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Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out

mathematical procedures with precision and fluency.

Content Domain: Number and Quantity

Target B [m]: Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.

Tasks for this target will require students to demonstrate understanding of operations with

rational and irrational numbers. Tasks that ask students to explain why operations with

rational and irrational numbers lead to either rational or irrational numbers will contribute

evidence to Claim 3.

Standards: N-RN.B Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.

N-RN.B, N-RN.B.3

Standards for Purposes

of Planning for Vertical

Scaling:

numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an

irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero

rational number and an irrational number is irrational.

Related Grade 8 Standards

8.NS.A Know that there are numbers that are not rational,

and approximate them by rational numbers.

8.NS.A.1 Know that numbers that are not rational are called

irrational. Understand informally that every number has a

decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal

expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion

which repeats eventually into a rational number.

DOK Level(s): 1, 2, 3

Achievement LEVEL Descriptors:

8.NS.A, 8.NS.A.1

RANGE Achievement

Level Descriptor

(Range ALD)

between a rational and an irrational number.

Level 2 students should be able to perform operations on

rational and irrational numbers.

Target B: Level 3 students should be able to understand and explain that

Use properties of the sum and product of a rational number and a nonzero

rational and irrational irrational number are irrational.

numbers Level 4 students should be able to provide a specific example

given a generalization statement, such as the sum of a rational

number and an irrational number is irrational.

Evidence Required: 1. The student provides examples of addition or multiplication

problems that will have sums or products of a specified type

(either rational or irrational).

2. The student determines whether the sum of two numbers is a

rational number or an irrational number.

3. The student determines whether the product of two numbers is

a rational number or an irrational number.

4. The student provides an abstract generalization that the sum

or product of any two rational numbers is rational, the sum of

a rational number and an irrational number is irrational, and

Version 3.0

Allowable Stimulus

Materials:

Construct-Relevant

Vocabulary:

Allowable Tools:

Target-Specific

Attributes:

Non-Targeted

Constructs:

Accessibility Guidance:

number is irrational.

Multiple Choice, multiple correct response; Matching Tables; Hot

Spot

products or sums of rational and irrational numbers, number type

(rational or irrational)

rational number, irrational number, real number

None

Only sums and products of two numbers are used.

Element/Design guidelines 1 when developing items.

Language Key Considerations:

Use simple, clear, and easy-to-understand language

needed to assess the construct or aid in the understanding

of the context

Avoid sentences with multiple clauses

Use vocabulary that is at or below grade level

Avoid ambiguous or obscure words, idioms, jargon,

unusual names and references

Visual Elements/Design Key Considerations:

Include visual elements only if the graphic is needed to

assess the construct or it aids in the understanding of the

context

Use the simplest graphic possible with the greatest degree

of contrast, and include clear, concise labels where

necessary

Avoid crowding of details and graphics

Development Notes:

which selects items based on Claims and targets, not task

models. As such, careful consideration is given to making sure

fully accessible items are available to cover the content of every

Claim and target, even if some item formats are not fully

accessible using current technology. 2

None

http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/Guidelines/AccessibilityandAccommodations/GeneralAccessibilityGuidelines.pdf

2

For more information about student accessibility resources and policies, refer to

http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/SmarterBalanced_Guidelines.pdf

Version 3.0

Task Model 1

Response Type:

Hot Spot

DOK Level 2

N-RN.B.3

Explain why the sum or

product of two rational

numbers is rational;

that the sum of a

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational; and that the

product of a nonzero

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational.

Evidence Required:

1. The student provides

examples of addition or

multiplication problems

that will have sums or

products of a specified

type (rational or

irrational).

addition or multiplication problem with either a rational or

irrational product or sum.

Stimulus Guidelines:

Four or more numbers are given, of which

o two are rational numbers and

o two are irrational numbers.

where:

o is rational;

o is an integer such that

is positive when is even, and

may be negative when is odd; and

o is a whole number such that 2 9.

