y = , where a is a constant. For hyperbolas, x 0,
x
and so for now we graph only values of x > 0. As the value of x increases, the value of y will decrease and
viceversa, and therefore we need to look at values close to x = 0 and y = 0 when creating our table of values.
As x becomes very large, the graph approaches the xaxis but never touches it. As x becomes very
small (approaches 0), the graph approaches the yaxis, but never touches it. The line x = 0 (the yaxis) is
a vertical asymptote, and the line y = 0 (the xaxis) is a horizontal asymptote.
(An asymptote is a line or a curve which a curve approaches but never touches.)
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
2
Graph the function y = .
x
Tutorial
int2433
Worked example 5
THINK
WRITE
1
4
1
2
2
3
1
2
y
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
x
y= 2
1 2 3 4
Exponential graphs
An exponential function is of the form y = ax or y = b(ax), where a and b are both constants. It is called
an exponential function because the independent variable (x) is in the exponent. An exponential graph
can increase rapidly.
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
WRITE
x
y
0
1
1
2
2
4
3
8
4
16
y
20
16
12
8
4
0
y = 2x
1 2 3 4 5
An exponential function of the form y = b(ax) represents an example of exponential growth. These
functions may, for example, show the growth of an investment over a period of time. In examples where
the value of a is between 0 and 1, the function could model exponential decay. An example of this is the
depreciation of an asset over time.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Glenn invests $10000 at 8% p.a. with interest compounded annually. The growth of this investment
can be given by the exponential function A = 10000(1.08)n, where n is the number of years of the
investment and A is the amount to which the investment grows. Graph the growth of this investment.
WRITE
n
A
n
A
1
2
3
4
5
10800 11664 12597 13605 14693
6
7
8
9
10
15869 17138 18509 19990 21589
35 000
A = 10 000 (1.08)n
30 000
Investment ($)
THINK
25 000
20 000
15 000
10 000
5000
0
0
10
15
Number of years
20
Exercise 12B
functions
a y = 3x3
b y = 2x3
c y = x3
4
for x > 0.
x
4 WE5 Graph each of the following functions for x > 0.
10
1
a y =
b y =
x
x
x
5 Graph the function y = 3 .
3 Graph the hyperbolic function y =
c y =
1
x
1 x
b y = 10x
c y = Q 2 R
B y = 3x
C y = 3x
D y =
3
x
2
x
x
C
10 WE7 Ming Lai invests $1000 at 10% p.a. interest with interest compounded annually. This
investment can be represented by the function A = 1000(1.1)n, where A is the amount to which the
investment grows and n is the number of years of the investment. Draw the graph of the function.
car after a number of years, n, can be given by the equation V = 40000(0.85)n. Graph this function.
Further development
13 Sketch the graph of each of the following for x 0.
a y = x3 + 4
b y = x3 1
c y = 1 8x3
14 Sketch the graph of each of the following for x 0. Show the horizontal asymptote on your sketch
by drawing a broken line in red. Label this line with its equation.
1
1
a y = + 1
b y =
x
x+1
15 Find the equation of the asymptote and the yintercept for each of the following. Hence, sketch the
graph of each and state its domain and range.
a y = 2x 1
b y = 3x + 2
c y = 2x + 3
336 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
Compound interest
The amount to which an investment will grow under compound interest can be found using the following
formula:
A = P(1 + r)n
Consider an investment of $10000 at an interest rate of 8% p.a.
1. If interest is compounded annually, the amount to which the investment will grow can be given by
the function A = 10000(1.08)n, where n is the number of years. Graph this function using graphing
software or a graphics calculator.
2. If interest is compounded sixmonthly, the function becomes A = 10000(1.04)2n. On the same set of
axes graph this function.
3. Write a function that will show the amount to which the investment will grow if interest is
compounded quarterly, and graph this function on the same set of axes.
4. Use the graphs drawn to describe the overall effect of shortening the compounding period.
12C
Direct variation
In the previous chapter we studied direct linear variations. In this section we will study direct
nonlinearvariations.
From our work on measurement we know that the area of a circle is given by the formula A = r2,
whereA is the area and r is the radius of the circle.
This is an example of a quantity (area) that varies in proportion with the power of another quantity
(radius). This can be written as A r2. The symbol means in proportion to. In this example is the
constant of variation, that is, the amount by which r2 must be multiplied to calculate the area.
An equation of the form y = ax2 or y = ax3 can be used to model several variations. In such cases we
may need to calculate the constant of variation from some known or given information.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
It is known that y varies directly with the cube of x. It is known that y = 24 when x = 2. Write an
equation connecting the variables x and y.
THINK
WRITE
y x3
y = kx3
When x = 2, y = 24.
24 = k 23
= 8k
k=3
y = 3x3
Once we have calculated the constant of variation, we are able to calculate one quantity given the other.
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
The surface area of a cube varies directly with the square of the length of the cubes edge.
a A cube of edge length 5.5cm has a surface area of 181.5cm2. Find the constant of variation.
b Find the surface area of a cube with an edge length of 7.2cm.
THINK
pronumerals s and e.
WRITE
a s e2
s = ke2
Calculate 5.52.
181.5 = k 30.25
k=6
b s = 6e2
Substitute e = 7.2.
When e = 7.2,
s = 6 7.22
Calculate s.
s = 311.04
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Research conducted by a physiotherapist has determined that the heighttomass rate (in cm/kg)
of adult males is 2.26. Use this information to predict:
a the height of a 70kg adult male
b the mass of a 180cm adult male. (Round answers to 1 decimal place.)
THINK
WRITE
If w = 70,
h = 2.26 70
= 158.2
b If h = 180,
180 = 2.26w
w = 79.6
The mass of an adult male who is
180cm tall is about 79.6kg.
