You are on page 1of 337










0LON3RZGHU7HFKQRORJ\
(YDSRUDWLRQDQG6SUD\'U\LQJ




9DJQ:HVWHUJDDUG


1LUR$6
&RSHQKDJHQ'HQPDUN

1,52$6




1,52$6







3UHIDFHWR)LIWK(GLWLRQ

7KHPDWHULDOWKDWIRUPHGWKHEDVLVIRUWKHILUVWHGLWLRQRIWKLVSXEOLFDWLRQHGLWHGLQ
ZDVXVHGDVWHDFKLQJPDWHULDOIRUDJURXSRIVWXGHQWVGXULQJDVHPLQDUDUUDQJHG
E\WKH81RUJDQL]DWLRQ81,'2LQ0RQWHYLGHR8UXJXD\LQ
'HYHORSPHQWRIHYDSRUDWLRQDQGVSUD\GU\LQJWHFKQRORJ\DQGDVVRFLDWHGHTXLSPHQWLV
DW1LURDQHYHURQJRLQJPDWWHU7KLVQHZILIWKHGLWLRQKDVEHHQUHYLVHGWREULQJWKH
UHDGHUVXSWRGDWHZLWKRXUGHYHORSPHQWRI:UDSDURXQGVHSDUDWRUVGHVLJQHGWRLP
SURYHVSDFHUHTXLUHPHQWVIRUHYDSRUDWRUVDQGWKHLURYHUDOOHIILFLHQF\)XUWKHUPRUHD
QHZFKDSWHUGHVFULELQJKRZWRGHVLJQHYDSRUDWRUVWRDYRLGJURZWKRIWKHUPRSKLOLF
EDFWHULDDQGWKHLUVSRUHVKDVEHHQLQFOXGHG
:LWKLQWKHVSUD\GU\LQJWHFKQRORJ\1LURKDVDOVRPDGHVLJQLILFDQWGHYHORSPHQWV7KLV
QHZHGLWLRQGHVFULEHVD&,3DEOHEDJILOWHUUHSODFLQJF\FORQHVWKHUHE\LPSURYLQJWKH
RYHUDOOGU\HUHIILFLHQF\$OVRDFRPSOHWHO\QHZHQYLURQPHQWDOO\IULHQGO\VSUD\GU\LQJ
SODQWZLWKLQWHJUDWHGSDUWLFXODWHDLUILOWHUVDQGIOXLGEHGVKDVEHHQLQFOXGHG
,ZLVKWRH[SUHVVP\JUDWLWXGHWRP\FROOHDJXHVIRUWKHLUYDOXDEOHFRPPHQWVHGLWLQJ
DQGSULQWLQJRIWKLVQHZSXEOLFDWLRQDQGLWLVP\ZLVKWKDWLWFDQEHXVHIXOIRUWUDLQLQJ
DQGHGXFDWLRQRIIRRGDQGGDLU\WHFKQRORJLVWVLQGDLU\VFKRROVDQGXQLYHUVLWLHVDV
ZHOODVVHUYHDVDKDQGERRNIRUHYDSRUDWRUDQGVSUD\GU\HURSHUDWRUV
7KHERRNZLOOEHDYDLODEOHLQWKH(QJOLVK*HUPDQ6SDQLVK,WDOLDQ5XVVLDQDQGODWHU
DOVRLQWKH3ROLVKDQG&KLQHVHODQJXDJH2Q1LUR
VZHESDJHKWWSZZZQLURFRP
\RXZLOOILQGWKH(QJOLVKYHUVLRQLQDQHOHFWURQLFIRUP


1LUR$6&RSHQKDJHQ0DUFK

9DJQ:HVWHUJDDUG




1,52$6




NIRO A/S

Contents

Introduction............................................................................................13
Evaporation ............................................................................................15
Falling Film Evaporators ................................................................................17
Vapour Recompression TVR ................................................................................. 23
Mechanical Vapour Recompression MVR............................................................. 29
Comparison of Energy Consumption in Different Evaporators.............................. 33
Design of Industrial Evaporators ........................................................................... 35

Auxiliary Equipment for the Evaporator.........................................................37


Separators .............................................................................................................. 39

Separators with Tangential Vapour Inlet............................................................... 39


Wrap-Around Separator ........................................................................................ 39

Product Distribution System .................................................................................. 39

Dynamic Distribution System ............................................................................... 39


Static Distribution System..................................................................................... 41

Preheaters .............................................................................................................. 41

Spiral-Tube Preheaters .......................................................................................... 41


Straight-Tube Preheaters ....................................................................................... 43

Pasteurization/Holding Equipment ........................................................................ 43

Bacteriological Requirements ............................................................................... 43


Heat Classified Skim Milk Powder ....................................................................... 45
Keeping Quality of Whole Milk............................................................................ 45
High-Heat Heat-Stable Milk Powder..................................................................... 45
Instant Whole Milk Powder .................................................................................. 45

Preheating Equipment to prevent Thermophile Bacteria Growth........................... 49

Mid-run cleaning................................................................................................... 51
UHT treatment ...................................................................................................... 51
Duplex preheating system ..................................................................................... 51
Contact preheating by direct steam injection ........................................................ 51
Direct contact regenerative preheating.................................................................. 53

Condensation Equipment ....................................................................................... 53

Mixing Condenser ................................................................................................. 55


Surface Condenser ................................................................................................ 55

Vacuum Equipment ............................................................................................... 55

Vacuum Pump ....................................................................................................... 57


Steam Jet Vacuum Unit......................................................................................... 57

Cooling Towers ..................................................................................................... 57


High-Concentrators................................................................................................ 57
Flash Coolers ......................................................................................................... 59
Sealing Water Equipment ...................................................................................... 59
Instrumentation and Automation............................................................................ 59

Feed Flow.............................................................................................................. 61

-5-

1,52$6






3DVWHXUL]DWLRQ7HPSHUDWXUH 
6WHDP3UHVVXUHIRU7KHUPR&RPSUHVVRU 795  
6ROLGV&RQWHQW  
9DFXXPODVWHIIHFWERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUH  

&RQFHQWUDWH3URSHUWLHV




6NLPPLON  


:KROH0LON  
:KH\  

6SUD\'U\LQJ 
'U\LQJ&KDPEHU
+RW$LU6\VWHPDQG$LU'LVWULEXWLRQ 
$LU)LOWUDWLRQ  
$LU+HDWLQJ6\VWHP 

,QGLUHFW+HDWLQJ 

'LUHFW+HDWLQJ  


$LU'LVWULEXWLRQ  

5RWDU\DLUVWUHDP 

3OXJIORZDLUVWUHDP  




)HHG6\VWHP
)HHG7DQNV 
:DWHU7DQN  
&RQFHQWUDWH3XPS 
3UHKHDWLQJ6\VWHP 

3ODWH+HDW([FKDQJHU  

7XEHLQ7XEH+HDW([FKDQJHU  

6FUDSHG6XUIDFH+HDW([FKDQJHU  

'LUHFW6WHDP,QMHFWLRQ'6,  

/HQLHQW6WHDP,QMHFWLRQ/6, 
)LOWHU  
+RPRJHQL]HU+LJK3UHVVXUH3XPS 
)HHG/LQH  


$WRPL]LQJ'HYLFH 
3UHVVXUH1R]]OH$WRPL]DWLRQ 
7ZR)OXLG1R]]OHRU3QHXPDWLF$WRPL]DWLRQ  
5RWDU\$WRPL]DWLRQ 

/LTXLGIHHGUDWH  

3HULSKHUDOVSHHG  

9LVFRVLW\RIWKHOLTXLG 


$WRPL]DWLRQLQ6SUD\'U\HUVIRU0LON3URGXFWV



3UHVVXUH1R]]OHV  


5RWDU\$WRPL]HU




1,52$6

3RZGHU6HSDUDWLRQ6\VWHP
&\FORQH 
%DJ)LOWHUV  
:HW6FUXEEHUV 

5HFLUFXODWLRQZLWK:DWHU 

6LQJOH3DVVZLWK0LONRU:KH\
&,3DEOH%DJ)LOWHU  

&RPSDULVRQRI3RZGHU6HSDUDWRUV 


3QHXPDWLF&RQYH\LQJDQG&RROLQJ6\VWHP
)OXLG%HG$IWHU'U\LQJ&RROLQJ
,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQDQG$XWRPDWLRQ 

0LON3RZGHU7HFKQRORJ\
2QH6WDJH'U\LQJ






0RLVWXUH&RQWHQWLQWKH)LQDO3RZGHU
7HPSHUDWXUHDQG0RLVWXUH&RQWHQWRIWKH'U\LQJ$LU 
6ROLGV&RQWHQWLQWKH&RQFHQWUDWH 
$WRPL]DWLRQ
9LVFRVLW\RIWKH&RQFHQWUDWH 

7ZR6WDJH'U\LQJ 
7ZR6WDJH'U\LQJZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HU 3OXJ)ORZ  
7ZR6WDJH'U\LQJZLWK6WDWLF)OXLG%HG %DFN0L[  

5LQJ)RUPHG)OXLG%HG &RPSDFW'U\HUV 

&LUFXODU)OXLG%HG 06''U\HUV 

6SUD\'U\LQJ3ODQWZLWK,QWHJUDWHG)LOWHUVDQG)OXLG%HGV ,)' 




$JJORPHUDWLRQ
6SUD\'U\LQJ$JJORPHUDWLRQ  

7KHVSRQWDQHRXVSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ

7KHIRUFHGSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ 

7KHVSRQWDQHRXVVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ 

7KHIRUFHGVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ 

6HSDUDWLRQ 

$WWULWLRQ

&ODVVLILFDWLRQ 

$JJORPHUDWHVWUXFWXUHDQGSRZGHUSURSHUWLHV
5HZHW$JJORPHUDWLRQ  

:HWWLQJ

$JJORPHUDWLRQ

5HGU\LQJ

&RROLQJ

6L]LQJ 





1,52$6

+HDW(FRQRP\RID0LON3RZGHU3URGXFWLRQ/LQH 
3UHKHDWLQJ 
3UHKHDWLQJWKH'U\LQJ$LUZLWK&RQGHQVDWH 
3UHKHDWLQJWKH'U\LQJ$LUZLWK9DSRXUIURPWKH(YDSRUDWRU  

+HDW5HFXSHUDWLRQ 
:HW6FUXEEHU  
+HDW5HFXSHUDWRUV 

$LUWR$LU+HDW5HFXSHUDWRU 

$LU/LTXLG$LU+HDW5HFXSHUDWRU 


2WKHU0HDQVRI6DYLQJ(QHUJ\

$QDO\WLFDO0HWKRGV5DZ0LON&RQFHQWUDWHDQG3RZGHU3URSHUWLHV
5DZ0LON4XDOLW\ 
6NLPPLON  
:KROH0LON 
6ZHHW:KH\  

$QDO\VHVIRU5DZ0LON 
$FLGLW\ S+  
7LWUDWDEOH$FLGLW\ 

$QDO\VHVIRU0LON&RQFHQWUDWH 
&RQWHQWRI$LULQ0LON&RQFHQWUDWH  
6ROXELOLW\  
6FRUFKHG3DUWLFOHV 

$QDO\VHVIRU0LON3RZGHU 
0RLVWXUH 
%XON'HQVLW\  
3DUWLFOH'HQVLW\2FFOXGHG$LU  

3DVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHPLONSULRUWRHYDSRUDWLRQ 

$PRXQWRIDLULQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH 

)RDPLQJDELOLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH 

7\SHRIZKHHOXVHGRUVL]HRIQR]]OH 

6ROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH

'U\LQJFRQGLWLRQV RQHVWDJHRUWZRVWDJH 


,QWHUVWLWLDO$LU  
)ORZDELOLW\ 
6ROXELOLW\  
6FRUFKHG3DUWLFOHV 
7RWDO)DW  
6XUIDFH)UHH)DW  
:HWWDELOLW\  




1,52$6

'LVSHUVLELOLW\  


6OXGJH  
6ORZO\'LVSHUVLEOH3DUWLFOHV 6'3  
+RW:DWHU7HVW 
&RIIHH7HVW  
5DWHRI+\GUDWLRQ 

$QDO\VHVIRU:KH\3RZGHU 
7RWDO0RLVWXUHDQG)UHH0RLVWXUH 
+\JURVFRSLFLW\DQG&DNLQJ3URSHUWLHV  

'HK\GUDWLRQRI)RRGVWXIIV
'LIIHUHQW)RRG,QJUHGLHQWV 
3URWHLQV 
&DUERK\GUDWHV  
)DW 
6WDUFK 
2WKHU,QJUHGLHQWV  

2UGLQDU\0LON3RZGHUV
,QVWDQW0LON3RZGHUV 
,QVWDQW6NLP0LON3RZGHU  
,QVWDQW:KROH0LON3RZGHU  

:KH\ 
'XPSLQJ  
8WLOL]DWLRQRI/LTXLG:KH\DV)RGGHU 
3URGXFWLRQRI:KH\3RZGHUIURP7UDGLWLRQDO&KHHVH3URGXFWLRQ  
(YDSRUDWLRQ 

/DFWLF$FLG&RQWHQW 

$PRUSKRXV/DFWRVH&RQWHQW 

0RLVWXUH&RQWHQW
&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQRI:KH\&RQFHQWUDWH  

+HDW7UHDWPHQWEHIRUHWKH(YDSRUDWLRQ

6ROLGV&RQWHQWRIWKH&RQFHQWUDWH

6L]HRIWKH/DFWRVH&U\VWDOV 
6HPL&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQRI:KH\&RQFHQWUDWH 
6SUD\'U\LQJRI:KH\&RQFHQWUDWHV 

6SUD\'U\LQJE\WKH3QHXPDWLF&RQYH\LQJ3URFHVV

6SUD\'U\LQJE\WKH)OXLG%HG3URFHVV

6SUD\'U\LQJE\WKH%HOW3URFHVV

6SUD\'U\LQJRI+LJK&RQFHQWUDWHG:KH\&RQFHQWUDWH
3URGXFWLRQRI$FLG:KH\3RZGHU  
:KH\ZLWK)DW 
0RWKHU/LTXRU 
:KH\3URWHLQV :3&  





1,52$6

3HUPHDWH  

'U\3URFHVV 

:HW3URFHVV

7,;27+(503URFHVV 
/DFWRVH 
'HPLQHUDOL]HG:KH\  

0HPEUDQH)LOWUDWLRQ

,RQ([FKDQJH 

(OHFWURGLDO\VLV


6SHFLDO3URGXFWV
%DE\)RRG 

2UGLQDU\:KROH0LON3RZGHU 

:KROH0LON3RZGHUZLWKDGGHG&DUERK\GUDWHV 

)HUPHQWHG0LON

+XPDQL]HG0LON

3URGXFWVZLWK6WDUFK 
0DQXIDFWXUHRI%DE\)RRG3RZGHU  
&DVHLQDWHV  

%DWFK3URFHVV 

&RQWLQXRXV3URFHVV 

6SUD\'U\LQJRI&DVHLQDWHV 
%DFWHULDFRQWDLQLQJ3URGXFWV  
0LON5HSODFHU  

'U\0L[LQJ6NLPPLON3RZGHUDQG)DW 

'U\LQJDQ(PXOVLRQRI6NLPPLON&RQFHQWUDWHDQG)DW 

%DWFK3URFHVV 

&RQWLQXRXV3URFHVV 
:KROH0LON3RZGHUZLWK+LJK)UHH)DW&RQWHQW  
3RZGHUVIRU&KHHVH3URGXFWLRQ  

6NLPPLON 

5HWHQWDWH 
&KHHVH3RZGHU 
&RFRD0LON6XJDU0L[WXUHV  
&RIIHH:KLWHQHU  
&DSSXFFLQR3RZGHU  


/LVWRI)LJXUHV
%LEOLRJUDSK\ 





1,52$6




1,52$6




1,52$6




,QWURGXFWLRQ


7UDQVIRUPLQJDOLTXLGSURGXFWLQWRDGU\SRZGHUUHTXLUHVUHPRYDORISUDFWLFDOO\DOO
ZDWHUWKHDPRXQWRIZKLFKRIWHQH[FHHGVWKHZHLJKWRIWKHILQDOSURGXFW
'XULQJWKHZDWHUUHPRYDOWKHSURFHVVHGSURGXFWLVXQGHUJRLQJGHHSFKDQJHVRISK\VL
FDOVWUXFWXUHDQGDSSHDUDQFHVWDUWLQJZLWKWKLQZDWHUOLNHOLTXLGDQGWHUPLQDWLQJZLWK
GU\SRZGHUDWWKHHQGRIWKHSURFHVV7KHUHIRUHRQHVLQJOHPHWKRGRIZDWHUUHPRYDO
FDQQRWEHRSWLPDOWKURXJKRXWWKHZKROHSURFHVVDVDOVRWKHSURGXFWFRPSRVLWLRQLV
GLIIHUHQWIURPRQHIRRGSURGXFWWRDQRWKHU,QWKHIRRGDQGGDLU\LQGXVWU\WKHIROORZ
LQJGHK\GUDWLRQPHWKRGVKDYHEHHQDGRSWHG

(YDSRUDWLRQ



FRQFHQWUDWLQJPLONRIZDWHUOLNHYLVFRVLW\WRDFRQFHQWUDWH



WUDQVIRUPLQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLQWRGURSOHWVDQGHYDSRUDWLQJZDWHUIURPWKHVH
GURSOHWVLQRUGHUWRJHWDSRZGHUZKLFKFRQVLVWVRIGU\SDUWLFOHV


6SUD\'U\LQJ


9LEUDWLQJ)OXLG%HG'U\LQJ


9LEUR)OXLGL]HUVKDYHEHHQLQWURGXFHGIRUDIWHUGU\LQJDQGFRROLQJLQRUGHUWR
LPSURYHWKHGU\LQJHIILFLHQF\DQGLPSURYHWKHSRZGHUTXDOLW\


,QWHJUDWHG)OXLG%HG'U\LQJ



LPSURYLQJWKHGU\LQJHFRQRP\HYHQIXUWKHUDQGDWWKHVDPHWLPHRIIHULQJWKH
SRVVLELOLW\RIGU\LQJGLIILFXOWSURGXFWV


,QWHJUDWHG%HOW'U\LQJ



IHDWXULQJDGU\HUZLWKDPRYLQJEHOWDWWKHERWWRPRIWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHUIRU
SURGXFWVH[WUHPHO\GLIILFXOWWRGU\E\FRQYHQWLRQDOVSUD\GU\LQJ

(DFKPHWKRGVKRXOGEHDGMXVWHGWRWKHSURSHUWLHVRIWKHSURFHVVHGPDWHULDODWHDFK
SURFHVVLQJVWHS7KHPRUHGLIILFXOWWKHSURGXFWWKHPRUHFRPSOH[WKHSODQW




1,52$6

Product / Concentrate
Condensate
Vapour
Steam

Vacuum

Vapour
Steam

Condensate

Preconcentrate
recirculation

Product in

Concentrate out

)LJ)RUFHGUHFLUFXODWLRQHYDSRUDWRU




1,52$6

(YDSRUDWLRQ

7KHHYDSRUDWLRQRIPLONKDVEHHQNQRZQIRUPDQ\\HDUVHYHQDVHDUO\DVLQWKH\HDURI
ZKHQ0DUFR3RORGHVFULEHGWKHSURGXFWLRQRIDSDVWHOLNHPLONFRQFHQWUDWHLQ0RQ
JROLD7KHQ\HDUVSDVVEHIRUHZHDJDLQILQGFRQFHQWUDWHGPLONLQWKHOLWHUDWXUHEXW
IURPWKHQRQWKHGHYHORSPHQWSURJUHVVHGUDSLGO\ZLWKQXPHURXVSDWHQWVDSSOLHGIRU
7KHPRVWVLPSOHHYDSRUDWRULVDQRUGLQDU\RSHQSDQKHDWHGZLWKVWHDPRUGLUHFWJDV7KH
HYDSRUDWLRQWDNHVSODFHIURPWKHVXUIDFHZKLOHWKHOLTXLGWREHHYDSRUDWHGLVKHDWHGXSWR
WKHERLOLQJSRLQWFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHDPELHQWSUHVVXUHZKLFKDWVHDOHYHOZLOOEH&
DQGLQDQDOWLWXGHRIDSSUR[PDERYHVHDOHYHO&
$VWKHHYDSRUDWLRQKDVWRWDNHSODFHIURPWKHVXUIDFHZKLFKLVOLPLWHGLQUHODWLRQWRWKH
FRQWHQWRIWKHSDQWKHHYDSRUDWLRQZLOOQDWXUDOO\WDNHORQJWLPH7KHPLONZLOOEHH[SRVHG
WRWKHKLJKWHPSHUDWXUHZLWKDGHWHULRUDWLRQRIWKHSURWHLQVFKHPLFDOUHDFWLRQVVXFKDVWKH
0DLOODUGUHDFWLRQRUHYHQFRDJXODWLRQDVDUHVXOW
$VWKHGHYHORSPHQWZHQWRQWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQZDVFDUULHGRXWLQIRUFHGUHFLUFXODWLRQ
HYDSRUDWRUV,QWKLVHYDSRUDWRUWKHPLONVWUHDPVXSZDUGVWKURXJKDQXPEHURIWXEHVRU
SODWHV2QWKHRXWVLGHWKHKHDWLQJPHGLXPXVXDOO\VWHDPLVDSSOLHG7KHKHDWLQJVXUIDFH
LVWKXVLQFUHDVHGLQWKLVV\VWHPEXWWKHHYDSRUDWLRQVXUIDFHLVVWLOOOLPLWHGDVWKHWXEHVDQG
SODWHVUHPDLQILOOHGZLWKSURGXFWZKLFKWKHUHIRUHEHFRPHVVXSHUKHDWHGLQUHODWLRQWRWKH
H[LVWLQJERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUH1RWXQWLOWKHSURGXFWOHDYHVWKHWRSRIWKHWXEHVDUHWKHYD
SRXUVUHOHDVHGDQGWKHSURGXFWWHPSHUDWXUHGHFUHDVHV)RUWKHVHSDUDWLRQRIOLTXLGDQGYD
SRXUVFHQWULIXJDOVHSDUDWRUVZHUHSUHIHUUHG,QRUGHUWRREWDLQWKHGHVLUHGGHJUHHRIHYDSR
UDWLRQWKHSURGXFWZDVUHF\FOHGLQWKHV\VWHP7KHFRQFHQWUDWLRQZDVWKXVFRQWUROOHGE\
WKHDPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWHGLVFKDUJHGIURPWKHSODQW)LJVKRZVDGLDJUDPRIDIRUFHG
UHFLUFXODWLRQHYDSRUDWRU




1,52$6

Product / Concentrate
Condensate
Vapour
Steam

Cooling water in

Uncondensable gases

Cooling water out


Concentrate out


)LJ)DOOLQJILOPUHFLUFXODWLRQHYDSRUDWRU
(YDSRUDWRU7XEH
0LON
8SSHU7XEH3ODWH
6WHDP
7XEH
&RQGHQVDWH
/RZHU7XEH3ODWH
0LON&RQFHQWUDWH
9DSRXU

)LJ(YDSRUDWLRQLQDIDOOLQJILOPHYDSRUDWRUWXEH


)LJD(YDSRUDWRUFDODQGULD




1,52$6

)DOOLQJ)LOP(YDSRUDWRUV
2YHUWKHSDVW\HDUVWKHIDOOLQJILOPHYDSRUDWRUKDVSUDFWLFDOO\UHSODFHGWKHIRUFHG
UHFLUFXODWLRQHYDSRUDWRUXVHGXQWLOWKHQ7KLVW\SHRIHYDSRUDWRULVGHVLUDEOHIURPD
SURGXFWSRLQWRIYLHZDVLWRIIHUVDVKRUWKROGLQJWLPH)XUWKHUWKHDPRXQWRISURGXFW
LQWKHHYDSRUDWRULVUHGXFHGDQGWKHVXUIDFHIURPZKLFKWKHHYDSRUDWLRQWDNHVSODFHLV
LQFUHDVHG)LJVKRZVDGLDJUDPRIDIDOOLQJILOPHYDSRUDWRU
7KHOLTXLGWREHHYDSRUDWHGLVHYHQO\GLVWULEXWHGRQWKHLQQHUVXUIDFHRIDWXEH VHH
SDJH 7KHOLTXLGZLOOIORZGRZQZDUGVIRUPLQJDWKLQILOPIURPZKLFKWKHERLO
LQJHYDSRUDWLRQZLOOWDNHSODFHEHFDXVHRIWKHKHDWDSSOLHGE\WKHVWHDP6HH)LJ
7KHVWHDPZLOOFRQGHQVHDQGIORZGRZQZDUGVRQWKHRXWHUVXUIDFHRIWKHWXEH$
QXPEHURIWXEHVDUHEXLOWWRJHWKHUVLGHE\VLGH$WHDFKHQGWKHWXEHVDUHIL[HGWRWXEH
SODWHVDQGILQDOO\WKHWXEHEXQGOHLVHQFORVHGE\DMDFNHWVHH)LJD7KHVWHDPLVLQ
WURGXFHGWKURXJKWKHMDFNHW7KHVSDFHEHWZHHQWKHWXEHVLVWKXVIRUPLQJWKHKHDWLQJ
VHFWLRQ7KHLQQHUVLGHRIWKHWXEHVLVFDOOHGWKHERLOLQJVHFWLRQ7RJHWKHUWKH\IRUP
WKHVRFDOOHGFDODQGULD7KHFRQFHQWUDWHGOLTXLGDQGWKHYDSRXUOHDYHWKHFDODQGULDDW
WKHERWWRPSDUWIURPZKHUHWKHPDLQSURSRUWLRQRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHGOLTXLGLVGLV
FKDUJHG7KHUHPDLQLQJSDUWHQWHUVWKHVXEVHTXHQWVHSDUDWRUWDQJHQWLDOO\WRJHWKHUZLWK
WKHYDSRXU7KHVHSDUDWHGFRQFHQWUDWHLVGLVFKDUJHG XVXDOO\E\PHDQVRIWKHVDPH
SXPSDVIRUWKHPDMRUSDUWRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHIURPWKHFDODQGULD DQGWKHYDSRXU
OHDYHVWKHVHSDUDWRUIURPWKHWRS7KHKHDWLQJVWHDPZKLFKFRQGHQVHVRQWKHRXWHU
VXUIDFHRIWKHWXEHVLVFROOHFWHGDVFRQGHQVDWHDWWKHERWWRPSDUWRIWKHKHDWLQJVHF
WLRQIURPZKHUHLWLVGLVFKDUJHGE\PHDQVRIDSXPS
,QRUGHUWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHKHDWDQGPDVVWUDQVIHUWKHEDVLVIRUWKHHYDSRUDWLRQLWLV
QHFHVVDU\WRGHILQHYDULRXVVSHFLILFTXDQWLWLHV
)URPDJLYHQTXDQWLW\RIIHHG $ SDUWRIWKHVROYHQWLVHYDSRUDWHG % OHDYLQJWKH
FRQFHQWUDWHRUWKHHYDSRUDWHGSURGXFW & $QGWKXV


$ %&

  

6HH)LJVKRZLQJVSHFLILFTXDQWLWLHVDQGWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJKHDWIORZGLDJUDP
7KHHYDSRUDWLRQUDWLR H LVDPHDVXUHIRUWKHHYDSRUDWLRQLQWHQVLW\DQGFDQEHGHILQHG
HLWKHUDVWKHUDWLREHWZHHQWKHDPRXQWRIIHHGDQGFRQFHQWUDWHRUWKHUDWLREHWZHHQWKH
VROLGVSHUFHQWDJHLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHDQGLQWKHIHHG


H 

$
& &RQFHQWUDWH
 

&
& )HHG




 

1,52$6

g
1k

ate
W

ea

g
1k

St

ou

ap
gV

1k

ate

ns

e
nd

g
1k

Co

0 kg Water


)LJ2QHVWDJHHYDSRUDWRU'HILQLWLRQRIYDULRXVVSHFLILFTXDQWLWLHV
DQGWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJKHDWIORZGLDJUDP




1,52$6

,IWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQVRUWKHHYDSRUDWLRQUDWLRDUHNQRZQWKHTXDQWLWLHV$%RU&FDQEH
FDOFXODWHGLIRQHRIWKHPLVNQRZQ


*LYHQTXDQWLW\ 
WREHIRXQG

)RUPXOD










H
% $[

 
4XDQWLW\WREHWUHDWHG$

%

H

& $[ 





&


 
H










H
(YDSRUDWHGTXDQWLW\%

$


 
$ %[
H

& %[

 





&

H










&RQFHQWUDWHTXDQWLW\&

$

$ &[H 

 

% &[ H 
 





%











:KHUH
$ IHHGLQNJK


% HYDSRUDWLRQLQNJK


& FRQFHQWUDWHLQNJK


H HYDSRUDWLRQUDWLR
6HHIRUPXOD  

6LQFHPLONGXHWRWKHSURWHLQFRQWHQWLVDKHDWVHQVLWLYHSURGXFWHYDSRUDWLRQ LH
ERLOLQJ DW&ZLOOUHVXOWLQGHQDWXUDWLRQRIWKHVHSURWHLQVWRVXFKDQH[WHQWWKDW
WKHILQDOSURGXFWLVFRQVLGHUHGXQILWIRUFRQVXPSWLRQ7KHERLOLQJVHFWLRQLVWKHUHIRUH
RSHUDWHGXQGHUYDFXXPZKLFKPHDQVWKDWWKHERLOLQJHYDSRUDWLRQWDNHVSODFHDWD
ORZHUWHPSHUDWXUHWKDQWKDWFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHQRUPDODWPRVSKHULFSUHVVXUH7KH
YDFXXPLVFUHDWHGE\DYDFXXPSXPSSULRUWRVWDUWXSRIWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGLVPDLQ
WDLQHGE\FRQGHQVLQJWKHYDSRXUE\PHDQVRIFRROLQJZDWHU$YDFXXPSXPSRUVLPL
ODULVXVHGWRHYDFXDWHLQFRQGHQVDEOHJDVHVIURPWKHPLON
$W&WKHHYDSRUDWLRQHQWKDOS\RIZDWHULV.FDONJDQGDW&LWLV
.FDONJ$VWKHPLONKDVWREHKHDWHGIURPHJ&WRWKHERLOLQJSRLQWDQGDVHQ
HUJ\DSSUR[.FDONJLVUHTXLUHGIRUPDLQWDLQLQJDYDFXXPFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRD
ERLOLQJSRLQWRI&ZHJHWWKHIROORZLQJHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQILJXUHVSURYLGHGZH
HVWLPDWHWKHKHDWORVVWREH




1,52$6

1 kg Water

Cooling water in

2 kg Water

Uncondensable
gases

1 kg Steam

1 kg Vapour

Cooling water out


1 kg Vapour
0 kg Water


)LJ3ULQFLSOHRIWZRVWDJHHYDSRUDWLRQRIZDWHU




1,52$6

%RLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUH&



+HDWLQJ 

.FDONJ 



(YDSRUDWLRQ

.FDONJ 



9DFXXP 

.FDONJ 



1HWHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ
.FDONJ 



+HDWORVVDSSUR[
.FDONJ 



7RWDOHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ .FDONJ 




FRUUHVSRQGLQJWRDERXWNJVWHDPNJHYDSRUDWHGZDWHU

7RVLPSOLI\WKHIROORZLQJH[DPSOHVZHZLOOXVHNJVWHDPNJHYDSRUDWHGZDWHU
$VYDSRXUVHH)LJIURPWKHHYDSRUDWHGPLONFRQWDLQVDOPRVWDOOWKHDSSOLHGHQ
HUJ\LWLVREYLRXVWRXWLOL]HWKLVWRHYDSRUDWHPRUHZDWHUE\FRQGHQVLQJWKHYDSRXU
7KLVLVGRQHE\DGGLQJDQRWKHUFDODQGULDWRWKHHYDSRUDWRU7KLVQHZFDODQGULDWKH
VHFRQGHIIHFWZKHUHWKHERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHLVORZHUQRZZRUNVDVFRQGHQVHUIRU
WKHYDSRXUVIURPWKHILUVWHIIHFWDQGWKHHQHUJ\LQWKHYDSRXULVWKXVXWLOL]HGDVLW
FRQGHQVHV
,QRUGHUWRREWDLQDWHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFHLQWKHVHFRQGHIIHFWEHWZHHQWKHSURGXFW
DQGYDSRXUFRPLQJIURPWKHILUVWHIIHFWWKHERLOLQJVHFWLRQRIWKHVHFRQGHIIHFWLVRS
HUDWHGDWDKLJKHUYDFXXPFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRDORZHUERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUH
%RLOLQJ
SRLQWq&

9DFXXP
P:*

FRUUHVSWR
PP+JDEV

|PDERYH
VHDOHYHO

9ROXPHRI
ZDWHUYDSRXU










PNJ









PNJ









PNJ









PNJ









PNJ









PNJ

$WKLUGHIIHFWKHDWHGE\YDSRXUIURPWKHVHFRQGHIIHFWDQGVRIRUWKFDQRIFRXUVHEH
DGGHG7KHOLPLWLVWKHORZHVWYDFXXPREWDLQDEOHDQGWKDWLVGHFLGHGIURPWKHDPRXQW
DQGWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHFRROLQJZDWHU XVXDOO\& FRQGHQVLQJWKHYDSRXUIURP
WKHODVWHIIHFWZKHUHE\WKHYDFXXPLVPDLQWDLQHG8VLQJLFHZDWHURUGLUHFWH[SDQVLRQ
RIIUHRQWREULQJGRZQWKHODVWHIIHFWERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHLVRIFRXUVHWKHRUHWLFDOO\
SRVVLEOHEXWRWKHUIDFWRUVVXFKDVYLVFRVLW\RIWKHSURGXFWYROXPHRIWKHYDSRXUVDQG
FU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRIODFWRVHGHWHUPLQHWKHSUDFWLFDOOLPLWEHLQJDERXW&



1,52$6

Vapour

Live steam

Mix of
vapour / steam
(2) Diffuser

(1) Nozzle

kg

W
at
er

)LJ7KHUPR&RPSUHVVRU

er

Product / Concentrate
Condensate

kg

at
W

Cooling water

Vapour
Steam

3 kg Mix
2 kg Vapour

1 kg Condensate

3 kg Vapour

1 kg Vapour
1 kg Vapour

1 kg Steam

3 kg Condensate

)LJ7ZRVWDJHHYDSRUDWRUZLWKWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRU


)LJ+HDWIORZGLDJUDP7ZRVWDJHHYDSRUDWRUZLWKWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRU




1,52$6


)URP)LJZHFDQVHHWKDWNJRIVWHDPFDQHYDSRUDWHNJRIZDWHUDQGE\DSSO\LQJ
DWKLUGHIIHFWNJRIZDWHULVHYDSRUDWHGXVLQJRQO\NJRIVWHDP



9DSRXU5HFRPSUHVVLRQ795
$QRWKHUZD\RIVDYLQJHQHUJ\LVE\XVLQJDWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRUZKLFKZLOOLQFUHDVH
WKHWHPSHUDWXUHSUHVVXUHOHYHORIWKHYDSRXULHFRPSUHVVWKHYDSRXUIURPDORZHU
SUHVVXUHWRDKLJKHUSUHVVXUHE\XVLQJVWHDPRIDKLJKHUSUHVVXUHWKDQWKDWRIWKHYD
SRXU7KHUPRFRPSUHVVRUVRSHUDWHDWYHU\KLJKVWHDPIORZYHORFLWLHVDQGKDYHQR
PRYLQJSDUWV7KHFRQVWUXFWLRQLVVLPSOHWKHGLPHQVLRQVVPDOODQGWKHFRVWVORZ
,Q)LJWKHSULQFLSOHRIWKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRULVVKRZQ
,QWKHOLYHVWHDPQR]]OH  WKHSUHVVXUHRIWKHLQIORZLQJVWHDPLVFRQYHUWHGLQWRYH
ORFLW\$MHWLVWKHUHIRUHFUHDWHGZKLFKGUDZVLQSDUWRIWKHYDSRXUIURPWKHVHSDUDWRU
RIWKHHYDSRUDWRU,QWKHGLIIXVHU  DIDVWIORZLQJPL[WXUHRIOLYHVWHDPDQGYDSRXUV
LVIRUPHGWKHVSHHGRIZKLFKLVFRQYHUWHGLQWRSUHVVXUH WHPSHUDWXUHLQFUHDVH E\GH
FHOHUDWLRQ7KLVPL[WXUHFDQQRZEHXVHGDVKHDWLQJVWHDPIRUWKHHYDSRUDWRU,Q)LJ
DIORZVKHHWRIDWZRHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUZLWKWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRULVVKRZQDQGLQ
)LJWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJKHDWIORZGLDJUDPLVVKRZQ
7KHEHVWHIILFLHQF\LQWKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRULHWKHEHVWVXFWLRQUDWHDQGWKHUHE\D
JRRGHFRQRP\LVREWDLQHGZKHQWKHWHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFH SUHVVXUHGLIIHUHQFH EH
WZHHQWKHERLOLQJVHFWLRQDQGWKHKHDWLQJVHFWLRQLVORZ
7KHUPRFRPSUHVVRUVPXVWEHDGDSWHGWRWKHRSHUDWLQJFRQGLWLRQV%XWWKHVHFRQGL
WLRQVFDQYDU\EHLWIRUH[DPSOHWKDWWKHKHDWUHVLVWDQFHRIWKHKHDWLQJVXUIDFHVLQ
FUHDVHVGXULQJRSHUDWLRQGXHWRGHSRVLWVRQWKHKHDWLQJWXEHV7KHVXFWLRQUDWHZLOO
WKHQGHFUHDVHFRQVLGHUDEO\,QHYDSRUDWRUVWKDWKDYHWRVHUYHYDULRXVFDSDFLWLHVD
QXPEHURIFRPSUHVVRUVZLWKGLIIHUHQWFKDUDFWHULVWLFVLVXVHG)XUWKHUDWKHUPR
FRPSUHVVRUZKLFKKDVEHHQGHVLJQHGIRUDKLJKHUOLYHVWHDPSUHVVXUHFDQGUDZDODU
JHUDPRXQWRIYDSRXUIURPWKHVHSDUDWRUWKDQRQHEXLOWIRUDORZHUSUHVVXUH)RUVLP
SOLILFDWLRQZHZLOOLQWKHIROORZLQJXVHDQHIILFLHQF\RIEXWQHZGHVLJQHGWKHUPR
FRPSUHVVRUVZLOOXQGHUFHUWDLQFRQGLWLRQVRSHUDWHZLWKDQHIILFLHQF\RI
%\DGGLQJDWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRUZHKDYHWKHQLQDWZRHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUE\PHDQVRI
NJOLYHVWHDPHYDSRUDWHGNJRIZDWHULHWKHVDYLQJRIVWHDPLVDVJUHDWDVWKDW
REWDLQHGE\DGGLWLRQRIWZRHIIHFWVLQPXOWLHIIHFWHYDSRUDWLRQ'LYLGLQJDJLYHQWRWDO
WEHWZHHQWKHILUVWDQGODVWHIIHFWLQPXOWLHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUVUHTXLUHVDQHQRUPRXV
KHDWLQJVXUIDFHDQGFRQVHTXHQWO\DQH[SHQVLYHLQVWDOODWLRQ




1,52$6




1,52$6

7KHWRWDOKHDWLQJVXUIDFHFDQEHUHGXFHGE\LQFUHDVLQJWKHWZKLFKLVGRQHE\LQ
FUHDVLQJWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHILUVWHIIHFWKHDWLQJVHFWLRQUHVXOWLQJLQDKLJKHUERLO
LQJWHPSHUDWXUH7KLVZLOOKRZHYHUUHVXOWLQIRXOLQJ PLFURWKLQGHSRVLWVRIPDLQO\
PLONSURWHLQVRQWKHWXEHVUHVXOWLQJLQDGHFUHDVHRIWKH.IDFWRU HVSHFLDOO\LIWKH
PLONKDVDKLJKDFLGLW\$OVRFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRI&DSKRVSKDWHZLOODWKLJKWHPSHUDWXUHV
UHVXOWLQGHSRVLWV
%RLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHVKLJKHUWKDQ& GHSHQGLQJXSRQSURGXFWDQGPLONTXDOLW\ 
LQWKHILUVWHIIHFWVKRXOGJHQHUDOO\QRWEHXVHGLIDKRXUV
FRQWLQXRXVSURGXFWLRQ
WLPHLVDLPHGDW
7KHVXUIDFHRIWKHVLQJOHHIIHFWRIWKHHYDSRUDWRULVFDOFXODWHGIURPWKHIROORZLQJ
IRUPXOD


:KHUH







6 

6
%
K
.