Item difficulty can be adjusted via these example

methods, but are not limited to these methods:

o radicands lead to roots that do or do not simplify to

rational numbers

o sum/product of the radicands does or does not

lead to roots that simplify to a rational number

o integer or fraction coefficients may be added in

front of the radicals

o radicands can be whole numbers or fractions

TM1

Stimulus: The student is presented with rational and irrational

numbers.

Example Stem 1: Click on two numbers whose sum, when

added, would be irrational.

Tools: None

Numbers

-5

32

2

3

1

3

added, would be rational.

Numbers

-5

32

2

3

1

3

multiplied, would be irrational.

Numbers

-5

32

2

3

1

3

Version 3.0

Task Model 1

Response Type:

Hot Spot

multiplied, would be rational.

Numbers

-5

DOK Level 2

N-RN.B.3

Explain why the sum or

product of two rational

numbers is rational;

that the sum of a

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational; and that the

product of a nonzero

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational.

2

3

32

1

3

Rubric:

(1 point) The student selects two numbers that satisfy the given

conditions. Multiple correct responses are possible and will all

need to be included in the scoring rubric. Only example

responses are shown below.

Example Stem 1:

Numbers

-5

Example Stem 2:

Numbers

-5

32

2

3

1

3

32

2

3

1

3

32

2

3

1

3

32

2

3

1

3

Evidence Required:

1. The student provides

examples of addition or

multiplication problems

that will have sums or

products of a specified

type (rational or

irrational).

Example Stem 3:

Tools: None

Numbers

-5

Example Stem 4:

Numbers

-5

8

7

Spot items are not

currently able to be

Brailled. Minimize the

number of items

developed to this TM.

Version 3.0

Task Model 2

Response Type:

Matching Tables

DOK Level 2

N-RN.B.3

Explain why the sum or

product of two rational

numbers is rational;

that the sum of a

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational; and that the

product of a nonzero

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational.

Evidence Required:

2. The student

determines whether the

sum of two numbers is a

rational number or an

irrational number.

expressions that contain the sums of rational and/or irrational

numbers.

Stimulus Guidelines:

Answer choices include 5 or 6 sums.

o is rational;

o is an integer such that

is positive when is even, and

may be negative when is odd; and

o is a whole number such that 2 9.

Item difficulty can be adjusted via these example

methods, but is not limited to these methods:

o radicands lead to roots that do/do not simplify to

rational numbers

o sum/product of the radicands does/does not lead

to roots that simplify to a rational number

o integer or fraction coefficients may be added in

front of the radicands

o radicands can be whole numbers or fractions

TM2a

Stimulus: The student is presented with a list of expressions

that contain the sums of rational and/or irrational numbers.

Example Stem: Select the appropriate box to identify each

expression as having either a rational or irrational sum.

Tools: None

57 +

Rational

Irrational

4 + 17

12.4 + (11)

4

+(1010)

5

rational or irrational (e.g., Irrational, Rational, Rational,

Irrational).

Version 3.0

Task Model 2

TM2b

Stimulus: The student is presented with a table of numbers.

Response Type:

Example Stem: Select each box in the table where the numbers

from corresponding rows and columns will have a rational sum.

Matching Tables

DOK Level 2

N-RN.B.3

Explain why the sum or

product of two rational

numbers is rational;

that the sum of a

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational; and that the

product of a nonzero

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational.

Evidence Required:

2. The student

determines whether the

sum of two numbers is a

rational number or an

irrational number.

Tools: None

4

4

rational or irrational (e.g., see below).

4

4

Version 3.0

Task Model 3

as rational or irrational.

Response Type:

Stimulus Guidelines:

where:

o is rational;

o is an integer such that

is positive when is even, and

may be negative when is odd; and

is a whole number such that 2 9.