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
A new car has a fuel consumption of 7.2 L/100km (this means it requires 7.2 L of petrol to
travel100km).
a How much fuel is required for a journey of 1134km?
bThe previous model of the same car had a fuel consumption of 7.8 L/100km. Which model
ismore economical to run? (Round answers to 2 decimal places.)
THINK
WRITE
L 7.2
=
d 100
L
= 0.072
d
L = 0.072d
If d = 1134,
L = 0.072 1134
= 81.648
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
If the distance, d km, travelled by a person varies directly as the time, t hours, and it is known
that the person travelled 12km while walking for 2.5 hours, find:
a how far he will travel in 3 hours
b how long he must walk in order to travel 6.72km.
THINK
WRITE
d
hence k = .
t
d
= 4.8.
t
d
part a; that is, = 4.8.
t
k=
Tutorial
int1057
Worked
example12
d
t
12
2.5
= 4.8
The constant of variation is 4.8. Therefore,
d
= 4.8
t
d
When t = 3, = 4.8
3
k=
d = 4.8 3
= 14.4
He will travel 14.4km in three hours.
d
t
6.72
When d = 6.72,
= 4.8
t
6.72 = 4.8 t
4.8t = 6.72
6.72
t=
4.8
= 1.4
Exercise 12C
Direct variation
1 WE8 It is known that y varies directly with the square of x. If y = 88 when x = 4, write an equation
connecting y with x.
2 It is known that b varies directly with the cube of a. When a = 6, b = 108. Write an equation
connecting b with a.
3 It is known that the distance, d, an object will fall varies directly with the square of the time, t, it has
been falling. An object that has been falling for 2 seconds falls a distance of 19.6 metres.
a Write an equation connecting d with t.
b Graph the relationship between d and t.
4 WE9 The surface area of a cube varies directly with the square of its side length.
a A cube of side length 15cm has a surface area of 1350cm2. Find the constant of variation.
b What is the surface area of a cube that has a side length of 6.2cm?
5 The area of a circle varies directly with the square of its radius.
a If the area of a circle with radius 6cm is 113.1cm2, find the constant of variation. (Give your
travel 100km).
a How much fuel is required for a journey of 5430km?
b A Nissan Pulsar has a fuel consumption of 9 L/100. Which of the cars is more economical
to run?
9 In Pear Fisher Bay, land can be purchased for a price of $5.50 per square metre.
a How much land can be purchased for $10000?
b What would be the cost of a block of land of 6500 square metres?
Further development
10 A large computer company can hire graduate computer programmers for a salary of $40000 per
of10 : 7 or 10
.
7
a Determine a rule relating height and width.
b If a window is 60cm wide, how high is it?
c If a window is 100cm high, how wide is it?
12 The top gear ratio on a bicycle is 7 to 2. If the larger sprocket contains 140 teeth, how many teeth
5.7L/100km.
a How many litres of fuel will be used by each vehicle for a 674km journey? Give your answers to
1 decimal place.
b How far could the small car go on the same fuel that the fourwheel drive used to travel 1000km?
Give your answer correct to the nearest kilometre.
15 An aeroplane uses 600 L of fuel (its full tank) for a journey of 1250km.
a Find the fuel consumption ratio.
b If an additional 800 L can be stored in an extra tank, what is the farthest distance that the
Digital doc
doc11103
WorkSHEET 12.1
aeroplane can travel? Give your answer correct to the nearest 10km.
12D
Inverse variation
Consider the following example. Stan used to collect basketball cards. Eventually he became bored
with this hobby and decided to give all of his 120 cards to his classmates. If Stan distributed the whole
collection between his 2 best friends, Mark and Eugene, they would each receive 60 cards. If he included
another friend, Ashley, they would each receive 40 cards and so on. The more people who shared Stans
collection, the fewer cards each person received. There are 25 people in Stans class, including himself.
So if he were to distribute 120 cards between all of his classmates, each student would receive 5 cards.
This information can be represented graphically or as shown in the table.
n
10
12
15
20
24
120
60
40
30
24
20
15
12
10
(Note that only factors of 120 are included in order to avoid fractional
C
answers).
120
It is obvious that as the number of students, n, who are to share the
collection increases, the number of cards, C, that each student
receives, decreases.
The product of the two variables is constant for each pair and equal
60
to 120 the size of the collection. That is: 1 120 = 2 60 =
40
3 40 = 4 30 = 5 24 = 6 20 = 8 15 = 10 12 = 120 and
30
20
so on.
10
Hence, the relationship between two variables can be written as:
123456 8 10 12 15 20 24 n
C n = 120, or
120
C=
.
n
The graph of the relation is a hyperbola which has the C and n axes as its asymptotes.
Summarising our observations, we can say that the following is true for the given information:
1. An increase in one variable causes a decrease in the other.
2. The product of the two corresponding variables is constant.
3. Neither variable is equal to 0.
4. The graph which represents the data is a hyperbola.
1
If we calculate the values of for each of the values in our table, we will then be able to draw a graph
n
1
of C against .
n
n
10
12
15
20
24
1
n
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
8
1
10
1
12
1
15
1
20
1
24
120
60
40
30
24
20
15
12
10
1
C
is a straight line directed
n
120
from, but not passing through, the origin. (Note that we exclude
the origin itself, hence the open circle at (0, 0), since the number
of cards per person when shared between 0 students is
undefined.)
60
1
Hence, we can deduce that C varies directly as , that is, as the
n
reciprocal of n.
30
In cases like this, we say that one variable varies inversely as
5
(or is inversely proportional to) the other. The product of any two
1
1
1
1
0
1 n
24
4
2
corresponding variables is constant and is called a constant of
proportionality, k.