%[K

.[W

 

KHDWLQJVXUIDFHP
ZDWHUYDSRXUNJK
VSHFLILFKHDW.FDONJ FRQGHQVLQJHQWKDOS\ 
KHDWWUDQVIHUFRHIILFLHQW.FDO[P[K[&



W WHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFHRUWKHGULYLQJIRUFH&



EHWZHHQKHDWLQJPHGLDDQGERLOLQJOLTXLG 





7KHPRVWFULWLFDOIDFWRUGXULQJWKHGHVLJQRIDQHYDSRUDWRULV.DVLWLVDIXQFWLRQRI
SURGXFWSURSHUWLHVDQGWHPSHUDWXUHOHYHOXVHG,WLVLQIOXHQFHGE\


(YDSRUDWRUWHPSHUDWXUH


6SHFLILFKHDW


'HQVLW\


%RLOLQJSUHVVXUH


%RLOLQJSRLQWHOHYDWLRQ


+HDWFRQGXFWLYLW\


9LVFRVLW\


6XUIDFHWHQVLRQ

2WKHUIDFWRUVLQIOXHQFLQJWKHGHVLJQ


7HPSHUDWXUHVHQVLWLYLW\RIWKHSURGXFW


&KHPLFDOEHKDYLRXU

7KH.IDFWRUWKHUHIRUHGLIIHUVIURPSURGXFWWRSURGXFWHVSHFLDOO\GXHWRWKHERLOLQJ
SRLQWHOHYDWLRQZKLFKLVDIXQFWLRQRIFRQFHQWUDWLRQRIPROHFXOHVDQGWKXVLQIOXHQFHG
E\WKHFRPSRVLWLRQRIWKHSURGXFWDQGWKHVROLGVFRQWHQW$WVROLGVDVLQVNLP



1,52$6

kg

W
at
er

kg

W
at

er

W
at
er

kg

W
at
er
2

Product / Concentrate
Condensate
Vapour

W
at
er

kg

Steam

kg

1 kg Vapour

0 kg Water

kg

W
at
er

1 kg Vapour

1 kg Vapour

er

kg

at
W

1 kg Vapour

1 kg Vapour

3 kg Mix

1 kg Vapour

2 kg Vapour

)LJ0RQRWKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQ

VWDJH795HYDSRUDWRU


kg

W
at

er

kg

W
at

er

kg

W
at

er

3 kg Vapour

1 kg Vapour

er

kg

at
W

kg

W
at
e

0 kg Water
1 kg Vapour

kg

W
at

er

1 kg Steam

er

10

1 kg Vapour

W
at

ou

13

kg

ap
gV

1 kg Vapour

1 kg Vapour
3 kg Mix

3 kg Vapour
3 kg Vapour
3 kg Vapour

)LJ3RO\WKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQ

VWDJH795HYDSRUDWRU 



1,52$6

PLONWKHERLOLQJSRLQWHOHYDWLRQLVOHVVWKDQ&ZKHUHDVLWLVVHYHUDOGHJUHHVDW
VROLGV2QO\H[WHQVLYHODERUDWRU\ZRUNPDNHVLWSRVVLEOHWRFRQFOXGHWKLVIDFWRU
7KHFDSDFLW\ & RIDQHYDSRUDWRULV




& .[6[W


 

7KXVWKHFDSDFLW\RIDQHYDSRUDWRUFDQEHLQFUHDVHGE\PRUHVXUIDFHRUKLJKHUERLOLQJ
WHPSHUDWXUHLQWKHILUVWHIIHFW,WLVQRWUHFRPPHQGHGWRXVHKLJKHUWHPSHUDWXUHWKDQ
&DVGLVFXVVHGDERYH
7KHWRWDOW XVXDOO\IURP&WR& & LVGLYLGHGEHWZHHQHDFKHIIHFW7KLV
PHDQVWKDWLQDWKUHHHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUHDFKHIIHFWZLOOKDYHDELJWFRUUHVSRQGLQJWR
DUHODWLYHO\VPDOOVXUIDFHDQGORZLQYHVWPHQWFRVWVDQGE\DQLQFUHDVHGQXPEHURIHI
IHFWVZKHUHE\WKHVWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQJRHVGRZQWKHDYDLODEOHWEHFRPHVVPDOOHULQ
HDFKHIIHFW7KLVUHTXLUHVODUJHUKHDWLQJVXUIDFHDQGWKHLQYHVWPHQWFRVWVJRXS
7KHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRULVLQFRUSRUDWHGEHWZHHQWKHILUVWDQGVHFRQGHIIHFW PRQR
WKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQ WKHILUVWDQGWKHWKLUG ELWKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQ RUEHWZHHQWKH
ILUVWDQGIRXUWKHIIHFW WULWKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQ 7KHLQIOXHQFHRQWKHVWHDPHFRQRP\
DQGWKHLQYHVWPHQWFRVWVLVVLJQLILFDQW,IZHORRNDWDHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUZLWKPRQR
WKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQ VHH)LJ ZHFDQHYDSRUDWHNJRIZDWHUXVLQJRQO\NJRI
VWHDP)RUWULWKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQZHSODFHWKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRUEHWZHHQWKHILUVW
DQGIRXUWKHIIHFW VHH)LJ :HFDQQRZHYDSRUDWHNJRIZDWHUXVLQJRQO\NJ
RIVWHDPDVZHXWLOL]HDOOWKHYDSRXUIURPWKHILUVWHIIHFWWRKHDWWKHVHFRQGHIIHFWWKH
YDSRXUIURPWKLVLVWKHQXVHGLQWKHWKLUGHIIHFWIURPZKHUHSDUWRILWLVFRPSUHVVHGLQ
WKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRU
,IWKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRULQFUHDVHVWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHYDSRXUE\&ZHKDYHDW
RI&IRUHDFKHIIHFWLQDWULWKHUPDOHYDSRUDWRU,QRUGHUWRPDLQWDLQWKHNJHYDSR
UDWLRQLQWKHILUVWWKUHHHIIHFWVDELJJHUVXUIDFHLVQHHGHGFRPSDUHGWRWKHH[DPSOH
ZLWKPRQRWKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQ
:LWKDJLYHQOHQJWKDQGGLDPHWHURIWKHWXEHVWKHQXPEHURIWXEHVFDQWKHUHIRUHEH
FDOFXODWHGDFFRUGLQJWRWKHSUHYLRXVO\PHQWLRQHGIRUPXOD  
+RZHYHURQHPDMRUGUDZEDFNLQPXOWLHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUVLVWKHORQJUHVLGHQFHWLPH
ZKHUHWKHSURGXFWLVH[SRVHGWRKHDW$OWKRXJKLWLVDWORZWHPSHUDWXUHLWZLOOKDYHD
QHJDWLYHHIIHFWRQWKHYLVFRVLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH6HHSDJH




1,52$6


Product / Concentrate
Condensate
Vapour

Steam


)LJ2QHVWDJH095HYDSRUDWRU


)LJ+HDWIORZGLDJUDP095HYDSRUDWRU




1,52$6

0HFKDQLFDO9DSRXU5HFRPSUHVVLRQ095

$VDQDOWHUQDWLYHWRWKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRUWKHPHFKDQLFDOYDSRXUFRPSUHVVRUKDV
GXULQJWKHODVWILIWHHQ\HDUVIRXQGH[WHQVLYHXVHLQHYDSRUDWRUVLQWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\
7KHDSSOLHGHQHUJ\IRUWKHFRPSUHVVRULVXVXDOO\HOHFWULFLW\EXWDOVRGLHVHOPRWRUVDUH
XVHG2WKHUSURFHVVHVPD\UHTXLUHVWHDPDWORZSUHVVXUHDQGWKHFRPSUHVVRUPD\EH
GULYHQE\DVWHDPWXUELQHDFWLQJDVDUHGXFLQJYDOYH$OOGHWHUPLQHGE\ORFDOSULFH
SROLF\IRUHQHUJ\$VDUXOHRIWKXPEKRZHYHUDQ095VROXWLRQLVSURILWDEOHLIWKH
SULFHN:SULFHNJVWHDP[+RZHYHUWKHGHFLVLRQDVWRZKLFKW\SHRIFRPSUHVVRU
WRXVHLVQRZDGD\VLQIOXHQFHGE\WKHHQGSURGXFWTXDOLW\WKHPLONSRZGHUDQGLQ
WKH095HYDSRUDWRUWKHUHLVDYHU\VKRUWUHVLGHQFHWLPHUHVXOWLQJLQORZYLVFRVLW\RI
WKHFRQFHQWUDWH
7KHPHFKDQLFDOYDSRXUFRPSUHVVRULVDIDVWUHYROYLQJKLJKSUHVVXUHIDQ USP 
FDSDEOHRIRSHUDWLQJXQGHUYDFXXP$WORZERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHVWKHYROXPHRIWKH
YDSRXUVLVHQRUPRXV VHHSDJH &RQVHTXHQWO\WKHUHLVDOLPLWDVWRWKHORZHVW
WHPSHUDWXUHOHYHOVXVHGLQSUDFWLFH$VWKHHQHUJ\DSSOLHGWRWKHFRPSUHVVRULVXWLO
L]HGPRVWHIILFLHQWO\E\ORZFRPSUHVVLRQUDWLRVWKHREWDLQHGWHPSHUDWXUHSUHVVXUHLQ
FUHDVHLVOLPLWHG7KHUHIRUHDODUJHKHDWWUDQVIHUVXUIDFHLVUHTXLUHGWHQGLQJWRLQ
FUHDVHWKHFDSLWDOFRVWVRIWKHHTXLSPHQW
$VLWLVHVVHQWLDOWRRSHUDWHDQ095XQLWDWDORZRYHUDOOWHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFHEH
WZHHQWKHYDSRXUHYROYHGIURPWKHSURGXFWDQGWKHKHDWLQJPHGLXPDVDUHVXOWRIWKH
FRPSUHVVLRQLWLVDPXVWWKDWWKHERLOLQJSRLQWHOHYDWLRQRIWKHSURGXFWLVNHSWDWD
PLQLPXPDVWKLVZRXOGRWKHUZLVHHYHQIXUWKHUPLQLPL]HWKHWHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFH
DYDLODEOHIRUWKHHYDSRUDWLRQ7KLVWRROLPLWVWKHPD[LPXPFRQFHQWUDWLRQVDLPHGDW
LQHYDSRUDWRUVRIWKLVNLQG)LJLOOXVWUDWHVDRQHHIIHFW095HYDSRUDWRUDQG
)LJWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJKHDWIORZGLDJUDP
7KHLQFRPLQJFROGPLONLVILUVWSUHKHDWHGE\FRQFHQWUDWHWKHQE\FRQGHQVDWHIURPWKH
KHDWLQJVHFWLRQRIWKHFDODQGULDIROORZHGE\DILQDOSDVWHXUL]DWLRQE\PHDQVRIOLYH
VWHDP7KHYDSRXULVFRPSUHVVHGLQWKH095XQLWDQGXVHGDVKHDWLQJPHGLXPDVLW
UHOHDVHVWKHODWHQWKHDWE\FRQGHQVDWLRQ
$YDFXXPSXPSWRJHWKHUZLWKDVPDOODPRXQWRIFRROLQJZDWHUPDLQWDLQVWKHGHVLUHG
YDFXXPLQWKHV\VWHP
$VLWFDQEHVHHQQRHQHUJ\OHDYHVWKHSODQWLQIRUPRIZDUPFRQGHQVDWHDQGRQO\D
PLQRUSDUWYLDWKHFRROLQJZDWHU GHSHQGLQJXSRQWKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHGH
VLUHG 7KH095HYDSRUDWRULVLQWKLVFRQWH[WYHU\RIWHQXVHGDVSUHFRQGHQVHURIPLON
SURGXFWVIRUWUDQVSRUWSXUSRVHVZKHUHWKHUHTXLUHGVROLGVFRQWHQWLVLQWKHUDQJHRI
DQGWKXVWKHERLOLQJSRLQWHOHYDWLRQLVOLPLWHG:LWKWKHFRQFHQWUDWHOHDYLQJ
WKHSODQWDWORZWHPSHUDWXUHWKLVNLQGRILQVWDOODWLRQLVDVWURQJFRPSHWLWRUWRK\SHU
ILOWUDWLRQ



1,52$6

Isob
ar
P
r
Isob
ar P
a

Temperature

tr

Overheating
tr
ta

C Condensation of steam in
the pressure heating body (Pr )
Evaporation of the liquid at
pressure Pa and t a

Steam area

Liquid steam area

Entropy S


)LJ:RUNLQJ&\FOHRIDPHFKDQLFDOFRPSUHVVRU
Product / Concentrate
Condensate
Vapour
Steam

TV

Holding
tubes

Flash regenerator

MVR

Cooling water

Concentrate out

Milk in


)LJ&RPELQHG095795HYDSRUDWRU

Cooling water

MV

Holding
tubes

Flash regenerator

Concentrate out
MVR
Milk in


)LJ&RPELQHG095095HYDSRUDWRU




1,52$6

7KHZRUNLQJF\FOHRIDPHFKDQLFDOFRPSUHVVRULVVKRZQLQ)LJ7KHYDSRXULV
VXFNHGIURPWKHVHSDUDWRUUHSUHVHQWHGDVSRLQW$DWDJLYHQWHPSHUDWXUHSUHVVXUHOHYHO
WD3DDQGFRPSUHVVLQJLWWRSRLQW%
W
U3U7KHFRPSUHVVHGYDSRXULVGHVXSHUKHDWHGWR
%WUE\VSUD\LQJZDWHULQWRWKHRXWOHWRIWKHFRPSUHVVRU7KHFRPSUHVVHGYDSRXULV
FRQGHQVHGRQWKHKHDWH[FKDQJHUVXUIDFHLQWKHFDODQGULDIURPSRLQW%WR&ZKHUHLW
LVGLVFKDUJHGDVFRQGHQVDWH6LPXOWDQHRXVO\ZDWHULVHYDSRUDWHGIURPWKHPLONDQG
VHSDUDWHGLQWKHVHSDUDWRUIURPZKHUHLWOHDYHVDWSRLQW$
7KH095HYDSRUDWRURIIHUVPXFKEHWWHUFDSDFLW\IOH[LELOLW\WXUQGRZQFDEDELOLW\DV
RQO\WKH530RQWKHIDQQHHGVWREHDGMXVWHG
8VXDOO\WKH095HYDSRUDWRULVFRPELQHGZLWKD795XQLWLIVROLGVFRQWHQWVVXLWHG
IRUDVSUD\GU\LQJSODQWDUHDLPHGDWVHH)LJ7KHVWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQSHUNJ
HYDSRUDWHGZDWHULVRIFRXUVHOHVVWKDQLQDPXOWLHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUEXWLIWKH095
XQLWLVGULYHQE\DQHOHFWULFPRWRUWKHHOHFWULFDOHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQZLOOEHELJJHU
$VRQO\YHU\OLWWOHFRROLQJZDWHULVUHTXLUHGWKLVFRPELQDWLRQRIIHUVDYHU\DWWUDFWLYH
VROXWLRQKRZHYHUDKLJKHULQYHVWPHQWVKRXOGEHDQWLFLSDWHG8QGHUVSHFLDOHQHUJ\
SULFHFRQGLWLRQVLWLVDGYDQWDJHRXVWRUHSODFHWKH795XQLWZLWKDQDGGLWLRQDO095
XQLWWRFRPSUHVVWKHYDSRXURYHUWKHODVWHIIHFWVHH)LJ,WLVWKHUHIRUHUHFRP
PHQGDEOHWKDWHDFKFDVHEHVWXGLHGFDUHIXOO\WDNLQJORFDOFRQGLWLRQVVXFKDVVWHDP
HOHFWULFLW\DQGFRROLQJZDWHUSULFHVLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQ




1,52$6





[KLJKSUHVVXUHIDQVIRU095HYDSRUDWRUV




1,52$6

&RPSDULVRQRI(QHUJ\&RQVXPSWLRQLQ'LIIHUHQW(YDSRUDWRUV

(9$325$725

HIIHFW
795

HIIHFW
795

HIIHFW095
HIIHFW795

6NLPPLON

6NLPPLON

6NLPPLON



















3DVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPS&







+ROGLQJWLPHVHF

























&RQGHQVDWHWHPS&







3RZHUFRQVXPSWLRQ
095N:
0RWRUVN:













&RROLQJZDWHUFRQVPK





 







3RZHUFRQVFRROWRZHUN:







5HVLGHQFHWLPHPLQ







352'8&7
&DSDFLW\NJK
6ROLGVLQRXW
(YDSRUDWLRQNJK

6WHDPFRQVXPSWLRQNJK
6WHDPSUHVVXUHEDU
&RQGHQVDWHNJK

&RROLQJZDWHUWHPSLQRXW&


WREHXVHGRQO\LIWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHUDZPLONLVDERYH&





1,52$6


(YDSRUDWRUFDODQGULDVZLWKH[WHUQDOSUHKHDWHUV




1,52$6

'HVLJQRI,QGXVWULDO(YDSRUDWRUV
7KHLQFUHDVHGGHPDQGIRUELJPXOWLHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUVUHTXLULQJELJJHUKHDWLQJVXU
IDFHLQRUGHUWRREWDLQEHWWHUVSHFLILFFRQVXPSWLRQILJXUHVFDQEHPHWE\XVLQJPRUH
WXEHV7KLVZRXOGKRZHYHUPHDQWKDWOHVVOLTXLGLVJHWWLQJLQWRHDFKRIWKHWXEHVDQG
WKHSURGXFHGILOPEHFRPHVWRRWKLQ$WKLJKVROLGVFRQWHQWVWKHYLVFRVLW\ZLOOLQ
FUHDVHWKHILOPZLOOQRWIORZDQ\PRUHDQGWKHUHZLOOEHDULVNRIEXUQWGHSRVLWV7KLV
ZLOOUHVXOWLQDFRQFHQWUDWHZLWKVPDOOMHOO\OXPSVYHU\RIWHQGLVFRORXUHGDQGIRXQGLQ
WKHSRZGHUDVVFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVDVWKH\ZLOOQRWGLVVROYHZKHQWKHSRZGHULVUH
FRQVWLWXWHG,QH[WUHPHFDVHVWKHWXEHVEORFNFRPSOHWHO\DQGPDQXDOFOHDQLQJLVQHF
HVVDU\
7KHGHVLJQHUWKHUHIRUHRSHUDWHVZLWKWKHVRFDOOHGFRYHUDJHFRHIILFLHQWGHILQHGDV


3URGXFWNJKDWWKHORZHUHQGRI WKHWXEHV

3HULSKHU\RI WKHWXEHV

 

7KHWUHQGKDVWKHUHIRUHEHHQWRPDQXIDFWXUHWKHFDODQGULDZLWKORQJHUWXEHVLQRUGHU
WRREWDLQPRUHKHDWLQJVXUIDFHPDLQWDLQLQJWKHFRYHUDJHFRHIILFLHQWDWWKHVDPHOHYHO
$ERXWWKLUW\\HDUVDJRWKHHYDSRUDWRUVZHUHHTXLSSHGZLWKPWXEHVDQGRSHUDWHG
ZLWKDWHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFHRIDERXW&ZKHUHDVHYDSRUDWRUV\HDUVDJRKDG
WXEHVZLWKDOHQJWKRIXSWRPDQGDWHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFHGRZQWR&7RGD\
PRVWQHZHYDSRUDWRUVKDYHWXEHOHQJWKVXSWRP7KHDGYDQWDJHLVWKDWOHVVSURG
XFWSDVVHVDUHQHHGHGWRREWDLQVXIILFLHQWFRYHUDJHIHZHUSXPSVDQGUHGXFHGUHVL
GHQFHWLPH
7KHUHTXLUHPHQWWRDPRGHUQHYDSRUDWRULVDOVRIOH[LELOLW\DQGWKXVDQDELOLW\WRRSHU
DWHZLWKYDULRXVSURGXFWVDQGWKHUHIRUHZLWKGLIIHUHQWFDSDFLWLHV7KHSUREOHPLVDGLI
IHUHQWVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHSURGXFWWREHHYDSRUDWHGDQGWKDWWKHVSUD\GU\HUZLOOKDYH
DGLIIHUHQWFDSDFLW\ZKHQGU\LQJGLIIHUHQWSURGXFWV)XUWKHUPRUHWKHHYDSRUDWRUZLOO
KDYHGLIIHUHQWHYDSRUDWLRQFDSDFLWLHVEHFDXVHRIGLIIHUHQW.IDFWRUIRUWKHYDULRXV
SURGXFWV
:KHQGHVLJQLQJDQHYDSRUDWRUVSUD\GU\HUWKHPDLQSURGXFWLVWKHUHIRUHDOZD\VVH
OHFWHGDQGWKHHYDSRUDWRUFDODQGULDVDUHGHVLJQHGVRWKDWRSWLPDOFRYHUDJHFRHIIL
FLHQWVDUHHQVXUHGDOVRIRUWKHRWKHUSURGXFWV
$VWKH.YDOXHLVDSSUR[ORZHUIRUZKROHPLONWKDQIRUVNLPPLONWKHHYDSRUD
WLRQFDSDFLW\ZLOOEHDERXWOHVVRQZKROHPLON$VWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWLVDOVRGLI
IHUHQWLQVNLPPLONDQGZKROHPLONWKHIHHGLQSXWWRWKHHYDSRUDWRUGHFUHDVHVZKHQ
ZKROHPLONLVWREHHYDSRUDWHG7KLVUHTXLUHVVSHFLDODWWHQWLRQWRWKHGHVLJQRIWKHFD
ODQGULDVDVWKHFRYHUDJHFRHIILFLHQWZLOOEHWRRORZHVSHFLDOO\LQWKHILUVWHIIHFWGXH
WRWKHORZHUDPRXQWRIIHHGLQSXW,IRQWKHRWKHUKDQGWKHHYDSRUDWRULVGHVLJQHGIRU
ZKROHPLONDVPDLQSURGXFWDQGVNLPPLONKDVWREHHYDSRUDWHGWKHFRYHUDJHSURE
OHPRFFXUVPDLQO\LQWKHODVWHIIHFWGXHWRWKHORZVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHSURGXFW



1,52$6

Product / Concentrate
Condensate
Vapour
Steam

Cooling water in

Uncondensable gases

Cooling water out


Concentrate out

)LJ)DOOLQJILOPUHFLUFXODWLRQHYDSRUDWRU

)LJ(YDSRUDWRUFDODQGULDVSOLWLQWZRVHFWLRQV




1,52$6

\LHOGLQJOHVVDPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWHRI767KHFRYHUDJHSUREOHPZDVVRPH
\HDUVDJRRYHUFRPHE\UHFLUFXODWLQJSDUWRIWKHIHHGIURPWKHRXWOHWRIWKHFDODQGULDWR
WKHLQOHWRIVDPHWKXVLQFUHDVLQJWKHDPRXQWRIOLTXLGVXIILFLHQWWRFRYHUDOOWKHWXEHV
6HH)LJ
)URPDWHFKQLFDOSRLQWRIYLHZWKLVLVWKHLGHDOVROXWLRQDVLWLVFKHDSDQGVLPSOHEXW
IURPDSURGXFWSRLQWRIYLHZLWVKRXOGQRWEHWROHUDWHGDVLWPHDQVWKDWSDUWRIWKH
SURGXFWLVH[SRVHGWRWKHKLJKWHPSHUDWXUHIRUDORQJXQFRQWUROODEOHWLPH7KLVPHDQV
WKDWWKHILQDOFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOJHWLQFUHDVHGYLVFRVLW\DQGSRVVLEO\SURWHLQGHQDWXUD
WLRQERWKUHVXOWLQJLQDSRZGHUZLWKDQLQIHULRUVROXELOLW\
,QPRGHUQIDOOLQJILOPHYDSRUDWRUVWKHVRFDOOHGVLQJOHSDVVHYDSRUDWRUVWKHSURE
OHPLVVROYHGE\GLYLGLQJWKHHIIHFWVZLWKORZFRYHUDJHFRHIILFLHQWLQWZRRUPRUH
VHSDUDWHFDODQGULDVZLWKVDPHERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHDQGRIWHQRQHFRPELQHGVHSDUDWRU
$QRWKHUPHWKRGLVWRVSOLWWKHFDODQGULDE\GLYLGLQJLWLQWRWZRRUPRUHVHFWLRQVLQD
PXOWLIORZHYDSRUDWRU7KHSURGXFWLVSXPSHGWRRQHVHFWLRQIURPWKHRXWOHWRI
ZKLFKLWLVSXPSHGGLUHFWWRWKHQH[WVHFWLRQDQGVRIRUWK+DYLQJSDVVHGWKURXJKWKH
ODVWVHFWLRQLWLVSXPSHGWRWKHQH[WHIIHFWVHH)LJ7KLVV\VWHPLVDOPRVWDVFKHDS
DVWKHUHFLUFXODWLRQEXWKDVWKHDGYDQWDJHRIWKHGLYLGHGFDODQGULDDQGQRFLUFXODWLRQ
LVQHFHVVDU\


$X[LOLDU\(TXLSPHQWIRUWKH(YDSRUDWRU
,QRUGHUWRPDNHWKHHYDSRUDWRUZRUNDVDQLQWHJUDOXQLWWKHIROORZLQJDX[LOLDU\
HTXLSPHQWLVQHHGHG












6HSDUDWRUV
3URGXFWGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHP
3UHKHDWHUV
3DVWHXUL]DWLRQKROGLQJHTXLSPHQW
/RZWKHUPRSKLOLFKHDWLQJSDVWHXUL]LQJHTXLSPHQW
&RQGHQVDWLRQDQGYDFXXPHTXLSPHQW
&RROLQJWRZHUV
+LJKFRQFHQWUDWRUV
)ODVKFRROHUV
6HDOLQJZDWHUHTXLSPHQW
,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQDQGDXWRPDWLRQ




1,52$6

9DSRXU
&DODQGULD

&ODVVLFDO6HSDUDWRU

0LON&RQFHQWUDWH

)LJD6HSDUDWRUZLWKWDQJHQWLDOLQOHW

&DODQGULD

:UDSDURXQG6HSDUDWRU
1HZ7\SH

9DSRXU

0LON&RQFHQWUDWH
)LJE:UDSDURXQGVHSDUDWRU
Product in



)LJ'\QDPLFSURGXFWGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHP



1,52$6

6HSDUDWRUV
6HSDUDWRUVZLWK7DQJHQWLDO9DSRXU,QOHW
$VWKHYDSRXUVJHQHUDWHGIURPWKHHYDSRUDWLRQDUHXVHGDVKHDWLQJPHGLDLQWKHQH[W
FDODQGULDDQ\SURGXFWPXVWEHVHSDUDWHGVLQFHLWZRXOGRWKHUZLVHFRQWDPLQDWHWKH
FRQGHQVDWHDQGIXUWKHUUHSUHVHQWDORVV
7KHPDMRULW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVGLVFKDUJHGIURPWKHERWWRPRIWKHFDODQGULDEHORZ
WKHWXEHEXQGOH'XHWRWKHKLJKYDSRXUYHORFLW\VRPHRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOEHFDU
ULHGDORQJZLWKWKHYDSRXUDVVPDOOGURSOHWV7KHVHSDUDWLRQLVGRQHLQDVHSDUDWRU
ZLWKWDQJHQWLDOYDSRXULQOHWVHH)LJDFRQQHFWHGWRWKHFDODQGULDEHORZWKHWXEH
6SHFLDOFDUHLVWDNHQWRGHVLJQWKHVHSDUDWRUWRDYRLGSURGXFWFDUU\RYHUDWORZHVWSRV
VLEOHSUHVVXUHGURSDVDGURSLQWKHSUHVVXUHLVHTXDOWRGURSLQKHDWLQJHQWKDOS\LQWKH
IROORZLQJFDODQGULDZLWKDQDOORYHUGURSLQWKHHIILFLHQF\DVDUHVXOW
:UDS$URXQG6HSDUDWRU
7RUHGXFHVSDFHUHTXLUHPHQWVDQHZGHYHORSPHQWKDVWDNHQSODFHZLWKWKHGHVLJQRI
WKH:UDS$URXQG6HSDUDWRUVHH)LJE,WLVLQWHJUDWHGLQWRWKHEDVHRIWKHFDODQ
GULD,WKDVWKHVDPHKLJKHIILFLHQF\DVWKHFODVVLFDOVHSDUDWRUZLWKDORZSUHVVXUH
GURS,WLVW\SLFDOO\XVHGRQELJFDODQGULDVZLWK095FRPSUHVVRUVFRQQHFWHGWRWKH
ZUDSDURXQGVHSDUDWRUZLWKDYHU\VKRUWYDSRXUGXFWPLQLPL]LQJWKHSUHVVXUHGURS
7KHVDYLQJLQVSDFHUHTXLUHPHQWVLVW\SLFDOO\DURXQG


3URGXFW'LVWULEXWLRQ6\VWHP
$VDOUHDG\H[SODLQHGLWLVYHU\LPSRUWDQWWKDWWKHSURGXFWLVGLVWULEXWHGHYHQO\LQWRDOO
WKHWXEHVLQWKHFDODQGULDWRJHWDJRRGFRYHUDJH7KHGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHPLVWKHUHIRUH
JLYHQVSHFLDODWWHQWLRQZKHQGHVLJQLQJDQHYDSRUDWRU
,QSULQFLSOHWKHUHDUHWZRGLIIHUHQWV\VWHPV



'\QDPLFGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHP
6WDWLFGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHP

'\QDPLF'LVWULEXWLRQ6\VWHP
,QWKHG\QDPLFGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHPVHH)LJWKHQHFHVVDU\NLQHWLFHQHUJ\IRUGLV
WULEXWLRQLVREWDLQHGE\DSUHVVXUHGURSRIWKHSURGXFWRYHUDIXOOFRQHQR]]OH$VWKH
SURGXFWLVVXSHUKHDWHGLQUHODWLRQWRWKHSUHVVXUHLQVLGHWKHWXEHVIODVKYDSRXUZLOOLQ
VWDQWDQHRXVO\EHIRUPHG7KHPL[WXUHRISURGXFWDQGYDSRXULVVSUD\HGLQWRWKHLQOHW
RIWKHWXEHVWKXVEHLQJFRYHUHGE\SURGXFW



1,52$6

Product in
Product in

Preheated milk out




Cold milk in

)LJ6WDWLFSURGXFWGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHP

)LJ6SLUDOWXEHSUHKHDWHUV


7RS LQOHWGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHP RIHYDSRUDWRUFDODQGULDV




1,52$6

7KHDELOLW\RIDQR]]OHWRVSUD\RSWLPDOO\LVGHSHQGLQJXSRQWKHSUHVVXUHGURSGHWHU
PLQHGE\WKHTXDQWLW\RIWKHOLTXLGWREHKDQGOHGDQGWKHGHJUHHRIIODVKLQJZKHQHQ
WHULQJWKHURRPDERYHWKHWXEHV7KLVGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHPLVWKHUHIRUHQRWFRQVLGHUHG
DGHTXDWHLQPRGHUQHYDSRUDWRUVZKHUHIOH[LELOLW\DQGWKHUHE\GLIIHUHQFHVLQWKHIHHG
TXDQWLW\DUHUHTXLUHG)XUWKHULQPXOWLHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUVWKHIODVKLQJDQGWKHUHIRUH
WKHGLVWULEXWLRQLVPLQLPDOGXHWRORZW
6WDWLF'LVWULEXWLRQ6\VWHP
,QWKHVWDWLFGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHPWKHLQFRPLQJVXSHUKHDWHGSURGXFWLVILUVWVHSDUDWHGLQ
IODVKYDSRXUDQGSURGXFW7KHSURGXFWHQWHUVDGLVWULEXWRUSODWHSODFHGLQVLGHDQRSHQ
FRQHDVWKHSURGXFWHQWHUVWKHFDODQGULD7KHFRQHLVSODFHGDERYHDGLVWULEXWRUERZO
ZLWKDQXPEHURIKROHV+HUHDFHUWDLQOHYHORISURGXFWLVPDLQWDLQHG7KHSURGXFW
IORZVWKURXJKWKHKROHVLQWKHSODWHE\JUDYLW\(DFKKROHLVSODFHGMXVWDERYHWKHDUHD
EHWZHHQWKHWXEHV7KXVWKHSURGXFWIORZVRQWRWKHWXEHSODWHDQGWKHQRYHUWKHHGJH
GRZQDORQJWKHVXUIDFHRIHDFKWXEH7KHIODVKYDSRXUDOVRHQWHUVWKHWXEHVDQG
SXVKHVWKHSURGXFWDJDLQVWWKHLQQHUVXUIDFHRIWKHWXEHVJLYLQJLWLWVLQLWLDOYHORFLW\
6HH)LJ
7KLVGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHPLVPXFKPRUHIOH[LEOHLQUHVSHFWRIFDSDFLW\DVDQLQFUHDVHLQ
WKHOHYHOLQWKHGLVWULEXWRUERZODVDUHVXOWRILQFUHDVHGFDSDFLW\ZLOOPDNHWKH
SURGXFWIORZWKURXJKWKHKROHVDWDKLJKHUYHORFLW\WKXVPDLQWDLQLQJWKHOHYHO


3UHKHDWHUV
$VWKHPLONWREHHYDSRUDWHGKDVDWHPSHUDWXUHRI&LWKDVWREHKHDWHGWRWKH
ERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHILUVWHIIHFWLQRUGHUWRVDYHVWHDPIRUWKHHYDSRUDWLRQ7KH
PLONLVWKHUHIRUHILUVWSDVVHGWKURXJKDYDSRXUFRROHUSUHKHDWHUSODFHGEHWZHHQWKH
ODVWHIIHFW
VVHSDUDWRUDQGWKHFRQGHQVHUWKHUHE\VDYLQJFRROLQJZDWHUDVZHOO)URP
WKHYDSRXUFRROHUWKHPLONLVSDVVHGWKURXJKWKHSUHKHDWLQJVHFWLRQRIWKHODVWHIIHFW
DQGWKHQEDFNZDUGVWRWKHILUVWHIIHFWEHIRUHLWHQWHUVWKHERLOLQJVHFWLRQRIWKHILUVW
HIIHFW
7KHSUHKHDWLQJV\VWHPFDQWHFKQLFDOO\EHFDUULHGRXWLQWZRGLIIHUHQWZD\V
6SLUDOWXEHSUHKHDWHUV
 6WUDLJKWWXEHSUHKHDWHUV



6SLUDO7XEH3UHKHDWHUV
7KHVSLUDOWXEHVDUHSODFHGLQVLGHWKHKHDWLQJURRPVLQWKHFDODQGULDVXUURXQGLQJWKH
IDOOLQJILOPWXEHVWKXVEHLQJKHDWHGE\YDSRXUVHH)LJ7KHV\VWHPLVVLPSOHEXW
GRHVQRWRIIHUWKHSRVVLELOLW\RILQVSHFWLRQIRUGHSRVLWVRUOHDNDJH



1,52$6

Product / Concentrate
Condensate
Vapour
Steam


)LJ6WUDLJKWWXEHSUHKHDWHUV




([WHUQDOSUHKHDWHUV




1,52$6


6WUDLJKW7XEH3UHKHDWHUV
7KHVWUDLJKWWXEHSUHKHDWHUVDUHSODFHGYHUWLFDOO\RXWVLGHWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGOLNHWKH
VSLUDOWXEHVKHDWHGE\YDSRXUIURPWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJFDODQGULD6HH)LJ7KHYD
SRXUFRQQHFWLRQLVDWWKHWRSRIWKHFDODQGULDVRWKDWXQFRQGHQVDEOHJDVVHVFDQHDVLO\
EHH[WUDFWHG7KLVHQVXUHVDQRSWLPXPXWLOL]DWLRQRIWKHKHDWLQJVXUIDFHRIWKHHYDSR
UDWLRQWXEHV:LWKWKLVV\VWHPLQVSHFWLRQDQGPDQXDOFOHDQLQJDUHSRVVLEOHLILQUDUH
FDVHVLWVKRXOGSURYHQHFHVVDU\7KHKHDWWUDQVIHUVXUIDFHLQWKHSUHKHDWHULVDUUDQJHG
LQJURXSVRISDUDOOHOWXEHVZLWKVPDOOGLDPHWHUUHVXOWLQJLQDODUJHVXUIDFH(DFKJURXS
RIWXEHVLVFRQQHFWHGE\QRUPDOGDLU\ILWWLQJVDWWKHHQG'XHWRWKHSDUDOOHOIORZWKH
KROGLQJWLPHLVYHU\PXFKVKRUWHUWKDQWKDWRIWKHVSLUDOWXEHSUHKHDWHU7KHYLVFRVLW\
RIWKHILQDOFRQFHQWUDWHLVWKHUHIRUHORZHULQHYDSRUDWRUVHTXLSSHGZLWKVWUDLJKWWXEH
SUHKHDWHUV
7KHODUJHVXUIDFHRIWKHSUHKHDWHUVDQGWKHWHPSHUDWXUHOHYHOSUHYDLOLQJGXULQJRSHUD
WLRQ & RIIHUVKRZHYHURSWLPDOJURZWKFRQGLWLRQVIRUWKHUPRSKLOLFEDFWHULD
$IWHUKRIRSHUDWLRQDELRILOPLVIRUPHGRQWKHLQQHUVXUIDFHRIWKHSUHKHDWHUV
ZKHUHWKH\FDQIRUPVSRUHV8QOHVVVSHFLDODWWHQWLRQLVSDLGDVGLVFXVVHGRQSDJH
LQWKHFKDSWHU/RZ7KHUPRSKLOLF3UHKHDWLQJ(TXLSPHQWRQHFDQQRWH[SHFWD
KRXUVSURGXFWLRQZLWKRXWLQFUHDVHRIWKHUPRSKLOLFEDFWHULDDQGWKHLUVSRUHVGXULQJWKH
ODVWKRXUVRIDKRXUSURGXFWLRQ


3DVWHXUL]DWLRQ+ROGLQJ(TXLSPHQW
7KHWHPSHUDWXUHREWDLQHGIURPWKHODVWSUHKHDWHULVLQPXOWLHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRUVORZHU
WKDQWKHERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHLQWKHILUVWHIIHFW$GGLWLRQDOSUHKHDWLQJLVWKHUHIRUHQHF
HVVDU\WRREWDLQWKHUHTXLUHG&DERYHWKHERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHILUVWHIIHFW$
VHSDUDWHSUHKHDWHUKHDWHGE\OLYHVWHDPXVXDOO\YLDDWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRULVWKHQ
XVHG+RZHYHUVRPHSURGXFWVPD\UHTXLUHKLJKHUWHPSHUDWXUHVEXWWKHSULPDU\SXU
SRVHRIKHDWWUHDWPHQWLQDQHYDSRUDWRUDSDUWIURPEDFWHULRORJLFDOUHTXLUHPHQWVLV
QRWSDVWHXUL]DWLRQEXWREWDLQLQJDWRROWRJHWIXQFWLRQDOSURSHUWLHVLQWKHILQDOSRZ
GHU7KHUHDVRQVIRUWKHKHDWWUHDWPHQWDUH
 %DFWHULRORJLFDOUHTXLUHPHQWV
 +HDWFODVVLILHGVNLPPLONSRZGHU
 .HHSLQJTXDOLW\RIZKROHPLON
 +LJKKHDWKHDWVWDEOHPLONSRZGHU
 ,QVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHU
%DFWHULRORJLFDO5HTXLUHPHQWV
$SDVWHXUL]DWLRQGLUHFWO\EHIRUHWKHHYDSRUDWLRQZLOOQDWXUDOO\LQIOXHQFHWKHEDFWHULD
FRXQWLQWKHILQDOSRZGHUDQGWKHKLJKHUWKHWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWKHORQJHUWKHKROGLQJ
WKHPRUHHIILFLHQWWKHNLOOLQJ




1,52$6




Sek.

Guidelines for preheating during


production of skim milk powder.

Min.

Typical skim milk powder for


backing

High Heat
WPNI < 1,5mg

Medium Heat
Low
Heat

WPNI 1,51-5,99mg

WPNI
> 6,0mg


)LJ0J:31,JSRZGHUDVDIXQFWLRQRIWKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQ
LQWHQVLW\DUHODWLRQEHWZHHQWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWLPH
'HQDWXUDWLRQRI/DFWRJOREXOLQLQ0LON
'$11(1%(5*

+ROGLQJWLPH VHF












-SH
GROUPS














7HPSHUDWXUH &



)LJDGHQDWXUDWLRQRI ODFWRJOREXOLQ

90

Past. Temp: ( C)

)LJ'HYHORSPHQWRIIUHH6+JURXSVDVDIXQFWLRQRISDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUH



1,52$6


+HDW&ODVVLILHG6NLP0LON3RZGHU
6NLPPLONSRZGHULVRIWHQSURGXFHGDFFRUGLQJWRDIL[HGGHJUHHRIGHQDWXUDWLRQRIWKH
ZKH\SURWHLQVDQGLVFODVVLILHGDFFRUGLQJWRWKHZKH\SURWHLQQLWURJHQLQGH[ PJ
:31,JSRZGHU ZKLFKH[SUHVVHVWKHFRQWHQWRIXQGHQDWXUDWHGZKH\SURWHLQV'LIIHU
HQWWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWLPHFRPELQDWLRQVKDYHDQLQIOXHQFHRQWKHLQGH[DVVKRZQLQ
)LJDVZHOODVGHQDWXUDWLRQRIODFWRJOREXOLQLQPLONLQ)LJD
.HHSLQJ4XDOLW\RI:KROH0LON
:KHQSURGXFLQJZKROHPLONSRZGHURQHSUREOHPLVWKHVKHOIOLIHDVWKHIDWHDVLO\EH
FRPHVR[LGL]HGLIWKHSRZGHULVQRWSDFNHGXVLQJDQLQHUWJDV$VDORWRISRZGHULV
VKLSSHGLQEDJVLWLVQRWSRVVLEOHWRSURWHFWWKHSRZGHUHIIHFWLYHO\DQGDQWLR[LGDQWV
DUHLQPRVWFDVHVQRWSHUPLWWHG
%\SDVWHXUL]LQJ GLUHFW WKHPLONSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQWR&DQGNHHSLQJWKH
WHPSHUDWXUHIRUPLQVRPHQDWXUDODQWLR[LGDQWVZLOOEHIRUPHGDV6+JURXSV
RULJLQDWLQJIURPWKHDPLQRDFLGVF\VWLQHF\VWHLQHDQGPHWKLRQLQHDUHOLEHUDWHGDQG
ZLOODFWDVDQWLR[LGDQWV+LJKHUSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHVZLOOIRUPPRUH6+
JURXSVEXWWKH\ZLOOUHDFWZLWKFDVHLQDQGQRWEHIRXQGLQIUHHIRUP6HH)LJ7KH
IUHH6+JURXSVZLOODWWKHVDPHWLPHJLYHWKHPLONDFRRNHGIODYRXUZKLFKKRZHYHU
LVOLNHGE\PDQ\FRQVXPHUV
+LJK+HDW+HDW6WDEOH0LON3RZGHU
7KLVW\SHRISRZGHULVXVHGIRUUHFRQVWLWXWLRQIRUPDNLQJHYDSRUDWHGVWHULOL]HGPLON
HVSHFLDOO\LQWKH)DU(DVW$IWHUUHFRQVWLWXWLRQWR76WKHSURGXFWKDVWREH
VWHULOL]HGXVLQJWHPSHUDWXUHVRI&RUKLJKHUGXULQJPLQ7KHKHDWVWDELOLW\RI
WKHUHFRPELQHGSURGXFWLVFRQWUROOHGE\WKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHWLPHFRPELQD
WLRQSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQDQGGU\LQJ$GLUHFWFRQWDFWKHDWLQJV\VWHPJLYHVDEHWWHU
UHVXOW

3DVWHXUL]DWLRQ
7HPSHUDWXUH,QWHUYDO&


LQGLUHFW

&

IURPWR

GLUHFW

&

IURPWR




GLUHFW
KROGLQJ

&
PLQ

 IURPWR



,QWKHKHDWLQJLQWHUYDOIURPWR&DYHU\IDVWKHDWLQJLVLPSRUWDQWWR
DYRLGLQWHUDFWLRQEHWZHHQWKHZKH\SURWHLQVLQRUGHUWRSURGXFHORZYLV
FRXVSURGXFWVZLWKJRRGKHDWVWDELOLW\

,QVWDQW:KROH0LON3RZGHU
7RSURGXFHLQVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHUZLWKJRRGUHFRQVWLWXWLRQSURSHUWLHVLQFROGZD
WHUDQGDWWKHVDPHWLPHZLWKDJRRGFRIIHHVWDELOLW\WKDWLVQRFRDJXODWLRQVKRXOG



1,52$6

Product in

CI
P

ou

CI

in

Steam

Pasteurized
product out

)LJ6ZLWFKDEOHLQGLUHFWKHDWH[FKDQJHUV

Product / Concentrate
Cendensate
Vapour
Steam

)LJ,QGLUHFWVSLUDOWXEHKHDWH[FKDQJHUZRUNLQJLQ
VHULHVKHDWHGE\VWHDPDQGIODVKYDSRXU



1,52$6

WDNHSODFHZKHQWKHSRZGHULVDGGHGWRKRWFRIIHHDVDZKLWHQHULWLVUHFRPPHQGHG
WRXVHDWHPSHUDWXUHWLPHFRPELQDWLRQWRDFKLHYHD:31,RI!PJJZKLFKFRUUH
VSRQGVWRDSSUR[GHQDWXUDWLRQRIODFWRJOREXOLQVHHIXUWKHU)LJD
7KHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQFDQEHFDUULHGRXWLQGLIIHUHQWZD\VHLWKHU
,QGLUHFWLQSODWHVSLUDORUVWUDLJKWWXEHKHDWH[FKDQJHUV
 'LUHFWVWHDPLQMHFWLRQVLQWRWKHPLONRUPLONLQWRDVWHDPDWPRVSKHUH

,QGLUHFW3DVWHXUL]DWLRQ


7KHLQGLUHFWKHDWHUVDUHZRUNLQJDVRUGLQDU\KHDWH[FKDQJHUVHLWKHUWKHSODWHWXEHRU
VSLUDOWXEHW\SH,IWHPSHUDWXUHVXSWR&DUHZDQWHGLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWRKDYH
WZRKHDWHUVZKHUHRQHLVLQRSHUDWLRQZKLOHWKHRWKHURQHLVEHLQJFOHDQHGVHH
)LJ
7KHDGYDQWDJHRIWKHLQGLUHFWKHDWLQJLVWKDWWKHSURGXFWZLOOQRWEHPL[HGZLWKWKH
FRQGHQVDWLQJVWHDPDQGQHLWKHUZLOOWKHSURGXFWEHGLOXWHG7KHGLVDGYDQWDJHLVWKDWLW
WDNHVORQJWLPHIRUWKHSURGXFWWREHKHDWHGLQWKHLQWHUYDOIURP&WR&UHVXOW
LQJLQDFRQFHQWUDWHZLWKKLJKYLVFRVLW\EHFDXVHWKHZKH\SURWHLQVZKHQXQUROOHG
ZLOOUHDFWGHQDWXUHZLWKHDFKRWKHUEHIRUHWKH.DSSDFDVHLQLVIRUPHG)RULPSURYHG
HIILFLHQFLHVRQHRUPRUHUHJHQHUDWLRQV\VWHPVFDQEHLQFRUSRUDWHGVHH)LJ
'LUHFW3DVWHXUL]DWLRQ
7KHGLUHFWSDVWHXUL]DWLRQLVGRQHLQWZRGLIIHUHQWZD\VHLWKHUE\GLUHFWVWHDPLQMHF
WLRQZKHUHWKHOLYHVWHDPLVPL[HGLQWRWKHPLONXVLQJD7DQJHQWLDO6ZLUO+HDWHU
76+ VHH)LJ,WRIIHUVDFRQWUROOHGDQGVKRUWUHVLGHQFHWLPHZLWKQRPHFKDQLFDO
LPSDFWHYHQDWWHPSHUDWXUHV!&,WFDQRSHUDWHKRXUVRUPRUHZLWKRXWLQWHU
PHGLDWHFOHDQLQJ$OWHUQDWLYHO\PLONLVVSUD\HGLQWRDVWHDPDWPRVSKHUH LQIXVLRQ DW
DVXIILFLHQWSUHVVXUH7KHVWHDPPXVWEHRIJRRGTXDOLW\LHIRUXVHLQSURGXFWVIRU
KXPDQFRQVXPSWLRQ&XOLQDU\VWHDPERLOHUVZKHUHPLONFRQGHQVDWHLVKHDWHGXSLQDQ
LQGLUHFWFRLOW\SHKHDWHUE\PHDQVRIOLYHVWHDPFDQEHXVHG7KHDGYDQWDJHRIGLUHFW
SDVWHXUL]DWLRQLVWKHVKRUWWLPHLWWDNHVWRUHDFKWKHGHVLUHGWHPSHUDWXUH7KLVPHDQV
WKDWERWKXQUROOHGZKH\SURWHLQVDQG.DSSDFDVHLQDUHDYDLODEOHDQGWKH\FDQUH
DFWGHQDWXUHZLWKHDFKRWKHUUHVXOWLQJLQDORZYLVFRVLW\




1,52$6

Milk in
Milk
Preheated milk
Flash vapour

Pasteurized milk

Flash cooled milk

)LJ'LUHFWSDVWHXUL]LQJV\VWHPZLWKGLUHFW
FRQWDFWIODVKUHJHQHUDWLYHV\VWHP

6SRUHIRUPLQJ%DFWHULD

*URZWKWHPSHUDWXUHV
q& 

7DQJHQWLDO6ZLUO+HDWHU

8VXDOLQDFWLYDWLRQ
LQPLONE\KHDW

0LQL
PXP

2SWL
PXP

0D[L
PXP

9HJHWDWLYH
FHOO

6SRUH

%6WHDURWKHUPRSKLOXV







V&

P&

%&HUHXV







V&

P&

%&RDJXODQV







V&

P&







V&

P&







V&

P&

&%RWXOLQXP







V&

P&

&3HUIULQJHQV







V&

P&

V&

P&

%/LFKHQLIRUPLV
%6XEWLOLV

&7\UREXWLULFXP


)LJD2SWLPDOEDFWHULDJURZWKFRQGLWLRQV



1,52$6

7KHGLUHFWKHDWLQJZLOOIXUWKHUKDYHDOHVVSURQRXQFHGHIIHFWRQWKHGHQDWXUDWLRQRI
WKHZKH\SURWHLQVDWWKHVDPHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHWLPH




