You are on page 1of 66

PLANNING 1 SITE

PLANNING AND LANDSCAPE


ARCHITECTURE
Presented and compiled by: Ar. DIANE A. JOSE

COURSE DESCRIPTION

The artistic and functional arrangement of buildings,


open spaces, service areas, circulation and other
external areas; techniques in the enhancement and
design of exterior environments.
No.

of units per lecture/studio: 3 units - Lecture


No. of contact hours per week: 3 hours - Lecture

COURSE OBJECTIVES
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Explain the art of site planning & landscape
architecture, exposition on their principles and methods of
construction.
2. Describe the ecological, social, psychological, aesthetic
& functional basis of site planning.
3. Relate the social Issues & implications of site planning.
4. To relate history & planning theories to ecology and
sustainable development.

COURSE OUTLINE
1.0 Introduction to Site Planning and Landscape Architecture
2.0 Parameters of Site Selection and Analysis
3.0 Ecological Considerations of Site:
3.1 Ground form
3.2 Soil and geology
3.3 Water Resources
3.4 Microclimate
3.5 Orientation

COURSE OUTLINE
4.0 Social and Psychological Considerations
4.1 Site Values/Social Impact
4.2 Behavior Settings
4.3 User requirements
4.4 Cultural/Historical Significance
4.5 Activity/Communication Linkages
4.6 Pertinent Laws
4.6.1 Local government ordinances
4.6.2 Land use and zoning
4.6.3 Others

COURSE OUTLINE
5.0 Aesthetic and Physical Considerations
5.1 Site Context
5.2 Image/Symbols
5.3 Sensuous Qualities
5.4 Vocabulary of space
5.4.1 Sensuous Forms
6.0 Movement Systems:
6.1 Pedestrian
6.2 Vehicular
6.3 Road layouts

COURSE OUTLINE
7.0 Site Development
8.0 Landscape Design
9.0 Concepts and Principles of Green Architecture as
applied in site planning and landscape design
10.0 Cost Factors

GRADING SYSTEM
PERFORMANCE-BASED OUTCOMES
(70% Passing Grade)

Class Requirements (CR): 60%


Quizzes, Drawings, Project
Major Examinations (ME): 40%

SEMESTRAL GRADE COMPUTATION:


Midterm Grade (40% SG) = CR + ME
Final Grade (60% SG) = CR + FE
SEMESTRAL GRADE (SG) = MG (40%) + FG (60%)

CLASS MGT AND POLICY

30mins leeway (will start at 1:31PM)


NO MAKE-UP TESTS FOR LATE COMERS AND
ABSENT STUDENTS except for students with valid
reasons according to EARIST STUDENT HANDBOOK:
FORCE

MAJEURE
DEATH OF IMMEDIATE FAMILY
SICKNESS (with MEDICAL CERTIFICATE)

Arrange and clean the room before the class starts


Multimedia Projector Payment = Php100.00 per
hour

FUNDAMENTALS OF SITE
PLANNING
SITE PLANNING AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Presented and compiled by: Ar. DIANE A. JOSE

SITE PLANNING AND LANDSCAPE


ARCHITECTURE
Sustainability and Site Design

FACTS:

Humans have a significant impact on the world environment.


60 percent of the earths land surface is under the management of
people but that 100 percent of the world is affected by the
practices of that management.
Relationship of people, per capita rate of consumption, and the
economic efficiency of consumption.
I = PAT (Impact = Population Affluence Technology)

Definition of Terms:
Population total of individuals occupying an area or making up a
whole
Affluence abundant of flow or supply or property.
Source:

Site Planning and Landscape Architecture. Copyright 2009, 2002 by The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.

CASE STUDY:

Although the United States has more efficient and


cleaner technologies than some nations, these benefits
may be offset by the rate of consumption afforded by
its relative affluence. Even though China has many more
people, their relative affluence and level of technology
were low historically, but Chinas affluence and
technology level have been increasing rapidly in recent
years. In either case the environmental footprint is
significant.

Source:

Site Planning and Landscape Architecture. Copyright 2009, 2002 by The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.

Action:

To avoid or at least minimize the environmental


impacts of human behaviour it is necessary for
society to adopt a sustainable approach to
development. Sustainability was defined as meeting
the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own
needs.

Source:

Site Planning and Landscape Architecture. Copyright 2009, 2002 by The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.

WHAT IS SITE PLANNING?


Description, Site Elements, Site Selection and Site Analysis

Definition
16

Site planning is the art and science of arranging the


structures on the land and shaping the spaces
between, an arts of arranging USES of land linked
to architecture, engineering, landscape architecture,
and city planning. Site plans locate objects and
activities in SPACE and TIME. These plans may
concern a small cluster of houses, a single building
and its grounds, or something as extensive as a
small community built in a single operation.