Hence, C is inversely proportional to n (or C varies inversely as n, or directly as the reciprocal
1
ofn).Itis written as C .
n
Here, the product of any two corresponding values of C and n is constant and equal to 120, that is
Cn = 120. Therefore the constant of proportionality k = 120.
120
Therefore, the relationship between the two variables can be written as C =
.
n
1
Generally, for any two variables x and y, where y varies inversely as x, that is, y , there exists
x
k
a relationship between them such that y = or yx = k, where k is a constant, called the constant of
x
proportionality (or the constant of variation). The graph of the relationship is a hyperbola whereas
1
the graph of y against is a straight line directed from, but not passing through, the origin, and
x
having thegradient k (where x 0). As with direct variation, the existence of inverse variation canbe
established either numerically, or graphically.
Summarising this:
As you can see, the graph of C versus
If y
1
x
k
x
where k is the constant of proportionality and x R\{0}.
then y =
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
WRITE
a y
1
x
y=
k
x
k
2
k = 20
20
y=
x
10 =
10
20
10
y
25
20
15
10
5
0
10
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
When a force is applied to a certain object, its acceleration varies inversely as its mass. When the
acceleration of an object 12 m/s2, the corresponding mass is 3kg.
a Find the constant of proportionality.
b Find the rule relating acceleration and mass.
c Find the acceleration of a 1.5kg object.
d Find the acceleration of a 6kg object.
THINK
WRITE
a=
12 =
the equation.
c 1 Substitute the value of the mass into the
Exercise 12D
Tutorial
int2434
Worked
example14
k
m
k
3
k = 36
The constant of proportionality is 36.
b a=
36
m
c If m = 1.5,
36
1.5
= 24
a=
36
6
=6
a=
Inverse variation
than 21.
Chapter 12 Modelling nonlinear relationships 343
with x.
5 It is known that m varies inversely with n. When m = 0.5, n = 2; write an equation connecting
m and n.
6 The time taken, t, to travel between two points varies inversely with the average speed, s, for the
Further development
11 The number of colouring pencils sold varies inversely
12E
10
4.19
33.51
113.10
268.08
523.60
4189
3500
3000
Volume
4000
2500
2000
1500
1000
We can then plot each pair of points from the table and join the points
with a smooth curve. The graph shown at right shows the relationship
between volume for a sphere and the length of its radius.
4 r3
V =
3
500
0
5 10 15
Length of the radius
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
10
A
b Graph the surface area function.
THINK
WRITE
0 12.57 50.27 113.10 201.06 314.16 452.39 615.75 804.25 1017.88 1256.64
10
points generated
by the table.
3000
2000
A = 4r 2
2500
Area
1500
1000
500
0
0
10
Radius
15
Many graphs have physical restrictions placed on them. Consider the case
h
h = 15t 5t 2
of a ball that is thrown vertically upwards. The height, h, of the ball at any
12
time, t, can be given by the equation h = 15t 5t2. The height of the ball
9
must always be positive, and when the ball returns to Earth we can consider
6
the height to be zero and so the graph stops as shown on the right.
When we graph several points, we try to estimate other values by
3
interpolating (estimating values between given points by drawing the
0
t
1
2
3
4
graph joining the points) or extrapolating (estimating values by extending
the graph beyond the points given).
Other graphs need to have restrictions placed upon them when we try to interpolate or extrapolate.
There may be a limit placed upon one or both of the variables, and this will indicate a change in the graph.
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
Tutorial
int2435
Worked
example16
A cinema owner believes that more people will attend the movies on cold days and so believes the
number of people attending each session of a movie varies inversely with the temperature of the day.
When the temperature is 15 C, 80 people attend a movie. The cinema has a maximum of 120 seats,
and the cinema owner believes that a minimum of 40 people will attend, regardless of temperature.
aWrite an equation connecting the number of people attending the movie, N, with the
temperature, T.
b Graph the relationship between attendance and temperature.
THINK
WRITE
1
T
k
N=
T
a N
When T = 15, N = 80
k
80 =
15
k = 1200
N=
1200
T
T
N
5
120
10
120
15
80
20
60
25
48
30
40
35
40
N
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
10
20
30
40
Exercise 12E
A
b Draw the graph to represent the surface area of a cube of a given side length.
2 The distance that an object will fall when dropped from a height can be given by the formula d = 5t2,
3 A car is travelling at v km/h and the driver needs to brake. It takes 2.5 seconds to react and in that
time the car will travel a distance of 0.7v m. The total stopping distance, d, can be given by the
function d = 0.01v2 + 0.7v.
a Copy and complete the table below.
v
10
20
30
40
d
b Draw the graph of the stopping distance of a vehicle.
4 WE16 Lorraine organises a lottery syndicate at her work. If they win a prize of $100000, the
amount is shared equally between the members of the syndicate. There must be at least one member
of the syndicate and a maximum of 10.
a Write an equation putting the amount, A, each person receives in terms of the number of
members, n.
b Graph the function.
5 A car is purchased new for $40000. After one year the depreciated value of the car is $30000. After
Value
b The car will always be worth a minimum of $2000 in scrap metal and accessories. Graph the
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2020
2027
Population (million)
b Plot the points given and extrapolate to graph the population function.
c Use your graph to state when the population will reach its maximum sustainable level.
d What will happen to the graph when it reaches this level?
Further development
9 The following points represent a variation of the form y = kx2.
12
27
48
75
30
45
60
80
100
7.5
16.9
30
53.3
83.3
100
200
1000
1500
300
150
30
20
a
or
x
y = a!x. For each set of data, plot the values of y against x, and hence select the most appropriate
rule and state the value of a.