:KH\SURWHLQGHQDWXUDWLRQ
7KLDPLQORVV




'LUHFWV\VWHP



,QGLUHFWV\VWHP



$VIRUWKHLQGLUHFWSDVWHXUL]DWLRQUHJHQHUDWLYHIODVKFKDPEHUVDUHXVHGLIKLJKSDV
WHXUL]LQJWHPSHUDWXUHVDUHQHHGHG7KHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHPLONZLOOGURSGXHWRWKH
HYDSRUDWLRQDQGWKHYDSRXUVDUHXVHGIRUSUHKHDWLQJSULRUWRWKHSDVWHXUL]HU7KHUH
JHQHUDWLYHIODVKFKDPEHUFDQEHHLWKHULQGLUHFWDVVKRZQLQ)LJRUGLUHFWFRQWDFW
DVVKRZQLQ)LJ7KHGLUHFWFRQWDFWUHJHQHUDWLYHV\VWHPLVSUHIHUDEOHDVWKHUHLV
QRKHDWFRQWDFWVXUIDFHZKHUHGHSRVLWV ELRILOP FDQGHYHORS
7KHKROGLQJLVSUDFWLFDOO\DOZD\VGRQHLQKROGLQJWXEHVZLWKVSHFLILFOHQJWKDQGGL
DPHWHUWRJLYHWKHGHVLUHGKROGLQJWLPH+ROGLQJYDWVWKHVRFDOOHGKRWZHOOKDYH
EHHQXVHGLIKROGLQJWLPHVDVORQJDVPLQHVSHFLDOO\IRUZKH\RUSHUPHDWHDUH
UHTXLUHG,WLVKRZHYHUGLIILFXOWWRFRQWUROWKHH[DFWWLPHDQGVRPHRIWKHSURGXFW
PLJKWSDVVWKURXJKLQPLQZKHUHDVVRPHZRXOGWDNHYHU\ORQJ
7KHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHZLOORIFRXUVHKDYHDGLUHFWLQIOXHQFHRQWKHWRWDO
VWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQZKLFKZLOOLQFUHDVHE\LQFUHDVLQJWKHWHPSHUDWXUH)RUWKHVDPH
SDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHWKHGLUHFWSDVWHXUL]DWLRQZLOOUHVXOWLQKLJKHUVWHDPFRQ
VXPSWLRQFRPSDUHGZLWKLQGLUHFWSDVWHXUL]LQJGXHWRWKHQHHGRIHYDSRUDWLRQRIWKH
H[WUDZDWHUIRUPHGE\WKHFRQGHQVDWLRQ+RZHYHUWKHDGGLWLRQDOVWHDPXVHGLVDIWHU
IODVKLQJRIIXVHGDVKHDWLQJPHGLXPLQWKHVXEVHTXHQWFDODQGULDVDQGVRPHRIWKH
DSSOLHGHQHUJ\LVUHXVHG


3UHKHDWLQJ(TXLSPHQWWRSUHYHQW7KHUPRSKLOH%DFWHULD*URZWK
7KHODVWIHZ\HDUVWKHUHKDVEHHQDORWRIIRFXVRQWKHFRQWHQWRIVSRUHIRUPLQJWKHU
PRSKLOLFEDFWHULDLQPLONSRZGHU,WKDVEHHQIRXQGWKDWRQO\DIWHUKRXUV
RSHUD
WLRQRIDSODQWWKHQXPEHURIWKHVHEDFWHULDVWDUWVWRLQFUHDVHDQGLWLQFUHDVHVH[SR
QHQWLDOO\
6SRUHIRUPLQJEDFWHULDDUHEDFWHULDZKLFKXQGHUDGYHUVHJURZWKFRQGLWLRQVVXFKDV
WRRKLJKRUWRRORZWHPSHUDWXUHRUODFNRIQXWULWLRQWUDQVIRUPWKHPVHOYHVLQWRDGRU
PDQWVWDWHWKH\VSRUXODWHDQGEHFRPHH[WUHPHO\KHDWUHVLVWDQW:KHQJURZWKFRQGL
WLRQVEHFRPHIDYRXUDEOHDJDLQWKH\UHYHJHWDWHDQGGHYHORS7KHYHJHWDWLYHFHOOVFDQ
EHNLOOHGE\KHDWWUHDWPHQW7KHUPRSKLOLFEDFWHULDW\SLFDOO\JURZEHWZHHQDQG
&VHH7DEOH)LJD



1,52$6

3URGXFW2XW

3URGXFW,Q
'XSOH[3UH+HDWHU

)LJE'XSOH[3UHKHDWHU




1,52$6

,WKDVEHHQIRXQGWKDWWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHUPRSKLOLFEDFWHULDLQHYDSRUDWRUVWDNHV
SODFHLQWKHSUHKHDWHUVDVWKDWLVWKHRQO\SODFHZKHUHELRILOPVDUHIRUPHG
7R HQVXUH SURGXFWLRQ RI SRZGHU GXULQJ D  KRXUV RSHUDWLRQ ZLWKRXW SUREOHPV WKH
IROORZLQJFDQEHGRQH
 0LGUXQFOHDQLQJ
 8+7WUHDWPHQW
 'XSOH[SUHKHDWLQJV\VWHP
 &RQWDFWSUHKHDWLQJE\GLUHFWVWHDPLQMHFWLRQ
 'LUHFWFRQWDFWUHJHQHUDWLYHSUHKHDWLQJ

0LGUXQFOHDQLQJ
,IWKHHYDSRUDWRULVFOHDQHGDIWHUKRXUVWKHSUREOHPLVVROYHGEXWDSSUR[RI
HIIHFWLYHSURGXFWLRQWLPHLVORVWDQGIXUWKHUWKHUHDUHH[SHQVHVIRUFOHDQLQJDJHQWV
DQGZDVWHGLVSRVDO
8+7WUHDWPHQW
%\KHDWLQJWKHPLONWR&LQVHFDIWHUWKHSUHKHDWHUVWKHSUREOHPLVVROYHG
KRZHYHUWKHGHDGFHOOVDUHVWLOOWUDFHDEOHDQGLWZLOOQRWEHSRVVLEOHWRPDNHSRZGHUV
ZLWKWDLORUPDGHIXQFWLRQDOSURSHUWLHV
)XUWKHUWKHUHZLOOEHDGGLWLRQDOVWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQDQGWKHPD[UXQQLQJWLPHLVGH
SHQGLQJRQPLONTXDOLW\
'XSOH[SUHKHDWLQJV\VWHP
%\LQVWDOOLQJGXSOH[SUHKHDWHUVVHH)LJELWLVSRVVLEOHWRKDYHDFRQWLQXRXVUXQRI
KRXUVDVWKHSUHKHDWHUVDUHFOHDQHGEHIRUHWKHFULWLFDOOHYHOKDVEHHQUHDFKHG$G
GLWLRQDOFRVWVIRUFOHDQLQJDQGHIIOXHQWWUHDWPHQWPXVWEHWDNHQLQWRDFFRXQW)XUWKHU
WKHLQYHVWPHQWLVKLJKHUEXWWKHDFWXDOGLUHFWSURGXFWLRQFRVWVDQGWLPHDUHQRWDI
IHFWHG
&RQWDFWSUHKHDWLQJE\GLUHFWVWHDPLQMHFWLRQ
$VPHQWLRQHGWKHWKHUPRSKLOHEDFWHULDRQO\GHYHORSLQELRILOPVLQWKHSUHKHDWHUV
7KHUHIRUHWKHPRVWREYLRXVVROXWLRQZRXOGEHWRE\SDVVWKHSUHKHDWHUVZKHUHWHP
SHUDWXUHVDUHEHWZHHQDQG&7KLVZLOOKRZHYHUUHVXOWLQLQFUHDVHGRYHUDOO
VWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQDVGLUHFWVWHDPLQMHFWLRQLVQHFHVVDU\WREULQJXSWKHWHPSHUDWXUH
IURP&WRWKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHDQGIXUWKHUWKHZDWHUIURPGLOXWLRQRIWKH
FRQGHQVLQJVWHDPKDVWREHHYDSRUDWHGDJDLQ,IDOVRPHVRSKLOHEDFWHULDDQGWKHLU
VSRUHVDUHDSUREOHPWKHQSUHKHDWLQJIURP&LVQHFHVVDU\




1,52$6

3URGXFW,Q
 R

&RQGHQVDWLRQ

6WHDP9DSRXU 0L[
 R
3URGXFW2XW

6WHDP

9DSRXU

)LJF'LUHFWFRQWDFWSUHKHDWHUIODVKFKDPEHU




1,52$6


'LUHFWFRQWDFWUHJHQHUDWLYHSUHKHDWLQJ
%\XVLQJDGLUHFWFRQWDFWUHJHQHUDWLYHSUHKHDWHURIVLPLODUGHVLJQDVWKHGLUHFWFRQWDFW
UHJHQHUDWLYHIODVKFKDPEHUV VHHSDJH WKHKHDWLQJIURP&WR&FDQEHGRQH
LQIUDFWLRQVRIDVHFRQGZLWKRXWKHDWVXUIDFHVZKHUHELRILOPVFDQEHIRXQG
7KHPLONDIWHUSUHKHDWLQJWR&LQWKHODVWHIIHFWFRQGHQVHUIRU795SODQWVRULQ
DSODWHKHDWH[FKDQJHULQDQ095SODQWLVSXPSHGWRWKHLQOHWRIWKHGLUHFWFRQWDFW
SUHKHDWHUZKHUHYDSRXUIURPRQHRIWKHVHSDUDWRUVLVLQWURGXFHGE\PHDQVRIOLYH
VWHDPWKURXJKDVPDOOWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRUVHH)LJ6XEVHTXHQWKHDWLQJWRWKHSDV
WHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHIROORZHGE\UHJHQHUDWLYHIODVKLQJLVGRQHDVGLVFXVVHGDERYH
VHH)LJF,IPHVRSKLOHEDFWHULDDQGWKHLUVSRUHVDUHDSUREOHPWKHQWKHODVWHIIHFW
SUHKHDWHULVRPLWWHGDQGWKHUHJHQHUDWLYHKHDWLQJLVGRQHDOUHDG\IURP&LQVLPLODU
HTXLSPHQWDVGHVFULEHGDERYH
%\DSSO\LQJWKLVWHFKQRORJ\LWLVSRVVLEOHWRRSHUDWHWKHSODQWIRUKRXUVRUPRUH
ZLWKRXWJURZWKRIPHVRSKLOHDQGRUWKHUPRSKLOHEDFWHULDDQGWKHLUVSRUHVDWDUHGXFHG
VWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQFRPSDUHGWRWKH8+7RUGLUHFWVWHDPLQMHFWLRQVROXWLRQ


&RQGHQVDWLRQ(TXLSPHQW
$OOHYDSRUDWRUVLQWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\RSHUDWHXQGHUYDFXXPDQGDUHWKHUHIRUHHTXLSSHG
ZLWKDLUHYDFXDWLRQDQGFRQGHQVDWLRQLQVWDOODWLRQLQRUGHUWRFRQGHQVHWKHYDSRXUWKDW
FDQQRPRUHEHXWLOL]HGDQGLQRUGHUWRFUHDWHDQGPDLQWDLQWKHYDFXXPLQWKHSODQW
7KHDPRXQWRIKHDWWKHFRQGHQVHUKDVWRGLVFKDUJHGHSHQGVRQWKHDPRXQWRIUHVLGXDO
YDSRXUVIURPWKHODVWHIIHFWDQGWKHLUWHPSHUDWXUH
,QRUGHUWRVDYHFRROLQJZDWHUDQGHQHUJ\WKHPLONWREHHYDSRUDWHG ZLWKDWHPSHUD
WXUHRI& LVXVHGWRSUHFRROWKHYDSRXUVZKLOHWKHPLONLVVLPXOWDQHRXVO\EHLQJ
SUHKHDWHG+RZHYHUWKHILQDOFRQGHQVDWLRQLVGRQHZLWKFRROLQJZDWHU$VWKHUHZLOO
DOZD\VEHVRPHDLUDQGXQFRQGHQVDEOHJDVHVLQWKHPLONWREHHYDSRUDWHGDQGSRVVLEO\
VPDOOOHDNVLQWKHSODQWLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRKDYHVRPHHTXLSPHQWLQRUGHUWRH[WUDFWWKLV
DLUJDVIRUPDLQWDLQLQJWKHYDFXXP7KHVDPHHTXLSPHQWLVXVHGWRFUHDWHWKHYDFXXP
GXULQJVWDUWXS
)RUWKHSXUSRVHRIFRQGHQVLQJWKHYDSRXUV DQGWKHUHE\PDLQWDLQLQJWKHYDFXXP WZR
W\SHVDUHXVHG
0L[LQJFRQGHQVHU
 6XUIDFHFRQGHQVHU





1,52$6

Cooling water in

Uncondensable gases

Vapour

Cooling water out

)LJ0L[LQJFRQGHQVHU

Uncondensable gases

Vapour

Condensate
Cooling water
Cooling water in

)LJ6XUIDFHFRQGHQVHU




1,52$6


0L[LQJ&RQGHQVHU
,QDPL[LQJFRQGHQVHUQXPHURXVQR]]OHVDQGSODWHVDUHLQVWDOOHGLQRUGHUWRJHWDJRRG
PL[LQJRIWKHYDSRXUDQGWKHFRROLQJZDWHUVHH)LJ SUDFWLFDOO\WKHVDPHSULQFL
SOHDVLQWKHZHWVFUXEEHUVHHODWHU 7KHZDWHUDQGFRQGHQVHGYDSRXUDUHUHPRYHGDW
WKHERWWRP$VWKHUHZLOOEHWKHVDPHYDFXXPLQWKHPL[LQJFRQGHQVHUDVLQWKHODVW
HIIHFWWKHSXPSWRUHPRYHWKHZDWHUDQGFRQGHQVDWHVKRXOGEHFDSDEOHRIGLVFKDUJLQJ
IURPWKLVYDFXXP
$QRWKHUVROXWLRQLVWRSODFHWKHPL[LQJFRQGHQVHUEDURPHWULFDOO\KLJKLHDERXW
PHWHUDERYHWKHSXPS7KHZDWHUZLOOUXQLQWRDZHOOIURPZKHUHLWLVSXPSHGDZD\
HLWKHUWRDFRROLQJWRZHURUWRDQDWXUDOZDWHUUHVHUYRLU
7KHDGYDQWDJHRIWKHPL[LQJFRQGHQVHULVORZLQYHVWPHQWFRVWVDQGORZHUFRROLQJZD
WHUFRQVXPSWLRQ7KHGLVDGYDQWDJHLVWKDWFRQGHQVDWHLVPL[HGZLWKWKHFRROLQJZDWHU
ZKLFKPD\KDYHWKHHIIHFWWKDWWKHFRROLQJWRZHULVFRQWDPLQDWHG
6XUIDFH&RQGHQVHU
7KHVXUIDFHFRQGHQVHULVZRUNLQJDQGEXLOWDFFRUGLQJWRWKHVDPHSULQFLSOHDVDQRU
GLQDU\VWUDLJKWWXEHKHDWH[FKDQJHUVHH)LJ7KHDGYDQWDJHVRIDVXUIDFHFRQ
GHQVHULVWKDWFRROLQJZDWHUDQGYDSRXUFRQGHQVDWHUHPDLQVHSDUDWH$VRQO\WKHYD
SRXUFRQGHQVDWHKDVWREHSXPSHGRXWRIWKHYDFXXPLWKDVQHYHUEHHQFRQVLGHUHGWR
SODFHLWEDURPHWULFDOO\DVLVWKHFDVHIRUWKHPL[LQJFRQGHQVHU6XUIDFHFRQGHQVHUV
VKRXOGDOZD\VEHXVHGLQSODQWVZKHUHDFLGSURGXFWVVXFKDVDFLGZKH\DUHHYDSRUDWHG
LQRUGHUWRVHSDUDWHDFLGYDSRXUFRQGHQVDWHIURPWKHFRROLQJZDWHU


9DFXXP(TXLSPHQW
$VGLVFXVVHGWKHYDFXXPLQWKHODVWHIIHFWRIWKHHYDSRUDWRULVDIXQFWLRQRIWKH
DPRXQWRIFRROLQJZDWHUDQGWKHWHPSHUDWXUH7KHYDFXXPLQWKHILUVWDQGLQWHUPHGL
DWHHIIHFWVLVFUHDWHGE\WKHVXEVHTXHQWFDODQGULDDFWLQJDVDFRQGHQVHUIRUWKHYDSRXUV
IURPWKHSUHYLRXVHIIHFW$Q\FKDQJHLQWKHHYDSRUDWLRQUDWHLQRQHHIIHFWGXHWRIRXO
LQJIRUH[DPSOH GHFUHDVHRI.IDFWRU WKHUHIRUHPHDQVWKDWOHVVYDSRXULVFRQGHQVHG
7KLVUHVXOWVLQLQFUHDVHGERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHLQWKHSUHYLRXVHIIHFWWKHWGHFUHDVHV
DQGVRGRHVWKHRYHUDOOHYDSRUDWLRQFDSDFLW\(DFKHIIHFWLVFRQQHFWHGWRWKHFRQ
GHQVHUWRHQVXUHWKHGHDHUDWLRQRILQFRQGHQVDEOHDLUDQGJDV
7RFUHDWHDQGPDLQWDLQ GXHWRWKHLQFRQGHQVDEOHJDVHVDQGOHDNV WKHYDFXXPLQWKH
HYDSRUDWRUWZRW\SHVRISXPSVDUHXVHG
9DFXXPSXPS
 6WHDPMHWYDFXXPXQLW





1,52$6

)LJ&RROLQJWRZHU




1,52$6


9DFXXP3XPS
9DFXXPSXPSVVXFKDVWKHZDWHUULQJSXPSDUHXVHG1RUPDOO\WZRXQLWVDUHLQ
VWDOOHGWKH\DUHERWKXVHGIRUTXLFNVWDUWXSRIWKHSODQWZKLOHRQO\RQHLVXVHGGXU
LQJSURGXFWLRQ2QO\VWDLQOHVVVWHHOPDWHULDOVKRXOGEHFRQVLGHUHGDVEURQ]HHYHQLW
LVFKHDSHUKDVDYHU\VKRUWOLIHWLPHHVSHFLDOO\LIWKHSODQWKDVWRSURFHVVZKH\GXH
WRFRUURVLRQ
6WHDP-HW9DFXXP8QLW
7KHVWHDPMHWYDFXXPXQLWLVLQSULQFLSOHGHVLJQHGOLNHWKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRUGLV
FXVVHGHDUOLHU7KLVV\VWHPKDVDORZPDLQWHQDQFHFRVWEXWWKHDGGLWLRQDOVWHDPUH
TXLUHPHQWVKRXOGEHWDNHQLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQ


&RROLQJ7RZHUV
0DQ\IDFWRULHVDUHSODFHGQHDUODNHVULYHUVRURWKHUQDWXUDOZDWHUUHVHUYRLUVDQGWKH
DPRXQWDQGWHPSHUDWXUHRIFRROLQJZDWHUDUHWKHUHIRUHQRSUREOHPSURYLGHGWKHLQ
FUHDVHGWHPSHUDWXUHLQWKHUHWXUQZDWHULVQRWFDXVLQJDQ\HQYLURQPHQWDOSUREOHPV
+RZHYHUQRWDOOIDFWRULHVKDYHJRWDFFHVVWRXQOLPLWHGZDWHUVXSSO\DQGWKHVLWXDWLRQ
ZKHUHWKHFRROLQJZDWHUUHTXLUHPHQWFDQQRWEHFRYHUHGPD\DULVH7KHSUREOHPFRXOG
EHVROYHGE\UHF\FOLQJWKHZDWHUEXWDVWKHWHPSHUDWXUHLQFUHDVHGE\&IRUHDFK
F\FOHWKHYDFXXPLQWKHHYDSRUDWRUZRXOGVRRQGLVDSSHDU%\LQVWDOOLQJDFRROLQJ
WRZHUVHH)LJWKLVSUREOHPLVRYHUFRPH,QWKHFRROLQJWRZHUWKHZDWHULVFRROHG
KRZPXFKGHSHQGVRQORFDOFRQGLWLRQVIRUDPELHQWWHPSHUDWXUHDQGZHWEXOEWHP
SHUDWXUH E\HYDSRUDWLRQDVWKHZDWHULVGLVWULEXWHGRYHUDELJVXUIDFHDQGDIDQHQ
VXUHVWKHQHFHVVDU\DLUWXUEXOHQFH7KHIORZRIZDWHUJRHVIURPWKHFRROLQJWRZHUWR
WKHFRQGHQVHUIURPZKHUHLWLVSXPSHGEDFNWRWKHFRROLQJWRZHU
'XHWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQRIZDWHULQWKHFRROLQJWRZHUZDWHUKDVQDWXUDOO\WREHDGGHG
EXWWKHDPRXQWLVORZ:KHQDPL[LQJFRQGHQVHULVXVHGWKHH[WUDZDWHUUHTXLUHPHQW
LVSUDFWLFDOO\QLODVWKHFRQGHQVHGYDSRXUVDUHPL[HGZLWKWKHZDWHU,WLVUHFRP
PHQGHGDWFHUWDLQLQWHUYDOVWRUHQHZWKHUHF\FOHGZDWHUFRPSOHWHO\WRDYRLGEDFWHULD
JURZWK


+LJK&RQFHQWUDWRUV
,QWKHEDE\IRRGLQGXVWU\ZKHUHWKHSURGXFWVDUHEDVHGRQUHFRPELQLQJWKHYDULRXV
LQJUHGLHQWVEHIRUHVSUD\GU\LQJDKLJKFRQFHQWUDWRULVXVHGWRLQFUHDVHWKHVROLGVFRQ
WHQWIURPW\SLFDOO\WRDOOGHSHQGLQJRQFRPSRVLWLRQ'XULQJWKH
HYDSRUDWLRQDOODLULQFRUSRUDWHGGXULQJWKHUHFRPELQDWLRQLVHYDFXDWHGUHVXOWLQJLQD
SRZGHUZLWKORZHVWSRVVLEOHRFFOXGHGDLUFRQWHQW7KHKLJKFRQFHQWUDWRULVHTXLSSHG



1,52$6

Product / Concentrate
Condensate
Vapour
Steam

Vacuum pump

Cooling water

Product in

)LJ+LJKFRQFHQWUDWRUDQGIHHGV\VWHP




1,52$6

ZLWKDEXIIHUWDQNZLWKOHYHOFRQWUROEHORZWKHFDODQGULDDQGDFWVWKXVDVVODYHIRU
WKHVSUD\GU\HUVHH)LJ


)ODVK&RROHUV
9HU\RIWHQWKHUHTXLUHGFRQFHQWUDWHWHPSHUDWXUHLVORZHUWKDQWKHRQHREWDLQHGIURP
WKHODVWHIIHFW7KHFRQFHQWUDWHFDQQDWXUDOO\EHSDVVHGRYHUDFRROLQJVXUIDFHVXFKDV
DSODWHKHDWH[FKDQJHUEXWDVWKHYLVFRVLW\LVKLJKDWWKLVVWDJHLWLVQRWUHFRP
PHQGHG,QVWHDGIODVKFRROHUVDUHXVHG7KHV\VWHPLVVLPSOHDQGFRQVLVWVRQO\RID
YDFXXPFKDPEHU YDFXXPFUHDWHGE\VWHDPMHWYDFXXPXQLWV LQWRZKLFKWKHFRQFHQ
WUDWHLVVSUD\HG'HSHQGLQJXSRQWKHYDFXXPWKHFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOIODVKDQGGXHWRWKH
HYDSRUDWLRQDFRROLQJZLOOWDNHSODFHVLPXOWDQHRXVO\UHVXOWLQJLQDVOLJKWLQFUHDVHRI
WKHVROLGVFRQWHQW7KHIODVKFRROHULVPDLQO\XVHGIRUZKH\ZKHUHLWLVHVSHFLDOO\DG
YDQWDJHRXVDVWKHFRROLQJWDNHVSODFHLQVWDQWDQHRXVO\WKHUHE\DYRLGLQJSUREOHPV
ZLWKFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRIWKHODFWRVHZKLFKZRXOGFUHDWHEORFNDJHVEHWZHHQWKHSODWHV


6HDOLQJ:DWHU(TXLSPHQW
$OOIDOOLQJILOPHYDSRUDWRUVKDYHWUDQVSRUWSXPSVIRUSDVVLQJWKHPLONFRQFHQWUDWH
IURPRQHHIIHFWWRDQRWKHU7KHDPRXQWRISXPSVGHSHQGVRQWKHQXPEHURIHIIHFWV
DQGZKHWKHUWKHHIIHFWVDUHVSOLWRUQRW$VWKHSXPSVZRUNXQGHUYDFXXPHIILFLHQW
VHDOLQJLVQHFHVVDU\WRDYRLGDQ\DLUOHDNLQJPDNLQJLWGLIILFXOWWRPDLQWDLQWKHYDF
XXP7KLVVHDOLQJLVGRQHZLWKZDWHU(DFKSXPSUHTXLUHVDERXWOKRIVHDOLQJ
ZDWHURIZKLFKQRUPDOO\OKHQWHUVWKHPLONIORZ7KHVHDOLQJZDWHUV\VWHPPD\
EHGHVLJQHGVRWKDWHDFKSXPSLVIXUQLVKHGZLWKDVPDOOIXQQHOWRVHHLIWKHUHLVDQ\
H[FHVVLYHZDVWHRIVHDOLQJZDWHUDQGZKLFKLVPRUHLPSRUWDQWLIDSXPSLVVXG
GHQO\XVLQJPRUHZDWHUWKDQQRUPDOZKLFKPHDQVWKDWWKHVHDOLQJULQJLVZHDULQJRXW


,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQDQG$XWRPDWLRQ
,WLVDEVROXWHO\YLWDOIRUDVXFFHVVIXOSHUIRUPDQFHRIWKHHYDSRUDWRUWKDWWKHLQVWUXPHQ
WDWLRQLVZHOOHVWDEOLVKHGDQGWKDWDOOWKHFULWLFDOSDUDPHWHUVDUHLQGLFDWHGRQLQVWUX
PHQWVVRWKDWVWHSVFDQEHWDNHQWRDYRLGPDOIXQFWLRQV
2ILPSRUWDQWLQVWUXPHQWDWLRQFDQEHPHQWLRQHG
)ORZPHWHUIRUWKHUDZPLON
7HPSHUDWXUHRIWKHUDZPLON
 3UHKHDWLQJWHPSHUDWXUH
 3DVWHXUL]LQJWHPSHUDWXUH
 +HDWLQJDQGERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUHDQGSUHVVXUHVRIHDFKHIIHFW





1,52$6


&RQFHQWUDWHGLVFKDUJHSXPSV




1,52$6

6WHDPSUHVVXUHDYDLODEOH
 6WHDPSUHVVXUHWRWKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRU
 &RROLQJZDWHUWHPSHUDWXUH
 :DUPZDWHUWHPSHUDWXUH
 9DFXXP
 &RQGXFWLYLW\RIFRQGHQVDWH
 'HQVLW\ VROLGVFRQWHQW 

7KHVHLQVWUXPHQWVVKRXOGEHLQDFRQWUROSDQHOFHQWUDOO\SODFHGSUHIHUDEO\LQDFRQWURO
URRPWRPDNHWKHRSHUDWLRQHDV\
$VWRWKHDXWRPDWLRQDQGGHJUHHRIDXWRPDWLRQWKHUHDUHPDQ\RSLQLRQV+RZHYHUDV
WKHDLPLVDVWHDG\UXQZLWKRXWIOXFWXDWLRQVWKHIROORZLQJFRQWUROORRSVDUHUHFRP
PHQGHG






)HHGIORZ
3DVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUH
6WHDPSUHVVXUHIRUWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRU
6ROLGVFRQWHQW
9DFXXPODVWHIIHFWERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUH


)HHG)ORZ
7KHIHHGIORZLHWKHUDZPLONLVFRQWUROOHGDXWRPDWLFDOO\YLDDIORZPHWHUZKLFK
FDQHLWKHUDFRQYHQWLRQDOW\SHRUEHWWHUEDVHGRQLQGXFWLYHPDJQHWLFPHDVXUHPHQW
3DVWHXUL]DWLRQ7HPSHUDWXUH
,QRUGHUWREHVXUHWKDWWKHILQDOSRZGHUKDVDOZD\VEHHQH[SRVHGWRWKHZDQWHGSDV
WHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHWKLVWHPSHUDWXUHLVFRQWUROOHGDXWRPDWLFDOO\LQPRVWFDVHV
7KHV\VWHPLVVLPSOHDQGZHOONQRZQIURPSODWHKHDWH[FKDQJHUVZKHUHWKHVWHDP
SUHVVXUHFRQWUROVWKHPLONWHPSHUDWXUHE\PHDQVRIDVLPSOHVWHDPSUHVVXUHUHGXFWLRQ
YDOYH
6WHDP3UHVVXUHIRU7KHUPR&RPSUHVVRU 795 
,QRUGHUWRDYRLGIOXFWXDWLRQVLQWKHVWHDPSUHVVXUHWKLVVKRXOGEHNHSWFRQVWDQW%\
DOWHULQJWKHVWHDPSUHVVXUHWRWKH795LWZLOOFKDQJHWKHDPRXQWDQGSUHV
VXUHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHPL[YDSRXU7KHHYDSRUDWLRQUDWHRIWKHILUVWHIIHFWDQG
FRQVHTXHQWO\RIWKHZKROHHYDSRUDWRUZLOOFKDQJHDFFRUGLQJO\
6ROLGV&RQWHQW
,QRUGHUWRSURGXFHDILUVWFODVVSURGXFWWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWVKRXOGEHNHSWFRQVWDQW,W
VKRXOGDOVREHNHSWFRQVWDQWLQRUGHUWRDYRLGRYHUFRQFHQWUDWLRQUHVXOWLQJLQYLVFRVLW\
LQFUHDVHZLWKWKHULVNRIEXUQWGHSRVLWVLQWKHWXEHVRUHYHQEORFNLQJRIWKHWXEHV



1,52$6

DIC

FIC

Concentrate

Condensation Temperature ( o C)

Product

Mass Flow (kg/h)

)LJ'HQVLW\FRQWUROE\PHDQVRIIHHGIORZ

Product / Concentrate
Condensate
Vapour
Steam

Liquid pasteurized milk


Concentrate

te

tra

n
ce

Co


)LJ'HQVLW\FRQWUROE\PHDQV
RIVWHDPSUHVVXUHIORZ

)LJ'HQVLW\FRQWUROE\EDFNPL[LQJOLTXLG
3DVWHXUL]HGPLONRUFRQGHQVDWH




1,52$6

7KHVROLGVFRQWHQWFDQEHUHJXODWHGLQGLIIHUHQWZD\VEXWWKHILUVWWKLQJWRFRQVLGHULV
KRZWRPHDVXUHWKHVROLGVFRQWHQW7KLVFDQEHGRQHE\PHDVXULQJWKHUHIUDFWLYHLQGH[
RUWKHGHQVLW\
7KHUHIUDFWLYHLQGH[LQPLONFRQFHQWUDWHLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHUHIUDFWLYHLQGH[RIODF
WRVHPLQHUDOVIDWDQGHYHQWKHSURWHLQVDQGLVDIXQFWLRQRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQRIHDFK
RIWKHPHQWLRQHGFRPSRQHQWV7KLVPHDQVKRZHYHUWKDWWKHPHDVXUHGVXPLVVXEMHFW
WRFKDQJHVDFFRUGLQJWRVHDVRQDOYDULDWLRQVLQWKHPLONFRPSRVLWLRQ7KHIDFWRU UH
IUDFWLYHLQGH[[) VROLGV LVWKHUHIRUHQRWFRQVWDQWDQGIUHTXHQWFKDQJHVRIWKH
IDFWRUVKRXOGEHPDGHEDVHGRQGU\LQJRYHQWHVWVLQWKHODERUDWRU\7KHUHIUDFWLYHLQ
GH[LVFRQYHUWHGWRDQHOHFWURQLFRUSQHXPDWLFRXWSXWVXLWDEOHIRUWKHFRQWUROOHU
$QRWKHUPHWKRGLVWRPHDVXUHWKHGHQVLW\RIWKHOLTXLGDVWKLVZLOOFKDQJHGLUHFWO\
SURSRUWLRQDOO\ZLWKWKHVROLGVFRQWHQW7KHGHQVLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVPHDVXUHG
SDVVLQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWHWKURXJKDIDVWYLEUDWLQJ8WXEH7KHYLEUDWLRQVZLOOEHUH
GXFHGSURSRUWLRQDOO\WRWKHPDVVSDVVHGWKURXJK7KXVLWLVSRVVLEOHWRJHWDQRXWSXW
ZKLFKFDQEHXVHGLQWKHFRQWUROOHU
,WLVQRZSRVVLEOHWRGLVFXVVZKDWWRGRZLWKWKHRXWSXWIURPWKHFRQWUROOHULHZKDW
SDUDPHWHUWRFKDQJHWRREWDLQDFRQVWDQWVROLGVFRQWHQW
0LON)ORZ
7KHDOWHUDWLRQRIWKHPLONIORZPHDQVWKDWWKHILQDODPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWHZLOODOWHU
:LWKKLJKHYDSRUDWLRQUDWLRV ZKH\IRULQVWDQFH DVPDOOFKDQJHLQWKHIORZZRXOG
PHDQDWUHPHQGRXVFKDQJHLQWKHVROLGVDQGDPRXQWRIILQDOFRQFHQWUDWHVHH)LJ
7KLVPHWKRGHYHQWKRXJKEHLQJVLPSOHLVQRWUHFRPPHQGHGDVLWPD\HDVLO\UHVXOWLQ
GHSRVLWVGXHWRFRYHUDJHSUREOHPV
6WHDP3UHVVXUHWRWKH7KHUPR&RPSUHVVRU
5HJXODWLQJWKHVWHDPSUHVVXUHWRWKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRULVWKHUHIRUHPRUHXVHGVHH
)LJ+RZHYHUDVWKHWRWDOUHVLGHQFHWLPHLQDQHYDSRUDWRULVPLQLWWDNHVD
ORQJWLPHWRJHWDUHVSRQVHIURPDFKDQJH,QODUJHHYDSRUDWRUVDQH[WUDFRQWUROORRS
LVWKHUHIRUHRIWHQSODFHGDIWHUWKHVHFRQGRUWKLUGHIIHFW
%DFN0L[RI/LTXLG3DVWHXUL]HG0LONWRWKH&RQFHQWUDWH
7KHWKLUGVROXWLRQLVWRUXQWKHHYDSRUDWRUDWDVRPHZKDWKLJKHUVROLGVFRQWHQW 
KLJKHU WKDQQHFHVVDU\LQWKHODVWHIIHFWEXWRQHDQGWKHQGLOXWHZLWKSDVWHXUL]HGPLON
SULRUWRHQWHULQJLQWKHODVWHIIHFW,QWKDWZD\WKHUHZLOOEHQRIOXFWXDWLRQLQWKHVROLGV
DVWKHUHVSRQVHLVTXLFNDQGRYHUFRQFHQWUDWLRQLQWKHODVWHIIHFWLVDYRLGHGVHH
)LJ




1,52$6

Cooling water in

Vapour

PIC

Cooling water out

)LJ9DFXXPFRQWUROUHJXODWLQJWKHDPRXQWRI
FRROLQJZDWHULQDPL[LQJFRQGHQVHU

Cooling water in

PIC
Vapour

Air

Cooling water out

)LJ9DFXXPFRQWUROEOHHGLQJV\VWHP
LQDPL[LQJFRQGHQVHU




1,52$6


9DFXXPODVWHIIHFWERLOLQJWHPSHUDWXUH
7KHYDFXXPLQWKHFRQGHQVHUDQGWKHUHE\LQWKHODVWHIIHFWLVFRQWUROOHGE\WKHDPRXQW
RIFRROLQJZDWHURULQVRPHFDVHVE\WKHVRFDOOHGEOHHGLQJV\VWHPZKHUHPRUHRU
OHVVDLUYLDDYDOYHLVOHGLQWRWKHFRQGHQVHULHWKHV\VWHPUXQVZLWKVXUSOXVZDWHU
7KHWZRV\VWHPVDUHVKRZQLQ)LJDQG)LJ


&RQFHQWUDWH3URSHUWLHV
7KHFRQFHQWUDWHOHDYLQJWKHODVWHIIHFWRIWKHHYDSRUDWRULVOLTXLG7KHFRQFHQWUDWH
PD\KRZHYHUKDYHGLIIHUHQWYLVFRVLW\GHSHQGLQJXSRQWKHFRPSRVLWLRQKHDWVHQVLWLY
LW\RIWKHSURWHLQVSUHWUHDWPHQWWHPSHUDWXUHDQGVROLGVFRQWHQW
:KROHPLONFRQFHQWUDWHVDUHJHQHUDOO\OHVVYLVFRXVWKDQVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHVDQG
DVDJHQHUDOUXOHWKHYLVFRVLW\VKRXOGQRWH[FHHGDQGF3UHVSHFWLYHO\LIWKHDW
RPL]DWLRQVKRXOGEHRSWLPDO
+LJKHUYLVFRVLWLHVFDQRIFRXUVHEHKDQGOHGLQWKHGU\HUEXWQRWZLWKRXWORVLQJFDSDF
LW\ EDGDWRPL]DWLRQELJGURSOHWV DQGDQLQIHULRUSURGXFWZLOOEHWKHUHVXOW
7KHFRPSRVLWLRQZLOOLQIOXHQFHWKHYLVFRVLW\HVSHFLDOO\RQWKHSURWHLQ 3 FRQWHQWLQ
UHODWLRQWRWKHODFWRVH / FRQWHQW:KHQWKHUDWLR3/LVKLJKWKHFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOJHW
DKLJKYLVFRVLW\7KLVLVHVSHFLDOO\DSUREOHPZLWKMHUVH\FRZVGXULQJWKHZKROH\HDU
EXWRWKHUEUHHGVWHQGWRJLYHSUREOHPVGXULQJWKHEHJLQQLQJRIWKHODFWDWLRQSHULRG
7KHUDWLR3/FDQEHDGMXVWHGE\DGGLQJODFWRVH$VDJHQHUDOUXOHLWFDQEHFRQFOXGHG
WKDWDKLJKHUIDWDQGODFWRVHFRQWHQWZLOOJLYHORZHUYLVFRVLW\+LJKHUSURWHLQFRQWHQW
ZLOOJLYHKLJKHUYLVFRVLW\
:KHQPLONLVH[SRVHGWRDKLJKKHDWWUHDWPHQWHVSHFLDOO\LQLQGLUHFWSDVWHXUL]LQJV\V
WHPVSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQWKHYLVFRVLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOEHKLJKHU
7KHFRQFHQWUDWHWHPSHUDWXUHZLOOQDWXUDOO\KDYHDGLUHFWLQIOXHQFHRQWKHYLVFRVLW\DQG
KLJKHUWHPSHUDWXUHPHDQVORZHUYLVFRVLW\
7KHVROLGVFRQWHQWRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOKDYHDYHU\VLJQLILFDQWLQIOXHQFHRQWKHYLV
FRVLW\DQGWKHKLJKHUWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQWKHKLJKHUWKHYLVFRVLW\
+RZHYHUWKHDERYHRQO\VWDWHVWKHGLUHFWLQIOXHQFHRIVRPHSDUDPHWHUVRQWKHYLVFRV
LW\2QHRIWKHPDLQLQIOXHQFHVRQWKHYLVFRVLW\LVWKHWLPHLHWKHYLVFRVLW\LVDIXQF
WLRQRIWLPHDOVRNQRZQDVDJHWKLFNHQLQJ7KLVPHDQVWKDWWKHYLVFRVLW\ZLOOLQFUHDVH
LIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVOHIWIRUVRPHWLPH7KHLQFUHDVHLVGHSHQGLQJRQFRPSRVLWLRQ
PDLQO\SURWHLQVELQGLQJWRHDFKRWKHUWHPSHUDWXUHDQGFRQFHQWUDWLRQ7KHDJH
WKLFNHQLQJLQRQO\SDUWO\UHYHUVLEOHE\DJLWDWLRQ



1,52$6

log
Viscosity

t (h) 

)LJ$JHWKLFNHQLQJDVDIXQFWLRQRIWHPSHUDWXUH VNLPPLONVROLGV 

log

Viscosity

t (h) 

)LJ$JHWKLFNHQLQJDVDIXQFWLRQRIVROLGVFRQWHQW VNLPPLON& 




1,52$6

$WHPSHUDWXUHLQFUHDVHZLOOQDWXUDOO\UHVXOWLQDYLVFRVLW\GURSEXWDVWKHDJHWKLFNHQ
LQJLVPRUHSURQRXQFHGDWKLJKHUWHPSHUDWXUHVWKHYLVFRVLW\ZLOOVRRQLQFUHDVHWRWKH
VDPHOHYHODQGIXUWKHURQDVWKHWLPHSDVVHV6HH)LJ
7KHDJHWKLFNHQLQJZLOODOVREHLQIOXHQFHGE\WKHVROLGVFRQWHQWDQGZLOOEHPRUHSUR
QRXQFHGWKHKLJKHUWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH6HH)LJ7KHFRPSRVLWLRQ
ZLOOKDYHVDPHLQIOXHQFHRQWKHDJHWKLFNHQLQJDVRQWKHYLVFRVLW\,IWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
VKRXOGEHNHSWIRUVRPHOHQJWKRIWLPHRUWUDQVSRUWHGRYHUORQJGLVWDQFHVEHIRUHIXU
WKHUSURFHVVLQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQDQGWHPSHUDWXUHVKRXOGEHORZ7KHORZWHPSHUD
WXUHZLOODWWKHVDPHWLPHSUHYHQWEDFWHULDOJURZWK

7KHTXDOLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHIRUVSUD\GU\LQJVKRXOGFRPSO\ZLWKWKHIROORZLQJ
JXLGHOLQHV
6NLPPLON


6ROLGVFRQWHQW76




9LVFRVLW\
PD[&SDW&PHDVXUHGRQWKHIHHGWREHDWRPL]HG0HDVXUHPHQWVRQ
FRQFHQWUDWHQRWROGHUWKDQPLQDQGNHSWXQGHUYDFXXPEHWZHHQHYDSRUDWRUDQG
VDPSOLQJIRUYLVFRVLW\PHDVXUHPHQWV0HWKRG%URRNILHOGYLVFRPHWHUPRGHO/97ZLWK
VSLQGOHURWDWLRQUSPPHDVXUHGDW&




3URWHLQGHQDWXUDWLRQ
)RULQVWDQWSURGXFWVWKH:31,VKRXOGEHPJ)RUKLJKEXONGHQVLW\SRZGHUV
WKH:31,VKRXOGEHPD[PJ




6ROXELOLW\LQGH[QRPHDVXUDEOHDPRXQW




6LHYLQJWHVW
QRYLVLEOHLQVROXEOHV FKHHV\IODNHV RQPLFURQPHVKDIWHUSDVVLQJOLWUHRI
FRQFHQWUDWHWKURXJKWKHPHVKDQGZDVKLQJZLWKZDWHU




6FRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVQRPHDVXUDEOHDPRXQW


:KROH0LON


6ROLGVFRQWHQW76




9LVFRVLW\
0D[&SDW&PHDVXUHGRQWKHIHHGWREHDWRPL]HG0HDVXUHPHQWVRQ
FRQFHQWUDWHQRWROGHUWKDQPLQDQGNHSWXQGHUYDFXXPEHWZHHQHYDSRUDWRUDQG



1,52$6




1,52$6

VDPSOLQJIRUYLVFRVLW\PHDVXUHPHQWV0HWKRG%URRNILHOGYLVFRPHWHUPRGHO/97ZLWK
VSLQGOHURWDWLRQUSPPHDVXUHGDW&

 3URWHLQGHQDWXUDWLRQ
)RULQVWDQWSURGXFWVWKH:31,VKRXOGEHPJ)RUKLJKEXONGHQVLW\SRZGHUV
WKH:31,VKRXOGEHPD[PJEDVHGRQ61)

 6ROXELOLW\LQGH[QRPHDVXUDEOHDPRXQW

 6LHYLQJWHVW
QRYLVLEOHLQVROXEOHV FKHHV\IODNHV RQPLFURQPHVKDIWHUSDVVLQJOLWUHRI
FRQFHQWUDWHWKURXJKWKHPHVKDQGZDVKLQJZLWKZDWHU

 6FRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVQRPHDVXUDEOHDPRXQW

:KH\


6ROLGVFRQWHQWPLQ76


&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQGHJUHH!RIWKHODFWRVHWREHFU\VWDOOL]HG
PHDQFU\VWDOVL]H
PLFURQV
ELJJHVWFU\VWDOVL]H
PLFURQV

 9LVFRVLW\
PD[&SDW&PHDVXUHGRQWKHIHHGWREHDWRPL]HG0HWKRG%URRNILHOG


YLVFRPHWHUPRGHO/97ZLWKVSLQGOHURWDWLRQUSPPHDVXUHGDW&



3URWHLQGHQDWXUDWLRQ
:KH\SURWHLQVVKRXOGEHPD[GHQDWXUHG DSSUR[&VHFSDVWHXUL]DWLRQLQ
HYDSRUDWRU 




6ROXELOLW\LQGH[QRPHDVXUDEOHDPRXQW




6LHYLQJWHVW
QRYLVLEOHLQVROXEOHV FKHHV\IODNHV RQPLFURQPHVKDIWHUSDVVLQJOLWUHRI
FRQFHQWUDWHWKURXJKWKHPHVKDQGZDVKLQJZLWKZDWHU




6FRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVQRPHDVXUDEOHDPRXQW




1,52$6

3
1

2
5

1. Drying chamber
2. Hot air system and air/distribution
3. Feed system
4. Atomizing device
5. Powder separation system
6. Pneumatic conveying and cooling system
7. Fluid bed after-drying/cooling
8. Instrumentation and automation

