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Koryo/ Goryeo Dynasty

- Korean dynasty established in 918


- This kingdom later gave name to the modern exonym "Korea"
- By the 14th century, Goryeo had lost much of its power due to the Mongols and their
Yuan dynasty
The Koryo dynasty was established in 918A.C. in South Korea. This later gave name to the modern
exonym Korea. However, by the 14th century, due to the Mongols and Yuan dynasty, Koryo lost
power and eventually was replaced by the Chosun Dynasty.

Celadon
Celadon is a renowned type of ceramic in asian culture. It typically appears gray-green in hue.
Celadon in Koryo ranges from undecorated plain objects to masterpieces with incised, carved, mold
impressed, or inlaid designs. The celadon pottery marked a technological and conceptual shift in the
history of Korean ceramics. The unique blue-grey-green of Korean celadon is caused by the iron
content of the glaze with a small titanium contaminant which makes the color greener. However,
Koryo potters approached this method in a different way; instead of relying solely on underglaze
incised designs which creates a bold contrast with the glaze. This technique is known as sanggam.
- This exquisite ware typically appears gray-green in hue
- The color of Goryeo celadon owes much to the raw materialsspecifically, the presence
of iron in the clay and of iron oxide, manganese oxide, and quartz particles in the glazeas well
as to the firing conditions inside the kiln. Temperatures were commonly around, or below, 1150C,
and the level of oxygen within the kiln was dramatically reduced at some stage of the firing; this is
known as a reducing, rather than an oxidizing, atmosphere. Goryeo celadon ranges from a plain,
undecorated type to objects with incised, carved, mold-impressed, or inlaid designs, and to
vessels embellished with colorful compounds like iron oxide (black or brown) and copper oxide
(red), and also with gold.
- Celadon represents a major technological and conceptual shift in the history of Korean
ceramics.
- The distinctive blue-grey-green of Korean celadon is caused by the iron content of
the glaze with a minimum of titanium contaminant, which modifies the color to a greener
cast, as can be seen in Chinese Yueh wares. However, the Goryeo potters took the glaze in
a different direction than their Chinese forebears; instead of relying solely on underglaze
incised designs, they eventually developed the sanggam technique of inlaying black
(magnetite) and white (quartz) which created bold contrast with the glaze. Scholars also
theorize that this developed in part to an inlay tradition in Korean metalworks and lacquer,
and also to the dissatisfaction with the nearly invisible effect of incising when done under a
thick celadon glaze
Images

http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/art/2012/10/135_122458.html
https://www.kccla.org/english/calendar_view.asp?cid=86&imonth=7&iyear=2008
http://www.koreantopnews.com/Culture/korean-ceramic-tea-bowls-and-tea-culture/
https://koreanartscrafts.wordpress.com/

- http://leeum.samsungfoundation.org/html_eng/exhibition/exhibition_view.asp
Cross Cultural
The first celadons were made from the traditional pots of the Song dynasty in China. Which is why
the early examples of Koryo pottery emits a sense of chinese styles - such as the shapes of bottles
and bowls, and decorative motifs of lotuses, peonies, flying parrots, and waterfowls. What made the
Koryo pots unique from the chinese celadons was without doubt, the inlaid or sangnam technique
where they carved on the dry clay body and filling in the carved space with black or white slip.
- Initially, Goryeo potters learned much of the technical expertise from the celadon
traditions of Song-dynasty (9601279) China, particularly of its southern coast. A Song envoy,
Xu Jing (10911153), who visited the Goryeo capital, Gaeseong, in 1123, noted the
resemblance of Goryeo ceramics to the celadons of China's Yue and Ru kilns. We see in early
Goryeo examples a conscious emulation of certain stylistic features of Chinese waressuch
as the shapes of bottles and bowls, and standard decorative motifs including lotuses, peonies,
flying parrots, and scenes of waterfowl by the pond.
- By the mid-twelfth century, Goryeo potters and patrons turned to articulating native
tastes. This coincided with the consolidation of major celadon industries near the southwestern
coast of the peninsula, in Jeolla Provincethe Buan and Gangjin regions especially. The latter
remains, today, the center of modern celadon production and of revivals of Goryeo traditions. The
culmination of Goryeo celadon can be seen in inlaid (sanggam) celadon, a rarity in China. The
delicate technique of sanggam involves etching the desired motifs on the dry clay body and filling
in the carved space with black and/or white slip, after which the translucent glaze is applied and
the vessel fired. The best of Goryeo inlaid celadon is breathtaking in its splendid presentation of
clean form, vibrant design, and subtle yet alluring color combination of white, black, and green.

work cited
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http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cela/hd_cela.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goryeo#Goryeo_celadon
http://exhibition.ceramics.ntpc.gov.tw/celadon/en/b_products_01-2.html