12 The data in each of the tables below exactly fit one of these rules: y = ax2, y = ax3, y =
0.3
2.4
8.1
24
x
y
0
0
0.5
1.13
1
1.6
x
y
1
5
2
2.5
4
1.25
5
1
10
0.5
3
40.5
2
12
1
1.5
24 54
1.5
2
1.96 2.26
1.5 12
13 For her Science assignment, Rachel had to find the relationship between the intensity of the light, I,
and the distance between the observer and the source of light, d. From the experiments she obtained
the following results.
d
I
1
270
1.5
120
2
67.5
2.5
43.2
3
30
3.5
22.04
4
16.88
a Plot the values of I against d. What form of relationship does the graph suggest?
b Nathan (Rachels older brother) is a Physics student. He tells Rachel that from his studies he
a
is certain that the relationship is of the type I = . Use this formula to help Rachel to find the
2
d
model for the required relationship.
14 Joseph is a financial adviser. He is studying the prices of shares of a particular company over the last
10 months.
Months
Price ($)
1
6.00
2
6.80
3
7.45
4
8.00
5
8.50
6
8.90
7
9.30
8
9.65
9
10.00
10
10.30
themonth, m.
c Use your model to help Joseph predict the share price for the next 2 months.
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 12.2
doc11104
Force of gravity
When an object is dropped, the distance that it will fall in
t seconds can be approximated by the formula d = 5t2.
The coefficient of t2 is half the force of gravity (10 m/s2)
and so will change if an object were to be dropped on another
planet. For example, on the moon this equation would
become d = 0.8t2.
1. Use a graphics calculator or graphing software to graph
the equations for both the Earth and the moon.
2. Find out the force of gravity on other planets and compare
the graphs formed with that for the Earth.
Summary
Quadratic functions
A quadratic function is a function where the independent variable is raised to the power of 2.
The graph of a quadratic function is a parabola, a curved graph with either a minimum
(positive x2 term) or a maximum (negative x2 term).
A quadratic function is graphed by plotting the points formed from a table of at least seven values.
Cubes, hyperbolas
and exponential
functions
A cubic function uses a power of 3 for the independent variable. It is of the form y = ax3.
a
A hyperbola is a function of the form y = . In a hyperbolic function, as one variable increases the
x
other decreases.
An exponential function is of the form y = ax. When a > 1, an exponential function models
exponential growth, while if 0 < a < 1, the function models exponential decay.
Each of these functions is graphed by plotting points from a table of values.
Direct variation
Inverse variation
An inverse variation occurs when one quantity decreases, while the other increases. An inverse
a
variation can be expressed in the form y = .
x
The constant of variation, a, is calculated by using a known quantity of each variable. Once this
hasbeen calculated, if we know one quantity we can calculate the other.
Graphing physical
phenomena
Chapter review
1 Which of the following equations is an example of a quadratic function?
m u lti p l e
c hoic e
2
C 2y = x3 + 1
D x + 2y + 1 = 0
x
2
2 Which of the following quadratic equations is equivalent to y = (x 3) + 7?
A y = x2 3x 2
B y = x2 3x + 16
C y = x2 6x 2
D y = x2 6x + 16
A y = 2x2 + 1
B y =
A y = x2
2
x
C y = 2x
B y =
1 x
D y = Q R
2
4 It is known that y varies inversely with x. The variation can be modelled by the equation:
A y = ax
B y = ax2
C y = ax3
D y =
a
x
S ho rt
a nsw er
x
y
graph for x 0.
c y = 4 + 2x x2
4 An object is dropped from a height of 500 m. Its height above the ground at any time, t, is given by
5 A team of workers are digging a mine shaft. The number of kilograms of earth moved each hour
bythe team is given by the function E = 24n n2, where n is the number of workers digging
theshaft.
a Graph the function.
b What is the maximum amount of earth that can be moved by the team of workers in one hour?
How many workers are needed to move this amount of earth?
c Explain possible reasons why the amount of earth moved each hour then begins to decrease as
more workers are used.
b y = 2 x3
1
2
b y =
x
x
8 Graph each of the following exponential functions.
a y =
a y = 2x
1 x
b y = Q 2 R
9 The average inflation rate is 4% p.a. In 2006 it cost the average family $500 per week in living
expenses. The future cost of living, C, can be estimated using the function C = 500(1.04)n where n is
the number of years since 2006.
a Graph the cost of living function.
b Use the graph to estimate the cost of living in 2016.
c When will the cost of living first reach $1000 per week?
Chapter 12 Modelling nonlinear relationships 351
10 If the value of a computer purchased for $5000 depreciates by 20% p.a., the future value of the
computer, V, can be given by the equation V = 5000(0.8)n, where n is the age of the computer, in years.
a Graph the function.
b Find when the value of the computer is approximately $1000.
11 It is known that y varies directly with the square of x. When x = 4, y = 80. Write an equation
connecting x with y.
12 The mass, m, of an egg varies directly with the cube of its length, l. An egg of length 5.5cm, has a
mass of 75 g.
a Write an equation connecting m with l.
b Find the mass of an egg with a length of 5cm.
c Find the length of a 50 g egg.
13 It is known that y varies inversely with x. When x = 8, y = 8; write an equation connecting y with x.
14 The amount of food in a camp varies inversely with the number of people to feed. There is enough
food to feed 100 campers for 10 days.
a Write an equation connecting the amount of food, A, with the number of campers, n.
b Calculate how long the food would last 125 campers.
c If the food lasts for four days, calculate the number of campers.
15 The area of a circle is given by the formula A = r2.
a Complete the table of values below.
r
A
b Draw the graph of A against r.
16 A ball is thrown directly up in the air. The height, h, of the ball at any time, t, can be found using the
1 As a fundraising activity, a school hires a cinema to show the premiere of a movie. The cost of hiring
the cinema is $500. People are then charged $10 to attend the movie.
a Write a function for the profit or loss made on the movie in terms of the number of people attending.
b Graph the function.
c Use the graph to calculate the number of people who must attend the movie for the school to
break even.
d A rival cinema offers to waive the hire fee but the school will receive only $5 per person
attending. On the same axes graph the function P = 5n.
e The school chose to pay the $500 and receive $10 per person. How many people must attend the
premiere to make this the better of the two options?