)LJ6SUD\GU\LQJSODQW




1,52$6

6SUD\'U\LQJ

%\GHILQLWLRQVSUD\GU\LQJLVWKHWUDQVIRUPDWLRQRIIHHGIURPDIOXLGVWDWHLQWRDGULHG
IRUPE\VSUD\LQJWKHIHHGLQWRDKRWGU\LQJPHGLXP,WLVDRQHVWHSFRQWLQXRXVSURF
HVVLQJRSHUDWLRQ7KHIHHGFDQEHHLWKHUDVROXWLRQVXVSHQVLRQRUDSDVWH7KHGULHG
SURGXFWFRQIRUPVWRSRZGHUFRQVLVWLQJRIVLQJOHSDUWLFOHVRUDJJORPHUDWHVDOOGHSHQG
LQJXSRQWKHSK\VLFDODQGFKHPLFDOSURSHUWLHVRIWKHIHHGDQGWKHGU\HUGHVLJQDQGRS
HUDWLRQ'XULQJWKHODVWWKUHHGHFDGHVVSUD\GU\LQJKDVXQGHUJRQHDQLQWHQVLYHUH
VHDUFKDQGGHYHORSPHQWVRWKDWPRGHUQHTXLSPHQWFDQPHHWWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVWRSUR
GXFHDSRZGHUZLWKWDLORUPDGHVSHFLILFDWLRQVUHTXLUHGE\WKHHQGXVHU
6SUD\GU\LQJLQWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\GDWHVEDFNWRDURXQGEXWLWZDVQRWXQWLO
WKDWLWEHFDPHSRVVLEOHLQPDMRUVFDOHWRGU\WKHPLON$OOSURFHVVHVKRZHYHUUH
TXLUHGDGGLWLRQRIVXJDUVXOSKXULFDFLGRUDONDOLVRWKDWWKHHQGSURGXFWFRXOGQRWEH
FRQVLGHUHGSXUH
2QHRIWKHILUVWVSUD\GU\LQJSDWHQWVZDVDSSOLHGIRULQE\WKH*HUPDQ0U6WDXI
ZKRVSUD\HGWKHPLONE\PHDQVRIQR]]OHVLQWRDFKDPEHUZLWKZDUPDLU7KHILUVW
UHDOEUHDNWKURXJKKRZHYHUZDVLQ86$LQZKHQWKH$PHULFDQ0U*UH\DQG
WKH'DQH0U-HQVHQGHYHORSHGDQR]]OHVSUD\GU\HUDQGVWDUWHGWRSURGXFHDQGVHOO
GU\LQJLQVWDOODWLRQVRQDFRPPHUFLDOVFDOH
7KHILUVWURWDU\DWRPL]HUZDVGHYHORSHGE\WKH*HUPDQ0U.UDXVLQEXWQRWXQ
WLOZKHQWKH'DQLVKHQJLQHHU0U1\URSILOHGKLVZRUOGSDWHQWWKLVZD\RIDW
RPL]DWLRQKDGDEUHDNWKURXJK
$IWHUWKHVHSLRQHHUVKDGIRUPHGWKHEDVLVIRUWKHPRGHUQGU\PLONLQGXVWU\WKHGHYHO
RSPHQWZHQWIDVWDQGWKHHTXLSPHQWLQVWDOOHGQRZDGD\VLVLQPRVWFDVHVYHU\VRSKLV
WLFDWHGDQGLQYROYHVDKLJKO\WHFKQLFDODQGWHFKQRORJLFDOGHVLJQ
$FRQYHQWLRQDOVSUD\GU\HURSHUDWHVLQWKHIROORZLQJZD\VHH)LJ
7KHIHHGLVSXPSHGIURPWKHSURGXFWIHHGWDQNWRWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFHZKLFKLVOR
FDWHGLQWKHDLUGLVSHUVHULQWKHWRSRIWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU7KHGU\LQJDLULVGUDZQ
IURPWKHDWPRVSKHUHYLDDILOWHUE\DVXSSO\IDQDQGLVSDVVHGWKURXJKWKHDLUKHDWHUWR
WKHDLUGLVSHUVHU7KHDWRPL]HGGURSOHWVPHHWWKHKRWDLUDQGWKHHYDSRUDWLRQWDNHV
SODFHFRROLQJWKHDLUDWWKHVDPHWLPH$IWHUWKHGU\LQJRIWKHVSUD\LQWKHFKDPEHU
WKHPDMRULW\RIWKHGULHGSURGXFWIDOOVWRWKHERWWRPRIWKHFKDPEHUDQGHQWHUVD
SQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJDQGFRROLQJV\VWHP7KHILQHVZKLFKDUHWKHSDUWLFOHVZLWKD
VPDOOGLDPHWHUZLOOUHPDLQHQWUDLQHGLQWKHDLUDQGLWLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\WRSDVV
WKHDLUWKURXJKF\FORQHVIRUVHSDUDWLRQRIILQHV7KHILQHVOHDYHWKHF\FORQHDWWKHERW
WRPYLDDORFNLQJGHYLFHDQGHQWHUVWKHSQHXPDWLFV\VWHPWRR7KHDLUSDVVHVIURP



1,52$6

Drying air
Cooling air
Concentrate/Product
Fines

)LJ'LIIHUHQWW\SHVRIGU\LQJFKDPSHUV




1,52$6

WKHF\FORQHWRWKHDWPRVSKHUHYLDWKHH[KDXVWIDQ7KHWZRIUDFWLRQVRISRZGHUDUH
FROOHFWHGLQWKHSQHXPDWLFV\VWHPIRUFRQYH\LQJDQGFRROLQJDQGDUHSDVVHGWKURXJKD
F\FORQHIRUVHSDUDWLRQDIWHUZKLFKWKH\DUHEDJJHGRII7KHLQVWUXPHQWDWLRQFRP
SULVHVLQGLFDWLRQRIWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHLQOHWDQGRXWOHWDLUDVZHOODVDXWRPDWLF
FRQWURORIWKHLQOHWWHPSHUDWXUHE\DOWHULQJWKHVWHDPSUHVVXUHDPRXQWRIRLORUJDVWR
WKHDLUKHDWHUDQGDXWRPDWLFFRQWURORIWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHE\DOWHULQJWKHDPRXQW
RIIHHGSXPSHGWRWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFH
$FRQYHQWLRQDOVSUD\GU\HUFRQVLVWVRIWKHIROORZLQJPDLQFRPSRQHQWV









'U\LQJFKDPEHU  
+RWDLUV\VWHPDQGDLUGLVWULEXWLRQ  
)HHGV\VWHP  
$WRPL]LQJGHYLFH  
3RZGHUVHSDUDWLRQV\VWHP  
3QHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJDQGFRROLQJV\VWHP  
)OXLGEHGDIWHUGU\LQJFRROLQJ  
,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQDQGDXWRPDWLRQ  




'U\LQJ&KDPEHU
9DULRXVGHVLJQVRIGU\LQJFKDPEHUVDUHVHHQRQWKHPDUNHW7KHPRVWFRPPRQRQHLV
WKHF\OLQGULFDOFKDPEHUZLWKDFRQHRIVRWKDWWKHSRZGHUE\JUDYLW\FDQOHDYH
WKHFKDPEHU7KHFKDPEHULVDOVRVHHQZLWKDIODWERWWRPLQZKLFKFDVHDVFUDSHURU
VXFWLRQGHYLFHLVQHHGHGIRUUHPRYLQJWKHSRZGHUIUDFWLRQIURPWKHFKDPEHU$OVR
KRUL]RQWDOER[W\SHGU\LQJFKDPEHUVDUHVHHQDQGWKH\WRRRSHUDWHZLWKDIRUFHG LH
VFUDSHURUVFUHZ SRZGHUUHPRYDOV\VWHP6HHWKHGLIIHUHQWW\SHVRIGU\LQJFKDPEHUV
LQ)LJ
*HQHUDOO\LWFDQEHFRQFOXGHGWKDWFKDPEHUVZLWKDFRQHIRUJUDYLW\GLVFKDUJHRIWKH
SRZGHUJLYHWKHEHVWIOH[LELOLW\IRUDGDSWLQJYDULRXVGU\LQJSURFHVVHVOLNHLQWHJUDWHG
IOXLGEHGVRUEHOWVWRWKHSODQWDQGWKHUHIRUHRIIHUWKHJUHDWHVWSRVVLELOLWLHVIRUGU\LQJ
GLIIHUHQWSURGXFWV
7KHWHQGHQF\WRGD\LVWRGHVLJQWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHUVRWKDWWKHUHZLOOEHQRWKLQJLQ
VLGHWKHFKDPEHUREVWUXFWLQJWKHDLUIORZWKXVUHVXOWLQJLQSRZGHUGHSRVLWV
,QWKHWDOOIRUPGU\LQJFKDPEHUWKHHPSKDVLVKDVEHHQRQGHVLJQLQJDSODQWZLWKD
ODPLQDUDLUIORZDQGDVSHFLDODLURXWOHWV\VWHPZKHUHWKHGLDPHWHURIWKHFRQHLVELJ
JHUWKDQWKHGLDPHWHURIWKHF\OLQGULFDOSDUWWKXVIRUPLQJDULQJGXFWWHUPHGDEXV
WOH7KLVPLQLPL]HVWKHF\FORQHIUDFWLRQE\WKHORZYHORFLW\RIWKHH[KDXVWDLU7KLV
FKDPEHULVVSHFLDOO\VXLWHGIRUEDE\IRRGSURGXFWVRUSURWHLQSURGXFWVGULHGIURPD
ORZVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHIHHG



1,52$6

)LJ5HPRYDEOHLQVXODWLRQSDQHOV
IRUVSUD\GU\LQJFKDPEHUV

Air

Filtration of process air


)LJD)LOWHUVWDQGDUGV




1,52$6

7KHGHYHORSPHQWRI&,3DEOHEDJILOWHUVKDVPDGHLWSRVVLEOHWRGHVLJQGU\LQJFKDP
EHUVZLWKEXLOWLQEDJILOWHUVVHHSDJH
7KHGU\LQJFKDPEHUVKRXOGDOZD\VEHHTXLSSHGZLWKLQVSHFWLRQGRRUVOLJKWVRXUFHV
RYHUSUHVVXUHYHQWVDQGRWKHUVDIHW\HTXLSPHQWVXFKDVILUHH[WLQJXLVKLQJHTXLSPHQW
LQWKHIRUPRIZDWHURUVWHDPQR]]OHV
'U\LQJFKDPEHUVDUHXVXDOO\LQVXODWHGHLWKHUZLWKUHPRYDEOHDLUILOOHGVDQGZLFKSDQ
HOVVHH)LJRUZLWKPPPLQHUDOZRROFRYHUHGZLWKDVWDLQOHVVVWHHOSODWH
RUDJDOYDQL]HGSODWHFRYHUHGZLWK39&7KHDGYDQWDJHRIWKHUHPRYDEOHSDQHOVLV
WKDWLQVSHFWLRQIRUFUDFNVLQWKHFKDPEHUZDOOLVSRVVLEOHDQGZHWLQVXODWLRQPDWHULDO
LQZKLFKEDFWHULDFDQGHYHORSRUUHVXOWLQFROGVSRWVRQWKHFKDPEHUZDOOZKHUHXSRQ
GHSRVLWVDUHIRUPHGLVDYRLGHG


+RW$LU6\VWHPDQG$LU'LVWULEXWLRQ
$LU)LOWUDWLRQ
8QWLODIHZ\HDUVDJRQRVSHFLDOUHTXLUHPHQWVZHUHJLYHQDVWRWKHILOWUDWLRQRIWKH
SURFHVVDLUIRUWKHVSUD\GU\LQJSURFHVV7RGD\KRZHYHUYHU\VWULFWUHTXLUHPHQWVDUH
SUHVHQWHGE\ORFDODXWKRULWLHVLQRUGHUWRHQVXUHDFOHDQHURSHUDWLRQ)LOWHUVWDQGDUGV
DUHUHIHUUHGWRLQ)LJDDQGLWLVLPSRUWDQWWRUHIHUWRWKHWHVWPHWKRGZKHQVSHFLI\
LQJWKHILOWHUHIILFLHQF\LQ&RPPRQIRUWKHGLIIHUHQWUHTXLUHPHQWVLVWKDW
 7KHDLUVKRXOGEHSUHILOWHUHGDQGVXSSOLHGE\DVHSDUDWHIDQWRWKHIDQILOWHUKHDWHU
URRP7KLVURRPPXVWEHXQGHUSUHVVXUHWRDYRLGXQILOWHUHGDLUWRHQWHU
 )LOWUDWLRQGHJUHHDQGILOWHUSRVLWLRQGHSHQGRQWKHILQDOWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHSURFHVV
DLUDVIROORZV


)RUPDLQGU\LQJDLUWREHKHDWHGDERYH&RQO\FRDUVHILOWUDWLRQXSWR
LVQHHGHG7KHILOWHUVKRXOGEHSODFHGRQWKHSUHVVXUHVLGHRIWKHIDQ



)RUVHFRQGDU\DLUWREHKHDWHGEHORZ&RUQRWKHDWHGDWDOOWKHILOWUD
WLRQPXVWEHDQGWKHILOWHUPXVWEHSODFHGDIWHUWKHKHDWHUFRROHU
6RPHFRXQWULHVKDYHHYHQVWULFWHUUHTXLUHPHQWVGHPDQGLQJDILOWUDWLRQRI
XSWRFRUUHVSRQGLQJWR(8 RU+ 

 &XUUHQWSUDFWLFHLVDVIROORZV


'DLU\OLNHSURGXFWVHTXDOWRRUEHWWHUWKDQ$
3UHILOWUDWLRQ(8 RU* 
35
0DLQDLUILOWUDWLRQ(8 RU) 

6HFRQGDU\DLUILOWUDWLRQ(8 RU)  



7HVWPHWKRG
'XVWVSRWHIILFLHQF\
'XVWVSRWHIILFLHQF\
'XVWVSRWHIILFLHQF\

1,52$6

,QGLUHFWVWHDPKHDWHGDLUKHDWHU


Cold air in
Hot air out

Oil

Combustion air

)LJ,QGLUHFWRLOILUHGDLUKHDWHU





1,52$6

%DE\IRRGSURGXFWVHTXDOWRRUEHWWHUWKDQ,')
3UHILOWUDWLRQ(8 RU) 
70
'XVWVSRWHIILFLHQF\
0DLQDLUILOWUDWLRQ(8 RU) 

'XVWVSRWHIILFLHQF\
6HFRQGDU\DLUILOWUDWLRQ(8 RU)  !
'XVWVSRWHIILFLHQF\


$LU+HDWLQJ6\VWHP
7KHGU\LQJDLUFDQEHKHDWHGLQGLIIHUHQWZD\V


,QGLUHFW

6WHDP2LO*DV+RWRLO

'LUHFW

*DV(OHFWULFLW\

,QGLUHFW+HDWLQJ
$VWHDPKHDWHULVDVLPSOHUDGLDWRU7KHWHPSHUDWXUHWREHREWDLQHGGHSHQGVRQWKH
VWHDPSUHVVXUHDYDLODEOH8QGHUQRUPDOFRQGLWLRQVLWLVSRVVLEOHWRREWDLQDLUWHPSHUD
WXUHV&ORZHUWKDQWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJVDWXUDWLRQHQWKDOS\RIWKHVWHDP
0RGHUQVWHDPKHDWHUVDUHGLYLGHGLQVHFWLRQVVRWKDWWKHFROGDLUILUVWPHHWVWKHFRQ
GHQVDWHVHFWLRQWKHQDVHFWLRQZLWKORZVWHDPSUHVVXUH ZKLFKLVXVXDOO\WKHELJJHVW
RQHLQRUGHUWRXWLOL]HDVPXFKORZSUHVVXUHVWHDPDVSRVVLEOH DQGWKHQWKHDLUIL
QDOO\HQWHUVWKHKLJKSUHVVXUHVWHDPVHFWLRQ7KHDLUKHDWHUFRQVLVWVRIURZVRIILQQHG
WXEHVKRXVHGLQDQLQVXODWHGPHWDOFDVH7KHKHDWORDGLVFDOFXODWHGIURPWKHTXDQWLW\
DQGVSHFLILFKHDWRIWKHDLU7KHKHDWHUVL]HGHSHQGVXSRQWKHKHDWWUDQVIHUSURSHUWLHV
RIWKHWXEHVDQGILQVDQGLVXVXDOO\DERXW.FDO&[K[PIRUDQDLUYHORFLW\RI
PVHF6WHDPKHDWHGDLUKHDWHUVZLOOXVXDOO\KDYHDQHIILFLHQF\RI$VWKH
VWHDPERLOHULVXVXDOO\SODFHGDWVRPHGLVWDQFHIURPWKHDLUKHDWHUEDUJH[WUD
SUHVVXUHRQWKHERLOHUVKRXOGEHDQWLFLSDWHGGXHWRSUHVVXUHORVVLQWKHVWHDPSLSHDQG
RYHUWKHUHJXODWLQJYDOYH7RDYRLGFRUURVLRQRIWKHWXEHVLQWKHDLUKHDWHULWLVUHF
RPPHQGHGWRXVHVWDLQOHVVVWHHO
,QLQGLUHFWRLODQGJDVKHDWHUVGU\LQJDLUDQGFRPEXVWLRQJDVHVKDYHVHSDUDWHIORZSDV
VDJH7KHFRPEXVWLRQJDVHVSDVVWKURXJKJDOYDQL]HGWXEHVWKDWDFWDVKHDWWUDQVIHU
VXUIDFHIRUWKHGU\LQJDLU7KHFRPEXVWLRQFKDPEHULVPDGHRIKHDWUHVLVWDQWVWHHO
7KHHQGFRYHURIWKHKHDWHUVKRXOGEHUHPRYDEOHIRUFOHDQLQJRIWXEHV+HDWHUVRIWKLV
W\SHZLOOLQWKHUDQJHRI&KDYHDQHIILFLHQF\RIDERXW6HH)LJ
+RWRLOOLTXLGSKDVHDLUKHDWHUVDUHXVHGHLWKHUDORQHRUZKHQKLJKLQOHWGU\LQJDLU
WHPSHUDWXUHVDUHUHTXLUHGDQGWKHVWHDPSUHVVXUHLVQRWKLJKHQRXJK7KHKHDWHUV\V
WHPFRQVLVWVRIDKHDWHUZKLFKFDQEHJDVRURLOILUHGDQGDQDLUKHDWH[FKDQJHU%H
WZHHQWKHVHWZRFRPSRQHQWVDVSHFLDOIRRGJUDGHRLORUKHDWWUDQVIHUIOXLGZKLFKGRHV
QRWFUDFNDWKLJKWHPSHUDWXUHVLVFLUFXODWHGDWKLJKVSHHG7KHPDLQDGYDQWDJHRIKRW
RLOOLTXLGSKDVHLVWKHRSHQSUHVVXUHOHVVV\VWHP



1,52$6


'LUHFWJDVILUHGDLUKHDWHU




1,52$6


'LUHFW+HDWLQJ
'LUHFWJDVKHDWHUVDUHRQO\XVHGZKHQWKHFRPEXVWLRQJDVFDQEHDOORZHGWRFRPHLQWR
FRQWDFWZLWKWKHSURGXFW7KH\DUHWKHUHIRUHQRWFRPPRQLQWKHIRRGDQGGDLU\LQGXV
WULHV7KHGLUHFWJDVKHDWHULVFKHDSLWKDVDKLJKHIILFLHQF\DQGWKHREWDLQDEOHWHP
SHUDWXUHFDQEHDVKLJKDV&:KHQDSODQWLVGHVLJQHGZLWKDQDLUKHDWHUZLWK
GLUHFWFRPEXVWLRQLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRFDOFXODWHWKHDPRXQWRIYDSRXUUHVXOWLQJIURPWKH
FRPEXVWLRQ PJNJGU\DLU& DVWKLVZLOOLQFUHDVHWKHKXPLGLW\LQWKHGU\LQJDLU
7KHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHKDVWKHUHIRUHWREHLQFUHDVHGLQRUGHUWRFRPSHQVDWHIRUWKLV
LQFUHDVHLQWKHKXPLGLW\DQGWRPDLQWDLQWKHUHODWLYHKXPLGLW\
&RPEXVWLRQRIQDWXUDOJDV PHWKDQH WDNHVSODFHDFFRUGLQJWRWKHIROORZLQJVWRLFKL
RPHWULFUHDFWLRQIRUPXOD

&+2+2&2+HDW
7KHR[\JHQIRUWKHFRPEXVWLRQRULJLQDWHVIURPWKHDWPRVSKHULFDLUZLWK2DQG
1
$OOFRPEXVWLRQ\LHOGVVPDOOTXDQWLWLHVRIR[LGHVRIQLWURJHQDVDUHVXOWRIWKHUHDFWLRQ
RIQLWURJHQDQGR[\JHQDWHOHYDWHGWHPSHUDWXUHV6XEVHTXHQWQLWURJHQR[LGH12DQG
QLWURJHQGLR[LGH12IRUPDWLRQRFFXUVDQGLVUHIHUUHGWRDVWKHVXP 12[ RIWKHWZR
,WVKRXOGEHQRWHGWKDWKLJKFRPEXVWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHVKLJKKHDWWUDQVIHUUDWHVKLJK
H[FHVVDLUDQGORZUHVLGHQFHWLPHLQWKHFRPEXVWLRQFKDPEHUDUHDOOIDFWRUVLQFUHDV
LQJWKHIRUPDWLRQRI12[
)RUFRPSDULVRQWKHIROORZLQJDSSUR[LPDWH12[FRQFHQWUDWLRQSUHYDLOV









&LJDUHWWHVPRNH
([KDXVWJDVIURPDFDU
+HDY\WUDIILFLQWHUVHFWLRQ
1DWXUDOJDVERLOHUVWDFN
:+2IRRGOLPLWIRULQIDQWV
6SUD\GU\LQJFKDPEHU
1RUPDOIUHVKPLON
1RUPDOZDWHUVXSSO\










SSP
SSP
SSP
SSP
SSP
SSP
SSP
SSP

7KHOHYHORI12[LQWKHSURFHVVDLUDIWHUWKHGLUHFWILUHGQDWXUDOJDVDLUKHDWHUZLOOGH
SHQGRQPDQ\YDULDEOHIDFWRUVKRZHYHUZLWKDZHOODGMXVWHGDLUKHDWHULWVKRXOGEH
OLPLWHGWRWKHDERYH2QO\DERXWRIWKH12[IRUPHGZLOOEHDEVRUEHGLQWKHPLON
SRZGHU
7KHOHYHORI12[LQPLONSRZGHUGHSHQGVQRWRQO\RQWKHPHWKRGXVHGIRUKHDWLQJWKH
SURFHVVDLUEXWDOVRRQWKHW\SHRIIRRGXVHGIRUWKHFRZVDVZHOODVRQWKHW\SHRI
IHUWLOL]HUDQGVRLOXVHGIRUSURGXFLQJWKHIRRG



1,52$6

Concentrate

Hot air

)LJ$LU'LVSHUVHUKRUL]RQWDOER[GU\HU




1,52$6

7KH12[OHYHOLQPLONSRZGHULV

,QGLUHFWKHDWLQJ
7UDFHVSSP

'LUHFWKHDWLQJ
SSP

DQGWKHOHYHORIQLWUDWHV 12 LVLQWKHRUGHURIWLPHVWKHOHYHORIQLWULWHV 12 

(OHFWULFDLUKHDWHUVDUHFRPPRQRQODERUDWRU\DQGSLORWSODQWVSUD\GU\HUV7KHKHDWHU
KDVORZLQYHVWPHQWFRVWVEXWLVH[SHQVLYHLQRSHUDWLRQDQGWKHUHIRUHQRWXVHGLQLQ
GXVWULDOVL]HSODQWV


$LU'LVWULEXWLRQ
7KHDLUGLVWULEXWLRQLVRQHRIWKHPRVWYLWDOSRLQWVLQDVSUD\GU\HU7KHUHDUHYDULRXV
V\VWHPVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHSODQWGHVLJQDQGWKHW\SHRISURGXFWWREHSURGXFHG
'U\HUGHVLJQIDOOVLQWRWKUHHFDWHJRULHVFRFXUUHQWFRXQWHUFXUUHQWDQGPL[HGIORZ
+RZHYHUDVWKHJRDOLQWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\LVWRJHWWKHEHVWPL[WXUHRIWKHKRWLQFRP
LQJDLUDQGWKHFRQFHQWUDWHGURSOHWVLQRUGHUWRREWDLQDIDVWHYDSRUDWLRQRQO\FR
FXUUHQWGU\HUGHVLJQLVXVHG
,IWKHGU\HULVZLWKDKRUL]RQWDOFKDPEHUWKHDLUGLVSHUVHULVDUUDQJHGOLNHDSOHQXP
FKDPEHUDQGHDFKQR]]OHZLOOEHVXUURXQGHGE\DQDLUVWUHDP7KHVDPHV\VWHPLV
DOVRVHHQLQYHUWLFDOF\OLQGULFDOGU\HUVVHH)LJ+RZHYHUWKHPRVWFRPPRQLVWKDW
WKHDLUGLVSHUVHULVVLWXDWHGRQWRSRIWKHGU\HUFHLOLQJDQGWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFHLV
SODFHGLQWKHPLGGOHRIWKHDLUGLVSHUVHUWKXVHQVXULQJDQRSWLPDOPL[LQJRIWKHDLUDQG
WKHDWRPL]HGGURSOHWV,QF\OLQGULFDOYHUWLFDOGU\HUVLWLVDOVRVHHQWKDWWKHZKROHFHLO
LQJLVSHUIRUDWHGWKXVFUHDWLQJDSOXJIORZDLUVWUHDPQXPHURXVQR]]OHVDUHVLWXDWHG
LQWKHSHUIRUDWHGSODWHLQRUGHUWRHQVXUHWKDWWKHDLULVFRROHGE\WKHFRQFHQWUDWH7KLV
V\VWHPKRZHYHUPDNHVILQHVUHWXUQFRPSOLFDWHGDQGWKHREWDLQDEOHDLUYHORF
LW\QR]]OHSRVLWLRQLVQRWRSWLPDOIRUDQHIILFLHQWGU\LQJ,WVKRXOGEHQRWHGWKDWDQDLU
GLVSHUVHUVKRXOGKDYHWKHDELOLW\WRJXLGHWKHDLUDQGWKHDWRPL]HGGURSOHWVLQWKHULJKW
GLUHFWLRQLQRUGHUWRDYRLGGHSRVLWVLQWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU
2QELJFDSDFLW\GU\HUVHTXLSSHGZLWKQR]]OHVWKHVRFDOOHGPXOWLQHFNDLUGLVSHUVHU
LVVHHQLHWKHGU\HULVHTXLSSHGZLWKDLUGLVSHUVHUVDQGQR]]OHXQLWV7KHFHQWHU
DUHDLQWKHFHLOLQJEHWZHHQWKHDLUGLVSHUVHUVLVKRZHYHULPSRVVLEOHWRNHHSIUHHIURP
GHSRVLWVDQGXQLIRUPILQHVUHWXUQLVGLIILFXOW
7RGD\WZRGLIIHUHQWW\SHVRIDLUGLVSHUVHUVDUHXVHGLQVSUD\GU\HUVIRUIRRGDQGGDLU\
SURGXFWV




1,52$6

Concentrate

Drying air

Cooling air


)LJ&HLOLQJDLUGLVSHUVHUZLWKDGMXVWDEOHJXLGHYDQHV

Fines
Concentrate
Cooling air

Drying air

Cooling air


)LJ3OXJIORZDLUGLVSHUVHU

6
5

)LJ)HHGV\VWHP



1,52$6


5RWDU\DLUVWUHDP
7KHDLUHQWHUVWDQJHQWLDOO\LQWRDVSLUDOVKDSHGGLVWULEXWRUKRXVLQJVHH)LJIURP
ZKHUHWKHGU\LQJDLULVOHGUDGLDOO\DQGGRZQZDUGRYHUDVHWRIJXLGHYDQHVIRUDG
MXVWPHQWRIWKHDLUURWDWLRQ7KLVW\SHRIDLUGLVSHUVHULVXVHGIRUURWDU\DWRPL]HUVDQG
QR]]OHDWRPL]HUVSODFHGLQWKHFHQWUHRIWKHDLUGLVSHUVHU9HU\LPSRUWDQWLVWKHFRRO
LQJULQJ7KLVFDQEHFORVHGRURSHQGHSHQGLQJRQSURGXFWDWWKHHGJHRIWKHFHLO
LQJDLULQOHWLQRUGHUWRDYRLGSRZGHUGHSRVLWVZKLFKJHWGLVFRORXUHGDQGUHVXOWLQ
VFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVLQWKHSRZGHURUHYHQLQDILUH
3OXJIORZDLUVWUHDP
7KHDLUHQWHUVUDGLDOO\WKURXJKRQHVLGHDQGLVGLVWULEXWHGWKURXJKDQDGMXVWDEOHDLU
JXLGLQJDUUDQJHPHQWVHH)LJ7KLVW\SHRIDLUGLVSHUVHULVXVHGIRUQR]]OHDWRPL]
HUVZKHUHDODPLQDUSOXJIORZDLUVWUHDPLVZDQWHG$VIRUWKHURWDU\DLUGLVSHUVHU
FRROLQJDLULVDOVRXVHGKHUH$VWKHQR]]OHURGVDUHSODFHGLQWKHPLGGOHRIWKHKRWDLU
VWUHDPFRROLQJDLULVDOVRSURYLGHGIRUWKHQR]]OHVODQFHVWRNHHSWKHSURGXFWIURP
RYHUKHDWLQJ


)HHG6\VWHP
7KHIHHGV\VWHPVHH)LJLVWKHOLQNEHWZHHQWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGWKHVSUD\GU\HUDQG
FRPSULVHV
 )HHGWDQNV  
 :DWHUWDQN  
 &RQFHQWUDWHSXPS  
 3UHKHDWLQJV\VWHP  
 )LOWHU  
 +RPRJHQL]HUKLJKSUHVVXUHSXPS  
 )HHGOLQHLQFOUHWXUQOLQHIRU&,3  



)HHG7DQNV
,WLVUHFRPPHQGHGWRXVHWZRIHHGWDQNVDQGFKDQJHIURPRQHWRWKHRWKHUDWOHDVW
RQFHHYHU\KRXUV7KLVLVGXHWRWKHULVNRIEDFWHULDJURZWKLQWKHIHHGQRUPDOO\KDY
LQJDWHPSHUDWXUHRI&2QHLVWKHUHIRUHLQXVHZKLOHWKHRWKHURQHLVEHLQJ
ZDVKHG7KHVL]HRIHDFKWDQNVKRXOGFRUUHVSRQGWRPLQRIWKHFDSDFLW\RIWKH
GU\HU7KHIHHGWDQNVDUHHTXLSSHGZLWKOHYHOLQGLFDWRUVDQGVSUD\QR]]OHVIRUDXWR
PDWLF&,3FOHDQLQJ6RPHWLPHVWKHIHHGWDQNVDUHUHSODFHGE\YDFXXPWDQNVDVDQLQ
WHJUDWHGSDUWRIWKHODVWFDODQGULDRIWKHHYDSRUDWRU



1,52$6

+HDWLQJ0HGLD,Q

3URGXFW2XW

+HDWLQJ0HGLD,Q

3URGXFW,Q
+,3(;&RQFHQWUDWH+HDWHU

+HDWLQJ0HGLD2XW

)LJ+,3(;KHDWH[FKDQJHU




+HDWLQJ0HGLD2XW

1,52$6

:DWHU7DQN
7KHZDWHUWDQNLVXVHGGXULQJVWDUWDQGVWRSRIWKHSODQWDQGLIGXULQJWKHUXQWKHUH
ZLOOEHDVXGGHQVKRUWDJHRIFRQFHQWUDWH/HYHOWUDQVPLWWHUVFDQEHSODFHGLQWKHIHHG
WDQNVVRWKDWWKHFKDQJHRYHUFDQEHDXWRPDWLFDVDZDWHUVXSSO\SLSHLVFRQQHFWHGWR
WKHIHHGWDQNLQZKLFKFDVHWKHZDWHUWDQNLVDYRLGHG


&RQFHQWUDWH3XPS
,IDURWDU\DWRPL]HULVXVHGWKHPRVWFRPPRQIHHGSXPSLVHLWKHUWKHPRQRW\SHRUD
FHQWULIXJDOSXPS7KHPRQRSXPSUHTXLUHVOHVVHQHUJ\DQGFDQKDQGOHFRQFHQWUDWHV
RIDKLJKHUYLVFRVLW\WKDQWKHFHQWULIXJDOSXPSEXWLVPRUHH[SHQVLYH


3UHKHDWLQJ6\VWHP
1R]]OH DWRPL]DWLRQ UHTXLUHV KLJKHU IHHG WHPSHUDWXUH ORZHU YLVFRVLW\  WKDQ WKDW FRPLQJ
IURPWKHHYDSRUDWRU3UHKHDWLQJLVKRZHYHUDGYDQWDJHRXVIURPDQDWRPL]DWLRQSRLQWRI
YLHZ DOVR IRU URWDU\ DWRPL]DWLRQ 7KHUHIRUH D FRQFHQWUDWH SUHKHDWHU LV UHFRPPHQGHG
7ZRW\SHVFDQEHXVHGHLWKHULQGLUHFWRUGLUHFW

,QGLUHFWSUHKHDWHUVDUHRIWKHW\SH
3ODWHKHDWH[FKDQJHU
7XEHLQ7XEHKHDWH[FKDQJHU
 6FUDSHGVXUIDFHKHDWH[FKDQJHU




3ODWH+HDW([FKDQJHU
$SODWHKHDWH[FKDQJHUV\VWHPLVFKHDSEXWLIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHVKRXOGEHKHDWHGWR
&DQGWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWLVDQGLIKRXUV
UXQLVDLPHGDWLWLVQHFHVVDU\
WRKDYHWZRLQWHUFKDQJHDEOHKHDWHUVDOORZLQJRQHWREHFOHDQHGZKLOHWKHRWKHURQHLV
EHLQJXVHG6WHDPZDUPZDWHURUFRQGHQVDWHIURPWKHILUVWHIIHFWRIWKHHYDSRUDWRU
FDQEHXVHGDVKHDWLQJPHGLXP
7XEHLQ7XEH+HDW([FKDQJHU
$YHU\VLPSOHDQGPDLQWHQDQFHIUHHFRQFHQWUDWHSUHKHDWHULVWKH+,3(;WXEHLQWXEH
KHDWH[FKDQJHU VHH)LJ ZLWKFRUUXJDWHGWXEHVJLYLQJDKLJKKHDWWUDQVIHUUDWHGXH
WRWKHWXUEXOHQFHFUHDWHGE\WKHFRUUXJDWHGWXEHVZKLFKDOVRUHGXFHIRXOLQJRQWKH
KHDWWUDQVIHUVXUIDFH7KHKHDWLQJPHGLDLVW\SLFDOO\KRWZDWHUDQGWKHXQLWLVGHVLJQHG
ZLWKFRXQWHUFXUUHQWSURGXFWGRXEOHKHDWLQJPHGLDIORZZLWKWKHSURGXFWLQWKHPLG



1,52$6

Warm product out

Steam

Condensate

Gold product in


)LJ6FUDSHG6XUIDFH+HDW([FKDQJHU


+RPRJHQL]HU




1,52$6

GOH$YHU\ORZWHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFH & DOORZVKRXUVRSHUDWLRQEHWZHHQ


FOHDQLQJ
6FUDSHG6XUIDFH+HDW([FKDQJHU
6HH)LJ,QWKHVFUDSHGVXUIDFHKHDWHUWKHKHDWWUDQVIHUVXUIDFHLVFRQWLQXRXVO\EH
LQJVFUDSHGRIIE\DIDVWURWDWLQJVFUDSHUPDGHRIIRRGJUDGHV\QWKHWLFPDWHULDOWR
DYRLGDQ\SURGXFWDGKHUHQFHUHVXOWLQJLQEXUQWGHSRVLWVZLWKUHGXFHGKHDWWUDQVIHUDVD
FRQVHTXHQFH7KHVFUDSHGVXUIDFHKHDWHULVHVSHFLDOO\VXLWHGIRUSURGXFWVZLWKKLJK
VROLGVFRQWHQW7KH\FDQRSHUDWHFRQWLQXRXVO\IRUKRXUVDQGDUHFOHDQHGWRJHWKHU
ZLWKWKHUHPDLQLQJIHHGV\VWHP
7KHVFUDSHGVXUIDFHKHDWH[FKDQJHULVQRWUHFRPPHQGHGIRUSURGXFWVFRQWDLQLQJFU\V
WDOVOLNHSUHFU\VWDOOL]HGZKH\RUSHUPHDWHGXHWRZHDUSUREOHPV

'LUHFWSUHKHDWHUVDUHRIWKHW\SH



'LUHFW6WHDP,QMHFWLRQ'6,
/HQLHQW6WHDP,QMHFWLRQ/6,


'LUHFW6WHDP,QMHFWLRQ'6,
,QWKH'6,XQLWWKHVWHDPLVLQWURGXFHGLQWRWKHPLONFRQFHQWUDWHYLDDQR]]OHSURGXF
LQJUHODWLYHO\ELJVWHDPEXEEOHVUHVXOWLQJLQDVXSHUKHDWLQJRIVRPHSDUWVRIWKHFRQ
FHQWUDWHZKLFKOHDGVWRSURWHLQGHQDWXUDWLRQ
/HQLHQW6WHDP,QMHFWLRQ/6,
,QWKH/6,XQLW SDWHQWHG WKHVWHDPLVPL[HGLQWRWKHFRQFHQWUDWHE\DG\QDPLFPL[HU
9HU\VPDOOVWHDPEXEEOHVDUHFUHDWHGDQGVXSHUKHDWLQJGHQDWXUDWLRQLVDYRLGHG
7KHUHIRUHDKLJKHUVWHDPSUHVVXUHFDQEHXVHG7KH/6,XQLWLVRIWHQXVHGLQFRPEL
QDWLRQZLWKRWKHUKHDWH[FKDQJHUVLIWHPSHUDWXUHVDERYH&DUHUHTXLUHGLQWKH
FRQFHQWUDWH
3UHKHDWLQJRIFRQFHQWUDWHLVDGYDQWDJHRXVQRWRQO\IURPDEDFWHULRORJLFDOSRLQWRI
YLHZ,WDOVRUHVXOWVLQDYLVFRVLW\GHFUHDVHZKLFKWRJHWKHUZLWKWKHDSSOLHGFDORULHV
UHVXOWVLQDFDSDFLW\LQFUHDVHRIPLQLPXPRQWKHVSUD\GU\HUDQGDQLPSURYHG
VROXELOLW\RIWKHSURGXFHGSRZGHU


)LOWHU
$QLQOLQHILOWHULVDOZD\VLQFRUSRUDWHGLQWKHIHHGV\VWHPWRDYRLGOXPSVHWFSDVVLQJ
WRWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFH



1,52$6

600
Apparent Viscosity (mPa.s)

Apparent Viscosity (mPa.s)

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

500

200+50 bar

400

120+30 bar
80+20 bar

300

0 bar

200
100
0

100 200 300 400 500 600


Homogenization pressure (bar)
Homogenization done after final cencentration
0

40

45

50

55

60

65 Final TS%

Homogenization of whole milk concentrate with 35%TS

)LJD9LVFRVLW\RIZKROHPLONFRQFHQWUDWHVDVDIXQFWLRQRIKRPRJHQL]DWLRQ
SUHVVXUHDQGVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH

)HHGWDQNVV\VWHP

)LJE1DQR9DOYH




1,52$6

+RPRJHQL]HU+LJK3UHVVXUH3XPS
,IZKROHPLONSRZGHURURWKHUIDWFRQWDLQLQJSURGXFWVVKRXOGEHSURGXFHGLWLVUHF
RPPHQGHGWRLQFRUSRUDWHDKRPRJHQL]HULQRUGHUWRUHGXFHWKHIUHHIDWFRQWHQWLQWKH
ILQDOSRZGHU$WZRVWDJHKRPRJHQL]HULVSUHIHUUHG)LUVWVWDJHLVRSHUDWHGDW
EDUJDQGWKHVHFRQGVWDJHDWEDUJ8VXDOO\WKHKRPRJHQL]HUDQGIHHGSXPS
DUHFRPELQHGLQRQHXQLW,IQR]]OHDWRPL]DWLRQLVXVHGWKHQDKLJKHUSUHVVXUH XSWR
EDUJIRUWKHQR]]OHVEDUJIRUKRPRJHQL]LQJ LVUHTXLUHGDQGDFRPELQHG
KRPRJHQL]HUKLJKSUHVVXUHSXPSLVFKRVHQWRVDYHFRVW$YDULDEOHVSHHGGULYHIRU
FRQWUROOLQJWKHIHHGIORZDQGWKHUHE\WKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHLVSUHIHUUHGDVDUHWXUQ
YDOYHWHQGVWRJLYHXQFRQWUROODEOHKROGLQJWLPHUHVXOWLQJLQYLVFRVLW\SUREOHPV7KH
YLVFRVLW\DVIXQFWLRQRIKRPRJHQL]DWLRQSUHVVXUHDQGVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
LVVHHQLQ)LJD7RVDYHHQHUJ\EXWRQWKHDFFRXQWRILQYHVWPHQWFRVWWKHKR
PRJHQL]HUDQGKLJKSUHVVXUHSXPSDUHLQVWDOOHGDVVHSDUDWHXQLWVDQGWKHKRPRJH
QL]HULVHTXLSSHGZLWKD1DQR9DOYHVHH)LJEZKLFKZLOOUHVXOWLQDQLPSURYHG
KRPRJHQL]DWLRQHIILFLHQF\DWORZHUSUHVVXUH


)HHG/LQH
7KHIHHGSLSHVKRXOGQDWXUDOO\EHRIVWDLQOHVVVWHHODQGRIFRXUVHRIWKHKLJKSUHVVXUH
W\SHLIWKHDWRPL]DWLRQLVWREHFDUULHGRXWE\PHDQVRIQR]]OHV7KHGLPHQVLRQ
VKRXOGEHVRWKDWWKHIHHGYHORFLW\LVDSSUR[PVHF,QDIHHGV\VWHPDUHWXUQSLSH
DQGDGHYLFHWRFOHDQWKHURWDU\DWRPL]HULQFOWKHZHHODVZHOODVWKHQR]]OHODQFHV
VKRXOGDOVREHLQFOXGHGIRUWKHFOHDQLQJVROXWLRQVRWKDWWKHHQWLUHHTXLSPHQWFDQEH
WKRURXJKO\FOHDQHG


$WRPL]LQJ'HYLFH
7KHDLPRIDWRPL]LQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVWRSURYLGHDYHU\ODUJHVXUIDFHIURPZKLFK
WKHHYDSRUDWLRQFDQWDNHSODFH7KHVPDOOHUGURSOHWVWKHELJJHUVXUIDFHWKHHDVLHU
HYDSRUDWLRQDQGDEHWWHUWKHUPDOHIILFLHQF\RIWKHGU\HULVREWDLQHG7KHLGHDOIURPD
GU\LQJSRLQWRIYLHZZRXOGEHDVSUD\RIGURSVRIVDPHVL]HZKLFKZRXOGPHDQWKDW
WKHGU\LQJWLPHIRUDOOSDUWLFOHVZRXOGEHWKHVDPHIRUREWDLQLQJDQHTXDOPRLVWXUH
FRQWHQW,QSUDFWLFHKRZHYHUQRDWRPL]LQJGHYLFHKDV\HWEHHQGHVLJQHGWRSURGXFHD
FRPSOHWHO\KRPRJHQRXVVSUD\DOWKRXJKSUHVHQWGHVLJQVKDYHDKLJKGHJUHHRIKRPR
JHQHLW\)URPDSRZGHUEXONGHQVLW\SRLQWRIYLHZDKRPRJHQRXVVSUD\LVQRWZDQWHG
DVWKLVZRXOGPHDQDSRZGHUZLWKORZEXONGHQVLW\DQGWKDWZRXOGPHDQDQLQFUHDVH
LQSDFNLQJPDWHULDO,WLVKRZHYHUVRWKDWWRGD\
VDFKLHYHPHQWRIDWRPL]LQJIDFLOLWDWHV
ERWKWKHGU\LQJDQGWKHSRZGHUEXONGHQVLW\



1,52$6

1. Nozzle body
2. Orifice insert
3. Swirl chamber
4. End plate
5. Screw pin


)LJ+LJKSUHVVXUHQR]]OH'HODYDQ

1. Orifice insert
2. Nozzle cap
3. Grooved core insert


)LJ+LJKSUHVVXUHQR]]OH6SUD\LQJ6\VWHP




1,52$6

$VPHQWLRQHGSUHYLRXVO\WKHDLUGLVWULEXWLRQDQGDWRPL]DWLRQDUHWKHNH\IDFWRUVWRD
VXFFHVVIXOXWLOL]DWLRQRIWKHVSUD\GU\HU7KHDWRPL]DWLRQLVGLUHFWO\UHVSRQVLEOHIRU
PDQ\GLVWLQFWLYHDGYDQWDJHVRIIHUHGE\WKHVSUD\GU\LQJ)LUVWWKHYHU\VKRUWGU\LQJ
WLPHRIWKHSDUWLFOHVFDQEHPHQWLRQHGVHFRQGO\DYHU\VKRUWSDUWLFOHUHWHQWLRQWLPHLQ
WKHKRWDWPRVSKHUHDQGORZSDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUH ZHWEXOEWHPSHUDWXUH DQGILQDOO\
WKHWUDQVIRUPDWLRQRIWKHOLTXLGIHHGLQWRDSRZGHUZLWKORQJVWRUDJHVWDELOLW\UHDG\
IRUSDFNLQJDQGWUDQVSRUW
6XPPDUL]HGWKHSULPHIXQFWLRQRIDWRPL]DWLRQLV
DKLJKVXUIDFHWRPDVVUDWLRUHVXOWLQJLQKLJKHYDSRUDWLRQUDWHV
 SURGXFWLRQRISDUWLFOHVRIWKHGHVLUHGVKDSHVL]HDQGGHQVLW\

7RFRPSO\ZLWKWKHVHUHTXLUHPHQWVPDQ\DWRPL]DWLRQWHFKQLTXHVKDYHEHHQXVHGLQ
VSUD\GU\HUV+RZHYHUWKHPRVWFRPPRQRQHVFDQEHVXPPDUL]HGDVIROORZV