Source: Kevin Lynch, Gary Hack; Site Planning, MIT press, Cambridge 1996

SITE ELEMENTS
17

Foreground
Building area
Service area
Play area
Private area
entourage

Scope of work
18

Site Planners designate


the uses of land in
detail by selecting and
analyzing sites, forming
land
use
plans,
organizing
vehicular
and
pedestrian
circulation,
designing
visual
form
and
materials
concepts,
readjusting the existing
landforms
by
design
grading,
providing
proper drainage, and
finally developing the
construction
details
necessary to carry out
their projects.

No matter sites are large or small,


they must be viewed as part of the
total environment.

Related Profession
19

Site
planning
is
professionally exercised
directly
by
landscape
architects, but there are
related
profession
involved
which
are
architects, urban and
regional
planners,
engineers.
On larger commissions
the landscape architect
often serve as a member
of a closely coordinated
professional team, which
includes
architects,
engineers, planners, and
scientist-advisors.

Urban
Planning

Architecture

Site
Planning

Civil
Engineering

Landscape
Architecture

Environment and quality of life


20

Site planning is the organization of the external


physical
environment
to
accommodate
human
behavior. It deals with the qualities and locations
of structures, land, activities and living things. It
creates a pattern of those elements in space and
time, which will be subject to continuous future
management and change.

Spirit of place
Character of the place
Nature of the project
Behavioral studies

Brief History
21

Four basic models


of site planning in
history
1.Fixing the place
2.Defining the
enclosure
3.Sense of order
4.Form of axial

Fixing the space

Sense of order

Defining the enclosure

The form of axial

Brief History
22

The image and form of


the object building are
capable of fixing a place

Fixing the space

Brief History
Defining the enclosure

23

A collection of independent
structures,
which
although
unattached, create a coherent
image of place

Brief History
24

The form of a building can


be such that a place may be
fixed by the enclosure of
the facades

Sense of order

/Apinya/KMUTTarc354intro to site planning

9/3/2004

Brief History
25

Although the kinetic implications of the word


path are somewhat contradictory, paths are
nonetheless
capable
of
forming
coherent,
meaningful images.

The form of axial

Where to start?
From SITE ANALYSIS onwards

Site Planning by

Kevin Lynch and Gary Hack

Site Analysis

is the analysis of the building site which includes the assessment


of its better features as well as its constraints and liabilities
is a vital step in the design process. It involves the evaluation of
an existing or potential site in relation to the development
program, environmental impact, impacts on the community and
adjacent properties, project budget, and schedule.
identifies environmental, program, and development constraints
and opportunities. A well-executed site analysis forms the
essential foundation for a cost-effective, environmentally sensitive,
and rational approach to project development.

SITE APPRECIATION AND ANALYSIS CAN BE EARNED


OUT IN EITHER OF THE FOLLOWING TWO
SITUATIONS:

SITE FACTORS those relating to the characteristics of the site


USE FACTORS those relating to the proposed use of the site, i.e. the building
program.
Where the proposed use of the site is predetermined, and site analysis and site planning
are concerned with determining, how best the proposed use can be fitted to the site.
In particularly large scale regional situations site appreciation and analysis may be
carried out to determine what the land is best suited for.
Whereas the first type of situation relates to the architectural scale (e.g. site planning of
housing. campuses etc.) the second is concerned with decisions at the town planning and
landscape planning scale.
Whenever a site is to be developed for a particular building program, two sets of
factors have to be considered.

How to start?
PLANNING PROCESS

John Simonds

PLANNING - DESIGN PROCESS

Synthesis Gap
SYNTHESIS - combining of various components into
whole: the process of combining different ideas,
influences, or objects into a new whole.

Synthesis Gap

Synthesis Gap

3 General Activities of the


Planning-Design Process
1. Research
Program

Development
Site Inventory

2. Analysis
Site

Analysis

3. Synthesis
Conceptual

Design
Preliminary Design
Site Plan/Master Plan

Getting started
SURVEY

Methods of Survey

A survey is a checklist of information or data


pertaining to a site. Such a list would be drawn up
after an initial analysis of the problem. To guide the
first survey, information would be gathered
continuously as the problem develops.

Examples of Physical Attributes


Sub-Category

Attribute

Soils

Bearing Capacity
Stability
Erodability
Fertility

Topography

Elevation
Slope

Hydrology

Surface Drainage
Aquifer recharge areas
Depth to seasonal water table

Geology

Seismic hazards
Depth to bedrock

Climate

winds
Solar access

Examples of Biological Attributes


Sub-Category

Attribute

Vegetation

Plant communities
Specimen trees
Exotic invasive species

Wildlife

Endangered of threatened species habitats

Examples of Cultural Attributes


Sub-Category

Attribute

Land Use

Prior land use


Land use on adjoining properties

Legal

Land ownership
Land use regulations
Easements and deed restrictions

Utilities

Water
Electric
Sanitary sewer

Circulation

Traffic volume
Street function (e.g. arterial, collector)