2 A rock is thrown from a cliff 20 m above ground level. The height of the rock at any time is given by
the quadratic function h = 20 + 15t 5t2.
a Copy and complete the table below.
t
h
b Graph the function and use your graph to find the maximum height reached by the ball.
352 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
2
x
3 a On the one set of coordinate axes, sketch the graphs of y = 2x3 and y = .
2
x
4 The growth of an investment made at 8% p.a. can be modelled by the equation y = 1.08x.
a Graph the function.
b Use your graph to determine the amount of time that it will take for the investment to double
invalue.
c The depreciation of an item at 8% p.a. can be modelled by the equation y = 0.92x. Graph this
function.
d Use your graph to determine the amount of time that it will take for the item to halve in value.
b Use your graphs to find the point of intersection of the graphs y = 2x3 and y = .
Digital doc
Test Yourself
doc11105
Chapter 12
Activities
12A Quadratic functions
Interactivity
int2785: Sketching parabolas. (page 329)
Tutorial
WE14 int2434: Calculating using inverse variation. (page 343)
Tutorial
WE2 int2432: Graphing a quadratic function. (page 331)
Digital doc
Spreadsheet (doc1392): Graphing quadratics. (page 332)
Tutorial
WE16 int2435: Graphing a physical situation. (page 346)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 12.2 (doc11104): Apply your knowledge of graphing
physical situations. (page 349)
Interactivity
int1149: Exponential graphs. (page 334)
Tutorial
WE5 int2433: Graphing hyperbolic functions. (page 334)
Digital doc
Spreadsheet (doc1394): Function grapher. (page 336)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself (doc11105): Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 353)
Answers chapter 12
Modelling nonlinear
relationships
Exercise 12A
1 a
Quadratic functions
11
18
y y = x2 2x + 3
18
15
12
9
6
3
10 1 2 3 4 5 6 x
1
16
12
5 x
9 a 16y
12
15
10
5
y
10
3 4 x
2
1 2
4 y
3 4
20
y = 1_ x2
2
(c)
15
10
5
1
3 4
5 x
5 y y = x2+ 3 y = x2
y = x2 3
9
6
(b)
(a)
(c)
2
3 4
A
600
0 1 2 3 4 5x
4
8
200
y
4
2
A = 50x x2
20
40
= x(100 2x)
= 100x 2x2
400
0
2 4x
10 D
11 C
12 D
13 y y = 2x2 4x + 8
25
20
15
10
5
A = 100x 2x2
1200
800
y = (2 x)2
0
2
4
C
5
= x(50 x)
= 50x x2
400
5 x
y = x2
(a)
y = 2x2
(b)
25
8
4
b 80 m c
10 s
15 a h
h = 30t 5t2
y = 4 + 6x x2
0 1 2 4 5x
3
6
9
y = 8 x2
5 t
3 4
50 x
b 9y
6
y = (x 2)2
5 x
0 12 45 x
2
4
6
y = 2 + 2x x2
y=x +x+5
b 45 m c
6s
x
16 a
3 4
2 0 1 2 3 4 5 x
2
4
1 2
8 y
y
25
20
25
y
2
6 y = x 6x + 5
4
50
20
3 a
75
They are the same function.
d = 5t2
40
y y = x2 4x 2
6
3 0 1
3
6
d
125
100
c Min. value = 2
2
y = x2 2x + 5
20
14 a
5 x
20
40
c 25 m 50 m
18 a Narrower, TP (0, 0)
b Wider, (0, 0)
c Narrower, TP (0, 0)
d Narrower, TP (0, 0)
e Wider, TP (0, 0)
f Wider, TP (0, 0)
g Narrower, TP (0, 0)
h Narrower, TP (0, 0)
19 a Narrower, minimum
b Narrower, maximum
c Wider, minimum
d Wider, maximum
e Narrower, maximum
f Wider, minimum
g Narrower, minimum
h Wider, maximum
i Narrower, minimum
j Narrower, maximum
k Narrower, minimum
l Narrower, maximum
20 20 h
21 a 200
b
30 50
10
0
1
2
3
4
12
15
20
V
40 000
30 000
13 a
0 1
2 3
4 5
y
(2, 12)
y = 3x
20
10
1 y
V = 40 000(0.85)n
20 000
10 000
0
30
y = 1x
5 y
c 56.4 h
40
22 a 1 m b
0.4375 m
Exercise 12B
3 4
(1, 5)
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 1 2 3 4 x
6 a y
y=x
0 1
2 a y
50
40
30
2 3 4 x
40
30
20
10
0
3 4 x
1 2
y = 1 x3
2
2
1
0
2 3 4 x
2 3 4 x
0
2
4
y = x3
3 y
4
0
1
4 x
2 3
0 1
y = (12 )
2 3
4 5 x
14 a
0 1
4 a y
4
3
2
1
0
3 4
40
30
20
10
0
(1, 2)
y = 5(2 )
1 2 3 4
(1, 12)
x
y=0
A = 1000(1.1)n
2 3
0 2 4 6 8 n
15 a
y = 2x 1
11 a A = 50000(1.12)n
A
b
4 x
65 000
b y
8
2
0
1000
1
6
4
y=1
1
x
1400
1200
y = x
1
2
7 y
1600
y
1
8 C
9 B
10
A
4
y = x
c y
4
0
y = 10 x
0
1
40
20
10
y
(2, 7)
2 3 4 x
0 1
b y
100
80
60
b y
8
y = 4x
20
10
0
y = 3x3
(0, 0.5)
A = 50 000(1.12)n
55 000
10
y=0
y=
x
0
0
2 4
6 8
0 1 2 3
c 3 years
4 5 n
Exercise 12D
Inverse variation
1000
1000
1 a k = 1000, x =
or y =
x
y
y = 3x + 2
(0, 9)
y=0
y
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 x
2 a k = 48, p =
48
q
b p
(0, 4)
x
y=0
1 y =
2 b = 0.5a3
3 a d = 4.9t2
b d
5.5x2
Direct variation
50
40
30
20
10
0
d = 4.9t
0 1
2 3
4 t
50
40
30
20
10
0
Exercise 12E
1 a
0 2 4 6 8 10 q
b y
42
x
24
54
96
150
A
400
320
240
160
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 x
50
4 y =
x
1
5 m =
n
150
6 a t =
s
A = 6s2
80
4 a 6 b
230.64cm2
5 a 3.14 b
452.16cm2
b t
6 a 0.25 b
54kg c
6.5cm
50
7 a i 148.8cm
40
ii
68.5kg
30
b 0.0248
20
8 a 570.15 L
10
b The Nissan Pulsar as it uses less petrol
to cover 100km.