3UHVVXUHHQHUJ\DVLQSUHVVXUHQR]]OHV
 .LQHWLFHQHUJ\DVLQWZRIOXLGQR]]OHV
 &HQWULIXJDOHQHUJ\DVLQURWDWLQJGLVFV

7KHPHFKDQLVPRIDWRPL]DWLRQKDVEHHQVWXGLHGE\PDQ\VFLHQWLVWVDQGWKRXJKWKH
ILUVWSLRQHHUVVWDUWHGPRUHWKDQ\HDUVDJRWKHVXEMHFWLVVWLOOKLJKO\FRQWURYHUVLDO
LQVSLWHRIPDQ\SXEOLVKHGGDWD


3UHVVXUH1R]]OH$WRPL]DWLRQ
7KHEDVLFIXQFWLRQRISUHVVXUHQR]]OHVLVWRFRQYHUWWKHSUHVVXUHHQHUJ\VXSSOLHGE\
WKHKLJKSUHVVXUHSXPSLQWRNLQHWLFHQHUJ\LQIRUPRIDWKLQILOPWKHVWDELOLW\RI
ZKLFKLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHSURSHUWLHVRIWKHOLTXLGVXFKDVYLVFRVLW\VXUIDFHWHQVLRQ
GHQVLW\DQGTXDQWLW\SHUXQLWRIWLPHDQGE\WKHPHGLXPLQWRZKLFKWKHOLTXLGLV
VSUD\HG
0RVWFRPPHUFLDOO\DYDLODEOHSUHVVXUHQR]]OHVVHH)LJDQGDUHGHVLJQHGZLWKD
VZLUOFKDPEHUJLYLQJWKHOLTXLGDURWDWLRQVRWKDWLWZLOOOHDYHWKHRULILFHWKHVHFRQG
PDLQFRPSRQHQWRIDSUHVVXUHQR]]OHDVDKROORZFRQH,QDGGLWLRQWRDERYHFKDUDF
WHULVWLFGHVLJQWKHREWDLQHGVSUD\SDWWHUQLVDIXQFWLRQRIWKHRSHUDWLQJSUHVVXUH&D
SDFLW\ VSUD\LQJZDWHU FDQXVXDOO\EHDVVXPHGGLUHFWO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHVTXDUHURRW
RIWKHSUHVVXUH


&DSDFLW\NJK .[ 3 

 


$VUXOHRIWKXPELWFDQEHHVWDEOLVKHGWKDWKLJKHUYLVFRVLW\OLTXLGGHQVLW\DQGVXUIDFH
WHQVLRQDQGORZHUSUHVVXUHZLOOUHVXOWLQELJJHUSDUWLFOHV



1,52$6

Air in
Slotted swirl insert
Orifice

Feed in

A) Internal mixing

Feed air mixing chamber

Slotted swirl insert

Feed in

Air orifice
Feed orifice

B) External mixing

Air in

)LJ7ZRIOXLGQR]]OH




1,52$6

0DQ\SURSRVHGFRUUHODWLRQVKDYHEHHQUHSRUWHGEXWWKHRQHEHORZFDQEHXVHGZLWKD
FHUWDLQGHJUHHRIFRQILGHQFH






[ 
G6   

3

3
3/

. Q[G R 3/

  

:KHUH
GV

3

3/
4
.Q 
GR











YROXPHSDUWLFOHPHDQGLDPHWHURIWKHVSUD\ PLFURQV 
VXUIDFHWHQVLRQRIOLTXLG G\QHVFP 
QR]]OHSUHVVXUH SVL 
YLVFRVLW\RIOLTXLG SRLVHV 
OLTXLGGHQVLW\JPFF
YROXPHWULFIHHGUDWHXQLWRIWLPH
QR]]OHFRQVWDQW GHSHQGLQJRQVSUD\DQJOH 
RULILFHGLDPHWHU LQFKHV 

7ZR)OXLG1R]]OHRU3QHXPDWLF$WRPL]DWLRQ
7KHHQHUJ\DYDLODEOHIRUDWRPL]DWLRQLQWZRIOXLGDWRPL]HUVLVLQGHSHQGHQWRIOLTXLG
IORZDQGSUHVVXUH7KHQHFHVVDU\HQHUJ\ NLQHWLF LVVXSSOLHGE\FRPSUHVVHGDLU7KH
DWRPL]DWLRQLVFUHDWHGGXHWRKLJKIULFWLRQDOVKHDULQJIRUFHVEHWZHHQWKHOLTXLGVXUIDFH
DQGWKHDLUKDYLQJDKLJKYHORFLW\HYHQDWVRQLFYHORFLWLHVDQGVRPHWLPHVURWDWHGWR
REWDLQPD[LPXPDWRPL]DWLRQ6HH)LJ
7ZRIOXLGDWRPL]DWLRQLVWKHRQO\VXFFHVVIXOQR]]OHPHWKRGRISURGXFLQJYHU\VPDOO
SDUWLFOHVHVSHFLDOO\IURPKLJKO\YLVFRXVOLTXLGV7KHUHODWLRQEHWZHHQGURSVL]HDQG
RSHUDWLRQFRQGLWLRQVKDVEHHQVRXJKWDQGPDQ\VFLHQWLVWVKDYHWULHGWRFDOFXODWHWKH
PHDQGLDPHWHU7KHEHVWNQRZQLV






:KHUH

GV
9



3/



-







G6 
9 3/
3/




[

-

YROXPHSDUWLFOHPHDQGLDPHWHU PLFURQV 
YHORFLW\RIWKHDLUUHODWLYHWRWKHOLTXLGDWWKHQR]]OHRULILFH IWVHF 
VXUIDFHWHQVLRQ G\QHVFP 
OLTXLGGHQVLW\ OEVIW 
YLVFRVLW\ FHQWLSRLVH 
DLUOLTXLGYROXPHUDWLRDWDLUDQGOLTXLGRULILFHVUHVS




 

1,52$6


5RWDU\DWRPL]HUZLWKGLUHFWGULYH




1,52$6

5RWDU\$WRPL]DWLRQ
,QURWDU\DWRPL]HUVWKHOLTXLGLVFRQWLQXRXVO\DFFHOHUDWHGWRWKHZKHHOHGJHE\FHQ
WULIXJDOIRUFHVSURGXFHGE\WKHURWDWLRQRIWKHZKHHO7KHOLTXLGLVGLVWULEXWHGFHQ
WUDOO\DQGWKHQH[WHQGVRYHUWKHZKHHOVXUIDFHLQDWKLQVKHHWGLVFKDUJHGDWKLJKVSHHG
DWWKHSHULSKHU\RIWKHZKHHO7KHGHJUHHRIDWRPL]DWLRQGHSHQGVXSRQSHULSKHUDO
VSHHGSURSHUWLHVRIWKHOLTXLGDQGIHHGUDWH
7KHZKHHOVKRXOGEHGHVLJQHGVRWKDWLWZLOOEULQJWKHOLTXLGXSWRWKHSHULSKHUDO
VSHHGSULRUWRWKHGLVHQJDJHPHQW9HU\RIWHQWKHZKHHOVDUHWKHUHIRUHZLWKYDQHVRI
GLIIHUHQWGHVLJQWRSUHYHQWOLTXLGVOLSSDJHRYHUWKHLQWHUQDOVXUIDFHLQWKHZKHHO7KH
YDQHVDOVRFRQFHQWUDWHWKHOLTXLGDWWKHGLVFHGJHSURGXFLQJWKHUHDOLTXLGILOPDQDOR
JRXVWRWKHRQHFRQVLGHUHGLQSUHVVXUHQR]]OHV7KHZKHHOZLOODFWDVDIDQDQGDLULV
VXFNHGLQWRWKHFRQFHQWUDWHGXHWRWKHURWDWLRQ'LIIHUHQWZKHHOGHVLJQVDQGSURSHUWLHV
GHFLGHKRZPXFKDLULVLQFRUSRUDWHGLQWKHDWRPL]HGGURSOHWV6HHSDJH
,QVSLWHRILQWHQVLYHLQYHVWLJDWLRQVLQWRWKHPHFKDQLVPRIDWRPL]DWLRQIURPURWDWLQJ
DWRPL]HUZKHHOVWKHSUHGLFWLRQRIVSUD\FKDUDFWHULVWLFVVWLOOUHPDLQVXQFHUWDLQ7KHHI
IHFWRILQGLYLGXDOYDULDEOHVKDVEHHQHVWDEOLVKHGRYHUDOLPLWHGUDQJHDQGWKHUHLVRQO\
DIHZGHDOLQJZLWKKLJKFDSDFLW\KLJKVSHHGLQGXVWULDODWRPL]HUV+RZHYHUWKHUHOD
WLRQEHWZHHQGURSOHWVL]HDQGYDULRXVSURGXFWVDQGRSHUDWLRQFKDUDFWHULVWLFVLVDVIRO
ORZV
/LTXLGIHHGUDWH
'URSOHWVL]HYDULHVGLUHFWO\ZLWKIHHGUDWHDWFRQVWDQWZKHHOVSHHGDQGZLOOLQFUHDVHZLWK
LQFUHDVHGIHHGUDWH SRZHURI 

3HULSKHUDOVSHHG

7KHSHULSKHUDOVSHHGLVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHGLDPHWHURIWKHZKHHODQGWKHZKHHOVSHHGDQGLV
FDOFXODWHGDVIROORZV
['[1

 

9 S 
[
:KHUH

9S

3HULSKHUDOVSHHG PVHF 

'

'LDPHWHURIWKHZKHHO PP 

1

6SHHGRIWKHZKHHO USP 

7KHSHULSKHUDOVSHHGLVZLGHO\DFFHSWHGDVWKHPDLQYDULDEOHIRUDGMXVWPHQWRID
VSHFLILHGGURSOHWVL]H+RZHYHULWKDVEHHQVKRZQWKDWGURSOHWVL]HGRHVQRWQHFHVVDU
LO\UHPDLQFRQVWDQWLIHTXDOSHULSKHUDOVSHHGVDUHSURGXFHGLQZKHHOGHVLJQVRIYDUL
RXVGLDPHWHUDQGVSHHGFRPELQDWLRQVDQGWKHUHLVDWHQGHQF\WKDWELJJHUZKHHOVSUR



1,52$6




1,52$6

GXFHELJJHUSDUWLFOHVDOORWKHUWKLQJVEHLQJHTXDO+RZHYHULQWKHFKRLFHRIZKHHOGL
DPHWHURQHVKRXOGUDWKHUORRNDWWKHUHOLDELOLW\RIWKHDWRPL]HUDVWKHGLIIHUHQFHVLQ
VSUD\FKDUDFWHULVWLFVDUHQHJOLJLEOH)XUWKHUVPDOOHUZKHHOVDUHHDVLHUWRKDQGOHZKHQ
FOHDQHG
9LVFRVLW\RIWKHOLTXLG
'URSOHWVL]HYDULHVGLUHFWO\ZLWKWKHYLVFRVLW\ SRZHURI DQGELJJHUSDUWLFOHVDUH
WKHUHIRUHREWDLQHGZKHQWKHYLVFRVLW\LQWKHIHHGEHFRPHVKLJKHU,QRUGHUWRHQVXUH
DQRSWLPDODWRPL]DWLRQWKHYLVFRVLW\LVWKHUHIRUHQRUPDOO\NHSWDVORZDVSRVVLEOHRI
WHQE\KHDWLQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWHSULRUWRWKHDWRPL]DWLRQ5HJDUGLQJGURSOHWVL]HGLVWUL
EXWLRQWKLVEHFRPHVEURDGHUZLWKLQFUHDVHGYLVFRVLW\DQHIIHFWVRPHWLPHVXVHGZKHQ
SRZGHUEXONGHQVLW\LVWREHLQFUHDVHG
7KHSUHGLFWLRQRIWKHPHDQGURSOHWGLDPHWHUFDQEHVXPPDUL]HGLQWKHIROORZLQJ
HTXDWLRQZKLFKZDVHYDOXDWHGIRUSHULSKHUDOVSHHGVQRWRYHUPVHF+RZHYHUH[
SHULPHQWDOUHVXOWVIURPWHVWVZLWKSHULSKHUDOVSHHGVXSWRPVHFKDYHLQGL
FDWHGWKDWWKHUHLVDFORVHDJUHHPHQWEHWZHHQWKHUHVXOWVREWDLQHGXVLQJWKHIRUPXOD
IURPDERYHPHQWLRQHGWHVWV





3QK
0

[Q[K 


[
U[
[
[

'96 .


3 1U 
03
03





 




:KHUH
'YV 
6DXWHUVPHDQGLDPHWHULQIW DGGWRJHWYROXPHPHDQGLDPHWHU 


&RQVWDQWGHSHQGLQJRQWKHDWRPL]HU  
.
U

5DGLXVRIWKHZKHHOLQIW
0S 
0DVVIORZSHUWRWDOZHWWHGSHULSKHU\ OEVPLQ[IW 
3

/LTXLGGHQVLW\OEVIW
1

$WRPL]HUVSHHGUSP



9LVFRVLW\OEVIW[PLQ


6XUIDFHWHQVLRQOEVPLQ
Q

1XPEHURIYDQHV
+

+HLJKWRIYDQHVIW

$ERYHPHQWLRQHGIRUPXODVIRUSUHGLFWLQJWKHPHDQGLDPHWHUVKRXOGQDWXUDOO\RQO\EH
XVHGDVDJXLGHDQGDUHRQO\VWDWHGWRJLYHWKHUHDGHUVDQLGHDRIWKHUHODWLRQEHWZHHQ
WKHPHDQGLDPHWHUDQGWKHYDULRXVWHFKQLFDODQGWHFKQRORJLFDOSDUDPHWHUV




1,52$6


3UHVVXUHQR]]OHDWRPL]HUDVVHPEO\
ZLWKILQHVUHWXUQDUUDQJHPHQW




1,52$6

$WRPL]DWLRQLQ6SUD\'U\HUVIRU0LON3URGXFWV
,QWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\RQO\
3UHVVXUHQR]]OHV
 5RWDU\DWRPL]HUV
DUHXVHGDVWKHSQHXPDWLFQR]]OHUHTXLUHVWRRKLJKHQHUJ\DQGWKHUHVXOWLQJSRZGHU
FRQVLVWVRIWRRILQHSDUWLFOHVDQGLVWKHUHIRUHQRWDWWUDFWLYHWRWKHFRQVXPHU


3UHVVXUH1R]]OHV
7KHSUHVVXUHQR]]OHVFDQEHGLYLGHGLQWRWZRJURXSV
+LJKSUHVVXUHORZFDSDFLW\QR]]OHV
 /RZSUHVVXUHKLJKFDSDFLW\QR]]OHV

7KHKLJKSUHVVXUHORZFDSDFLW\QR]]OHVDUHPDLQO\XVHGLQER[GU\HUVZRUNLQJDVRQH
VWDJHGU\HUVVHHSDJHDQGRSHUDWHDWDKLJKSUHVVXUHEDUJ(DFKQR]]OH
ZLOOKDYHDFDSDFLW\RINJFRQFHQWUDWHXVXDOO\ZLWKRQO\VROLGVLID
UHDVRQDEOHVROXELOLW\VKRXOGEHPDLQWDLQHGLQWKHSRZGHU7KHDFWXDOSODQWZLOOWKHUH
IRUHEHHTXLSSHGZLWKQXPHURXVQR]]OHVDOORIZKLFKDUHZLWKYHU\VPDOORULILFHV
ZKLFKJHWHDVLO\EORFNHG1RUPDOO\WKHSRZGHUKDVDKLJKEXONGHQVLW\EXWWHQGVWR
EHGXVW\DVLWFRQVLVWVRIVPDOOSDUWLFOHV'XHWRWKHORZVROLGVUHTXLUHPHQWVWKHGU\
LQJEHFRPHVDWWKHVDPHWLPHH[SHQVLYH


7KHORZSUHVVXUHKLJKFDSDFLW\QR]]OHVZLWKDFDSDFLW\RIXSWRNJKKDYH
JDLQHGPRUHDQGPRUHXVHDIWHUWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHWZRVWDJHGU\LQJSURFHVV
ZKHUHWKHSDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUHLVPXFKORZHU7KHVROLGVFRQWHQWFDQWKHUHIRUHEHLQ
FUHDVHGWRDQGWKHSUHVVXUHGHFUHDVHG EDUJ ZLWKRXWDIIHFWLQJWKHVROX
ELOLW\WKXVPDNLQJQR]]OHDWRPL]DWLRQLQWHUHVWLQJDOVRIURPDQHFRQRPLFDOSRLQWRI
YLHZ
7KHDGYDQWDJHVRISUHVVXUHQR]]OHVFDQEHVXPPDUL]HGDVIROORZV







3RZGHUZLWKORZRFFOXGHGDLU
3RZGHUZLWKKLJKEXONGHQVLW\
,PSURYHGIORZDELOLW\HVSHFLDOO\LQZKROHPLON
7HQGHQF\WRJLYHOHVVGHSRVLWVLQWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU
ZKHQGLIILFXOWSURGXFWVDUHSURGXFHG
$ELOLW\WRSURGXFHELJSDUWLFOHV
,IDGXDOIHHGQR]]OHV\VWHPLVXVHGWKHGU\LQJSODQWFDQRSHUDWHFRQWLQXRXVO\
KGD\IRUZHHNVZLWKRXWVWRSRQO\WKHIHHGOLQHQR]]OHVDUHZHWFOHDQHGDIWHU
KRXUV




1,52$6

Inside view of cyclone

)LJ&HQWHUF\FORQH




1,52$6


5RWDU\$WRPL]HU
7KHURWDU\DWRPL]HUKDVEHHQNQRZQDQGXVHGLQWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\IRUPDQ\\HDUVWKH
PDLQDGYDQWDJHVDUH







)OH[LELOLW\DVWRWKURXJKSXW
$ELOLW\WRKDQGOHODUJHTXDQWLWLHV
$ELOLW\WRKDQGOHKLJKO\YLVFRXVFRQFHQWUDWHV
'LIIHUHQWZKHHOGHVLJQVJLYLQJGLIIHUHQWSRZGHUFKDUDFWHULVWLFV
$ELOLW\WRKDQGOHSURGXFWVZLWKFU\VWDOV
+LJKHUVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHIHHGLVSRVVLEOHWKHUHIRUHEHWWHUHFRQRP\


7RGHFLGHZKHWKHUWRXVHSUHVVXUHQR]]OHVRUURWDU\ZKHHOLVWKHUHIRUHDTXHVWLRQRI
W\SHRISURGXFW
)RUFRQYHQWLRQDOPLONSURGXFWVDVZHOODVFU\VWDOOL]HGZKH\FRQFHQWUDWHWKHURWDU\
ZKHHOZLOOEHWKHSUHIHUUHGDWRPL]LQJGHYLFHZKHUHDVIRUYHU\KLJKGHQVLW\SRZGHUV
DQGLQVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHUDQGRWKHUSURGXFWVZLWKKLJKIDWFRQWHQWWKHKLJK
FDSDFLW\ORZSUHVVXUHQR]]OHVVKRXOGEHXVHGLQFRQQHFWLRQZLWKWZRVWDJHGU\LQJ
$VLWLVLPSRVVLEOHWRSUHGLFWZKDWW\SHRISURGXFWVKRXOGEHSURGXFHGWRPRUURZ
WKHUHKDVEHHQDWHQGHQF\WRVHOHFWGU\HUVFDSDEOHRIXVLQJERWKV\VWHPVLHWKH\
VKRXOGEHGLUHFWO\LQWHUFKDQJHDEOH


3RZGHU6HSDUDWLRQ6\VWHP
$VWKHGU\LQJDLUZLOOFRQWDLQDVPDOOSURSRUWLRQRISRZGHU  ZKHQLWOHDYHV
WKHFKDPEHULWLVQHFHVVDU\IRUHFRQRPLFUHDVRQVEXWDOVREHFDXVHRISROOXWLRQSURE
OHPVWRFOHDQWKHGU\LQJDLUE\VHSDUDWLQJWKHSRZGHUSDUWLFOHV7KLVSRZGHUIUDFWLRQ
LVXVXDOO\UHIHUUHGWRDVWKHILQHVDVWKH\QRUPDOO\UHSUHVHQWWKHVPDOOHVWSDUWLFOHV
7KHPRVWXVHGVHSDUDWRUVLQWKHPLONSRZGHULQGXVWU\DUH
 &\FORQH
 %DJILOWHU
 :HWVFUXEEHU
 &,3DEOHEDJILOWHU


&\FORQH
7KHF\FORQHKDVVRPHREYLRXVDGYDQWDJHVVXFKDVKLJKHIILFLHQF\LILWLVFRQVWUXFWHG
SURSHUO\LWLVHDVLO\PDLQWDLQHGDVWKHUHDUHQRPRYLQJSDUWVDQGIXUWKHUPRUHLWLV
HDV\WRFOHDQLIWKHFRQVWUXFWLRQLVZLWKDIXOO\ZHOGHGFHQWUHF\FORQHVHH)LJ



1,52$6

Air

Air with Powder

Powder

)LJ&\FORQH


)LJ&\FORQHEDWWHU\ZLWKFHQWUDOKRSSHU


)LJ5RWDU\YDOYHZLWKFRQLFDOURWRU




1,52$6

7KHRSHUDWLRQWKHRU\LVEDVHGRQDYRUWH[PRWLRQZKHUHWKHFHQWULIXJDOIRUFHLVDFWLQJ
RQHDFKSDUWLFOHDQGWKHUHIRUHFDXVHVWKHSDUWLFOHWRPRYHDZD\IURPWKHF\FORQHD[LV
WRZDUGVWKHLQQHUF\FORQHZDOO+RZHYHUWKHPRYHPHQWLQWKHUDGLDOGLUHFWLRQLVWKH
UHVXOWRIWZRRSSRVLQJIRUFHVZKHUHWKHFHQWULIXJDOIRUFHDFWVWRPRYHWKHSDUWLFOHWR
WKHZDOOZKLOHWKHGUDJIRUFHRIWKHDLUDFWVWRFDUU\WKHSDUWLFOHVLQWRWKHD[LV$VWKH
FHQWULIXJDOIRUFHLVSUHGRPLQDQWDVHSDUDWLRQWDNHVSODFH
3RZGHUDQGDLUSDVVWDQJHQWLDOO\LQWRWKHF\FORQHDWHTXDOYHORFLWLHV3RZGHUDQGDLU
VZLUOLQDVSLUDOIRUPGRZQWRWKHEDVHRIWKHF\FORQHVHSDUDWLQJWKHSRZGHURXWWRWKH
F\FORQHZDOO3RZGHUOHDYHVWKHERWWRPRIWKHF\FORQHYLDDORFNLQJGHYLFH7KHFOHDQ
DLUVSLUDOVXSZDUGVDORQJWKHFHQWUHD[LVRIWKHF\FORQHDQGSDVVHVRXWDWWKHWRS6HH
)LJ
7KHFHQWULIXJDOIRUFHHDFKSDUWLFOHLVH[SRVHGWRFDQEHVHHQLQWKLVHTXDWLRQ
P[9 

U


& 

 

:KHUH

&

FHQWULIXJDOIRUFH

P

PDVVRISDUWLFOH

9

WDQJHQWLDODLUYHORFLW\

U

UDGLDOGLVWDQFHWRWKHZDOOIURPDQ\JLYHQSRLQW

)URPWKLVHTXDWLRQLWFDQEHFRQFOXGHGWKDWWKHKLJKHUSDUWLFOHPDVVWKHEHWWHUHIIL
FLHQF\7KHVKRUWHUZD\WKHSDUWLFOHKDVWRWUDYHOWKHEHWWHUHIILFLHQF\DQGWKHFORVHU
WKHSDUWLFOHLVWRWKHZDOOWKHEHWWHUHIILFLHQF\EHFDXVHWKHYHORFLW\LVKLJKHVWDQGWKH
UDGLDOGLVWDQFHLVVKRUW
W

+RZHYHUWLPHLVUHTXLUHGIRUWKHSDUWLFOHVWRWUDYHOWRWKHF\FORQHZDOOVRDVXIILFLHQW
DLUUHVLGHQFHWLPHVKRXOGEHWDNHQLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQZKHQGHVLJQLQJDF\FORQH
)URPDERYHHTXDWLRQLWLVHYLGHQWWKDWVPDOOF\FORQHV GLDPHWHUOHVVWKDQP ZLOO
KDYHWKHKLJKHVWHIILFLHQF\DIDFWJHQHUDOO\DFFHSWHG
+RZHYHUWKHELJWRQQDJHGU\HUVLQRSHUDWLRQLQWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\QRZDGD\VZRXOG
UHTXLUHPDQ\F\FORQHV DF\FORQHEDWWHU\ $VHDFKF\FORQHKDVWRKDYHDQRXWOHWIRU
SRZGHULQIRUPRIDURWDU\YDOYHSQHXPDWLFYDOYHRUIODSYDOYHWKLVPHDQVWKDWWKHUH
LVDELJULVNRIDLUOHDNVZKLFKZLOOUHGXFHWKHF\FORQHHIILFLHQF\7KHVPDOOF\FORQHV
FDQDOVREHFRQQHFWHGWRRQHFHQWUDOKRSSHUDQGRQO\RQHYDOYHLVWKHQQHFHVVDU\VHH
)LJ7KLVPHDQVKRZHYHUWKDWXQOHVVWKHUHLVH[DFWO\WKHVDPHSUHVVXUHGURSRYHU
HDFKF\FORQHDLUDQGSRZGHUZLOOSDVVIURPRQHF\FORQHWRDQRWKHUYLDWKHERWWRP
RXWOHW7KLVZLOOUHVXOWLQGHFUHDVHGHIILFLHQF\DQGLQFUHDVHGSRZGHUORVV&OHDQLQJWKH
PDQ\VPDOOF\FORQHVLVDSUREOHPDVLWLVDWLPHFRQVXPLQJMREDQGZLWKWKHPDQ\
FRUQHUVWKHUHLVDULVNRIDEDFWHULDOLQIHFWLRQ




1,52$6

Actual curve
Actual critical
particle diameter

Theoretical critical
particle diameter

Cut size

Collection Efficiency %

Theoretical curve

Grade Efficiency %

Particle size (micron)

Particle size (micron)

)LJ&ULWLFDOSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHUDQGJUDGHHIILFLHQF\FXUYHVIRUDF\FORQH




1,52$6

)RUDERYHUHDVRQVWKHF\FORQHVKDYHEHFRPHELJJHUDQGELJJHUDQGDUHQRZFRQ
VWUXFWHGZLWKGLDPHWHUVRIPHDFKKDQGOLQJNJRIDLUK
:KHQGHVLJQLQJDF\FORQHYDULRXVNH\ILJXUHVVKRXOGEHWDNHQLQWRDFFRXQWLQRUGHUWR
REWDLQWKHKLJKHVWHIILFLHQF\7KLVLVDFKLHYHGLI
F\FORQHGLDPHWHU
 
H[LWGXFWGLDPHWHU
F\FORQHKHLJKW
  
H[LWGXFWGLDPHWHU

$LUWKURXJKSXW YHORFLW\9 DQGLQFUHDVHGSUHVVXUHGURSVZLOODOVRLQFUHDVHWKHHIIL


FLHQF\EXWWKHHQHUJ\UHTXLUHPHQWZLOOLQFUHDVHVLPXOWDQHRXVO\VRLQJHQHUDOWKHXS
SHUOLPLWLVPP:*IRUVNLPPLONSRZGHUPP:*LVWKHPD[L
PXPIRUZKROHPLONLQRUGHUWRDYRLGGHSRVLWVDQGILQDOEORFNLQJ
W

,QPRVWFDVHVURWDU\YDOYHVDUHXVHGDVDLUORFNDQGSURGXFWGLVFKDUJHDWWKHERWWRPRI
WKHF\FORQHDVVKRZQLQ)LJ7KHFRQLFDOW\SHDOORZLQJIRUHDV\DGDSWLRQRIWKH
JDSEHWZHHQWKHKRXVLQJDQGWKHURWRUVKRXOGEHSUHIHUUHGDVWKHSRZGHUORVVPD\EH
UHGXFHG
,QRUGHUWRNQRZDF\FORQH
VHIILFLHQF\WKHIROORZLQJWHUPVKDYHWREHGHILQHG





D 
E 
F 

7KHFULWLFDOSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHU
7KHFXWVL]H
7KHRYHUDOOF\FORQHHIILFLHQF\

D 

7KHFULWLFDOSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHULVGHILQHGDVWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HWKDWZLOOEHFRP
SOHWHO\UHPRYHGIURPWKHDLUIORZ FROOHFWLRQHIILFLHQF\ +RZHYHUDV
WKHUHLVQRVKDUSO\GHILQHGSRLQWZKHUHDSDUWLFOHVL]HLVVHSDUDWHGRU
ORVWWKHFULWLFDOSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHULVQRWYHU\YDOXDEOH

E 

7KHFXWVL]HLVGHILQHGDVWKHVL]HIRUZKLFKFROOHFWLRQLVREWDLQHGDQGLVD
PXFKEHWWHUYDOXHIRUVWDWLQJWKHHIILFLHQF\RIF\FORQHV7RGHWHUPLQHDF\
FORQH
VFXWVL]HJUDGHHIILFLHQF\FXUYHVDUHZRUNHGRXWE\V\VWHPDWLFDOO\RSHUDW
LQJDF\FORQHZLWKDXQLIRUPSDUWLFOHVL]HGXVW6HH)LJ

F 

7KHRYHUDOOF\FORQHHIILFLHQF\LVWKHRQHREWDLQHGZKHQKDQGOLQJDSURGXFWRI
GHILQLWHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQ.QRZLQJWKHJUDGHHIILFLHQF\FXUYHRIWKHF\FORQHDQG
WKHSURGXFWVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHSRZGHUSDVVLQJWRWKHF\FORQHVWKHRYHUDOO
HIILFLHQF\FDQEHFDOFXODWHGLHWKHSRZGHUORVVFDQEHSUHGLFWHG

$QRWKHUPHWKRGRIOHDUQLQJWKHF\FORQHHIILFLHQF\LVE\DVLPSOHSRZGHUORVVPHDV
XUHPHQWDIWHUWKHF\FORQH$YHU\VPDOOIUDFWLRQRIWKHRXWJRLQJDLULVSDVVHGWKURXJK



1,52$6

Concentrate in

Compresse air

Air

Powder
Air with powder
Air with powder

Powder

Powder

Powder out

)LJ%DJILOWHU

)LJ6SUD\GU\HUZLWKEDJILOWHU

%\SDVVV\VWHPEHWZHHQEDJILOWHUDQGH[KDXVWIDQ

Air with powder

Air + vapour

Scrubbibg liquid recirculation

)LJ6DQLWDU\ZHWVFUXEEHU




1,52$6

DKLJKHIILFLHQWPLQLF\FORQHRUWKURXJKPLFURGXVWILOWHUV7KHDPRXQWRISRZGHUFRO
OHFWHGLVGLUHFWO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHSRZGHUORVVZKLFKZLOOPDLQO\EHDUHVXOWRI








)HHGZLWKORZVROLGVRUIHHGFRQWDLQLQJDLU
+LJKRXWOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUH
/RZSDUWLFOHGHQVLW\ DVDUHVXOWRIWKHDERYHIRUH[DPSOH 
/HDNLQJSURGXFWRXWOHWIURPROGQRQDGMXVWHGURWDU\YDOYHV
%ORFNHGF\FORQH
&KDQJHLQGU\LQJSDUDPHWHUUHVXOWLQJLQGHFUHDVHRIPHDQSDUWLFOHVL]H
2OGF\FORQHVGHQWHGGXHWRKHDY\EHDWLQJWRDYRLGEORFNLQJV

%DJ)LOWHUV
$YHUDJHSRZGHUORVVIURPDQRUPDOKLJKHIILFLHQWF\FORQHVKRXOGQRWH[FHHG
PJ1P ZKHQVSUD\GU\LQJVNLPPLON+RZHYHUWRGD\DXWKRULWLHVFRQFOXGH
WKDWLVWRRKLJKDILJXUH)URPWKH(8UHTXLUHVDSRZGHUORVVRI
PJ1P)LQDOFOHDQLQJRIWKHDLULVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\7KLVLVXVXDOO\GRQHLQEDJ
ILOWHUVFRQVLVWLQJRIQXPHURXVEDJVRUILOWHUVDUUDQJHGVRWKDWHDFKEDJUHFHLYHVHTXDO
TXDQWLWLHVRIDLU7KHGLUHFWLRQRIWKHDLULVIURPRXWVLGHLQWKURXJKWKHILOWHUPDWHULDO
WRWKHLQQHUSDUWRIWKHEDJIURPZKHUHWKHFOHDQHGDLUHQWHUVDQH[KDXVWPDQLIROG
:LWKDFRUUHFWVHOHFWLRQRIILOWHUPDWHULDOKLJKHIILFLHQFLHVFDQEHREWDLQHGDQGFROOHF
WLRQRIPLFURQSDUWLFOHVLVUHSRUWHGIURPWKHPDQXIDFWXUHUV7KHFROOHFWHGSRZGHULV
DXWRPDWLFDOO\VKDNHQRIIE\EORZLQJFRPSUHVVHGDLUYLDD&RDQGDYHQWXULQR]]OHSRVL
WLRQHGLQVLGHWKHWRSSDUWRIHDFKEDJ7KHSRZGHULVFROOHFWHGDWWKHERWWRPYLDDUR
WDU\YDOYH6HH)LJDQG
7KHEDJILOWHUPD\DOVRUHSODFHWKHF\FORQHVDVROXWLRQRIWHQFKRVHQIRURQHVWDJH
GU\HUVIRUZKH\SURWHLQSRZGHURUHJJZKLWH7RSUHYHQWFRQGHQVDWLRQHVSHFLDOO\RQ
WKHFRQLFDOSDUWRIWKHILOWHUKRXVLQJZDUPDLURUKHDWWUDFLQJLVHVWDEOLVKHG


:HW6FUXEEHUV
7KHZHWVFUXEEHUKDVEHHQNQRZQIRUPDQ\\HDUVLQWKHFKHPLFDOLQGXVWU\,WLVEDVHG
RQWKHYHQWXULVFUXEEHUSULQFLSOH:KHQLQWURGXFHGLQWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\LWSURYHGHV
SHFLDOO\HIILFLHQWLHDQHIILFLHQF\YHU\FORVHWR
7KHGURSOHWVHSDUDWRULVGHVLJQHGDFFRUGLQJWRWKHZHOONQRZQF\FORQHSULQFLSOHV
KRZHYHUZLWKDPRGLILHGRXWOHWUHVXOWLQJLQDPLQLPXPOLTXLGOHYHOWKHUHE\PLQLPL]
LQJEDFWHULDJURZWKDQGDGHVLJQUHGXFLQJIRDPEXLOGLQJ+RZHYHUXVHRIDQWLIRDP
DJHQWVLVUHTXLUHGGHSHQGLQJRQWKHSURGXFWEHLQJGULHG
7KHSULQFLSOHLQWKHYHQWXULZHWVFUXEEHULVWKHIROORZLQJ6HH)LJ



1,52$6

Air out

Air in

Milk in

Water in

Powder out 

)LJ:HWVFUXEEHUUHF\FOHGZLWKZDWHU

Milk in
Air out
Air in

Powder out

)LJD:HWVFUXEEHUUHF\FOHGZLWKPLON




1,52$6

7KHRXWOHWDLUIURPWKHVSUD\GU\HUFRQWDLQLQJSRZGHUSDUWLFOHVLVDFFHOHUDWHGWRDKLJK
YHORFLW\LQWKHYHQWXULLQOHWZKHUHDOVRWKHOLTXLGLVLQMHFWHGWKURXJKIXOOFRQHQR]
]OHV'XHWRGLIIHUHQWYHORFLWLHVEHWZHHQWKHDLUSDUWLFOHVDQGWKHOLTXLGGURSOHWVWKH\
ZLOOFROOLGHDQGWKHSRZGHUZLOOGLVVROYHLQWKHOLTXLGGURSOHWV3DVVLQJWKURXJKWKH
VXEVHTXHQWGLIIXVHUWKHGLVVROYLQJSURFHVVZLOOFRQWLQXHVLPXOWDQHRXVO\ZLWKDFHUWDLQ
SUHVVXUHUHFRYHU\RIWKHDLUGURSOHWPL[
3DVVLQJWKURXJKWKHVHSDUDWRUDLUDQGOLTXLGDUHVHSDUDWHGDJDLQ7KHDLUOHDYHV
WKURXJKWKHFHQWUHGXFWDQGWKHOLTXLGKDYLQJUHDFKHGWKHZHWEXOEWHPSHUDWXUH
&WKURXJKWKHERWWRPRXWOHWIRUIXUWKHUSURFHVVLQJRUUHF\FOLQJGHSHQGLQJRQ
ZKDWV\VWHPLVVHOHFWHG
7ZRGLIIHUHQWIORZV\VWHPVFDQEHXVHG
5HFLUFXODWLRQZLWKZDWHU
 6LQJOHSDVVZLWKPLONRUZKH\



5HFLUFXODWLRQZLWK:DWHU
$FFRUGLQJWRDERYHGHVFULSWLRQRIWKHSULQFLSOHZDWHULVUHF\FOHGE\PHDQVRIDFHQ
WULIXJDOSXPS7KHIORZLVFRQWUROOHGE\DYDOYHDQGWKHDFWXDOIORZFDQEHVHHQRQD
IORZPHWHU7KHOHYHOLVNHSWFRQVWDQWLQWKHVHSDUDWRUE\DWDQNZLWKOHYHOFRQWUROVL
PXOWDQHRXVO\HQVXULQJDGGLWLRQRIZDWHUWRDGGXSIRUWKHHYDSRUDWLRQWDNLQJSODFHLQ
WKHVFUXEEHU7KHHYDSRUDWLRQWDNHVSODFHGXHWRWKHDLUWHPSHUDWXUHIURPWKHGU\HU
ZKLFKLVW\SLFDOO\& IRURQHVWDJHGU\HUV EHLQJFRROHGWRWKHZHWEXOEWHP
SHUDWXUH & DWWKHVDPHWLPHHYDSRUDWLQJWKHZDWHU6HH)LJ
$VWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHZDWHUFRQWLQXHVWREHDURXQG&EDFWHULDJURZWKPXVWEH
H[SHFWHGDIWHUVRPHWLPH(YHQWKRXJKWKHVFUXEELQJOLTXLGLVDGGHGXSGXHWRWKH
HYDSRUDWLRQWKHOLTXLGZLOODIWHUKRXUVFRQWDLQEDFWHULDDQGVKRXOGEHXVHGRQO\DV
DQLPDOIHHG
+RZHYHUDSDVWHXUL]DWLRQDQGFRROLQJLVUHFRPPHQGHGEHIRUHVHQGLQJWKHOLTXLGWR
WKHIDUPHUV(YDSRUDWLRQDQGGU\LQJDUHDOVRFDUULHGRXWLQVRPHFDVHVEXWWKHUHVXOW
LQJSRZGHULVVWLOOXVHGIRUDQLPDOIRGGHU
6LQJOH3DVVZLWK0LONRU:KH\
7KHVFUXEEHUFDQDOVRRSHUDWHLQDVLQJOHSDVVV\VWHPZLWKPLONRUZKH\DVWKHVFUXE
ELQJOLTXLGVHH)LJD7KLVLVHVSHFLDOO\DGYDQWDJHRXVDVWKHHYDSRUDWLRQZKLFK
ZLOODOZD\VWDNHSODFHQRZWDNHVSODFHIURPWKHSURGXFWZKLFKLVWKHQSUHFRQFHQ
WUDWHGDOLWWOH7KHVROLGVLQFUHDVHZLOOQDWXUDOO\DOVRFRPSULVHWKHSRZGHUSDUWLFOHV
SLFNHGXSIURPWKHDLU&ROGPLONRUZKH\LVSXPSHGLQWRWKHSUHKHDWLQJV\VWHPRIWKH
HYDSRUDWRUDVGLVFXVVHGHDUOLHU:KHQWKHPLONRUZKH\KDVUHDFKHG& ZHWEXOE
WHPSHUDWXUH LQWKHSUHKHDWHULWLVSDVVHGWRWKHZHWVFUXEEHUZKHUHDVPHQWLRQHGLWLV
VOLJKWO\SUHFRQFHQWUDWHGVLPXOWDQHRXVO\ZLWKWKHFOHDQLQJRIWKHH[KDXVWDLUIURPWKH



1,52$6

&,3OLTXLG

&RPSUHVVHG
DLU

5HYHUVH
MHWQR]]OH

&OHDQDLU
SOHQXP
&OHDQ
DLURXW
+ROH3ODWH

&,3OLTXLG
&,3QR]]OHV
$LUIURP
FKDPEHU
)LOWHU
EDJ
%DJILOWHU
+RXVLQJ

3RZGHURXW

)LJ&,3DEOH%DJ)LOWHU3ULQFLSOH



)LJD5HYHUVHMHWDLUQR]]OH




1,52$6

GU\HU7KHSURGXFWLVUHWXUQHGWRWKHUHVWRIWKHSUHKHDWHUVRIWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGLVIL
QDOO\SDVWHXUL]HGSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQDQGGU\LQJ
7KHHYDSRUDWLRQSURFHVVLQWKHVFUXEEHUZLOOEHGLVFXVVHGRQSDJH
$VWHPSHUDWXUHVLQWKHVFUXEEHURIIHUIDYRXUDEOHFRQGLWLRQVIRUEDFWHULDDEDFWHULR
ORJLFDOJURZWKPXVWEHH[SHFWHG6LQJOHSDVVZLWKWKHPLONDQGZKH\LVWKHUHIRUHQRW
XVHGEXWRQO\PHQWLRQHGDVDQH[DPSOHRIKRZWKHRYHUDOOGU\HUHIILFLHQF\FDQEH
LPSURYHGDQGDSSURDFKHG VHH)RUPXOD  SDJH LIWKHLQOHWDLUDWWKHVDPH
WLPHLVSUHKHDWHGE\FRQGHQVDWHIURPWKHODVWHIIHFWVRIWKH795HYDSRUDWRU VHHSDJH
 


&,3DEOH%DJ)LOWHU
3RZGHUUHFRYHU\IURPVSUD\GU\HUH[KDXVWV\VWHPVIRUIRRGDQGGDLU\SURGXFWVKDVLQ
WKHSDVWW\SLFDOO\EHHQGRQHLQF\FORQHVHLWKHUDORQHZKHUHHQYLURQPHQWDOLVVXHV
KDYHQRWEHHQLQIRFXVRUZKHUHVWULFWHUUHTXLUHPHQWVDUHHQIRUFHGE\WKHDXWKRULWLHV
F\FORQHVFRPELQHGZLWKZHWVFUXEEHUVRUWH[WLOHEDJILOWHUV
:KLOHUHTXLUHPHQWVWRHQYLURQPHQWDOSURWHFWLRQHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQQRLVHOHYHO
SURGXFWLRQHIILFLHQF\DQGSURGXFWTXDOLW\DUHLQFUHDVLQJHYHU\GD\IRUWKHIRRGDQG
GDLU\LQGXVWULHVSRZGHUPDQXIDFWXUHUVKDYHZLWQHVVHGDGHYHORSPHQWHVSHFLDOO\IRU
SRZGHUUHFRYHU\V\VWHPV7KH6$1,&,3&,3DEOHEDJILOWHULVUHSODFLQJWKHF\
FORQHVDQGKDVQRZUHDFKHGDSRLQWZKHUHLWLVVHWWLQJWKHVWDQGDUGIRUDOPRVWDOOGU\
HUV6HH)LJ
7KH6$1,&,3EDJILOWHULVRIWKHUHYHUVHMHWW\SHDQGPDGHRIVWDLQOHVVVWHHO,WFRQ
VLVWVRIDF\OLQGULFDOEDJKRXVLQJZLWKVFUROOHGDLULQOHWFOHDQDLUSOHQXPRQWRSDQGD
FRQLFDOERWWRPZLWKIOXLGL]HGSRZGHUGLVFKDUJH'XULQJRSHUDWLRQWKHSURGXFWFRO
OHFWHGRQWKHRXWVLGHRIWKHILOWHUPDWHULDOLVUHPRYHGE\DFRPSUHVVHGDLUMHWVWUHDP
EORZQLQWRHDFKEDJYLDDVSHFLDOUHYHUVHMHWDLUQR]]OH SDWHQWHG SRVLWLRQHGDERYH
HDFKEDJVHH)LJD$MHWLVIRUPHGZKLFKGUDZVDLUIURPWKHFOHDQDLUSOHQXPLQWR
WKHEDJDVZHOOWKHUHE\VDYLQJFRPSUHVVHGDLU7KLVLVDQHIILFLHQWDQGVDQLWDU\VROX
WLRQ7KHUHYHUVHDLUMHWQR]]OHKDVIXUWKHUPRUHDGXDOSXUSRVHGXULQJ&,3DVGH
VFULEHGEHORZ
7KHEDJVDUHFOHDQEORZQLQGLYLGXDOO\RUWRJHWKHUUHVXOWLQJLQDYHU\HYHQGLVFKDUJH
RISRZGHUDQGXVLQJKLJKHUDLUWRFORWKUDWLRV7KHIUHTXHQF\DQGGXUDWLRQRIWKH
FOHDQLQJVHTXHQFHFDQEHDGMXVWHGWRVXLWDFWXDOUXQQLQJFRQGLWLRQV
7KHEDJILOWHUKRXVLQJLVLQVXODWHGRQWKHF\OLQGULFDOSDUWEHORZWKHKROHSODWHDQGLV
LQDIXOO\ZHOGHGH[HFXWLRQ7KHVXSSO\DLUV\VWHPIRUWKHIOXLGL]LQJERWWRPKDVD
PXOWLSOHSXUSRVH'XULQJSURGXFWLRQWKHFRQHRIWKHEDJKRXVHLVILUVWKHDWHGE\WKH
ZDUPDLUZKLFKVXEVHTXHQWO\LVXVHGIRUIOXLGL]LQJWKHSRZGHULQWKHERWWRP7KLV