Item difficulty can be adjusted via these example

methods, but is not limited to these methods:

o radicands lead to roots that do/do not simplify to

rational numbers

o sum/product of the radicands does/does not lead

to roots that simplify to a rational number

o integer or fraction coefficients may be added in

front of the radicands

o radicands can be whole numbers or fractions

Matching Tables

DOK Level 2

N-RN.B.3

Explain why the sum or

product of two rational

numbers is rational;

that the sum of a

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational; and that the

product of a nonzero

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational.

Evidence Required:

3. The student

determines whether the

product of two numbers

is a rational number or

an irrational number.

TM3a

Stimulus: The student is presented with a list of expressions

that contain the product of rational and/or irrational numbers.

Example Stem: Select the appropriate box to identify each

expression as having either a rational or irrational product.

Rational

Tools: None

57

Irrational

1

7

4 17

12.4 (11)

(1010)

5

rational or irrational (e.g., Irrational, Rational, Rational,

Irrational).

Version 3.0

Task Model 3

TM3b

Stimulus: The student is presented with a table of numbers.

Response Type:

Example Stem: Select each box in the table where the numbers

from corresponding rows and columns will have a rational

product.

Matching Tables

DOK Level 2

N-RN.B.3

Explain why the sum or

product of two rational

numbers is rational;

that the sum of a

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational; and that the

product of a nonzero

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational.

Evidence Required:

3. The student

determines whether the

product of two numbers

is a rational number or

an irrational number.

Tools: None

rational or irrational (e.g., see below).

4

4

Version 3.0

Task Model 3

Response Type:

Multiple Choice,

multiple correct

response

DOK Level 1

N-RN.B.3

Explain why the sum or

product of two rational

numbers is rational;

that the sum of a

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational; and that the

product of a nonzero

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational.

Evidence Required:

3. The student

determines whether the

product of two numbers

is a rational number or

an irrational number.

Tools: None

rational product when multiplied by a given a rational or

irrational number.

Stimulus Guidelines:

where:

o is rational;

o is an integer such that

is positive when is even, and

may be negative when is odd; and

is a whole number such that 2 9.

Item difficulty can be adjusted via these example

methods, but is not limited to these methods:

o radicands lead to roots that do/do not simplify to

rational numbers

o sum/product of the radicands does/does not lead

to roots that simplify to a rational number

o integer or fraction coefficients may be added in

front of the radicands

o radicands can be whole numbers or fractions

TM3c

Stimulus: The student is presented with a rational or irrational

number.

Example Stem: Select all numbers that will produce a rational

number when multiplied by 75.

A.

1

5

B. 7125

C. 5 + 5

D. 3

rational (e.g., B, D).

Response Type: Multiple Choice, multiple correct response

Version 3.0

Task Model 3

sums and products as rational or irrational.

Response Type:

Stimulus Guidelines:

where:

o is rational;

o is an integer such that

is positive when is even, and

may be negative when is odd; and

o is a whole number such that 2 9.

Item difficulty can be adjusted via these example

methods, but is not limited to these methods:

o radicands lead to roots that do/do not simplify to

rational numbers

o sum/product of the radicands does/does not lead

to roots that simplify to a rational number

o integer or fraction coefficients may be added in

front of the radicands

o radicands can be whole numbers or fractions

Matching Tables

DOK Level 1

N-RN.B.3

Explain why the sum or

product of two rational

numbers is rational;

that the sum of a

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational; and that the

product of a nonzero

rational number and an

irrational number is

irrational.

Evidence Required:

2. The student

determines whether the

sum of two numbers is a

rational number or an

irrational number.

3. The student

determines whether the

product of two numbers

is a rational number or

an irrational number.

Tools: None

TM3d

Stimulus: The student is presented with expressions that

contain the sums and products of rational and/or irrational

numbers.

Example Stem: Select the appropriate box to identify the value

of each expression as being rational or irrational.

57 +

Rational

Irrational

12.4 (11)

4 + 17

1010 1010

products correctly (e.g., Irrational, Rational, Rational, Rational).

Response Type: Matching Tables

10

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