9 a 1818 m2
b $35750
10 a i 12
ii
8
b 16.73
10w
11 a h =
7
5
b 85 cm
7
c 70cm
12 40
13 a 624km
b 38 h 30 min
c 47 h 30 min
14 a 4WD = 81.9 L, Small car = 38.4 L
b 2132km
15 a 48 L/100km or 0.48 L/km
b 2920km
Graphing physical
phenomena
3 a k = 42, y =
50
40
30
20
10
0
13 a 17500
b $233.33
c 70
d $17500
14 a 200
b 1 amp
c 13.3 ohms
15 a 200
b 2 min
c 600 mHz
16 a 10500
b 210 days
c 105 workers
2 d
500
400
300
200
100
0
30
20
10
0
1
3
10 a 4000
4000
m
c 20 m/s2
d 4 m/s2
500
11 a n =
c
b 2500
c 2000
12 a 337.5
b 3 h 58 min
c 96.42km/h
d 337.5km
b a =
10
20
30
40
18
30
44
d = 0.01v 2 + 0.7v
0 10 20 30 40 50 v
4 a A =
b
8 10 t
40
8 12km/L or 8 L/100km
9 8 amps
2 4 6
b d
0 10 20 30 40 50 s
7 a 20
b 2 hours
d = 5t2
3 a
150
t=
s
6 8 10 s
2 4
100 000
n
A
100 000
80 000
60 000
40 000
20 000
0
000
A = 100
n
0 2
4 6
8 10 n
5 a
Age (years)
Value
b
14 a P
(4, 8)
V
40 000
(0, 4)
30 000
V = 30 000(0.8)n1
20 000
10 000
0
6 W
2 4 6
8 10
b p = 2!m + 4
c m = 11,
p = 2!11 + 4
= 10.63
m = 12,
p = 2!12 + 4
= $10.93
W = 3.3(1.2)n
6
4
2
0
0 1
2 3
Chapter Review
Multiple choice
1 B
2 D
3 B
4 D
V = x(12 2x)2
Short answer
75
50
25
0
8 a
1 a
0 1 2
3 4 5
Year
1.5
1.58
1.65
1.74
1.82
2.83
4
2
0
2
0
10
c
1
30000
R
12 a y = ax3, a = 0.3
b y = ax2, a = 6
c y = a!x, a = 1.6
a
d y = , a = 5
x
e y = ax3, a = 1.5
11 I =
13 a I
(15, 1.2)
d
270
d2
0 1 2
4 5 x
y = x2 2x 2
4
2
0
2
2 3
4 x
3 a y
y
b
20
y = (x 4)2
16
1 0
4
8
12
12
8
4
0
c
(1, 270)
y = x2 4x + 5
y
6
8 12 16 20 n
c 2027
d The graph will become a straight, horizontal line.
9 k = 3
10 d = 0.008 33s2
b I =
8
6
3.98
1
0
10
P = 1.5(1.05)n
4
3
2
y
b y
Population
(million)
b P
6 x
0 2
y
4
1 0
4
8
12
6 8x
y = 4 + 2x x2
2 3
4 5 x
y = 5 x2
1 2
4 x
9 a
h
500
400
300
200
100
0
h = 500 5t2
0
2
8 10 t
4 6
90
60
30
0 4
8 12 16 20 24
b 144kg, 12 workers
c Too many people getting in each others
way etc.
6 a y
8
y = x3
6
4
0 1 2
b y
10
8
6
4
2
y = 2 x3
1 2 3 4 x
r 0
40
20
0
0 1 2 3 4 x
2
y = x
16 a
4
0
0 1 2 3 4 x
16
12
y = 2x
2 3
4 x
b y
1 x
y = ( 2)
0 1 2 3 4 x
20
30
30
20
h = 20 + 15t 5t2
10
8
6
4
2
0
3 4
y = 2x3
y = 2x
2 3 4 5 x
b (1, 2)
4 a y
4
3
y = 1.08x
2
1
0
h = 20t 5t2
0 2
4 6 8 10 x
b 10 years
c y
1
y = 0.92x
0.75
0.5
1 2 3 4 t
b i 20 m
ii
4s
17 a
A
8 a y
12
10
1 2 3 4 5 r
h
20
16
20
A = r2
30
b A
80
60
b h
c 250 campers
15 a
y = x
b y
2
1
0
6 8 10 n
b 8 days
3
2
8
4
0
1000
14 a A =
n
b 7 years
11 y = 5x2
12 a m = 0.45l3
b 56.25 g
c 4.8cm
7 a y
1
0
c 50
e More than 100 people
2 a
1000
64
13 y =
x
3 4
P = 5n
0
500
V = 5000(0.8)n
2000
1000
0
P = 10n 500
2000
1500
1000
500
8 12 16 20 n
0 4
5000
4000
3000
120
C = 500(1.04)n
b $740
c 2024
10 a V
E = 24n n2
150
2
0
1 a P = 10n 500
b, d
P
500
250
b 10 s
5 a E
Extended response
C
1000
750
50
10
0
15
0
20
0
4 a
18 000
16 000
14 000
12 000
10 000
0
0.25
0
0 2 4 6 8 x
d 8 years
A = 10 000(1.06)n
2 4
6 8 10 n
b $16000
c 7 years
Chapter 13
Body measurements
13A Drawing scatterplots
Do you know your height and weight? It is reasonable to assume that a taller person of average build
is heavier than a shorter person of similar build. In this section we are going to compare various
measurements and try and develop a few rules that will allow us to make an estimate of one
measurement when given another.