1,52$6


6$1,&,3EDJILOWHU




1,52$6

HQVXUHVDQHYHQSRZGHUIORZRXWRIWKHEDJKRXVH'XULQJVWDQGVWLOOWKHDLULVXVHGIRU
KHDWLQJRIWKHFRQHDORQH&RQGHQVDWLRQDQGULVNRIPRXOGJURZWKLVWKHUHIRUH
DYRLGHG
7KHILOWHUEDJVDUHPDGHIURPDVSHFLDOOD\HUJUDGLHQWSRO\SURS\OHQHPDWHULDO7KLV
PDWHULDOLVIXOO\&,3DEOHZLWK1D2+DQG+12LQVROXWLRQVDW&DQG&
UHVSHFWLYHO\,WLVIXUWKHUDSSURYHGE\)'$,WLVKHDWWUHDWHGWRJLYHDVSHFLDOGXVW
UHOHDVLQJVXUIDFH(DFKEDJLVVXSSRUWHGRQDVWDLQOHVVVWHHOFDJHDQGLVHDVLO\GLV
PDQWDEOH,QQRUPDOEDJILOWHUVDQGROGGHVLJQ&,3DEOHEDJILOWHUVWKHFOHDQEORZLQJ
RIWKHEDJVLVSHUIRUPHGE\XVLQJD&RDQGDQR]]OHSODFHGRQWKHWRSRIHDFKEDJDVR
OXWLRQWKDWZRUNVKRZHYHUWKHDUHDDURXQGWKHQR]]OHLVGLIILFXOWWRFOHDQDQGLWLV
GHVLJQHGZLWKDKROORZVSDFH
7KH&,3RIWKHEDJILOWHULVGLYLGHGLQWRWKHIROORZLQJPDLQLWHPV


7KHLQWHUQDOEDJ&,3FOHDQVWKHEDJIURPWKHLQVLGHWRZDUGVWKHGLUW\VLGH RXW
VLGH &OHDQZDWHULVLQMHFWHGLQWRWKHLQVLGHRIWKHEDJWKURXJKWKHUHYHUVHGMHW
QR]]OHDQGWKHZDWHULVDWRPL]HGE\FRPSUHVVHGDLU3RZGHUWKDWKDVSHQHWUDWHG
LQWRWKHEDJPDWHULDOLVIRUFHGRXWWRZDUGVWKHGLUW\VLGHE\WKHZDWHUVSUD\1R
UHFLUFXODWLRQRIZDWHULQWKLVVWHS7KLVIHDWXUHLVH[WUHPHO\LPSRUWDQWDVLWLV
RWKHUZLVHGLIILFXOWLIQRWLPSRVVLEOHWRFOHDQRXWWKLVHQWUDLQHGSRZGHUIURP
WKHRXWVLGHRQO\



7KHFOHDQDLUSOHQXP&,3FOHDQVWKHFOHDQDLUSOHQXPRIWKHEDJILOWHUDERYHWKH
KROHSODWH1RUHFLUFXODWLRQRIZDWHULQWKLVVWHS



7KHKROHSODWH&,3FOHDQVWKHERWWRPVLGHRIWKHKROHSODWHDQGWKHVQDSULQJ
DUHDRIWKHEDJXVLQJDVSHFLDOO\GHVLJQHGQR]]OH7KLVQR]]OHLVSRVLWLRQHGRQ
WKHERWWRPSDUWRIWKHKROHSODWHEHWZHHQWKHEDJVDQGLWDOVRFOHDQVWKHRXWVLGH
RIWKHILOWHUEDJV7KHQR]]OHKDVDGXDOSXUSRVHDVZHOODVLWGXULQJWKHGU\LQJ
SURFHVVLVSXUJHGZLWKFRPSUHVVHGDLUWRNHHSWKHKROHSODWHIUHHRIGHSRVLWV
'LVFRORXULQJGHQDWXUDWLRQLVWKHUHE\DYRLGHG7KH&,3ZDWHULVUHFLUFXODWHG



7KHVKHOO&,3LVSHUIRUPHGE\PHDQVRIVWDQGDUGUHWUDFWDEOH&,3QR]]OHV7KH
&,3ZDWHULVUHFLUFXODWHG

$GYDQWDJHVRIWKH6$1,&,3)LOWHU






/RZSUHVVXUHORVVDFURVVWKHEDJILOWHUDQGWKXVWKHHQWLUHH[KDXVWV\VWHPLHUH
GXFHGHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQDQGQRLVHHPLVVLRQ
'HVLJQHGIRURSWLPXPDLUWRFORWKUDWLRDQGSRZGHUORDG GXHWRRQHEDJEHLQJ
EORZQDWWKHWLPH 
%HWWHUXWLOL]DWLRQRIUDZPDWHULDOVGXHWRQRVHFRQGJUDGHSURGXFWV
7KHVFUROOHGDLULQOHWRIIHUVORZPHFKDQLFDOLPSDFWRQWKHEDJV6KDNLQJLV
DYRLGHGDQGVRLVWKXVZHDUDQGWHDURIWKHEDJV
'HVLJQZLWKRUPEDJVWRVXLWVSHFLILFEXLOGLQJUHTXLUHPHQWV



1,52$6




1,52$6

5HGXFHGVSDFHUHTXLUHPHQWVIRUQHZLQVWDOODWLRQV
 (DV\UHSODFHPHQWRIF\FORQHVIRUUHWURILWVZLWKRXWPDMRUEXLOGLQJFKDQJHV
 86'$$DFFHSWDQFH
 6KRUWGU\RXWWLPHFRPSDUHGZLWKRWKHU&,3DEOHEDJILOWHUV

:KLFKV\VWHPWRVHOHFWDVDQDGGLWLRQDOSRZGHUVHSDUDWRUDIWHUWKHF\FORQHVGHSHQGV
RQKRZWKHUHFRYHUHGSURGXFWOLTXLGRUGU\FDQEHGLVSRVHGRI,QHLWKHUFDVHWKH
FROOHFWHGSURGXFWFDQQRWEHUHJDUGHGDVILUVWFODVV7KHUHIRUHWKHWHQGHQF\WRGD\LVWR
DYRLGWKHF\FORQHVDQGLQVWDOOD&,3DEOHEDJILOWHU
&RPSDULVRQRI3RZGHU6HSDUDWRUV


&\FORQH

&\FORQH%DJ
&\FORQH
)LOWHU
:HW6FUXEEHU

6$1,&,3

PJ1P

PJ1P

PD[PJ1P

PJ1P

PP:*

PP:*

PP:*

PP:*

QRQH

FRPSUHVVHGDLU

OLTXLGFLUFXODWLQJ
V\VWHP

FRPSUHVVHGDLU

VXLWDEOHIRU&,3

GLIILFXOW

VXLWDEOHIRU&,3

VXLWDEOHIRU&,3

+\JURVFRSLFSURG
XFWV

LQVHQVLWLYH

VHQVLWLYH

LQVHQVLWLYH

LQVHQVLWLYH 

8VHRIVHSDUDWHG
SURGXFW

ILUVWJUDGH

ILUVWDQGVHFRQG
JUDGH

QRWUHFRP
PHQGHG

ILUVWJUDGH

PLQLPDO

VHUYLFHRIFRP
SUHVVHGDLUV\V
WHPDQGFKDQJH
RIEDJV

PLQLPDO

VHUYLFHRIFRP
SUHVVHGDLUV\V
WHPDQGFKDQJH
RIEDJV

JRRG

UHODWLYHO\JRRG

OHVVJRRG

JRRG

(PLVVLRQ
3UHVVXUHORVV
([KDXVWV\VWHP
LQFOGXFWVHWF 
$X[LOLDULHV
&OHDQLQJ

0DLQWHQDQFH

6DQLWDU\FRQGLWLRQV




ZDWFKRXWIRUSHUPHDWHLIWKHKXPLGLW\LQWKHRXWJRLQJDLULVWRRKLJK

3QHXPDWLF&RQYH\LQJDQG&RROLQJ6\VWHP
$SQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPLVHVWDEOLVKHGZKHQSRZGHUKDVWREHFRQYH\HGIURP
RQHSODFHWRDQRWKHU7KHFRQYH\LQJPHGLXPLVDLUDQGWKHTXDQWLW\LVGHWHUPLQHGE\
WKHSURGXFW3URGXFWVZLWKKLJKIDWFRQWHQWUHTXLUHPRUHDLU WLPHVSRZGHU WKDQ
VNLPPLON WLPHVSRZGHU ,WLVKRZHYHUQRWUHFRPPHQGHGWRFRQYH\SRZGHUVZLWK
KLJKHUIDWFRQWHQWVWKDQDVEORFNLQJLQWKHGXFWVDQGWKHF\FORQHPD\RFFXU



1,52$6

Powder in

Air

Powder out

)LJ$LUYH\RUIRUSUHFRROLQJRISRZGHU

Concentrate

Drying air

Powder out

)LJ3QHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP



1,52$6

$LURIDQ\WHPSHUDWXUHPD\EHXVHGDQGWKHSRZGHUWHPSHUDWXUHZLOOQDWXUDOO\IROORZ
WKHDLUWHPSHUDWXUH,IKRWDLULVXVHGWKHUHZLOOEHDGU\LQJHIIHFW7KLVZLOOKRZHYHU
EHPLQLPDODVWKHUHVLGHQFHWLPHLVVKRUW DLUYHORFLWLHVRIPVHF DQGWKHPRLV
WXUHLVERXQGKDUGWRWKHSURWHLQV
$SQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPLVXVXDOO\HVWDEOLVKHGLQFRQQHFWLRQZLWKDRQHVWDJH
VSUD\GU\HURIFRQYHQWLRQDOGHVLJQ$PELHQWDLULVXVHGWKXVSURYLGLQJDGXDODGYDQ
WDJHQDPHO\ERWKFRQYH\LQJDQGFRROLQJRIWKHSRZGHU,QRUGHUWRJHWWKHIXOOEHQHILW
RIWKHFRROLQJHIIHFWLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWKDWWKHUHLVDORFNEHWZHHQWKHFKDPEHURXWOHW
DQGWKHGXFWZKLFKZLOOSUHYHQWZDUPPRLVWDLUIURPHQWHULQJWKHFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP
7KLVLVXVXDOO\GRQHE\PHDQVRIDURWDU\YDOYH3XOVDWLRQVLQWKHSRZGHUIORZDVDUH
VXOWRIGHSRVLWVIDOOLQJIURPWKHZDOOVKRXOGDOVREHDYRLGHG7KLVFDQEHGRQHXVLQJ
DQDLUYH\RUZLWKDSHUIRUDWHGSODWHWKURXJKZKLFKFROGDLULVEORZQ7KLVZLOOVLPXOWD
QHRXVO\KDYHDFRROLQJHIIHFW6HH)LJ
7KHFRQYH\LQJDLUGXFWZLOOEHSDVVHGYLDWKHRXWOHWRIWKHPDLQF\FORQHVSLFNLQJXS
SRZGHUIURPKHUH7KHDLUSRZGHUVWUHDPLVSDVVHGWRDF\FORQHVHSDUDWLQJWKHSDUWL
FOHVIURPWKHDLU$WWKHEDVHRIWKHF\FORQHWKHSRZGHUVKRXOGEHVLIWHGDIWHUZKLFKLW
LVUHDG\WREHEDJJHGRII6HH)LJ
,IFOLPDWLFFRQGLWLRQVDUHVRWKDWDVXIILFLHQWO\ORZSRZGHUWHPSHUDWXUHFDQQRWEHRE
WDLQHGGXHWRDKLJKDPELHQWDLUWHPSHUDWXUHRUWKHKXPLGLW\LQWKHDPELHQWDLULVVR
KLJKWKDWWKHSRZGHUZLOODEVRUEPRLVWXUHIURPWKHDLUFRROLQJDQGGHKXPLGLI\LQJRI
WKHFRQYH\LQJDLUE\XVLQJLFHZDWHUDW&LQDKHDWH[FKDQJHULVQHFHVVDU\7KH
WHPSHUDWXUHWRZKLFKWKHDLUVKRXOGEHFRROHGGHSHQGVRQWKHSURGXFWDQGDPELHQW
FRQGLWLRQVEXWLWLVXVXDOO\DURXQG&:DWHUZLOOWKHQFRQGHQVHDQGLWLVQHFHVVDU\
WRLQFOXGHDVHFWLRQIRUUHPRYLQJWKLVZDWHUZKLFKLVXVXDOO\GRQHE\SDVVLQJWKHDLU
RYHUDVHWRIODE\ULQWKV$WWKHRXWOHWWKHDLUZLOOEHIUHHIURPZDWHUGURSOHWVEXWWKH
UHODWLYHKXPLGLW\ZLOOEH7RDYRLGWKHULVNRIIXUWKHUFRQGHQVDWLRQDQGGHYHO
RSPHQWRIZDWHUGURSOHWVZKLFKZLOOEHSLFNHGXSE\WKHSRZGHUWKXVLQFUHDVLQJWKH
PRLVWXUHFRQWHQWWKHDLULVKHDWHGLQDVXEVHTXHQWKHDWHUWR&UHGXFLQJWKHUHOD
WLYHKXPLGLW\
,QRUGHUWRFDOFXODWHWKHDPRXQWRILFHZDWHUQHHGHGIRUWKHFRROLQJLWLVQHFHVVDU\WR
FRQVXOWDQ,;GLDJUDPZKHUHWKHHQWKDOS\RIDLUDWDQ\FRQGLWLRQLVJLYHQ
7KHFRROLQJFDQDOVREHGRQHE\DUHIULJHUDWRUZLWKGLUHFWH[SDQVLRQLQFRLOVLQWKHDLU
VWUHDP
$SQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPLVFKHDSDQGFDQKDQGOHELJTXDQWLWLHVRISRZGHUEXW
LWZLOOEUDNHXSDQ\WHQGHQF\RIDJJORPHUDWLRQUHVXOWLQJLQSRZGHUZLWKPD[LPXP
EXONGHQVLW\)RUSRZGHUVZLWKDJJORPHUDWHV LQVWDQWPLONSRZGHUVVHHSDJH WKH
SQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPFDQQDWXUDOO\QRWEHXVHG




1,52$6

Air out
Powder in

Drying air in

Cooling air in

Powder out

)LJ9LEUR)OXLGL]HU

)LJ3HUIRUDWHGSODWH %8%%/(3/$7( 




1,52$6

)OXLG%HG$IWHU'U\LQJ&RROLQJ
,QRUGHUWRLPSURYHWKHGU\LQJHFRQRP\WKHGU\LQJLVGLYLGHGLQWZRRUPRUHVWHSV
7KHILUVWVWHSLVGRQHLQDVSUD\GU\LQJFKDPEHUWUDQVIRUPLQJWKHOLTXLGLQWRSRZGHU
SDUWLFOHVDQGHYDSRUDWLQJWKHPDLQSRUWLRQRIWKHZDWHU$VLWZLOOEHGLVFXVVHGODWHU
VHHSDJHWKHHYDSRUDWLRQRIPRLVWXUHIURPDSDUWLFOHZLOOEHFRPHPRUHGLIILFXOW
DQGUHTXLUHPRUHWLPHDVWKHUHVLGXDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDSSURDFKHV
7KHVXEVHTXHQWGU\LQJLVGRQHLQDIOXLGEHGVHH)LJ7KHIOXLGEHGGU\LQJWHFK
QRORJ\KDVSURYHGHVSHFLDOO\VXLWHGDVWKHUHVLGHQFHWLPHLQWKHIOXLGEHGLVVRORQJ
WKDWWKHPRLVWXUHIURPWKHFHQWUHRIWKHSDUWLFOHFDQUHDFKWKHVXUIDFHIURPZKHUHWKH
HYDSRUDWLRQWDNHVSODFH
,QDIOXLGEHGWKHGU\LQJDLULVLQWURGXFHGWRWKHSRZGHUWKURXJKDVSHFLDOSHUIRUDWHG
SODWHWKH%8%%/(3/$7(VHH)LJ6SHFLDOIHDWXUHVRIWKH%8%%/(3/$7(DUH
7KHDLULVGLUHFWHGGRZQZDUGVWRZDUGVWKHSODWHVXUIDFH
 7KHEXEEOHSODWHKDVIHZEXWODUJHKROHV
 7KHXQLTXHPDQXIDFWXULQJPHWKRGSUHYHQWVFUHYLFHV
 7KHEXEEOHSODWHKDVVKRZQDYHU\JRRGHPSW\LQJHIIHFW

7KHIOXLGEHGFDQEHYLEUDWLQJVHHSDJHRUVWDWLRQDU\VHHSDJH7KHIOXLG
EHGRIIHUVDWWKHVDPHWLPHDYHU\HIILFLHQWDQGOHQLHQWWRROIRUFRROLQJRIIDW
FRQWDLQLQJDQGDJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWV


,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQDQG$XWRPDWLRQ
,QRUGHUWRFRQWUROWKHGU\LQJSURFHVVDQGDWDQ\WLPHWREHDEOHWRUHFRUGWKHGU\LQJ
SDUDPHWHUVWKHLQVWDOODWLRQVKRXOGLQFOXGHLQVWUXPHQWDWLRQDQGFRQWUROHTXLSPHQW
7KLVLVGRQHXVLQJILHOGLQVWUXPHQWVDQGD3/&ZLWKPRQLWRUZKLFKLVSODFHGLQD
VHSDUDWHFRQWUROURRPSDUWO\WRNHHSLWGU\EXWDOVREHFDXVHWKHRSHUDWRUVKHUHFDQEH
LQDSODFHZLWKUHGXFHGQRLVHOHYHO
,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQVHH)LJIRUDPRGHUQVSUD\GU\HUVKRXOGLQFOXGHDOOUHOHYDQW
SURFHVVLQJSDUDPHWHUVLQFOLQOHWGU\LQJDLUWHPSHUDWXUHIRUWKHPDLQFKDPEHUDQG
IOXLGEHGVDVZHOODVRXWOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUH$OOWHPSHUDWXUHVDUHUHFRUGHGRQDSULQWHU
HQDEOLQJWKHRSHUDWRUWRVHHWKHWUHQGRIWKHWHPSHUDWXUHGHYHORSPHQWDQGDOVRWRJR
EDFNDQGILQGWKHUHDVRQZK\DSRZGHUKDVEHHQGRZQJUDGHGLQWKHODERUDWRU\$Q
KRXUFRXQWHUIRUWKHDWRPL]HURUKLJKSUHVVXUHSXPSLVDOVRQHFHVVDU\DVLWWHOOVZKHQ
RLOVKRXOGEHFKDQJHG$IHHGSUHVVXUHJDXJHVKRXOGDOVREHLQFOXGHGLIWKHDWRPL]D
WLRQLVFDUULHGRXWZLWKQR]]OHV,QRUGHUWRFKHFNWKHSUHVVXUHLQWKHFKDPEHUZKLFKLV
XVXDOO\RSHUDWHGXQGHUDYDFXXPRIPP:*IUHTXHQF\FRQYHUWHUVRQWKHLQOHW
DQGRXWOHWDLUIDQVVKRXOGEHSURYLGHG7KHVHFDQRIFRXUVHEHRSHUDWHGPDQXDOO\EXW



1,52$6


)LJ&RQWUROURRP

6&$'$&OLHQWV

6&$'$&OLHQWV
3URGXFWLRQ QHWZRUN

3ULQWHU

3URFHVV QHWZRUN

6ZLWFK

)LHOGLQVWUXPHQWDWLRQ
5HPRWH ,2SDQHOV

,26HUYHU 

,26HUYHU 

6ZLWFK
0&&
3/&

3/&

3/&

0,/.
(9$325$7,21
5(&(37,21

0&&

0&&

0&&

3/&

635$< 32:'(5+$1'/,1*
'5<,1*
$1'3$&.,1*

)LJ,7$UFKLWHFWXUHIRUWKHFRQWUROV\VWHP




1,52$6

LQPRVWFDVHVWKH\DUHDXWRPDWLFDOO\FRQWUROOHG$XWRPDWLFVWDUWVWRSRIWKHSODQWLV
WKHUHIRUHSRVVLEOH
7KHLQOHWWHPSHUDWXUHFDQEHDXWRPDWLFDOO\FRQWUROOHGE\UHJXODWLQJHLWKHUWKHVWHDP
SUHVVXUHRUWKHDPRXQWRIRLORUJDVWRWKHDLUKHDWHU7KHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHVKRXOG
DOZD\VEHDXWRPDWLFDOO\FRQWUROOHGWRHQVXUHDSRZGHUZLWKDFRQVWDQWUHVLGXDOPRLV
WXUHFRQWHQW,IWKHDWRPL]DWLRQWDNHVSODFHE\PHDQVRIDURWDU\DWRPL]HUWKHUHJXOD
WLRQRIWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHLVGRQHE\FKDQJLQJWKHUHYROXWLRQRIWKHIHHGSXPS
$QRWKHUV\VWHPZKLFKKRZHYHULVQRWYHU\RIWHQXVHGDQGWKHQRQO\IRUQR]]OHDW
RPL]DWLRQLVZLWKDFRQVWDQWVXSSO\RIIHHGWRWKHDWRPL]HUDQGWKHQNHHSWKHRXWOHW
WHPSHUDWXUHFRQVWDQWE\FKDQJLQJWKHLQOHWWHPSHUDWXUH
,IWKHDWRPL]DWLRQLVGRQHE\PHDQVRIQR]]OHVWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHPD\EHNHSW
FRQVWDQWE\FKDQJLQJWKHUHYROXWLRQRIWKHKLJKSUHVVXUHSXPS7KLVZLOOQDWXUDOO\
KDYHDQLQIOXHQFHRQWKHQR]]OHSUHVVXUHZKLFKDJDLQZLOOKDYHDQLQIOXHQFHRQWKH
PHDQSDUWLFOHVL]HDQGWKHSDUWLFOHGLVWULEXWLRQ+RZHYHURQFHWKHULJKWQR]]OHFRP
ELQDWLRQKDVEHHQIRXQGRQO\PDUJLQDOFKDQJHVDUHVHHQ
$GU\LQJLQVWDOODWLRQKRZHYHULVQRWRQO\WKHVSUD\GU\HU7KHUHLVDOVRWKHHYDSRUD
WRU$VWKHUDZPLONVROLGVFDQYDU\IURPWDQNWRWDQNDQGIRXOLQJ PLFURWKLQGHSRVLWV
LQWKHWXEHVZKLFKZLOODOWHUWKH.YDOXH PD\RFFXUDIWHUDFHUWDLQUXQQLQJWLPHWKH
HYDSRUDWLQJFDSDFLW\DQGWKHUHIRUHWKHDPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOQRWEHFRQVWDQW,WLV
RIFRXUVHSRVVLEOHWRFRXQWHUDFWWKLVE\PDQXDOUHJXODWLRQRQWKHHYDSRUDWRURUVSUD\
GU\HUEXWLWLVDOVRSRVVLEOHWRGRWKHUHJXODWLRQDXWRPDWLFDOO\7KHPRVWFRPPRQV\V
WHPLVWRGHOHWHWKHIHHGWDQNVDQGOHWWKHODVWVWDJHRIWKHHYDSRUDWRURUDVSHFLDOYDF
XXPWDQNWDNHRYHUWKLVIXQFWLRQ/HYHOWUDQVPLWWHUVDUHWKHQEXLOWLQWRWKHODVWHIIHFW
FDODQGULDLQWKHHYDSRUDWRU7KHOHYHOLQWKHHYDSRUDWRULVQRZFRQWUROOHGE\WKHIHHG
IORZDQGRUVWHDPSUHVVXUHWRWKHWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRU
'XULQJWKHODVW\HDUVWKHGHYHORSPHQWRI3/&
VKDVUHVXOWHGLQHTXLSPHQWIRUSURFHVV
FRQWUROZKLFKLVDWWUDFWLYHERWKZLWKUHJDUGWRSULFHDQGLQWHOOLJHQFH7KH3/&KDV
PDQ\DGYDQWDJHVDOVRZKHQZHDUHWDONLQJDERXWWUDGLWLRQDODQGXQFRPSOLFDWHGFRQ
WUROVFRQVLVWLQJRIVLPSOHLVRODWHGORRSVWU\LQJWRPDLQWDLQDJLYHQSDUDPHWHUDWWKHVHW
SRLQWGLVUHJDUGLQJRWKHUSDUDPHWHUVZKLFKPLJKWZHOOKDYHDQLQIOXHQFHRQWKHVH
OHFWHGVHWSRLQW6HH)LJ
7KLVPHDQVWKDWWKHRSHUDWRU
VNQRZOHGJHRIWKHSURFHVVKDVOHVVLQIOXHQFHRQWKH
SODQWRSHUDWLRQDQGWKHUHIRUHRQWKHSURGXFWTXDOLW\ZKLFKFDQWKHQEHFORVHUWRWKH
VSHFLILFDWLRQV
7KH3/&DOVRRIIHUVDSHUIHFWWRROIRUVWDUWXSRUVKXWGRZQRIWKHHQWLUHSODQW7KLV
PHDQVWKDWQRQSURGXFWLYHUXQQLQJWLPHFDQEHDYRLGHG$OVRVHTXHQFHFRQWURORI
YDOYHVDQGSXPSVGXULQJ&,3RIWKHSODQWLVFRQWUROOHGE\WKH3/&
'DWDORJJLQJLVSRVVLEOHE\FRPSXWLQJPHDQYDOXHVRIDQ\VHOHFWHGSDUDPHWHUDQG
WUHQGFXUYHVRYHUIRUH[DPSOHRQHKRXUFDQEHPRQLWRUHGDQGSULQWHGDVDKDUGFRS\



1,52$6

)LJ&RQYHQWLRQDOVSUD\GU\HUZLWKSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP 6'3 

% Solids of the droplets

)LJ:HLJKWYROXPHDQGGLDPHWHUGHFUHDVHRIDGURSOHWGXULQJ
LGHDOGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQV



1,52$6

0LON3RZGHU7HFKQRORJ\


6SUD\GU\LQJKDVEHHQIRXQGWKHPRVWVXLWDEOHSURFHVVIRUUHPRYLQJWKHODVWSDUWRI
WKHZDWHUVLQFHVSUD\GU\LQJFDQFRQYHUWPLONFRQFHQWUDWHLQWRDSRZGHUZKLOHVWLOO
NHHSLQJWKHYDOXDEOHSURSHUWLHVRIWKHPLON
7KHSULQFLSOHRIDOOVSUD\GU\HUVLVWRWUDQVIRUPWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLQWRPDQ\VPDOOGURS
OHWVZKLFKDUHWKHQH[SRVHGWRDIDVWFXUUHQWRIKRWDLU%HFDXVHRIWKHYHU\ODUJHVXU
IDFHDUHDRIWKHGURSOHWV ORIFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOEHDWRPL]HGWR[SDUWLFOHVRI
ZLWKDWRWDOVXUIDFHRIP WKHZDWHUHYDSRUDWHVDOPRVWLQVWDQWDQHRXVO\DQG
WKHGURSOHWVDUHWUDQVIRUPHGLQWRSRZGHUSDUWLFOHV


2QH6WDJH'U\LQJ
2QHVWDJHGU\LQJLVGHILQHGDVWKHVSUD\GU\LQJSURFHVVZKHUHWKHSURGXFWLVGULHGWR
WKHILQDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHVSUD\GU\LQJFKDPEHUVHH)LJ+RZHYHUWKHIXQ
GDPHQWDOWKHRU\DERXWWKHGURSOHWIRUPDWLRQDQGWKHHYDSRUDWLRQRIWKHLQLWLDOPRLV
WXUHLVWKHVDPHLQWKLVDQGWKHIROORZLQJSURFHVVHVDQGWKHUHIRUHGLVFXVVHGKHUH
7KHLQLWLDOYHORFLW\RIWKHGURSOHWVIURPWKHURWDU\DWRPL]HULVDERXWPVHF0RVW
RIWKHGU\LQJWDNHVSODFHZKLOHWKHGURSOHWVDUHGHFHOHUDWHGE\WKHLUIULFWLRQWRWKHDLU
'URSOHWVZLWKDGLDPHWHURIPLFURQVKDYHDGHFHOHUDWLRQSDWKRIOHVVWKDQP
DQGIRUGURSOHWVZLWKDPLFURQGLDPHWHULWLVRQO\DIHZFHQWLPHWUHV7KHPDLQ
WHPSHUDWXUHGURSRIWKHGU\LQJDLUGXHWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQRIWKHZDWHUIURPWKHFRQ
FHQWUDWHWDNHVSODFHGXULQJWKLVSHULRG$QHQRUPRXVKHDWDQGPDVVWUDQVIHUWKHUHIRUH
WDNHVSODFHLQWKHSDUWLFOHVGXULQJDQH[WUHPHO\VKRUWSHULRGRIWLPHDQGWKHSURGXFW
TXDOLW\PD\EHVHULRXVO\KDUPHGLIWKHIDFWRUVSURPRWLQJGHJUDGDWLRQDUHQRWNQRZQ
RUDUHGLVUHJDUGHG
'XULQJWKHUHPRYDORIZDWHUIURPWKHGURSOHWVDFRQVLGHUDEOHUHGXFWLRQLQZHLJKW
YROXPHDQGGLDPHWHURIWKHSDUWLFOHWDNHVSODFH8QGHULGHDOGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQVWKH
ZHLJKWZLOOGHFUHDVHWRDERXWWKHYROXPHWRDERXWDQGWKHGLDPHWHUWR
DERXWRIWKHFUHDWHGGURSOHWIURPWKHDWRPL]HU6HH)LJ
+RZHYHUWKHLGHDOGURSOHWFUHDWLRQDQGGU\LQJWHFKQLTXHKDYHQRW\HWEHHQGHYHORSHG
7KHUHZLOODOZD\VEHVRPHLQFRUSRUDWLRQRIDLULQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHGXULQJSXPSLQJ
IURPWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGHVSHFLDOO\ZKHQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVSXPSHGLQWRWKHIHHGWDQN
GXHWRVSODVKLQJ%XWDOVRGXULQJWKHDWRPL]DWLRQDORWRIDLULVLQFRUSRUDWHGLQWRWKH
FRQFHQWUDWHLQWKHURWDU\DWRPL]HUZKHUHWKHZKHHOEHVLGHVDWRPL]LQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWH



1,52$6

Filter

Milk concentrate
Steam

)LJ6WHDPVZHSWZKHHO

ml Air/100g Solids

)LJ:KHHOZLWKFXUYHGYDQHVIRUSRZGHU
ZLWKKLJKEXONGHQVLW\

air

powder

)LJ)RDPLQJDELOLW\RIVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWH




Drying time

)LJ7HPSHUDWXUHGHYHORSPHQW

1,52$6

LVDFWLQJDVDIDQVXFNLQJLQDLUDQGZKLSSLQJLWLQWRWKHFRQFHQWUDWH6SHFLDOO\GH
VLJQHGZKHHOVZLOOKRZHYHUFRXQWHUDFWWKHLQFRUSRUDWLRQRIDLULQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH,Q
WKHFXUYHGYDQHZKHHO WKHVRFDOOHGKLJKEXONGHQVLW\ZKHHO VHH)LJWKHDLULV
SDUWO\VHSDUDWHGIURPWKHFRQFHQWUDWHDJDLQGXHWRWKHFHQWULIXJDOIRUFHZKHUHDVLQWKH
VWHDPVZHSWZKHHOVHH)LJWKHSUREOHPLVSDUWO\RYHUFRPHE\UHSODFLQJWKHOLT
XLGDLULQWHUIDFHZLWKDOLTXLGVWHDPLQWHUIDFH,WZDVJHQHUDOO\EHOLHYHGWKDWWKHQR]
]OHVGXULQJWKHDWRPL]DWLRQLQFRUSRUDWHGQRRUYHU\OLWWOHDLULQWRWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
+RZHYHULWKDVEHHQIRXQGWKDWVRPHDLULQFRUSRUDWLRQWDNHVSODFHGXULQJWKHYHU\
HDUO\VWDJHRIDWRPL]DWLRQERWKRXWVLGHDQGLQVLGHWKHVSUD\FRQHGXHWRWKHDLUIULF
WLRQSULRUWRWKHGURSOHWIRUPDWLRQ7KHKLJKHUWKHFDSDFLW\RIWKHQR]]OH NJK WKH
PRUHDLUZLOOEHZKLSSHGLQWRWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
7KHDELOLW\RIDFRQFHQWUDWHWRLQFRUSRUDWHDLU RULWVIRDPLQJDELOLW\ LVGHSHQGLQJRQ
WKHFRPSRVLWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWKHVROLGVFRQWHQW,WKDVEHHQIRXQGWKDWFRQFHQ
WUDWHZLWKDORZVROLGVFRQWHQWKDVDQH[WHQVLYHIRDPLQJDELOLW\ZKLFKHYHQLQFUHDVHV
ZLWKWKHWHPSHUDWXUH&RQFHQWUDWHZLWKDKLJKVROLGVFRQWHQWKDVFRQVLGHUDEO\ORZHU
IRDPLQJDELOLW\ZKLFKLVHYHQIXUWKHUUHGXFHGE\LQFUHDVLQJWKHWHPSHUDWXUHVHH
)LJ*HQHUDOO\WKHIRDPLQJDELOLW\LVOHVVLQZKROHPLONFRQFHQWUDWHWKDQLQVNLP
PLONFRQFHQWUDWH'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIDLULQFRQFHQWUDWHLVGHVFULEHGRQSDJH
7KHDPRXQWRIDLULQWKHGURSOHWV SUHVHQWLQIRUPRIVPDOODLUEXEEOHV LVWKHUHIRUH
RQHRIWKHGHFLVLYHIDFWRUVDVWRKRZIDUWKHVKULQNDJHZLOOFRQWLQXHGXULQJWKHGU\LQJ
$QRWKHUIDFWRUHYHQPRUHLPSRUWDQWLVWKHGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQVLHWKHVXUURXQGLQJDLU
WHPSHUDWXUH$VPHQWLRQHGDORWRIKHDWKDVWREHWUDQVIHUUHGIURPWKHGU\LQJDLUWR
WKHGURSOHWVDQGPXFKZDWHUYDSRXUWKHRWKHUZD\7KHUHIRUHWKHUHLVDWHPSHUDWXUH
DQGFRQFHQWUDWLRQJUDGLHQWLQWKHSDUWLFOHDQGWKHZKROHSURFHVVEHFRPHVYHU\FRP
SOH[DQGQRWIXOO\XQGHUVWRRG'URSOHWVRISXUHZDWHU ZDWHUDFWLYLW\ ZLOO
ZKHQH[SRVHGWRDLUDWDKLJKHUWHPSHUDWXUHHYDSRUDWHNHHSLQJZHWEXOEWHPSHUDWXUH
XQWLOFRPSOHWHO\HYDSRUDWHGZKLOHVROLGVFRQWDLQLQJSURGXFWVGULHGWRWKHH[WUHPH
LHZLWKDZDWHUDFWLYLW\DSSURDFKLQJ]HUR DUHKHDWHGWRWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHVXU
URXQGLQJDLUDWWKHHQGRIWKHGU\LQJZKLFKLQDVSUD\GU\HUPHDQVWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRI
WKHRXWJRLQJDLU6HH)LJ
1RWRQO\IURPWKHFHQWUHWRWKHVXUIDFHLVWKHUHDFRQFHQWUDWLRQJUDGLHQWEXWDOVRIURP
RQHSRLQWRIWKHVXUIDFHWRDQRWKHUUHVXOWLQJLQGLIIHUHQWZDWHUFRQFHQWUDWLRQVDQGWKXV
GLIIHUHQWWHPSHUDWXUHVEHWZHHQGLIIHUHQWUHJLRQVRQWKHVXUIDFH7KHRYHUDOOJUDGLHQW
LQWHQVLW\LVELJJHUWKHELJJHUWKHSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHUGXHWRWKHVPDOOHUVXUIDFHPDVVUD
WLR7KXVVPDOOSDUWLFOHVGU\LQDPRUHXQLIRUPZD\
'XULQJWKHGU\LQJWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWQDWXUDOO\LQFUHDVHVGXHWRWKHUHPRYDORIZDWHU
DQGVRGRHVWKHYLVFRVLW\DQGVXUIDFHWHQVLRQ7KLVPHDQVWKDWWKHGLIIXVLRQFRHIIL
FLHQWLHWKHZDWHUYDSRXUGLIIXVLRQWLPHDQGDUHDEHFRPHVVPDOOHUDQGRYHUKHDWLQJ
RFFXUVGXHWRWKHVORZHUHYDSRUDWLRQUDWH,QH[WUHPHFDVHVWKHVRFDOOHGFDVHKDUGHQ
LQJZLOOWDNHSODFHZKLFKLVWKHIRUPDWLRQRIDKDUGFUXVWRQWKHVXUIDFHWKURXJK
ZKLFKWKHUHPDLQLQJZDWHUYDSRXURURFFOXGHGDLUZLOOGLIIXVHYHU\VORZO\,IFDVH
KDUGHQLQJRFFXUVLWLVXVXDOO\DWDUHVLGXDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRILQWKHSDUWLFOH



1,52$6

)LJ7\SLFDOSDUWLFOHIURPRQHVWDJHGU\LQJ


)LJ6SUD\SDUWLFOH2QHVWDJHGU\LQJ


)LJ2YHUKHDWHGSDUWLFOH2QHVWDJHGU\LQJ



1,52$6

DWZKLFKVWDJHWKHSURWHLQVHVSHFLDOO\WKHFDVHLQVDUHYHU\VHQVLWLYHWRKHDWDQGHDVLO\
GHQDWXUHUHVXOWLQJLQDSRZGHUZLWKSRRUVROXELOLW\SURSHUWLHV0RUHRYHUWKHDPRU
SKRXVODFWRVHZLOOEHFRPHKDUGDQGDOPRVWLPSHQHWUDEOHWRZDWHUYDSRXUDQGWKHSDU
WLFOHWHPSHUDWXUHLQFUHDVHVIXUWKHUDVWKHHYDSRUDWLRQUDWHLHGLIIXVLRQFRHIILFLHQW
DSSURDFKHV]HUR
$VWKHUHZLOOEHPRUHZDWHUYDSRXUDQGDLUEXEEOHVLQWKHSDUWLFOHWKLVZLOOQRZJHW
VXSHUKHDWHGLIWKHVXUURXQGLQJDLUWHPSHUDWXUHLVKLJKHQRXJKUHVXOWLQJLQWKHYDSRXU
DQGDLUWRH[SDQG7KHSUHVVXUHZLOOLQFUHDVHDQGWKHSDUWLFOHZLOOEORZXSWRDFRP
SOHWHO\URXQGEDOOZLWKDVPRRWKVXUIDFHVHH)LJ7KHSDUWLFOHZLOOKDYHDORWRI
YDFXROHVLQVLGHVHH)LJ,IWKHVXUURXQGLQJDLUWHPSHUDWXUHLVKLJKHQRXJKWKHSDU
WLFOHPD\HYHQH[SORGHEXWHYHQLILWGRHVQRWWKHSDUWLFOHZLOOKDYHDYHU\WKLQFUXVW
DERXWPLFURQDQGLWZLOOQRWVXUYLYHWKHPHFKDQLFDOWUHDWPHQWLQWKHF\FORQHVRULQ
WKHFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPDQGWKXVOHDYHWKHGU\HUZLWKWKHH[KDXVWDLU6HH)LJ
,IWKHUHLVRQO\DVPDOOFRQWHQWRIDLUEXEEOHVLQWKHSDUWLFOHWKHH[SDQVLRQZLOOLQ
VSLWHRIWKHRYHUKHDWLQJQRWEHWRRH[WHQVLYH7KHRYHUKHDWLQJDVDUHVXOWRIFDVH
KDUGHQLQJZLOOKRZHYHUKDYHDGHWULPHQWDOHIIHFWRQWKHFDVHLQVUHVXOWLQJLQEDG
VROXELOLW\
,IWKHVXUURXQGLQJWHPSHUDWXUHLHWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHLVNHSWORZGXULQJWKHGU\
LQJWKHSDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUHZLOOEHHTXDOO\ORZ
7KHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHLVGHWHUPLQHGE\PDQ\IDFWRUVRIZKLFKWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQW
RQHVDUH






0RLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHILQDOSRZGHU
7HPSHUDWXUHDQGPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRIWKHGU\LQJDLU
6ROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
$WRPL]DWLRQ
9LVFRVLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH

0RLVWXUH&RQWHQWLQWKH)LQDO3RZGHU
7KHILUVWDQGIRUHPRVWIDFWRULVWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHILQDOSRZGHU7KHORZHU
WKHUHVLGXDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWZDQWHGWKHORZHUWKHUHODWLYHKXPLGLW\LQWKHRXWOHWDLU
DQGWKDWPHDQVKLJKHURXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHDQGZLWKWKDWKLJKHUSDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUH
7HPSHUDWXUHDQG0RLVWXUH&RQWHQWRIWKH'U\LQJ$LU
$VWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLVLQGLUHFWUHODWLRQWRWKHUHODWLYHKXPLGLW\RIWKHRXWJRLQJ
DLUDQLQFUHDVHRIWKHLQOHWDLUZLOOQHFHVVLWDWHDVOLJKWLQFUHDVHLQWKHRXWOHWDLUGXHWR
WKHKLJKHUDPRXQWRIPRLVWXUHLQWKHDLUUHVXOWLQJIURPWKHLQFUHDVHGHYDSRUDWLRQ
$OVRWKHLQLWLDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHGU\LQJDLUSOD\VDELJUROHDQGLIWKDWLVKLJK
WKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHKDVWREHLQFUHDVHGWRFRPSHQVDWHIRUWKHH[WUDPRLVWXUH




1,52$6




1,52$6

6ROLGV&RQWHQWLQWKH&RQFHQWUDWH
$QLQFUHDVHLQWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWZLOOUHTXLUHDQLQFUHDVHLQWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHDV
WKHHYDSRUDWLRQEHFRPHVVORZHU DYHUDJHGLIIXVLRQFRHIILFLHQWVPDOOHU DQGDELJJHU
WHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFH GULYLQJIRUFH EHWZHHQWKHSDUWLFOHDQGVXUURXQGLQJDLULVQHF
HVVDU\
$WRPL]DWLRQ
$Q\DWWHPSWWRLPSURYHWKHDWRPL]DWLRQDQGFUHDWHDILQHUVSUD\ZLOOUHVXOWLQDORZHU
RXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHDVWKHVSHFLILFVXUIDFHPDVVUDWLRRIWKHSDUWLFOHVEHFRPHVELJJHU
7KHHYDSRUDWLRQZLOOWKHUHIRUHEHHDVLHUDQGDVPDOOHUGULYLQJIRUFHLVUHTXLUHG
9LVFRVLW\RIWKH&RQFHQWUDWH
7KHDWRPL]DWLRQLVLQIOXHQFHGE\WKHYLVFRVLW\7KHYLVFRVLW\LQFUHDVHVZLWKLQFUHDVHG
FRQWHQWRISURWHLQVFU\VWDOOL]HGODFWRVHDQGRYHUDOOVROLGVFRQWHQW+HDWLQJWKHFRQ
FHQWUDWH EHZDUHRIDJHWKLFNHQLQJ DQGLQFUHDVLQJWKHDWRPL]HUVSHHGRUQR]]OHSUHV
VXUHFDQUHPHG\WKHSUREOHP

7KHRYHUDOOGU\LQJHIILFLHQF\LVH[SUHVVHGLQWKHIROORZLQJDSSUR[LPDWHGIRUPXOD


 

7L7R

7L7D

 

ZKHUH

7L
 DLULQOHWWHPSHUDWXUH
7R
 DLURXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH
7D

DPELHQWWHPSHUDWXUH

,WLVWKXVREYLRXVWKDWWKHRQO\SRVVLELOLW\RILQFUHDVLQJWKHHIILFLHQF\RIVSUD\GU\LQJ
RSHUDWLRQLVE\LQFUHDVLQJDPELHQWWHPSHUDWXUHE\SUHKHDWLQJ VHHSDJH ILQVW
XVLQJFRQGHQVDWHIURPWKHHYDSRUDWRURUE\LQFUHDVLQJWKHLQOHWWHPSHUDWXUHRUGH
FUHDVLQJWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH
7KHUHODWLRQ LVDWWKHVDPHWLPHDJRRGLQGLFDWLRQRIWKHGU\HUSHUIRUPDQFHDVWKH
RXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHUHVLGXDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWZKLFKKDVWRIXOILO
FHUWDLQVWDQGDUGV$KLJKRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHZLOOLQGLFDWHWKDWWKHGU\LQJDLULVQRWXWLO
L]HGLQDQRSWLPDOZD\GXHWRYDULRXVUHDVRQVVXFKDVEDGDWRPL]DWLRQEDGDLUGLVWUL
EXWLRQKLJKYLVFRVLW\HWF
7KH ZLOOLQQRUPDOVSUD\GU\HUVRSHUDWHGRQVNLPPLON 7L &7R & EH
DURXQG
7KHGU\LQJWHFKQRORJ\GLVFXVVHGVRIDUKDVEHHQUHODWHGWRDSODQWZLWKSQHXPDWLF
FRQYH\LQJDQGFRROLQJV\VWHPZKHUHWKHSRZGHUZKHQOHDYLQJWKHEDVHRIWKHFKDP