Historic

Archeological sites

Sensory

Noise
Visual quality
Odors

Survey

Steps that could be followed in conducting a


survey:
Initial Personal Reconnaissance
Notes
Sketches
Photographs
Apparent

character
Possibilities

Survey

Collection of existing data based on available

Contour maps
Aerial photographs
Geologic info. and maps
soil and water survey
Climatological records
Ecological studies
Market reports
Traffic studies
Legal and public controlled
documents
Official proposals
Historical records
Current controversies

Survey

Summary description of the off-site


context and its changes:

Geographic location

Surrounding population

Social and political structure

General economy, i.e., agricultural, industrial, trade,


etc.

Ecological and hydrographic systems, i.e., streams,


rivers, plant life

Land use pattern, i.e., zoning, industrial, residential, etc.

Access systems. i.e., road networks, transit networks,


etc.

Principal off-site estimation of facilities

Survey

Data on the site and its


immediate context:
Personal data
Geology and Soil Data
Underlying

geology, rock
characteristics and depth
Soil type and depth value as
an engineering medium and
as plant medium
Hills, ledges, land or rock
slides

Survey

Water
Existing

water bodies; its purity and variation


Natural and man made drainages, channel-flows; its
capacity and purity
Surface drainage systems/patterns; its amount of
blockages, undrained depressions
Water table, its elevation and fluctuation
Water supply, quality and quantity

Survey

Topography
Pattern

of landform, i.e.,
rocky, ridges, ledges, sandy,
etc.
Contour, i.e., sloping, rolling,
level terrain
Slope analysis
Visibility analysis
Circulation analysis
Unique features, i.e,, bodies of
water, water falls, view, etc.

Survey

Climate
Regional data and variations of:
Temperature

and precipitation

Humidity
Solar

angle
Cloud cover
Wind direction and force

Survey

Local micro-climates:

Warm and cold

Slope, i.e., rise and fall of various climates

Air

Drainage

Wind deflection, i.e., breeze direction

Shade

Heat reflection

Storage plant indications, i.e., plant cover

Atmospheric quality, i.e., smell, sound

Survey

Ecology
Dominant

plant/animal
communities, location and
relative stability
Dependence on existing
factors,
self-regulation
and sensitivity to change
Tapping of general plant
cover including wooded
areas

Survey

Man-made structures
Existing

buildings, i.e., building outline, location, floor area,


height, elevation,, type, condition, use
Circulation facilities, i.e., roads, paths, rail links, transit
points
Utilities, i.e., storm sewers, sanitary sewers, water lines,
electricity, telephone, etc., location, elevation, capacity

Survey

Sensuous qualities
Character

and relation of
visual spaces
Viewpoints, vistas, visual focal
points
Character and rhythm of visual
sequences
Quality and variation of light
and sound, smell and feel

Survey

Cultural Data
Residents and using population
No. and composition, i.e., male and female, age group, etc.
Social structures and institutions: tribal community, church-based
org., cultural compositions, etc.
Economic structure: depressed areas, slum, affluent, etc.
Political structure: govt. agencies, mayor, gang leader, radical
groups/MILF, MNLF, etc.
Current changes and problems

Survey

On-site and adjacent behavior


Settings
Nature
Location
Rhythm
Stability
Participants
Conflicts

Survey

Site-values, rights and


restraints:
Ownership,

easements and

other rights
Economic values
Accepted territories, i.e.,
gang lands
Political jurisdictions, i.e.,
boundaries

Survey

Past and future


Site

history and its traces


Public and private intentions for future use of the site,
conflicts

Images
Group

and industrial identification and organization


of the site
Markings attached to the site, symbolic expressions
Hopes, fears, wishes, preferences

Use of Correlation
Data Correlation

Data correlation

Classification of site by areas of similar structures, quality


and problems
Identification of significant key-points, lines and areas

Data correlation

Analysis of current and likely future changes in the


dynamic aspect of the site
Identification of significant problems and possibilities

Data correlation

When selecting a site it should be noted that future


considerations and expansions should be met. Never
select a site for its immediate application.

Comprehensive Definition
Site planning, then, is the organization of the external
physical environment to accommodate human behavior. It
deals with the qualities and locations of structures, land,
activities and living things. It creates a pattern of those
elements in space and time, which will be subject to
continuous future management and change. The technical
output - the grading plans, utility layouts, survey
locations, planting plans, sketches, diagrams, and
specifications - are simply a conventional way of
specifying this complex organization.

NEW DOCTRINE OF SITE DETERMINISM


A

place has an inherent right to its proper


form, a carrying capacity, a best use.

References:

A Guide to Site and Environmental Planning by Harvey


M. Rubenstein
Site Planning by Kevin Lynch, Gary Hack
Site Planning and Design by Thomas Russ