The table below shows the height and weight (mass) of a group of football players in the 2013
St GeorgeIllawarra Dragons squad.
Player
Height
Mass
Player
Height
Mass
Matt Cooper
Nathan Fien
Brett Morris
Jason Nightingale
187 cm
182 cm
183 cm
183 cm
95 kg
84 kg
93 kg
91 kg
Michael Weyman
Jack de Belin
Ben Creagh
Dan Hunt
185 cm
188 cm
191 cm
188 cm
113 kg
107 kg
103 kg
106 kg
Interactivity
int2789
Scatterplots
Mass (kg)
105
100
95
90
85
80
180
182
184
186
188
Height (cm)
190
192
When drawing a scatterplot, it is important to choose the correct variable to assign to each of the
axes. The convention is to place the independent variable on the xaxis and the dependent variable on
the yaxis. The independent variable in an experiment or investigation is the variable that is deliberately
controlled or adjusted by the investigator. The dependent variable is the variable that responds to changes
in the independent variable.
Neither of the variables involved in the football example is controlled in any way, but we might normally
expect that a persons weight may change according to their height more than the other way around. As
Weight is the dependent variable, we graph it on the vertical axis and the Height on the horizontal axis.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
The table below shows the height and mass of ten Year 12 students.
Height (cm)
Mass (kg)
120
45
124
50
130
54
135
59
142
60
148
65
160
70
164
78
170
75
175
80
WRITE
Mass (kg)
Method 1: Technologyfree
80
70
60
50
40
30
0
Method 2: Technologyenabled
1
Note that the graphics calculator sets the values on the x and yaxes automatically. You can press
! 3 (VWindow) to set the scale as you see fit.
Obtain the heights and weights (or masses) of a group of 20 people and display the data on a scatterplot.
Compare the differences between this group and the football players.
Once we have obtained a set of data and put the data onto a scatterplot it is useful to draw a line of
best fit, if possible. A line of best fit is a line that we draw on the scatterplot as close as possible to as
many points on the scatterplot.
When fitting a line of best fit there should be an equal number of points above and below the line.
Forexample, if there are 12 points in the data set there should be 6 above the line and 6 below the
line.This may appear logical or even obvious but fitting a line by eye involves a considerable margin
oferror.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
x
THINK
1
Fit a line where 4 points are above the line. Using a clear plastic
ruler, try to fit the best line.
DRAW
x
3
The first attempt has only 3 points below the line where there
should be 4. Make refinements.
x
4
Once the scatterplot has been drawn, we can determine if any pattern is evident. Worked example 2
shows how, as a general rule, as height increases so does mass.
We can also look to see if the pattern is linear. In Worked example 2, although the points are not in a
perfect straight line, the data approximate a straight line. The figures below show examples of linear and
nonlinear relationships.
Linear relationships
y
Nonlinear relationships
y
In other cases it may be that there is no relationship at all between the two variables. Such a scatterplot
would look like the one below.
y
The table below shows the length and mass of a dozen eggs.
Length (cm)
Mass (g)
6.2
60
3.9
15
4.5
25
5.8
50
7.2
95
7.6
110
6.1
55
6.7
75
7.3
95
5.1
35
6.0
54
7.3
96
relationship is linear.
THINK
WRITE
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
3 4 5 6
Length (cm)
Once a line of best fit has been drawn we are able to use our knowledge of linear functions to find the
equation of that line.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
102 90 85 92 99 76 84 82 90
Weight (kg)
80
77 75 77 81 65 68 71 79
a
Represent the data in a scatterplot, and draw a line
b
Use your line to find an equation to relate the weight
to waist measurement.
THINK
number of sections on
the horizontal axis and
the fare on the vertical
axis.
2
90
80
70
Weight (kg)
WRITE
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
20
40
60
Waist (cm)
80
100
120
b b = 20
W = 0.59x + 20
Exercise 13A
Drawing scatterplots
Height (cm)
193
206
191
178
173
172
170
167
166
172
185
178
180
Reach (cm)
208
216
203
180
183
171
170
170
164
171
185
180
178
measurements.
Name
Miranda Kerr
Gisele Bundchen
Elle McPherson
Megan Gale
Jennifer Hawkins
Kate Moss
Heidi Klum
Naomi Campbell
Brooke Burke
Brooklyn Decker
Cindy Crawford
Lara Bingle
Height
175 cm
180 cm
183 cm
180 cm
180 cm
173 cm
185 cm
175 cm
170 cm
172 cm
177 cm
168 cm
Waist
61 cm
63 cm
62 cm
64 cm
67 cm
61 cm
60 cm
65 cm
58 cm
60 cm
66 cm
60 cm
22
21
24
23
22
19
21
24
20
21
17
17
18
18
19
16
20
21
17
18
25
26
26
27
22
22
19
23
21
25
21
22
23
22
19
18
17
18
20
19
relationship is linear.