1,52$6


)LJ0LFURSKRWRRIVNLPPLONSRZGHUIURPDSODQW
ZLWKSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP




1,52$6

EHULVGULHGWRWKHZDQWHGPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW7KHSRZGHUZLOODWWKLVVWDJHEHZDUPDQG
FRQVLVWRISDUWLFOHVVWXFNWRJHWKHUZLWKYHU\ZHDNELQGLQJVLQELJORRVHDJJORPHUDWHV
GXHWRWKHSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQWDNLQJSODFHLQWKHDWRPL]HUFORXGZKHUHSDUWLFOHV
RIGLIIHUHQWGLDPHWHUZLOOREWDLQGLIIHUHQWVSHHGDQGWKHUHIRUHFROOLGH+RZHYHUZKHQ
SDVVHGWKURXJKWKHSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPZKHUHWKHDJJORPHUDWHVDUHH[SRVHG
WRPHFKDQLFDOIRUFHVWKHSRZGHUZLOOEUHDNXSLQVLQJOHSDUWLFOHV7KLVNLQGRISRZ
GHUVHH)LJFDQEHFKDUDFWHUL]HGDVIROORZV
6LQJOHSDUWLFOHV
 +LJKEXONGHQVLW\
 'XVW\LILWLVVNLPPLONSRZGHU
 1RQLQVWDQW



7ZR6WDJH'U\LQJ
$VGLVFXVVHGSUHYLRXVO\WKHSDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUHZDVJLYHQE\WKHVXUURXQGLQJDLU
WHPSHUDWXUH RXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH $VWKHODVWZDWHULVWKHPRVWGLIILFXOWWRUHPRYHE\
WKHFRQYHQWLRQDOGU\LQJWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHKDVWREHKLJKHQRXJKWRHQVXUHDGULY
LQJIRUFH WRUWHPSHUDWXUHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQSDUWLFOHDQGDLU FDSDEOHRIUHPRYLQJ
WKHODVWPRLVWXUH7KDWWKLVZLOOYHU\RIWHQKDYHDGHWULPHQWDOHIIHFWRQWKHSDUWLFOHV
KDVEHHQGLVFXVVHGHDUOLHU
,WLVWKHUHIRUHQRWDVWRQLVKLQJWKDWDFRPSOHWHO\GLIIHUHQWGU\LQJWHFKQRORJ\KDVEHHQ
GHYHORSHGHVSHFLDOO\WRHYDSRUDWHWKHODVWPRLVWXUHIURPWKHSDUWLFOHVDOUHDG\
IRUPHGDWWKDWVWDJH
$VWKHHYDSRUDWLRQZLOOJRYHU\VORZO\LQWKLVUDQJHGXHWRWKHGLIIXVLRQFRHIILFLHQW
EHLQJORZWKHGU\LQJHTXLSPHQWRUDIWHUGU\HUVKRXOGEHGHVLJQHGVRWKDWWKHSRZGHU
ZLOOJHWDORQJUHVLGHQFHWLPH,WFDQEHGRQHLQDSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPXVLQJ
KRWDLUWKXVLQFUHDVLQJWKHGULYLQJIRUFH+RZHYHUDVDYHORFLW\RIPVHFLVUH
TXLUHGLQWKHGXFWLWWDNHVDFRQVLGHUDEOHOHQJWKRIGXFWLILWVKRXOGEHHIILFLHQW$Q
RWKHUV\VWHPFRQVLVWVRIWKHVRFDOOHG+RW&KDPEHUZLWKWDQJHQWLDOLQOHWIRUSUR
ORQJLQJWKHKROGLQJWLPH$IWHUWKHGU\LQJLVFRPSOHWHGWKHSRZGHULVVHSDUDWHGLQD
F\FORQHDQGSDVVHGRQWRDQRWKHUSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPZLWKFROGRUGHKXPLGL
ILHGDLUIRUFRROLQJ7KHSRZGHULVVHSDUDWHGLQDF\FORQHDQGLVUHDG\WREHEDJJHG
RII
$QRWKHUV\VWHPIRUDIWHUGU\LQJLVD9,%52)/8,',=(5ZKLFKLVDELJKRUL]RQWDOER[
GLYLGHGLQDQXSSHUDQGDORZHUVHFWLRQE\DSHUIRUDWHGSODWHZHOGHGWRWKHVLGHZDOO
RIWKHER[6HH)LJ)RUGU\LQJDOWHUQDWLYHO\FRROLQJZDUPDQGFROGDLULVLQWUR
GXFHGLQWRWKHDLUSOHQXPFKDPEHUDQGLVGLVWULEXWHGHYHQO\RYHUWKHZKROHDUHDRID
VSHFLDOSHUIRUDWHGSODWHWKH%8%%/(3/$7(ZLWKWKHIROORZLQJDGYDQWDJHV



1,52$6

Moist powder in

Air out

Drying air in

Cooling air in

Dry powder out

)LJ9LEUR)OXLGL]HULQVDQLWDU\GHVLJQ

Air out
Powder
layer
Plate

Air in

)LJD%8%%/(3/$7(




1,52$6

7KHDLULVGLUHFWHGGRZQZDUGWRZDUGVWKHSODWHVXUIDFHWKHUHIRUHSDUWLFOHVZLOOEH
NHSWPRYLQJRQWKHSODWHZKLFKKDVIHZEXWODUJHKROHVDQGFDQWKHUHIRUHRSHUDWH
ORQJHUWLPHEHWZHHQFOHDQLQJ)XUWKHULWKDVGHPRQVWUDWHGDYHU\JRRGHPSW\LQJHI
IHFW6HH)LJD


7KHPDQXIDFWXULQJPHWKRGSUHYHQWVFUHYLFHV7KH%8%%/(3/$7(LVWKHUHIRUH
VDQLWDU\DQGDVVXFKDFFHSWHGE\86'$

7KHSHUIRUDWLRQDQGDPRXQWRIDLUDUHGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHQHFHVVDU\DLUYHORFLW\QHHGHG
IRUWKHIOXLGL]LQJRIWKHSRZGHUZKLFKLQWXUQLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHQDWXUHRIWKHSRZ
GHUVXFKDVWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDQGWKHUPRSODVWLFLW\
7KHWHPSHUDWXUHLVGHWHUPLQHGDFFRUGLQJWRWKHUHTXLUHGHYDSRUDWLRQGXW\7KHKROH
VL]HLQWKHSHUIRUDWHGSODWHLVFKRVHQVRWKDWWKHDLUYHORFLW\ZLOOEHKLJKHQRXJKWR
IOXLGL]HWKHSRZGHURQWKHSODWH7KHDLUYHORFLW\VKRXOGQRWEHVRKLJKWKDWWKHDJ
JORPHUDWHGSRZGHULVGHVWUR\HGGXHWRDWWULWLRQ+RZHYHULWFDQQHYHUEHDYRLGHG
DQGLQVRPHFDVHVLWLVHYHQGHVLUDEOH WKDWVRPHSDUWLFOHVHVSHFLDOO\WKHVPDOORQHV
OHDYHWKHIOXLGEHGZLWKWKHDLU7KHDLULVWKHUHIRUHSDVVHGWKURXJKDF\FORQHRUEDJ
ILOWHUZKHUHWKHSDUWLFOHVDUHVHSDUDWHGDQGUHWXUQHGWRWKHSURFHVV
:LWKWKLVQHZHTXLSPHQWLQKDQGLWLVSRVVLEOHWRHYDSRUDWHWKHODVWIHZSHUFHQWRI
PRLVWXUHIURPWKHSRZGHULQDJHQWOHZD\7KLVPHDQVWKDWWKHVSUD\GU\HUFDQEHRS
HUDWHGLQDGLIIHUHQWZD\IURPWKHRQHSUHYLRXVO\GHVFULEHGZKHUHWKHSRZGHUOHIWWKH
FKDPEHUZLWKWKHILQDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW
7KHDGYDQWDJHRIWKHWZRVWDJHGU\LQJFDQEHVXPPDUL]HGDVIROORZV
+LJKHUFDSDFLW\NJGU\LQJDLU
 %HWWHUHFRQRP\
 %HWWHUSURGXFWTXDOLW\VXFKDV

JRRGVROXELOLW\

KLJKEXONGHQVLW\

ORZIUHHIDW

ORZFRQWHQWRIRFFOXGHGDLU
 /HVVSRZGHUHPLVVLRQ

7KHIOXLGEHGFDQEHGHVLJQHGHLWKHUDVDYLEUDWLQJSOXJIORZEHG 9LEUR)OXLGL]HU RU
DVWDWLFEDFNPL[EHG


7ZR6WDJH'U\LQJZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HU 3OXJ)ORZ 
,QWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUWKHZKROHIOXLGEHGLVYLEUDWLQJ7KHSHUIRUDWLRQVRIWKHSODWH
DUHPDGHVRWKDWWKHGU\LQJDLULVGLUHFWHGZLWKWKHSRZGHUIORZ7RDYRLGWKDWWKHSHU
IRUDWHGSODWHZLOOYLEUDWHZLWKLWVRZQIUHTXHQF\VXSSRUWLQJLVQHFHVVDU\6HH)LJ



1,52$6

Concentrate in

Powder out

)LJ6SUD\GU\HUZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HUIRUWZRVWDJHGU\LQJ


)LJ7\SLFDOSDUWLFOHIURPWZRVWDJHGU\LQJ




1,52$6

,QWKHVSUD\GU\HUWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHLVGHFUHDVHGUHVXOWLQJLQDQLQFUHDVHRIWKH
PRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDQGDGHFUHDVHRIWKHSDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUH7KHPRLVWSRZGHUHQWHUV
E\JUDYLW\IURPWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHULQWRWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HU
7KHUHLVKRZHYHUDOLPLWDVWRKRZIDULWLVRSHUDWLRQDOO\SRVVLEOHWRJRDVWKHSRZ
GHUZLOOEHFRPHVWLFN\ZLWKWKHLQFUHDVHGPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWGHVSLWHWKHORZHUWHPSHUD
WXUHDQGWKHSRZGHUZLOOIRUPOXPSVDQGGHSRVLWVZLOORFFXULQWKHFKDPEHU
8VXDOO\DUHGXFWLRQLQWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHRI&PD\EHDFKLHYHG7KLVUH
VXOWVLQDPXFKJHQWOHUGU\LQJHVSHFLDOO\GXULQJWKHFULWLFDOGU\LQJVWDJH WR
PRLVWXUH WKHVKULQNDJHZLOOFRQWLQXHVHH)LJQRWLQWHUUXSWHGE\DQ\FDVHKDUGHQ
LQJWKXVUHDFKLQJFRQGLWLRQVFORVHWRWKHRSWLPDOGU\LQJH[DPSOH7KHORZHUGURSOHW
WHPSHUDWXUHLVDFKLHYHGSDUWO\GXHWRWKHORZHUVXUURXQGLQJWHPSHUDWXUHEXWDOVRGXH
WRWKHKLJKHUPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHSDUWLFOHVWKXVEHLQJFORVHUWRWKHZHWEXOEWHP
SHUDWXUH7KLVKDVQDWXUDOO\DSRVLWLYHLQIOXHQFHRQWKHVROXELOLW\SURSHUWLHVRIWKHIL
QDOSRZGHU
7KHGHFUHDVHLQWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHPHDQVDFRUUHVSRQGLQJO\KLJKHUFDSDFLW\LQWKH
GU\LQJFKDPEHUGXHWRWKHLQFUHDVHGW9HU\RIWHQWKHGU\LQJWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWKHVRO
LGVFRQWHQWLQWKHIHHGDUHLQFUHDVHGWKXVLQFUHDVLQJWKHHIILFLHQF\RIWKHGU\HUHYHQ
PRUH7KLVPHDQVKRZHYHUDQHFHVVDU\VLPXOWDQHRXVLQFUHDVHLQWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUD
WXUHEXWWKHKLJKHUPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDQGORZHUSDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUHSURWHFWWKHSDUWL
FOHVVRWKDWRYHUKHDWLQJDQGFDVHKDUGHQLQJFDQEHDYRLGHG
([SHULPHQWDOZLVHWKHGU\LQJWHPSHUDWXUHKDVUHDFKHG&RUHYHQ&ZKHQ
GU\LQJVNLPPLONLQZKLFKFDVHWKHGU\LQJHIILFLHQF\LVDVKLJKDV
:KHQWKHFKDPEHUIUDFWLRQUHDFKHVWKHEDVHRIWKHFKDPEHULWKDVKLJKHUPRLVWXUH
FRQWHQWDQGORZHUWHPSHUDWXUHWKDQREWDLQHGIURPWKHFRQYHQWLRQDOGU\LQJDVGH
VFULEHGSUHYLRXVO\)URPWKHEDVHRIWKHFKDPEHUWKHSRZGHUVKRXOGGURSGLUHFWO\LQWR
WKHGU\LQJVHFWLRQRIWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDQGEHIOXLGL]HGLPPHGLDWHO\$Q\KROGXS
RUFRQYH\LQJZLOOFDXVHWKHZDUPPRLVWDQGWKHUPRSODVWLFSDUWLFOHVWRVWLFNWRJHWKHU
DQGOXPSVEHLQJKDUGWREUHDNZLOOEHIRUPHG7KLVKDVDGLUHFWQHJDWLYHLQIOXHQFHRQ
WKHGU\LQJHIILFLHQF\LQWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDQGSDUWRIWKHSRZGHUZLOOOHDYHWKH
HTXLSPHQWZLWKDWRRKLJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWGHWULPHQWDOIRUWKHNHHSLQJTXDOLW\RIWKH
SRZGHU
2QO\WKHFKDPEHUIUDFWLRQHQWHUVWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUJUDYLPHWULFDOO\7KHPDLQF\
FORQHIUDFWLRQDQGWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUF\FORQH RU&,3DEOHEDJILOWHU IUDFWLRQVWLOO
KDYHWREHFROOHFWHGDQGFRQYH\HGWRWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HU
$VWKHILQHVIUDFWLRQVFRQVLVWRISDUWLFOHVRIDOHVVPHDQGLDPHWHUWKDQSDUWLFOHVIURP
WKHFKDPEHUIUDFWLRQVWKH\ZLOOKDYHDORZHUPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDQGWKXVGRQRWUHTXLUH
WKHVDPHDIWHUGU\LQJ9HU\RIWHQWKH\DUHHYHQGU\HQRXJKEXWGHVSLWHWKDWWKH\DUH
XVXDOO\SDVVHGWRWKHODVWWKLUGRIWKHGU\LQJVHFWLRQRIWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUWRPDNH
VXUHWKH\EHFRPHGULHGWRWKHGHVLUHGPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW



1,52$6

Powder from dryer


)LJ3UHVVXUHFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPIURP9LEUR)OXLGL]HUWRVLORV\VWHP

Average Energy requirements / kg water evaporation

%DJJLQJRIIOLQH

Moisture content in %
Evaporator
Highconcentrator
Spray Dryer

Vibro Fluidizer

)LJ(QHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQNJHYDSRUDWLRQDVDIXQFWLRQRIUHVLGXDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW



1,52$6

:KHQWKHF\FORQHIUDFWLRQVDUHFROOHFWHGWKHFROOHFWLRQSRLQWFDQQRWDOZD\VEHDU
UDQJHGGLUHFWO\DERYHWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUVRWKDWLWFDQEHIHGGLUHFWO\E\JUDYLW\LQWR
WKHGU\LQJVHFWLRQ$SUHVVXUHFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPLVWKHUHIRUHRIWHQLQVWDOOHGWRKDQGOH
WKHSRZGHU$SUHVVXUHFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPLVYHU\IOH[LEOHLQUHODWLRQWRZKHUHWKH
SRZGHULVFRQYH\HGDVWKHFRQYH\LQJOLQHLVDQRUGLQDU\RULQFKGDLU\SLSH7KH
V\VWHPFRQVLVWVRIDORZYROXPHKLJKSUHVVXUHDLUEORZHUDEORZWKURXJKYDOYHDO
ORZLQJWKHDLUWRSDVVWKURXJKSLFNLQJXSWKHSRZGHUDQGDFRQYH\LQJOLQHVHH
)LJ7KHDPRXQWRIDLULVVPDOOLQUHODWLRQWRWKHSRZGHUWREHFRQYH\HG RQO\
 
'XULQJSURGXFWLRQDVPDOOSDUWRIWKLVSRZGHUEHFRPHVDLUERUQHDJDLQLQWKH9LEUR
)OXLGL]HUDQGZLOOOHDYHZLWKWKHDLUFROOHFWHGLQWKHF\FORQHDQGUHWXUQHGWRWKH9L
EUR)OXLGL]HUDJDLQ'XULQJVKXWGRZQRIWKHSODQWLWZLOOWKHUHIRUHWDNHVRPHWLPHEH
IRUHWKLVUHF\FOLQJKDVVWRSSHGLIVSHFLDODUUDQJHPHQWVDUHQRWIRUHVHHQ
7KHSUREOHPLVIRUH[DPSOHKDQGOHGE\DFKDQJHRYHUYDOYHLQWKHFRQYH\LQJSLSHWR
DQRWKHUSLSHSDVVLQJWKHSRZGHURQWRWKHYHU\HQGRIWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUV\VWHP
ZKLFKLVWKHQHPSWLHGLQDIHZPLQXWHV
7KHSRZGHULVILQDOO\VLIWHGDQGEDJJHGRII$VWKHSRZGHUPD\FRQWDLQVRPHSULPDU\
DJJORPHUDWHVLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWRXVHDQRWKHUSUHVVXUHFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPWRDVLORLQ
RUGHUWRREWDLQWKHPD[LPXPGHQVLW\
,WLVDZHOONQRZQDFFHSWHGIDFWWKDWZKHQHYDSRUDWLQJZDWHUIURPPLONWKHHQHUJ\
FRQVXPSWLRQNJHYDSRUDWLRQLQFUHDVHVDVWKHUHVLGXDOPRLVWXUHDSSURDFKHV]HUR6HH
)LJ
,WKDVDOUHDG\EHHQVKRZQWKDWWKHHIILFLHQF\RIWKHVSUD\GU\LQJFDQEHLQIOXHQFHGE\
WKHLQOHWDQGRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHV
:KLOHWKHVWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQLVNJNJHYDSRUDWHGZDWHULQWKHHYDSRUDWRULW
LVNJNJHYDSRUDWHGZDWHULQDFRQYHQWLRQDORQHVWDJHGU\HURULQRWKHUZRUGV
WLPHVDVKLJKDVLQWKHHYDSRUDWRU$WWHPSWVDUHWKHUHIRUHDOZD\VPDGHWRLQFUHDVH
WKHVROLGVFRQWHQWIURPWKHHYDSRUDWRU7KLVPHDQVWKDWWKHHYDSRUDWRUZLOOUHPRYH
PRUHZDWHUDWDORZHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ,WZLOORIFRXUVHOHDGWRDVOLJKWLQFUHDVHRI
WKHHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQNJHYDSRUDWHGZDWHULQWKHVSUD\GU\HUEXWWKHWRWDOHQHUJ\
UHTXLUHPHQWZLOOEHOHVV
7KHDERYHPHQWLRQHGVWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQNJHYDSRUDWHGZDWHULVDQDYHUDJHILJXUHDV
WKHVWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQDWWKHEHJLQQLQJLVYHU\ORZLQFUHDVLQJWRZDUGVWKHHQGRIWKH
GU\LQJ$FDOFXODWLRQVKRZVWKDWDSRZGHUZLWKPRLVWXUHUHTXLUHG.FDONJ
SRZGHUZKLOHIRUDSRZGHUZLWKPRLVWXUHLWLVRQO\.FDONJSRZGHU,Q
RWKHUZRUGVWKLVODVWHYDSRUDWLRQFRUUHVSRQGVWRDERXWNJVWHDPNJHYDSRUDWLRQ
7KHWDEOHRQWKHQH[WSDJHLOOXVWUDWHVWKHFDOFXODWLRQ7KHILUVWURZRIILJXUHVVKRZV
WKHFRQGLWLRQVZKHQRSHUDWLQJWKHSODQWXQGHURUGLQDU\FRQGLWLRQVZLWKSQHXPDWLF
FRROLQJDQGFRQYH\LQJRIWKHSRZGHUOHDYLQJWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHUDQGF\FORQHV7KH



1,52$6


&RQHRIVSUD\GU\LQJWRZHUDQGDWWDFKHG9LEUR)OXLGL]HU




1,52$6

QH[WURZRIILJXUHVVKRZVWKHFRQGLWLRQVZKHQUXQQLQJWKHSODQWDVDWZRVWDJHGU\LQJ
XQLWLQZKLFKWKHSRZGHULVGULHGIURPPRLVWXUHWRPRLVWXUHLQD9LEUR
)OXLGL]HU7KHWKLUGURZRIILJXUHVVKRZVWKHWZRVWDJHGU\LQJZLWKKLJKLQOHWWHP
SHUDWXUH


'5<,1*6<67(0

635$<'5<(5

,QOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUH

6SUD\GU\HU 6SUD\GU\HU
ZLWK
ZLWK9LEUR
SQHXPDWLF
)OXLGL]HU
FRQYH\LQJ
V\VWHP



6SUD\GU\HU
RSHUDWHGDW
KLJKWHPS
ZLWK9LEUR
)OXLGL]HU


&







'U\LQJDLU

NJK







6NLPPLONZLWKVROLGV

NJK







&RQFHQWUDWHZLWKVROLGV

NJK







(YDSRUDWLRQLQFKDPEHU

NJK







PRLVWXUH

NJK





PRLVWXUH

NJK







)XHORLOFRQVXPSWLRQ

NJK







3RZHUFRQVXPSWLRQ

N:







(QHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ

6SUD\GU\LQJWRWDO

0FDO







(QHUJ\NJSRZGHULQFKDPEHU

.FDO

 

 



NJK





&





(YDSRUDWLRQLQ9)

NJK





3RZGHUIURP9)PRLVWXUH

NJK





6WHDPFRQVXPSWLRQ

NJK





3RZHUFRQVXPSWLRQ

N:





(QHUJ\FRQVWRWDOLQ9)

0FDO





(QHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQWRWDO

0FDO







(QHUJ\NJSRZGHUWRWDO

.FDO







(QHUJ\UHODWLRQ









'U\HUHIILFLHQF\







3RZGHUIURPFKDPEHU

9,%52)/8,',=(5
'U\LQJDLU
,QOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUH

'5<,1*727$/





1,52$6

Air and fines in

Drying air

Powder out

Air and fines out

)LJ3HUIRUDWHGSODWHIRUGLUHFWLRQDODLUIORZ %8%%/(3/$7( 


&RPSDFW6SUD\'U\HU &', 

0XOWLVWDJH6SUD\'U\HU 06' 




1,52$6


%\XVLQJWKHILJXUHVPDUNHGZLWK ZHREWDLQ
 .FDONJSRZGHU
7KHHYDSRUDWLRQSHUNJSRZGHULVNJ   
7KHHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQSHUNJHYDSRUDWLRQLVWKHQ

 .FDONJ 


FRUUHVSRQGLQJWRNJVWHDPNJHYDSRUDWHGZDWHU
,QWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUWKHVWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQLVLQDYHUDJHDERXWNJVWHDPNJ
HYDSRUDWLRQDOOQDWXUDOO\GHSHQGLQJRQWKHDPRXQWRIDLUDQGWHPSHUDWXUHWKDWFDQEH
XVHG(YHQLIWKHVWHDPFRQVXPSWLRQLVDERXWWZLFHDVKLJKLQWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDV
LQWKHVSUD\GU\HULWLVVWLOO GXHWRWKHVSHFLDOGHVLJQDOORZLQJDUHVLGHQFHWLPHDV
ORQJDVPLQFRPSDUHGWRVHFLQWKHVSUD\GU\HU IDUEHORZWKHHQHUJ\UH
TXLUHPHQWLIWKHVDPHZDWHUVKRXOGKDYHEHHQHYDSRUDWHGLQWKHVSUD\GU\HU$WWKH
VDPHWLPHLWVKRXOGEHUHPHPEHUHGWKDWWKHSODQWZLOOJHWKLJKHUFDSDFLW\SURGXFHD
EHWWHUSURGXFWWKHSRZGHUHPLVVLRQZLOOEHORZHUDQGRQWRSRIWKDWWKHSODQWZLOOEH
YHU\IOH[LEOH


7ZR6WDJH'U\LQJZLWK6WDWLF)OXLG%HG %DFN0L[ 
,QWKHDWWHPSWWRLPSURYHWKHGU\LQJHIILFLHQF\H[SUHVVHGLQIRUPXOD  SDJH
WKHDLURXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH7RZDVLQWKHWZRVWDJHGU\LQJ SDJH UHGXFHGWRWKH
OLPLWZKHUHWKHSRZGHUZLWKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWVRIEHFDPHVWLFN\DQGVWDUWHGWR
DGKHUHWRWKHFKDPEHUZDOOV
+RZHYHUIXUWKHULPSURYHPHQWVKDYHEHHQREWDLQHGE\WKHLQWURGXFWLRQRIDVWDWLF
IOXLGEHGLQWHJUDWHGLQWKHFRQLFDOSDUWRIWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU7KHVHFRQGDU\GU\LQJ
DLULVLQWURGXFHGLQWRDSOHQXPFKDPEHUEHORZWKHSHUIRUDWHGSODWHWKURXJKZKLFKWKH
GU\LQJDLULVGLVWULEXWHG7KLVW\SHRIGU\HUFDQEHRSHUDWHGVRWKDWWKHSULPDU\SDUWL
FOHVUHDFKDPRLVWXUHDVKLJKDVFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRDQDLURXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHRI
&7KLVH[WUHPHXWLOL]DWLRQRIWKHGU\LQJDLUPHDQVWKDWIRUDJLYHQFDSDFLW\WKH
VL]HRIWKHSODQWFDQEHUHGXFHGFRQVLGHUDEO\
0LONSRZGHUVKDYHDOZD\VEHHQUHJDUGHGDVGLIILFXOWWRIOXLGL]H+RZHYHUDVSHFLDOO\
GHVLJQHGDQGSDWHQWHGSHUIRUDWHGSODWHVHH)LJDQGSDJHSURYLGHVDQ
DLUSRZGHUURWDWLRQLQWKHVDPHGLUHFWLRQDVWKDWRIWKHSULPDU\GU\LQJDLU%\PHDQV
RIWKLVSODWHDQGWKHFRUUHFWFRPELQDWLRQRIEHGKHLJKWDQGIOXLGL]DWLRQYHORFLW\DQ\
PLONEDVHGSURGXFWFDQQRZEHIOXLGL]HGLQDVWDWLFIOXLGEHG



1,52$6


)LJ&RPSDFWVSUD\GU\HUZLWKSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP &'3 


)LJ&RPSDFWVSUD\GU\HUZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDVDJJORPHUDWRULQVWDQWL]HU &', 




1,52$6

7KHVWDWLFIOXLGEHGLVDYDLODEOHLQWKUHHFRQILJXUDWLRQV


5LQJIRUPHGIOXLGEHG &RPSDFWGU\HUV 

&LUFXODUIOXLGEHG 06'GU\HUV 

$FRPELQDWLRQRIWKHDERYHWZR ,)'GU\HUV 


5LQJ)RUPHG)OXLG%HG &RPSDFW'U\HUV 
7KHULQJIRUPHGEDFNPL[EHGLVSODFHGDWWKHERWWRPRIDFRQYHQWLRQDOFKDPEHU
FRQHURXQGWKHH[KDXVWGXFWSODFHGLQWKHFHQWUH7KXVWKHUHDUHQRSDUWVLQWKHFRQH
REVWUXFWLQJWKHDLUIORZDQGWKLVWRJHWKHUZLWKWKHVSRXWVIURPWKHIOXLGL]HGSRZGHU
OD\HUNHHSVWKHFKDPEHUFRQHIUHHIURPGHSRVLWVHYHQZKHQKDQGOLQJVWLFN\SRZGHUV
ZLWKKLJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWV7KHF\OLQGULFDOSDUWRIWKHFKDPEHULVNHSWFOHDQE\D
ZDOOVZHHSV\VWHPZKHUHDVPDOODPRXQWRIDLULVLQWURGXFHGDWKLJKYHORFLW\WDQJHQ
WLDOO\LQWRWKHF\OLQGULFDOSDUWRIWKHFKDPEHUWKURXJKVSHFLDOO\GHVLJQHGDLUQR]]OHV
SRLQWLQJLQWKHVDPHGLUHFWLRQDVWKHURWDWLRQRIWKHSULPDU\GU\LQJDLU
'XHWRWKHFRPELQHGDLUSRZGHUURWDWLRQDQGWKHUHVXOWLQJF\FORQHHIIHFWLQWKHFKDP
EHURQO\DVPDOODPRXQWRISRZGHUZLOOEHHQWUDLQHGLQWKHH[KDXVWDLU7KHF\
FORQH&,3EDJILOWHUIUDFWLRQLVWKHUHIRUHORZLQWKLVW\SHRIGU\HUDQGVRLVWKHSRZGHU
HPLVVLRQ
7KHSRZGHULVGLVFKDUJHGFRQWLQXRXVO\IURPWKHVWDWLFIOXLGEHGE\RYHUIORZLQJDQDG
MXVWDEOHSRZGHUZHLUWKXVPDLQWDLQLQJDFHUWDLQIOXLGL]HGSRZGHUOHYHO
'XHWRWKHORZDLURXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHWKHGU\LQJHFRQRP\LVJUHDWO\LPSURYHGFRP
SDUHGZLWKWKHFRQYHQWLRQDOWZRVWDJHGU\LQJDVVKRZQLQWKHWDEOHRQWKHIROORZLQJ
SDJH
:KHQWKHSRZGHUOHDYHVWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHULWPD\EHFRROHGLQDSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\
LQJV\VWHPDVGHVFULEHGRQSDJH6HH)LJ7KHUHVXOWLQJSRZGHUZLOOFRQVLVWRI
VLQJOHSDUWLFOHVDQGKDYHVDPHRUHYHQEHWWHUSRZGHUSURSHUWLHVWKDQWKRVHPHQWLRQHG
IRUWZRVWDJHGU\LQJRQSDJH
)RUIDWFRQWDLQLQJSURGXFWVWKHFRROLQJVKRXOGEHGRQHLQDYLEUDWLQJIOXLGEHGZKLFK
LVDOVRXVHGZKHQDJJORPHUDWHGSRZGHUVDUHSURGXFHG,QWKLVFDVHWKHF\FORQHIUDF
WLRQLVUHWXUQHGWRWKHDWRPL]HUGHYLFHIRUDJJORPHUDWLRQ6HH)LJ




1,52$6


)OXLGL]HGVWDWLFEDFNPL[EHGDWEDVHRIWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU




1,52$6




'5<,1*6<67(0

635$<'5<(5

,QOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUH

6SUD\GU\HU 6SUD\GU\HU
ZLWK9)IRU ZLWKULQJ
WZRVWDJH IRUPHGVWDWLF
GU\LQJ
IOXLGEHG

&RPSDFW 



6SUD\GU\HU
ZLWKFLUFX
ODUVWDWLF
IOXLGEHG
06' 


&







'U\LQJDLU

NJK







6NLPPLONZLWKVROLGV

NJK







&RQFHQWUDWHZLWKVROLGV

NJK







(YDSRUDWLRQLQFKDPEHU

NJK







3RZGHUIURPFKDPEHU
PRLVWXUH
PRLVWXUH


NJK
NJK













)XHORLOFRQVXPSWLRQ

NJK







3RZHUFRQVXPSWLRQ

N:







(QHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ
6SUD\GU\LQJWRWDO


0FDO










(QHUJ\NJSRZGHULQFKDPEHU

.FDO







9)

6)%

6)%

NJK







&







(YDSRUDWLRQLQ9)6)%

NJK







3RZGHUIURPIOXLGEHG
PRLVWXUH

NJK







6WHDPFRQVXPSWLRQ

NJK







3RZHUFRQVXPSWLRQ

N:







(QHUJ\FRQVWRWDOLQIOXLGEHG

0FDO







(QHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQWRWDO

0FDO







(QHUJ\NJSRZGHUWRWDO

.FDO





















)/8,'%('
'U\LQJDLU
,QOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUH

'5<,1*727$/

(QHUJ\UHODWLRQ VHHS 
'U\HUHIILFLHQF\





1,52$6


)LJ0XOWLVWDJHVSUD\GU\HU 06' 




1,52$6


&LUFXODU)OXLG%HG 06''U\HUV 
,QRUGHUWRLPSURYHWKHGU\HUHIILFLHQF\HYHQIXUWKHUZLWKRXWGHSRVLWSUREOHPVDFRP
SOHWHO\QHZVSUD\GU\HUFRQFHSWQDPHG0XOWL6WDJH'U\HU06'KDVEHHQGHVLJQHG
7KHGU\HURSHUDWHVZLWKWKUHHGU\LQJVWDJHVHDFKDGDSWHGWRWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWSUH
YDLOLQJGXULQJWKHGU\LQJSURFHVV,QWKHSUHOLPLQDU\GU\LQJVWDJHWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLV
DWRPL]HGE\FRFXUUHQWQR]]OHVSODFHGLQWKHKRWGU\LQJDLUGXFW7KHDLUHQWHUVWKH
GU\HUYHUWLFDOO\WKURXJKWKHDLUGLVSHUVHUDWKLJKYHORFLW\HQVXULQJRSWLPDOPL[LQJRI
WKHDWRPL]HGGURSOHWVZLWKWKHGU\LQJDLU$VGLVFXVVHGHDUOLHUWKHHYDSRUDWLRQDWWKLV
VWDJHWDNHVSODFHLQVWDQWDQHRXVO\DQGGXULQJWKHSDVVDJHYHUWLFDOO\GRZQWKURXJKWKH
VSHFLDOO\GHVLJQHGGU\LQJFKDPEHU7KHSDUWLFOHVUHDFKDPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRI
DOOGHSHQGLQJXSRQWKHW\SHRISURGXFW$WVXFKKLJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWWKHSRZGHUZLOO
H[KLELWDKLJKWKHUPRSODVWLFLW\DQGEHFRPHYHU\VWLFN\7KHKLJKYHORFLW\DLULQOHWLV
FUHDWLQJDYHQWXULHIIHFWWKHYDFXXPRIZKLFKZLOOVXFNVXUURXQGLQJDLUZLWKHQ
WUDLQHGILQHVSDUWLFOHVLQWRWKHZHWDWRPL]HUFORXG7KLVZLOOUHVXOWLQDVSRQWDQHRXV
VHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQVHHSDJH7KHIOXLGEHGLVVXSSOLHGZLWKDLUDWDVXIIL
FLHQWYHORFLW\DQGWHPSHUDWXUHIRUWKHVHFRQGVWDJHGU\LQJ7KHGU\LQJDLUIURPWKH
SUHOLPLQDU\GU\LQJVWDJHDQGWKHEDFNPL[EHGOHDYHVWKHFKDPEHUIURPWKHWRSSDVV
LQJWKURXJKDSULPDU\F\FORQH7KHSRZGHUIURPWKLVF\FORQHLVOHGEDFNWRWKHEDFN
PL[EHGDQGWKHDLUWRDVHFRQGDU\F\FORQHIRUILQDOVHSDUDWLRQ
:KHQWKHSRZGHUKDVUHDFKHGDFHUWDLQPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLWLVGLVFKDUJHGYLDDURWDU\
YDOYHLQWRD9LEUR)OXLGL]HUIRUWKHILQDOGU\LQJDQGVXEVHTXHQWFRROLQJ7KHGU\
LQJFRROLQJDLUIURPWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HULVSDVVHGWKURXJKDF\FORQHVHSDUDWLQJWKH
SRZGHUFRQWDLQHGLQWKHDLU7KHILQHSRZGHULVUHWXUQHGEDFNWRWKHDWRPL]DWLRQGH
YLFHWKHFKDPEHUFRQH VWDWLFEHG RUWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HU2QWRGD\
VPRGHUQGU\HUV
WKHF\FORQH V DUHUHSODFHGE\D&,3DEOHEDJILOWHU
7KHSRZGHUH[KLELWVDFRDUVHSRZGHUVWUXFWXUHRULJLQDWLQJIURPWKHVSRQWDQHRXVVHF
RQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQLQWKHDWRPL]HUFORXGZKHUHWKHUHLVDFRQWLQXRXVVXSSO\RI
GU\ILQHVSDUWLFOHVWKDWZLOOVWLFNWRWKHVHPLGU\SDUWLFOHVWKXVFUHDWLQJWKHDJJORPHUD
WLRQ%XWWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQLVIXUWKHUHQKDQFHGZKHQWKHVSUD\JHWVLQFRQWDFWZLWK
WKHIOXLGL]HGSRZGHULQWKHVWDWLFIOXLGEHG6HH)LJ
,WKDVEHHQSRVVLEOHWRRSHUDWHWKLVSODQWDWDYHU\KLJKSULPDU\GU\LQJDLUWHPSHUDWXUH
& DQGDQH[WUHPHO\VKRUWUHVLGHQFHWLPHVWLOOPDLQWDLQLQJDJRRGVROXELOLW\
RIWKHSRZGHU7KHSK\VLFDOGLPHQVLRQVRIWKLVW\SHRISODQWDUHVPDOODQGWKXVWKH
UHTXLUHPHQWVWRWKHVL]HRIWKHEXLOGLQJDUHOLPLWHG7KLVWRJHWKHUZLWKWKHLPSURYHG
GU\LQJHFRQRP\ OHVVFRPSDUHGWRFRQYHQWLRQDOWZRVWDJHGU\LQJ GXHWRWKH
KLJKSULPDU\GU\LQJDLUWHPSHUDWXUHPDNHVLWDYHU\DWWUDFWLYHVROXWLRQHVSHFLDOO\IRU
DJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWV




1,52$6

)HHG
$LU([KDXVW

$LU6XSSO\

)LQDO3RZGHU

)LJD,QWHJUDWHG)LOWHU'U\HU


,QWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHG

)LJE5HYHUVHMHWDLUQR]]OH




1,52$6


6SUD\'U\LQJ3ODQWZLWK,QWHJUDWHG)LOWHUVDQG)OXLG%HGV ,)' 
7KH,QWHJUDWHG)LOWHU'U\HUGHVLJQ SDWHQWHG VHH)LJDLVEDVHGRQSURYHQVSUD\
GU\HUXQLWRSHUDWLRQVVXFKDV


)HHGV\VWHPZLWKFRQFHQWUDWHSUHKHDWLQJILOWUDWLRQKRPRJHQL]DWLRQDQGKLJK
SUHVVXUHSXPSV$OOHTXLSPHQWDVXVHGLQFRQYHQWLRQDOVSUD\GU\HUV

$WRPL]DWLRQXVLQJHLWKHUSUHVVXUHQR]]OHVRUURWDU\DWRPL]DWLRQ3UHVVXUHQR]]OHV
DUHXVHGPDLQO\IRUIDWFRQWDLQLQJSURGXFWVDQGSURGXFWVZLWKKLJKSURWHLQFRQWHQW
DQGURWDU\DWRPL]DWLRQIRUDOONLQGRISURGXFWVLQJHQHUDODQGFRQFHQWUDWHVZLWK
FU\VWDOVLQSDUWLFXODU

'U\LQJDLUILOWUDWLRQKHDWLQJDQGGLVWULEXWLRQXVLQJDQDLUGLVSHUVHUVXLWDEOHIRUUR
WDWLQJRUYHUWLFDODLUVWUHDPV

'U\LQJFKDPEHUGHVLJQHGWRHQVXUHK\JLHQLFRSHUDWLRQFRQGLWLRQVDQGWRPDLQWDLQ
ORZHVWSRVVLEOHKHDWORVVE\PHDQVRIHJGLVPRXQWDEOHLQVXODWLRQSDQHOVIHDWXU
LQJDLUILOOHGVDQGZLFKSDQHOVVHHSDJH

,QWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGGHVLJQHGDVDFRPELQHGEDFNPL[EHGIRUWKHGU\LQJDQGSOXJ
IORZEHGIRUWKHFRROLQJ7KHIOXLGEHGLVDIXOO\ZHOGHGFRQVWUXFWLRQZLWKQRKRO
ORZVSDFHV%HWZHHQWKHEDFNPL[EHGDQGWKHVXUURXQGLQJSOXJIORZEHGWKHUHLV
DQDLUJDSWRDYRLGKHDWWUDQVPLVVLRQ7KHQHZSDWHQWHG1LUR%8%%/(3/$7(
LVXVHG6HHSDJH

7KHGU\HUH[KDXVWDLUV\VWHPLVQHZDQGWKRXJKWKHLGHDLVUHYROXWLRQDU\LWLVVWLOO
EDVHGRQWKHVDPHSULQFLSOHVDVDSSOLHGLQ1LUR
V6$1,&,3&,3DEOH%DJ)LOWHU7KH
ILQHVFROOHFWLRQV\VWHPRSHUDWHVZLWKSDUWLFXODWHILOWHUVLQWHJUDWHGLQWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU
7KHILOWHUEDJVDUHVXSSRUWHGRQVWDLQOHVVVWHHOFDJHVPRXQWHGLQWKHFHLOLQJDURXQGWKHFLU
FXPIHUHQFHRIWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU7KHVHILOWHUHOHPHQWVRSHUDWHZLWKEORZEDFNDLUFOHDQ
LQJV\VWHPVVLPLODUWRWKRVHXVHGLQWKH6$1,&,36HHSDJH
7KHEDJVDUHSXUJHGRQHE\RQHRUIRXUE\IRXUE\FRPSUHVVHGDLUEORZQLQWRWKHEDJ
XVLQJWKHUHYHUVHMHWDLUQR]]OHVVHH)LJE7KLVJLYHVDUHJXODUDQGIUHTXHQWUH
OHDVHRISRZGHULQWRWKHLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHG
7KHVHOHFWLRQRIILOWHUPDWHULDOIROORZVSURFHGXUHVDOUHDG\NQRZQIURPWKH6$1,&,3
EDJILOWHUDQGZLWKWKHVDPHDLUWRFORWKUDWLR
7KHUHYHUVHDLUMHWQR]]OHKDVDGXDOIXQFWLRQ'XULQJRSHUDWLRQLWLVXVHGIRUSXUJLQJDQG
GXULQJ&,3LWLVXVHGIRUWKHZHWFOHDQLQJRIWKHEDJVIURPWKHLQVLGHWRZDUGVWKHGLUW\RXW
VLGH&OHDQZDWHULVLQMHFWHGWKURXJKWKHUHYHUVHDLUMHWQR]]OHDQGDWRPL]HGE\FRP
SUHVVHGDLULQWRWKHLQVLGHRIWKHEDJDQGSUHVVHGRXWRQWKHGLUW\VLGH7KLVSDWHQWHGIHD
WXUHLVH[WUHPHO\LPSRUWDQWDVLWLVRWKHUZLVHGLIILFXOWLIQRWLPSRVVLEOHWRH[WUDFWWKLVHQ
WUDLQHGSRZGHUIURPWKHRXWVLGHRQO\



1,52$6


,)'FKDPEHUZLWKVSHFLDOLQVXODWLRQSDQHOV




1,52$6

7RFOHDQWKHXQGHUVLGHRIWKHFKDPEHUFHLOLQJFORVHWRWKHEDJVDVSHFLDOO\GHVLJQHGQR]
]OHLVXVHGDOVRZLWKDGXDOIXQFWLRQ'XULQJWKHGU\LQJRSHUDWLRQWKHQR]]OHLVSXUJHG
ZLWKDLUWRNHHSWKHDUHDIUHHRIGHSRVLWVDQGGXULQJFOHDQLQJLWLVXVHGDVDQRUPDO&,3
QR]]OH7KHFOHDQDLUSOHQXPLVFOHDQHGXVLQJDVWDQGDUG&,3QR]]OH
$GYDQWDJHVRIWKH,)'3ODQW
3URGXFW


+LJKHU\LHOGRIILUVWJUDGHSRZGHU,QWUDGLWLRQDOGU\HUVZLWKF\FORQHVDQGEDJILO
WHUVWKHEDJILOWHUIUDFWLRQLVFRQVLGHUHGDVHFRQGJUDGHSURGXFWDFFRXQWLQJIRU
DSSUR[LPDWHO\RIWKHSURGXFWLRQ

/HVVPHFKDQLFDOKDQGOLQJRISURGXFWVLQGXFWVF\FORQHVDQGEDJILOWHUDQGQRH[
WHUQDOUHF\FOLQJRIILQHVLVQHFHVVDU\VLQFHWKHDLUIORZSDWWHUQLQVLGHWKHGU\HUHQ
VXUHVDQRSWLPDOSULPDU\DQGVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ

,PSURYHGSURGXFWTXDOLW\DVWKH,)'SODQWFDQRSHUDWHDWORZH[KDXVWDLUWHP
SHUDWXUHFRPSDUHGWRDFRQYHQWLRQDOVSUD\GU\HU7KLVSRVVLELOLW\PHDQV\RXFDQ
REWDLQDKLJKHUGU\LQJFDSDFLW\SHUNJRIGU\LQJDLU


6DIHW\


6LPSOHUVDIHW\SURWHFWLRQLQVWDOODWLRQVDVWKHGU\LQJSURFHVVWDNHVSODFHLQRQH
YHVVHORQO\

)HZHUFRPSRQHQWVWRSURWHFW

/RZHUPDLQWHQDQFHFRVWV


3URMHFWLQJ


6LPSOHUSODQWOD\RXW

5HGXFHGEXLOGLQJVL]H

6LPSOHUVXSSRUWLQJVWUXFWXUH


(QYLURQPHQWDODVSHFWV


5HGXFHGSRVVLELOLW\RISRZGHUOHDNDJHLQWRZRUNLQJDUHD

(DVLHUFOHDQLQJRSHUDWLRQVDVVXUIDFHDUHDLQFRQWDFWZLWKWKHSURGXFWLVUHGXFHG

/HVVHIIOXHQWGLVFKDUJHGXULQJ&,3

/HVVSRZGHUHPLVVLRQGRZQWRPJ1P

5HGXFHGHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQVDYLQJXSWRRIWKHSRZHUFRQVXPSWLRQ

5HGXFHGQRLVHOHYHOGXHWRUHGXFHGSUHVVXUHGURSRYHUWKHH[KDXVWDLUV\VWHP




1,52$6

7<3(

'(),1,7,21

(;$03/(6

6SRQWDQHRXV
SULPDU\

5DQGRPXQSURYRNHGFROOLVLRQ
RISULPDU\VSUD\SDUWLFOHV

$OODWRPL]DWLRQGHYLFHV

)RUFHG
SULPDU\

,QWHQGHGFROOLVLRQEHWZHHQSUL
PDU\VSUD\SDUWLFOHVIURPGLI
IHUHQWDWRPL]DWLRQGHYLFHV

&ROOLVLRQRIVSUD\VIURP
GLIIHUHQWQR]]OHV

6SRQWDQHRXV
VHFRQGDU\

5DQGRPXQSURYRNHGFROOLVLRQ
RISULPDU\VSUD\SDUWLFOHVDQG
ILQHV

0XOWL6WDJHRU,QWH
JUDWHG)LOWHU'U\HUV

)RUFHGVHFRQGDU\ ,QWHQGHGFROOLVLRQEHWZHHQSUL 1RUPDOW\SHZKHQ)LQHV


PDU\VSUD\SDUWLFOHVDQGILQHV
5HWXUQLVDSSOLHG
UHWXUQHGWRWKHDWRPL]DWLRQ]RQH
)LJ'HILQLWLRQRIGLIIHUHQWDJJORPHUDWLRQSURFHVVHV
&RQFHQWUDWH