4 The table below shows the heights of a group of people (in metres) and the surface area of skin on
their bodies (in square metres).
Height (m)
1.6
1.66
1.69
1.7
1.74
1.77
1.77
1.8
1.82
1.6
1.64
1.7
1.71
1.82
1.9
1.95
1.95
2.2
40 35 30 33 35 32 33 39 37 36
12 5 32 15 18 9 17 16 27 30
x
C y
D y
x
Chapter 13 Mathematics and health 367
x
x
C y
D y
8 Give an example of a situation where the scatterplot may look like the ones below.
a y
b y
Further development
9 If a relationship appears to exist and if one quantity increases and the other also increases, then the
relationship is said to be a positive one. If as one quantity increases the other decreases, then the
relationship is said to be negative.
For each of the following state whether you would expect a relationship to exist and if so whether
it would be positive or negative.
a Time spent studying and the marks achieved
b The number of hours spent training for a cricket team and the number of runs scored
c Age of a person and income level
d Amount spent each week on groceries and the number of hours television watched
e The amount spent on petrol each week and the distance driven
10 For each of the scatterplots drawn below state:
i if a linear relationship exists
ii if a relationship exists, whether that relationship is positive or negative.
b y
c y
a y
d y
e y
f y
The questions below represent data collected by groups of students conducting different
environmental projects. The students have to fit a straight line to their data sets.
Note: For many of these questions your answers may differ somewhat from those provided at the end
of the chapter. The answers are provided as a guide but there are likely to be individual differences
when fitting straight lines by eye.
368 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
11 Fit a straight line to the data in the scatterplots using the equalnumberofpoints
method.
a y
b y
x
d y
e y
x
f y
x
g y
c y
h y
x
i y
12 For each of the following draw a line of best fit and for each find:
i the gradient
ii the vertical intercept.
y
a y
b
70
70
60
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
0
x
x
0 2 4 6 8 10
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
y
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
10 15 20 25
13 WE4 The table below shows the length of an elastic when stretched by a force expressed in
newtons.
Force
Length
440
450
462
470
484
492
500
508
518
528
a Represent the data in a scatterplot, and draw a line of best fit by eye.
b Use your line to find an equation to relate the length (L) to the force (f ).
c Explain the meaning of the vertical intercept and gradient of the line in this context.
Chapter 13 Mathematics and health 369
13B
Correlation
Correlation is a description of the relationship that exists between two variables. When one variable
increases with another, it is said that there is a positive correlation between the variables. In such a case,
the median regression line will have a positive gradient. Similarly, if one variable decreases while the
other increases, the median regression line will have a negative gradient and the correlation is negative.
Consider the following examples in which ten Year 11 students were surveyed to find the amount of
time in hours that they spend doing exercise each week. This was compared with their blood cholesterol
level.
6
12
16
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Period of exercise (h)
In this example there seems to be a general downward trend, and the line of best fit therefore has a
negative gradient. As the amount of exercise increases, the level of blood cholesterol decreases.
Notice that in this case the points are not as closely aligned as in the previous examples. We can say
that the relationship (or correlation) between the variables is only weak. In general terms, the closer that
the points are to forming a straight line, the stronger the relationship is between the variables.
Sometimes we find that there is no relationship between the variables. In the scatterplot below,
a researcher was looking for a link between peoples heights and their IQs. The points appear to be
randomly dispersed across the scatterplot. In cases like this, it can be concluded that there is no clear
relationship between the variables.
IQ
140
120
100
80
60
120 140 160 180 200
Height (m)
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Weight (kg)
In the figure on the right, describe the correlation as being positive or negative.
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190
Height (cm)
THINK
Weight (kg)
WRITE
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190
Height (cm)
The strength of a correlation is measured using the Pearsons Moment Correlation Coefficient. The
correlation coefficient is a measure the relationship between two variables.
The correlation coefficient is a number that lies between 1 and +1. It measures how close the points
on a scatterplot are to being in a straight line. Your calculator will give you this value and it is assigned
the pronumeral r.
A correlation coefficient of:
1 means that there is a perfect negative correlation. On the scatterplot the points will be in a perfect
straight line with a negative gradient.
+1 means that there is a perfect positive correlation. On the scatterplot the points will be in a perfect
straight line with a positive gradient.
0 means there is no relationship at all between the two variables.
Any other correlation coefficient will indicate whether there is a positive or negative relationship
between the variables and how strong that relationship is. The closer the correlation coefficient is to 1
the stronger the negative relationship is, the closer to +1 it is the stronger the positive relationship. The
diagram below demonstrates this a bit further.
Correlation coefficient
Description
Interactivity
int0183
Pearsons
product moment
correlation
coefficient
Scatterplot
(continued)
Chapter 13 Mathematics and health 371
(continued)
Correlation coefficient
Description
Scatterplot
No correlation
The correlation coefficient is found using a calculator once the data has been entered. Check with your
teacher on how your calculator calculates the value of r.
Once we have calculated the correlation coefficient we are then able to comment on the strength of
that correlation.
Again consider the data used earlier in the chapter about the football team.
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
The data below shows the heights (cm) and mass (kg) of the players in a football squad.
Player
Matt Cooper
Nathan Fien
Brett Morris
Jason Nightingale
Height
187 cm
182 cm
183 cm
183 cm
Mass
95 kg
84 kg
93 kg
91 kg
Player
Michael Weyman
Jack de Belin
Ben Creagh
Dan Hunt
Height
185 cm
188 cm
191 cm
188 cm
Mass
113 kg
107 kg
103 kg
106 kg
Use a calculator to find the correlation coefficient and interpret the strength of the correlation.
372 Maths Quest HSC Mathematics General 2
THINK
WRITE
r = 0.62
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
WRITE