&RQFHQWUDWH


)LJD6SRQWDQHRXVSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ


)LJE)RUFHGSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ

Concentrate

)LQHV
&RQFHQWUDWH

Drying Air

Air Exhaust

Fines

Fig. 86c

Spontaneous secondary agglomeration



)LJG)RUFHGVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ



1,52$6

$JJORPHUDWLRQ
$JJORPHUDWLRQPHDQVJHWWLQJVPDOOHUSDUWLFOHVWRDGKHUHWRHDFKRWKHUWRIRUPDSRZ
GHUFRQVLVWLQJRIELJJHUFRQJORPHUDWHVDJJORPHUDWHVZKLFKDUHHVVHQWLDOIRUDQHDV\
UHFRQVWLWXWLRQLQZDWHU


6SUD\'U\LQJ$JJORPHUDWLRQ
'XULQJWKHVSUD\GU\LQJSURFHVVWKHDLPLVWRSURGXFHSDUWLFOHVZLWKDELJVXU
IDFHPDVVUDWLRLHVPDOOSDUWLFOHV7KHUHFRQVWLWXWLRQLQZDWHURIDSRZGHUFRQVLVWLQJ
RIVPDOOSDUWLFOHVLVKRZHYHUGLIILFXOWDQGUHTXLUHVLQWHQVLYHPL[LQJLQRUGHUWRGLV
SHUVHWKHSRZGHUEHIRUHLWLVWRWDOO\GLVVROYHG%LJJHUSDUWLFOHVH[KLELWDEHWWHUGLV
SHUVLRQEXWWKHVROXELOLW\LVQHJDWLYHO\DIIHFWHGGXULQJWKHGU\LQJRSHUDWLRQDVGLV
FXVVHGRQSDJHIRUZDUG
%\DJJORPHUDWLRQERWKDJRRGGLVSHUVLRQDQGDFRPSOHWHVROXWLRQDUHREWDLQHG
,QVSUD\GU\LQJWKHUHDUHWZRZD\VRIDJJORPHUDWLRQWKHVSRQWDQHRXVDQGWKHIRUFHG
ERWKLQDSULPDU\DQGVHFRQGDU\IRUPVHH)LJ
7KHVSRQWDQHRXVSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ
LVDUHVXOWRIDUDQGRPXQSURYRNHGFROOLVLRQRISDUWLFOHVLQDVLQJOHDWRPL]HUFORXG
GXHWRSDUWLFOHVRIGLIIHUHQWGLDPHWHUKDYLQJGLIIHUHQWGHFHOHUDWLRQSDWKV,WWDNHVSODFH
LQERWKQR]]OHDQGURWDU\DWRPL]HUV6HH)LJD
7KHIRUFHGSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ
LVDFRQWUROODEOHPHDQVIRUSURGXFWLRQRIDQDJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWZLWKFHUWDLQSURSHU
WLHVE\IRUH[DPSOHFROOLVLRQRISDUWLFOHVIURPWZRRUPRUHDWRPL]DWLRQFORXGVW\SL
FDOO\LQDPXOWLQR]]OHXQLWZKHUHWKHVSUD\VIURPWKHLQGLYLGXDOQR]]OHVDUHIRUFHG
LQWRHDFKRWKHU6HH)LJE
7KHVSRQWDQHRXVVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ
LVDUHVXOWRIDYHQWXULHIIHFWDWWKHGU\LQJDLULQOHWWRWKHFKDPEHUZKHUHE\GU\VLQJOH
SDUWLFOHVDUHVXFNHGLQWRWKHZHWDWRPL]HUFORXG0RLVWSDUWLFOHVFROOLGLQJZLWKDLU
ERUQHGU\SDUWLFOHVFRQWDLQHGLQWKHH[KDXVWDLURQLWVFRXQWHUFXUUHQWZD\RXWRIWKH
06',)'GU\HU6HH)LJF
7KHIRUFHGVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ
LVDFRQWUROODEOHPHDQVIRUDJJORPHUDWLRQE\UHWXUQLQJILQHVWRWKHDWRPL]HUFORXGYLD
WKHILQHVUHWXUQ7KHVSRQWDQHRXVDJJORPHUDWLRQZKLFKZLOODOZD\VH[LVWLVHQIRUFHG
E\WKHDJJORPHUDWLRQDSSOLHGE\UHWXUQLQJWKHILQHVWRWKHDWRPL]HUFORXG%\GHILQL



1,52$6




Concentrate

Drying air


)LJ)LQHVUHWXUQURWDU\DWRPL]HUROGW\SH
Fines

Cooling air

Fines
Concentrate

Fines

)LJ)RUFHGVHFRQGDU\ILQHVUHWXUQIRUURWDU\DWRPL]HU)5$'

Cooling air
Concentrate
Fines
Fines
Concentrate
Cooling air

Drying air

Cooling
air
Rotary air steam

Plug flow air steam

)LJ)RUFHGVHFRQGDU\ILQHVUHWXUQIRUQR]]OHDWRPL]HU




1,52$6

WLRQILQHVDUHWKHF\FORQHRUEDJILOWHUIUDFWLRQVDQGFRQVLVWRIWKHVPDOOHVWSDUWLFOHV
ZKLFKDUHUHWXUQHGWRWKHSURFHVV7KHVPDOOGU\SDUWLFOHVDUHLQWURGXFHGLQWRWKHGU\HU
QHDUWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFHZKHUHWKH\ZLOOPHHWDQGFROOLGHZLWKDWRPL]HGZHWGURS
OHWVWKXVIRUPLQJDJJORPHUDWHVFRQVLVWLQJRIPDQ\SDUWLFOHVVWXFNWRJHWKHUKDYLQJD
VL]HRIPLFURQVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHSDUDPHWHUVVHOHFWHG6HH)LJG
'XHWRWKHVSHFLDODLUIORZSDWWHUQLQDQ06',')SODQWDFRQVLGHUDEOHVSRQWDQHRXV
VHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQWDNHVSODFH)RUSURGXFWLRQRIKLJKTXDOLW\LQVWDQWZKROHRU
VNLPPLONSRZGHUWKLVVSRQWDQHRXVDJJORPHUDWLRQVXIILFHVDQGWKHILQHVDUHMXVWUH
WXUQHGWRWKHLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGIURPZKHUHWKH\ZLOOJHWDLUERUQHDJDLQDQGUHDFK
WKHDWRPL]LQJ]RQHDJDLQ+RZHYHUWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQPD\EHIXUWKHUHQKDQFHGE\
IRUFHGSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ FROOLVLRQRIVSUD\VRYHUODSSLQJHDFKRWKHUIURPGLI
IHUHQWQR]]OHVLQDPXOWLQR]]OHDWRPL]DWLRQXQLW DQGRUE\UHWXUQLQJWKHILQHVWRWKH
DWRPL]DWLRQ]RQH IRUFHGVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ )XUWKHUIOH[LELOLW\FDQEHJDLQHG
E\GHVLJQLQJWKHDWRPL]DWLRQXQLWLQDZD\WKDWDOORZVWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQWKHVLQJOH
QR]]OHVRUEHWZHHQWKHQR]]OHVDQGWKHILQHVUHWXUQWXEHWREHDOWHUHG
'HSHQGLQJRQWKHDWRPL]DWLRQGHYLFHWKHILQHVUHWXUQLVGHVLJQHGLQGLIIHUHQWZD\V


)RU5RWDU\$WRPL]DWLRQ

7KHDLPLVWREULQJWKHILQHVDVFORVHDVSRVVLEOHWRWKHDWRPL]HUZKHHO7KLVFDQ
EHGRQHIURPEHORZVHH)LJYLDDSUHVVXUHFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPXVLQJD
GRVLQJSLSHZLWKDILQHVGLVWULEXWRUDWWKHHQGLQVLGHWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU+RZ
HYHUGHSRVLWVDUHHDVLO\IRUPHGRQWKLVSLSHLIWKHDLUGLVSHUVHULVQRWDGMXVWHG
WRDYRLGLW7KLVDGMXVWPHQWLVKRZHYHUQRWQHFHVVDULO\RSWLPDOIURPWKHGU\LQJ
SRLQWRIYLHZ

,QPRGHUQGU\HUVILQHVDUHWKHUHIRUHLQWURGXFHGIURPDERYHLQWKURXJKWKHDLU
GLVSHUVHU )5$'6\VWHP YLDILQHVSLSHVVLWXDWHGMXVWDERYHWKHDWRPL]HU
FORXG'HIOHFWRUSODWHVDWWKHHQGRIHDFKILQHVSLSHHQVXUHDFRUUHFWLQWURGXFWLRQ
DQGGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHILQHV6HH)LJ

)RU1R]]OH$WRPL]DWLRQ

7KHILQHVUHWXUQLVDQLQWHJUDOSDUWRIWKHQR]]OHXQLWZLWKWKHILQHVGXFWLQWKH
FHQWUHVXUURXQGHGE\QR]]OHVDWWKHSHULSKHU\7KHILQHVDUHLQWURGXFHGWDQJHQ
WLDOO\LQWRWKHILQHVGLVWULEXWLRQGXFWRUWKURXJKDFHQWHUSLSHVHH)LJ7KH
QR]]OHVFDQEHZHOGHGWRWKHQR]]OHURGDWDFHUWDLQDQJOHVRWKDWE\WXUQLQJWKH
QR]]OHURGDURXQGLWVD[LVWKHFROOLVLRQSRLQWFDQEHDOWHUHG

6HSDUDWLRQ
LVWKHSURFHVVVHSDUDWLQJWKHSDUWRIILQHVZKLFKLVHQWUDLQHGLQWKHPDLQGU\LQJDLU
OHDYLQJWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU7KHHIILFLHQF\RIVHSDUDWLRQLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHDLUIORZ
SDWWHUQDQGDLUYHORFLWLHVLQWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHUDQGLVWKHUHIRUHFORVHO\UHODWHGWRWKH



)HHG

06'

3RZGHU
RXWOHW

)LJ&RPSOHWHSODQWIRUSURGXFWLRQRIDJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWV 06' 

)HHG WR
DWRPL]DWLRQ

1,52$6







1,52$6

FKDPEHUGHVLJQDQGFDQRQO\EHPDUJLQDOO\DIIHFWHGDWQRUPDOUXQQLQJFRQGLWLRQV
ILQVWE\DLUGLVSHUVHUDGMXVWPHQWVDQGYDULDWLRQVLQGU\LQJDLUUDWHV
7KHDJJORPHUDWHGSRZGHUOHDYHVWKHFKDPEHUDWWKHEDVHRUIURPWKHLQWHJUDWHGIOXLG
EHGDQGHQWHUVWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HU'XULQJWKHSDVVDJHGRZQWKHZDOORIWKHFKDPEHU
FRQHVRPHVWDELOL]DWLRQRIWKHDOUHDG\LQGXFHGDJJORPHUDWLRQWDNHVSODFH,QWKHVWDWLF
IOXLGEHGDQGRUWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUWKHSRZGHULVPHWE\DZDUPDLUVWUHDPHYDSRUDW
LQJWKHH[FHVVPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDVZDVWKHFDVHLQWKHWZRVWDJHGU\LQJSURFHVV
$WWULWLRQ
LVGHILQHGDVWKHSDUWLDOEUHDNGRZQRIDJJORPHUDWHVLQIOXLGEHGVRUSRZGHUFRQYH\
LQJV\VWHPVUHVXOWLQJLQFUHDWLRQRIHLWKHUILQHVDQGVPDOOHUDJJORPHUDWHV DEUDVLRQ RU
RIDQXPEHURIVPDOOHUVL]HGSDUWLFOHV IUDJPHQWDWLRQ 7KLVRIWHQRYHUORRNHGSKH
QRPHQRQLVWKHUHVXOWRIPHFKDQLFDOPRWLRQEHWZHHQWKHDJJORPHUDWHDQGDQRWKHU
ERG\ZKLFKPD\EHWKHZDOOVRIWKHIOXLGEHGRUDQRWKHUSDUWLFOH7KHPRVWOLNHO\
FDXVHRIDWWULWLRQLQIOXLGEHGVLVSDUWLFOHSDUWLFOHLQWHUDFWLRQDVLQWHUSDUWLFOHLPSDFW
YHORFLWLHVFDQEHYHU\KLJKFDXVHGE\KLJKDLUMHWYHORFLWLHVRXWRIWKHKROHVLQWKHSHU
IRUDWHGSODWHWKDWIRUPVWKHERWWRPRIWKHIOXLGEHG)DFWRUVDIIHFWLQJWKHH[WHQWRIDW
WULWLRQLVWKHMHWYHORFLW\GHWHUPLQHGE\WKHSUHVVXUHGLIIHUHQFHDFURVVWKHSHUIRUDWHG
SODWHWKHIOXLGL]DWLRQYHORFLW\DQGWKHDFWXDOGHVLJQRIWKHSHUIRUDWHGSODWH
&ODVVLILFDWLRQ
LVGHILQHGDVWKHVHSDUDWLRQRIILQHVLQIOXLGEHGV7KHHIILFLHQF\RIFODVVLILFDWLRQLV
PDLQO\GHWHUPLQHGE\WKHIOXLGL]DWLRQDLUYHORFLW\EXWDOVRIOXLGEHGGHVLJQIHDWXUHV
DUHRILPSRUWDQFHLQVHFXULQJWKDWVHSDUDWHGILQHVDUHNHSWDLUERUQHDQGHQWUDLQHGLQ
WKHH[KDXVWIOXLGEHGDLU
$IWHUWKHILQDOGU\LQJWKHSRZGHUHQWHUVWKHFRROLQJVHFWLRQZKHUHWKHSRZGHULV
FRROHGE\PHDQVRIDLUDWDPELHQWWHPSHUDWXUHIROORZHGE\FRROHGGHKXPLGLILHGDLU
7KHSRZGHULVILQDOO\SDVVHGRYHUDVLIWHUZKHUHDQ\RYHUVL]HSDUWLFOHVDUHUHPRYHG,W
LVDOVRSRVVLEOHWRLQVWDOODVLIWHUZLWKWZRQHWVWKXVUHPRYLQJDQ\UHPDLQLQJSDUWL
FOHVDJJORPHUDWHVRIVPDOOGLDPHWHU7RJHWKHUZLWKWKHILQHVWKLVIUDFWLRQPD\EHUH
WXUQHGWRWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFHWKXVSURGXFLQJDSRZGHUZLWKDZHOOGHILQHGDJJORP
HUDWHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQ7KHILQHVUHPRYDOLQWKHIOXLGEHGVLVKRZHYHUUHJDUGHGDV
VXIILFLHQWIURPDSURGXFWSRLQWRIYLHZDQGSODQWVZLWKDERYHPHQWLRQHGVLIWHUDUH
RQO\XVHGZKHQSDUWLFXODUSURGXFWVSHFLILFDWLRQVKDYHWREHPHW)LJVKRZVDSODQW
VHWXSIHDWXULQJHYDSRUDWRUDQGVSUD\GU\HU
$JJORPHUDWHVWUXFWXUHDQGSRZGHUSURSHUWLHV
'HSHQGLQJRQWKHGHVLJQDQGDGMXVWPHQWRIWKHILQHVUHWXUQV\VWHPSDUWLFXODUO\WKH
ORFDWLRQRIWKHLQWURGXFWLRQRIWKHILQHVLQUHODWLRQWRWKHDWRPL]DWLRQGHYLFHGLIIHU
HQWDJJORPHUDWHVWUXFWXUHVUHVXOWZKLFKLQIOXHQFHVFHUWDLQSRZGHUSURSHUWLHVVXFKDV
EXONGHQVLW\PHFKDQLFDOVWDELOLW\GLVSHUVLELOLW\DQGVORZO\GLVSHUVLEOHSDUWLFOHV



1,52$6

$**/20(5$7(6758&785(
2QLRQ5DVSEHUU\&RPSDFWJUDSH/RRVHJUDSH
3$57,&/(02,6785(&217(17$7&2//,6,21
+LJK

/RZ
0(&+$1,&$/67$%,/,7<
+LJK


/RZ

%8/.'(16,7< QRDWWULWLRQ 
+LJK


/RZ

%8/.'(16,7< DIWHUDWWULWLRQ 
+LJK
/RZ

+LJK

6/2:/<',63(56,%/(3$57,&/(6
0DQ\


)HZ

',63(56,%,/,7< DIWHUDWWULWLRQ 
3RRU
*RRG

3RRU

)LJD$JJORPHUDWHVWUXFWXUH3RZGHUSURSHUWLHVUHODWLRQVKLS


)LJE2QLRQVWUXFWXUHGDJJORPHUDWH


)LJF&RPSDFWJUDSHVWUXFWXUHGDJJORPHUDWH



1,52$6

7KHUHODWLRQEHWZHHQDJJORPHUDWHVWUXFWXUHDQGFHUWDLQSRZGHUSURSHUWLHVLVLOOXV
WUDWHGLQ)LJD
,IWKHILQHVDUHLQWURGXFHGFORVHWRWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLVHWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRIWKH
SULPDU\VSUD\SDUWLFOHVLVKLJKDQGWKHUHE\WKHLUSODVWLFLW\DQGVWLFNLQHVVDQGWKHILQHV
SDUWLFOHVPD\SHQHWUDWHSULPDU\SDUWLFOHVRUEHFRPSOHWHO\FRYHUHGE\FRQFHQWUDWH
)LJE 6XFKDJJORPHUDWHVKDYHEHHQWHUPHG
RQLRQ
VWUXFWXUHG:KHQFROOLVLRQ
WDNHVSODFHDWDSURJUHVVLYHO\ORQJHUGLVWDQFHDZD\IURPWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFHOHVV
FRPSDFWDJJORPHUDWHVWUXFWXUHVDUHREWDLQHG6XFKVWUXFWXUHVKDYHEHHQWHUPHG
UDVS
EHUU\
DQG
JUDSH
VWUXFWXUHVLQGHFUHDVLQJRUGHURIFRPSDFWQHVV

2QLRQ
VWUXFWXUHGDJJORPHUDWHVDUHFKDUDFWHUL]HGE\DKLJKPHFKDQLFDOVWDELOLW\DQGD
KLJKEXONGHQVLW\EXWWKH\ZLOORIWHQDSSHDUDVVORZO\GLVSHUVLEOHSDUWLFOHVDIWHUUH
FRQVWLWXWLRQ7KH\PD\DOVREHFROOHFWHGGXULQJWKHGLIIHUHQWGLVSHUVLELOLW\WHVWVLQXVH
DQGMHRSDUGL]HWKHJHQHUDOTXDOLW\HYDOXDWLRQRIWKHSURGXFW
:LWKSURJUHVVLYHO\ORRVHUDJJORPHUDWHVWUXFWXUHVWKHEXONGHQVLW\DQGPHFKDQLFDOVWD
ELOLW\GHFUHDVHJUDGXDOO\DQGWKHRYHUDOOLQVWDQWSURSHUWLHVLPSURYH+RZHYHULID

ORRVHJUDSH
VWUXFWXUHLVHYHQWXDOO\REWDLQHGWKHPHFKDQLFDOVWDELOLW\PD\EHVRORZ
WKDWWKHSRZGHUEHFRPHVYHU\VXVFHSWLEOHWRDWWULWLRQUHVXOWLQJLQGHWHULRUDWHGLQVWDQW
SURSHUWLHV$
FRPSDFWJUDSH
VWUXFWXUH )LJF LVUHJDUGHGDVWKHLGHDOFRPSURPLVH
ZKHUHWKHSRZGHUKDVVLPXOWDQHRXVO\JRRGLQVWDQWSURSHUWLHVDQGVXIILFLHQWPHFKDQL
FDOVWUHQJWKWRHQDEOHQHFHVVDU\WUDQVSRUWDQGSDFNDJLQJ
7KHDJJORPHUDWLRQLVLPSURYHGE\








+LJKVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
%LJJHUTXDQWLW\RIILQHVUHWXUQHGWRWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFH
)LQHVLQWURGXFWLRQFORVHUWRWKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFH
6KRUWHUGLVWDQFHIURPQR]]OHWRIOXLGL]HGOD\HULQDVWDWLFIOXLGEHG
+LJKHUPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWIURPWKHSULPDU\GU\LQJVWDJH
%LJJHUSULPDU\SDUWLFOHV
/RZHUSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHPLONSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQ


:KHQOHDYLQJWKHVLIWHUWKHSRZGHUVKRXOGQRWEHH[SRVHGWRVWURQJPHFKDQLFDOFRQ
YH\LQJQHLWKHUE\PHDQVRIDLUQRUE\IDVWPRYLQJPHFKDQLFDOVFUHZV+RZHYHUWR
GD\
VOHQLHQWYDFXXPORZVSHHGDLUV\VWHPVDUHXVHGZLWKRXWWRRPXFKGDPDJHWRWKH
DJJORPHUDWHV7KHEHVWWKLQJKRZHYHULVWRLQVWDOOWKHSODQWVRKLJKWKDWILOOLQJLQWR
EDJVRUWRWHELQVLVSRVVLEOHE\JUDYLW\


5HZHW$JJORPHUDWLRQ
6LQFHPDQ\SRZGHUVPD\EHFRPHLQVWDQWE\WKHPHUHDJJORPHUDWLRQPDQ\SURFHVVHV
KDYHEHHQGHYHORSHGGXULQJWKHSDVW\HDUVWRDJJORPHUDWHRUGLQDU\SRZGHUVFRQVLVWLQJ



1,52$6

Water

Product

Warm air exhaust

Steam

To after drying


)LJ7KH3HHEOHV5HZHW,QVWDQWL]HU

)LJ5HZHWDJJORPHUDWLRQSODQW 1HVWOp 




1,52$6

RIVLQJOHVSUD\SDUWLFOHVXVXDOO\SURGXFHGLQSODQWVZLWKSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP
DVGHVFULEHGRQSDJHDQG
7KHKLVWRULFGHYHORSPHQWVWDUWHGZLWKWKHSLRQHHULQJUHVHDUFKRI0U'DYLG'3HH
EOHVLQWKHEHJLQQLQJRIWKHILIWLHVDQGLQVWDQWL]HGQRQIDWGU\PLONZDVPDUNHWHG
IURP6RRQLWUHSODFHGWKHUHJXODUVSUD\GULHGSURGXFWVRQWKHUHWDLOPDUNHW
3HHEOHV
LQVWDQWL]HULVVKRZQLQ)LJ
$QRWKHUH[DPSOHRIDUHZHWDJJORPHUDWLRQSODQWLVVKRZQLQ)LJZKLFKLOOXVWUDWHV
WKHSULQFLSOHRIDPHWKRGGHYHORSHGE\1HVWOpIRUDJJORPHUDWLQJPLONSRZGHUV
FKRFRODWHIODYRXUHGEHYHUDJHVDQGVRXSV:KHQDJJORPHUDWLQJVNLPPLONSRZGHUV
WKHWDQN  ZRXOGFRQWDLQDVROXWLRQRIVNLPPLONVROLGVLQZDWHUFRROHGWR
DERXW&7KHOLTXLGLVVSUD\HGDWDSUHVVXUHRIEDUE\PHDQVRIWKHSXPS  DQG
QR]]OH  ZKLFKLVGHVLJQHGWRJLYHDIODWMHWZLWKDKLJKYHORFLW\RIXSWRPVHF
6NLPPLONSRZGHUZKLFKLVIHGE\PHDQVRIDYLEUDWRUVFUHZFRQYH\RU  LVGLV
SHUVHGRYHUWKHMHWZKHUHWKHVLQJOHSRZGHUSDUWLFOHVEHFRPHUHZHWWHGWRDPRLVWXUH
VXIILFLHQWO\KLJK  WRPDNHWKHPVWLFN\RQWKHVXUIDFHVRWKDWDQ\FROOLVLRQ
EHWZHHQSDUWLFOHVZLOOUHVXOWLQDQDJJORPHUDWLRQLQWKHFKDPEHU  7KHSRZGHULV
ILQDOO\GULHGDW&WRPRLVWXUH  DQGEDJJHGRII
7KHPDLQIHDWXUHVRIWKHUHZHWDJJORPHUDWLRQSURFHVVDUH






:HWWLQJRIWKHVXUIDFHRIWKHSDUWLFOHV
$JJORPHUDWLRQ
5HGU\LQJ
&RROLQJ
6L]LQJ


:HWWLQJ
:HWWLQJRIWKHVXUIDFHRIWKHSDUWLFOHVLVGRQHZLWKKXPLGDLUVWHDPDWRPL]HGZDWHU
HLWKHUSXUHRUFRQWDLQLQJPLONVROLGVVXJDURURWKHUVROXEOHFRPSRQHQWV7KHZDWHU
PD\IXUWKHUFRQWDLQDGGLWLYHVVXFKDVYLWDPLQV ZDWHUVROXEOH PLQHUDOVFRORXUDQG
VXUIDFHDFWLYHDJHQWV7KHDWRPL]DWLRQRIWKHPRLVWHQLQJDJHQWFDQEHFDUULHGRXWE\
PHDQVRIQR]]OHVRUDURWDU\DWRPL]HU,IDURWDU\DWRPL]HUZLWKWZRIHHGSLSHVLVXVHG
LWLVSRVVLEOHWRXVHDFRPELQDWLRQRIVWHDPDQGZDWHURUXVHWZRPRLVWHQLQJDJHQWV
ZKLFKFDQQRWEHPL[HGIRUYDULRXVUHDVRQV
,IWKHSURGXFWLVLQVROXEOHDQDGKHVLYHFDQEHGLVVROYHGLQWKHPRLVWHQLQJDJHQW
:KHQGRLQJVRSURGXFWVRWKHUZLVHLPSRVVLEOHWRDJJORPHUDWHFDQEHDJJORPHUDWHG
ZLWKDJRRGUHVXOW
$JJORPHUDWLRQ
$JJORPHUDWLRQZKHUHE\WKHPRLVWVWLFN\SDUWLFOHVFROOLGHGXHWRWKHWXUEXOHQFHDQG
DGKHUHWRHDFKRWKHUIRUPLQJDJJORPHUDWHVLVHVVHQWLDOIRUWKHUHZHWSURFHVV



1,52$6

Warm water

Warm air

)LJ)HHGV\VWHPIRUDUHZHWSODQW ZHWWLQJE\PHDQVRI
ZDUPZDWHUDWRPL]HGE\DQDWRPL]HU 




1,52$6

$VSRZGHUVZLWKGLIIHUHQWFRPSRVLWLRQVGRQRWEHKDYHLQWKHVDPHZD\GXULQJWKH
UHZHWWLQJDQGDJJORPHUDWLRQSURFHVVGLIIHUHQWHTXLSPHQWLVQHHGHGWRREWDLQDQRS
WLPDODJJORPHUDWLRQ
,QSULQFLSOHWKHUHDUHWZRZD\VRISHUIRUPLQJWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQ


'URSOHWDJJORPHUDWLRQ
6XUIDFHDJJORPHUDWLRQ




'URSOHW$JJORPHUDWLRQ

,QWKHGURSOHWDJJORPHUDWLRQSURFHVVWKHSRZGHUSDUWLFOHVDUHZHWWHGZLWKGURS
OHWVRIOLTXLGDWRPL]HGE\PHDQVRIDQR]]OHRUDURWDU\DWRPL]HUZKLOHVXV
SHQGHGLQDLUDVGHVFULEHGLQ)LJ7KHSRZGHUPD\HLWKHUEHLQWURGXFHG
DURXQGWKHURWDU\DWRPL]HURUWKHQR]]OHE\PHDQVRIJUDYLW\RUSUHVVXUHDLU
FRQYH\LQJRUIURPEHORZE\PHDQVRISUHVVXUHFRQYH\LQJ

7KHDFWXDODJJORPHUDWLRQWDNHVSODFHE\FROOLVLRQRIWKHVLQJOHSDUWLFOHVZHWWHG
DQGVWLFN\RQWKHVXUIDFHDQGZKHQWKH\UHDFKWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQFKDPEHUZDOO
WKH\ZLOOUROOGRZQZKHUHE\WKHFRPSDFWQHVVRIWKHDJJORPHUDWHVLVREWDLQHG

'URSOHWDJJORPHUDWLRQFDQDOVREHSHUIRUPHGE\VSUD\LQJWKHZHWWLQJDJHQW
WKURXJKDQXPEHURIQR]]OHVSRVLWLRQHGULJKWDERYHWKHIOXLGL]HGSRZGHUOD\HU
LQD9LEUR)OXLGL]HU7RREWDLQVWDEOHDJJORPHUDWHVWKHSRZGHUVKRXOGFRQWDLQ
VXIILFLHQWELQGLQJPDWHULDOOLNHFDUERK\GUDWHV

6RPHSRZGHUV FRQWDLQLQJDKLJKFRQWHQWRIIDWDQGVXJDU EHFRPHVRVWLFN\


ZKHQZHWWHGWKDWKHDY\GHSRVLWVLQWKHFRQLFDOSDUWRIWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQFKDP
EHUGHYHORS$PHFKDQLFDOO\UHYROYLQJVFUDSHURUVLPLODULVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\
LQRUGHUWRJHWWKHSRZGHURXWRIWKHFKDPEHU$QRWKHUDQGWHFKQLFDOO\EHWWHUVR
OXWLRQLVWROHWWKHFRQLFDOSDUWRIWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQFKDPEHUURWDWHVORZO\DQG
KDYHDVWDWLRQDU\VFUDSLQJGHYLFHVXFKDVDNQLIHVFUDSLQJRIIWKHSRZGHU7KH
URWDWLQJFRQHLVPDLQO\XVHGZKHQWKHSRZGHUFRQWDLQVFHUHDOVDQGVWDUFKVXFK
DVEDE\IRRGV

7KHGURSOHWDJJORPHUDWLRQSURFHVVLVHVSHFLDOO\XVHGIRUSRZGHUVFRQWDLQLQJIDW
VXFKDVZKROHPLONSRZGHUDQGSRZGHUVZLWKDKLJKFRQWHQWRIVXJDUVXFKDV
FRFRDPLONVXJDUPL[WXUHV,IFROGZDWHULQVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHULVSUR
GXFHGDOHFLWKLQGRVLQJHTXLSPHQWLVLQVWDOOHGEHWZHHQWZR9LEUR)OXLGL]HUV
VHHSDJH +RZHYHULWVKRXOGEHPHQWLRQHGWKDWWKHILQDOSURGXFWTXDOLW\
ZLOOQHYHUEHDVJRRGDVWKDWSURGXFHGRQDGU\LQJSODQWHTXLSSHGZLWKILQHVUH
WXUQIOXLGEHGVDQGOHFLWKLQGRVLQJHTXLSPHQW

6XUIDFH$JJORPHUDWLRQ

,QWKHVXUIDFHDJJORPHUDWLRQHLWKHUVWHDPRUZDUPPRLVWDLUZLWKDKLJKUHODWLYH
KXPLGLW\LVXVHGDVWKHPRLVWHQLQJDJHQW7KHVXUIDFHRIWKHLQGLYLGXDOGU\SDU



1,52$6

Product

Water

Warm air

)LJ)HHGV\VWHPIRUDUHZHWSODQW:HWWLQJE\PHDQVRIZDUPPRLVWDLU




1,52$6

WLFOHVLVZHWWHGGXHWRFRQGHQVDWLRQRIWKHZDWHUYDSRXURQWKHFROGHUSDUWLFOHV
ZKHUHE\WKHVWLFNLQHVVUHTXLUHGIRUWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQLVFUHDWHG7KHVXEVHTXHQW
DJJORPHUDWLRQZLOOWDNHSODFHLIWKHSDUWLFOHVDUHH[SRVHGWRVXIILFLHQWPHFKDQL
FDOLPSDFW7KHLPSDFWFDQIRUH[DPSOHEHDFFRPSOLVKHGLQDYRUWH[WXEHLQWR
ZKLFKWKHPRLVWHQLQJPHGLXPLVLQWURGXFHGWDQJHQWLDOO\DQGWKHSRZGHUWREH
DJJORPHUDWHGDORQJWKHFHQWUHD[LV,WLVYHU\LPSRUWDQWWKDWWKHKXPLGDLUVWHDP
XVHGIRUWKHUHZHWWLQJGRHVQRWFRQWDLQDQ\GURSOHWVRIZDWHUDVWKDWLQFRPEL
QDWLRQZLWKWKHLQWHQVLYHPHFKDQLFDOLPSDFWZLOOUHVXOWLQRYHUZHWWHGDJJORP
HUDWHVEHLQJWRRFRPSDFWIRUDTXLFNUDWHRIUHK\GUDWLRQ


7KHZDUPKXPLGDLULVXVXDOO\PDGHE\VSUD\LQJVWHDPLQWRZDUPDLUDWDJLYHQ
WHPSHUDWXUHWRREWDLQDUHODWLYHKXPLGLW\RI$Q\ZDWHUGURSOHWVDUHUH
PRYHGLQDGHPLVWHUDIWHUZKLFKWKHDLULVKHDWHGIXUWKHUWRJLYHWKHGHVLUHG
UHODWLYHKXPLGLW\%\FKDQJLQJWKHDLUWHPSHUDWXUHSULRUWRWKHVWHDPLQMHFWLRQ
DQGWKHVXEVHTXHQWDLUWHPSHUDWXUHLWLVSRVVLEOHWRREWDLQDLUZLWKDJLYHQWHP
SHUDWXUHDQGUHODWLYHKXPLGLW\6HH)LJ

7KHVXUIDFHDJJORPHUDWLRQLVPDLQO\XVHGIRUVNLPPLONSRZGHUZKHQODUJHDJ
JORPHUDWHVDUHDLPHGDW7KHILQDOSURGXFWSURSHUWLHVGHSHQGWRDJUHDWH[WHQWRQ
WKHUDZPDWHULDOXVHGIRUWKHUHZHWWLQJDQGEHORZLVVKRZQDVSHFLILFDWLRQIRUD
UHFRPPHQGDEOHEDVLVSRZGHU

















7KHVXUIDFHDJJORPHUDWLRQFDQDOVREHXVHGIRUZKROHPLONSRZGHUEXWWKHDJ
JORPHUDWHVJHWWRRFRPSDFWIRUREWDLQLQJDSRZGHUZLWKJRRGUHK\GUDWLQJSURS
HUWLHV

%XONGHQVLW\WDSSHG[
JFP
:31,

PJJSRZGHU 
,QVROXELOLW\LQGH[

PO
3DUWLFOHGHQVLW\

JFP
0HDQSDUWLFOHVL]H

DSSUR[P
$PRXQWDERYHP

PD[
 FRUUHVSRQGLQJWRDSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHRI
&SULRUWRHYDSRUDWLRQ

5HGU\LQJ
$VWKHEDVLVSRZGHUXVHGIRUDJJORPHUDWLRQLVUHPRLVWHQHGWRREWDLQWKHGHVLUHGVXU
IDFHFKDUDFWHULVWLFIRUDQRSWLPDOVWLFNLQHVVWKLVDGGLWLRQDOPRLVWXUHKDVWREHHYDSR
UDWHGDJDLQLQRUGHUWRUHDFKWKHVSHFLILHGPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW
7KHDJJORPHUDWHVPD\EUHDNGRZQDJDLQLIWKH\DUHH[SRVHGWRH[WHQVLYHPHFKDQLFDO
KDQGOLQJVXFKDVLQDSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP,WLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\WRSHU
IRUPWKHGU\LQJLQD9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDVPHQWLRQHGRQSDJH+RZHYHUDVWKHUH
ZHWWHGSRZGHULVWREHFRPSDUHGWRDOD\HURIZHWVQRZZKHQHQWHULQJWKH9LEUR



1,52$6

Water

Steam /water

Raw material

)LJ1LURPXOWLSXUSRVHUHZHWDJJORPHUDWLRQSODQW




1,52$6

)OXLGL]HUDUHODWLYHO\KLJKDLUYHORFLW\LVUHTXLUHGWRIOXLGL]HWKHSRZGHU2WKHUZLVH
OXPSVZLOOEHIRUPHGDQGWKHGU\LQJHIILFLHQF\RIWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUZLOOGHFUHDVH
&RROLQJ
/LNHWKHUHGU\LQJWKHFRROLQJLVSHUIRUPHGEHVWLQD9LEUR)OXLGL]HU
6L]LQJ
8VXDOO\WKHUHLVDZHOOGHILQHGUHTXLUHPHQWWRWKHDJJORPHUDWHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKH
ILQDOSRZGHU,WLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\WRVLIWWKHSRZGHU7KLVLVGRQHLQDVLHYHZLWK
WZRGLIIHUHQWQHWVL]HVSODFHGDERYHHDFKRWKHU7KXVLWLVSRVVLEOHWRUHPRYHDQ\DJ
JORPHUDWHVOXPSVFRQVLGHUHGWREHWRRELJLQWKHILQDOSURGXFW7KLVRYHUVL]HIUDFWLRQ
PD\EHPLOOHGDQGUHWXUQHGWRWKHSURFHVV3RZGHUSDVVLQJWKURXJKWKHXSSHUQHWPD\
EHIXUWKHUIUDFWLRQDWHGRQWKHORZHUQHWLQWRDPDLQIUDFWLRQDQGDILQHVIUDFWLRQFRQ
VLVWLQJRIVLQJOHSDUWLFOHVDQGDJJORPHUDWHVEHLQJWRRVPDOO7KLVILQHVIUDFWLRQLVWR
JHWKHUZLWKWKHF\FORQHIUDFWLRQIURPWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUUHF\FOHGEDFNWRWKHSURFHVV
7KHDFWXDOSRZGHUIHHGLQJV\VWHPFRQVLVWVRIDVLORDQGDVFUHZFRQYH\RUZLWKYDUL
DEOHVSHHG7KHSRZGHULVE\PHDQVRIDURWDU\EORZWKURXJKYDOYHIHGLQWRDKLJK
SUHVVXUHDLUOLQHFRQYH\LQJWKHSRZGHUWRWKHDJJORPHUDWLQJPRGXOH
,WLVXVXDOO\DUHTXLUHPHQWWRPRVWUHZHWLQVWDOODWLRQVWKDWWKH\DUHSURGXFWIOH[LEOH
7KHUHIRUHERWKGURSOHWDQGVXUIDFHDJJORPHUDWLRQPHWKRGVDUHRIWHQLQVWDOOHGLQWKH
VDPHSODQW7KHURWDWLQJFRQHPD\DOVRHDVLO\EHLQFRUSRUDWHGLQWKHSODQWWKXVJLYLQJ
WKHSRVVLELOLW\RIDJJORPHUDWLQJDQ\PLONEDVHGSURGXFW/HFLWKLQDWLRQPD\QDWXUDOO\
DOVREHDSSOLHGWRWKLVSURFHVVLIFROGZDWHUIDWFRQWDLQLQJSURGXFWVDUHDLPHGDW,Q
)LJDIORZVKHHWRIDUHZHWSODQW1,52GHVLJQLVVKRZQZLWKWKHSRVVLELOLW\RIDOO
DERYHPHQWLRQHGDJJORPHUDWLRQV\VWHPV




)LJ3UHKHDWLQJE\PHDQVRIFRQGHQVDWH

Condensate

Steam

1,52$6






1,52$6

+HDW(FRQRP\RID0LON3RZGHU
3URGXFWLRQ/LQH

+DYLQJGLVFXVVHGWKHPDLQIDFWRUVLQIOXHQFLQJWKHKHDWHFRQRP\RIWKHLQGLYLGXDO
HTXLSPHQWZHFDQQRZORRNDWWKHFRPSOH[SURGXFWLRQOLQHZKHUHDFRQVLGHUDEOH
DPRXQWRIKHDWLVGLVSRVHGRILQWRWKHHQYLURQPHQWLQIRUPRIZDUPFRQGHQVDWHIURP
WKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGZDUPDLUIURPWKHVSUD\GU\HU7KHUHDUHVHYHUDOSRVVLELOLWLHVRI
XWLOL]LQJWKLVHQHUJ\
3UHKHDWLQJ
 +HDWUHFXSHUDWLRQ
 2WKHUPHDQVRIVDYLQJHQHUJ\



3UHKHDWLQJ
3UHKHDWLQJWKH'U\LQJ$LUZLWK&RQGHQVDWH
)URPDQHYDSRUDWRUZLWK795UHFRPSUHVVLRQDVXEVWDQWLDODPRXQWRIFRQGHQVDWHLV
GLVFKDUJHGZLWKDWHPSHUDWXUHRI&GHSHQGLQJXSRQIURPZKLFKVWDJHRIWKH
HYDSRUDWRULWRULJLQDWHV
$VLPSOHPHWKRGLVWRXWLOL]HWKLVHQHUJ\IRUSUHKHDWLQJWKHGU\LQJDLU7KHFRQGHQVDWH
IURPWKHILUVWHIIHFWRIWKHHYDSRUDWRUZLWKWHPSHUDWXUHRIDERXW&LVQRUPDOO\UH
WXUQHGWRWKHVWHDPERLOHUZKHUHLWLVXVHGDVIHHGZDWHU7KLVLVDGYDQWDJHRXVEH
FDXVHLWLVZDUPDQGVRIW%XWWKHFRQGHQVDWHIURPWKHODVWHIIHFWVFDQEHXVHG7KH
WHPSHUDWXUHLVW\SLFDOO\&VHH)LJ
)URPDIRXUHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRURSHUDWLQJLQFRQMXQFWLRQZLWKDWZRVWDJHVSUD\GU\HUDW
DGU\LQJWHPSHUDWXUHRI&DVGHVFULEHGRQSDJHDERXWNJKFRQGHQ
VDWHDW&FDQEHREWDLQHG
7KHGU\LQJDLULVSUHKHDWHGWR&UHGXFLQJWKHIXHORLOFRQVXPSWLRQWRNJK
KRZHYHUDELJJHUFRQGHQVDWHSXPSDQGVXSSO\IDQDUHQHHGHGGXHWRWKHELJJHUSUHV
VXUHGURSDFURVVWKHV\VWHP%HORZPHQWLRQHGILJXUHVLOOXVWUDWHWKHWRWDOQHWVDYLQJ



$PELHQWDLUSUHKHDWHGIURP&WR&
&RQGHQVDWHFRROHGIURP&WR&



1,52$6




1,52$6

:LWKRXW3UHKHDWHU
)XHOFRQVXPSWLRQ
NJK
6WHDPFRQVXPSWLRQ
NJK
(OHFWULFHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ
N:
FRUUHVSRQGLQJWR.FDONJSRZGHU







:LWK3UHKHDWHU

)XHOFRQVXPSWLRQ
NJK

6WHDPFRQVXPSWLRQ
NJK

(OHFWULFHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ
N:

FRUUHVSRQGLQJWR.FDONJSRZGHU

RUDQHWVDYLQJRI

$QRWKHUDGYDQWDJHLVWKDWWKHFRQGHQVDWHLVFRROHGWR&DQGFDQWKXVEHOHGGLUHFW
LQWRDEDFWHULRORJLFDOZDVWHZDWHUFOHDQLQJSODQWZKHUHWRRKLJKWHPSHUDWXUHVDUHQRW
DOORZHG
,IZHFRPSDUHZLWKWKHVDYLQJLQDRQHVWDJHGU\HULWZLOODPRXQWWRDERXW
,Q095HYDSRUDWRUVZLWKSUHKHDWLQJKHDWWUHDWPHQWRIWKHPLONIURP&WR&WKH
DSSOLHGHQHUJ\WKURXJKWKHFRPSUHVVRULVMXVWHQRXJKIRUWKHHYDSRUDWLRQDQGDGLV
FKDUJHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHDW&DQGWKHFRQGHQVDWHDW&2QO\LID
KHDWWUHDWPHQWKLJKHUWKDQ&E\XVLQJDGGLWLRQDOVWHDPLVZDQWHGWKHWHPSHUD
WXUHRIWKHFRQGHQVDWHZLOOEHKLJKHQRXJKVRWKDWLWFDQEHXVHGIRUSUHKHDWLQJWKH
GU\LQJDLU


3UHKHDWLQJWKH'U\LQJ$LUZLWK9DSRXUIURPWKH(YDSRUDWRU

7KHYDSRXUIURPWKHODVWHIIHFWRIWKHHYDSRUDWRU WHPS& LVXVXDOO\SDVVHG


WKURXJKDWXEXODUKHDWH[FKDQJHUZKHUHWKHYDSRXULVFRROHGE\PHDQVRIWKHFROGLQ
FRPLQJSURGXFWZKLFKLVUHKHDWHG7KHSUHFRROHGYDSRXULVSDVVHGRQWRDFRQGHQVHU
ZKHUHLWLVFRQGHQVHGXVLQJFRROLQJZDWHUHLWKHUIURPDFRROLQJWRZHURUDQDWXUDOZD
WHUUHVHUYRLU
,WLVDQREYLRXVLGHDWRXWLOL]HWKHGU\LQJDLULQVWHDGRIFRROLQJZDWHULQDKHDWH[
FKDQJHUIRUFRQGHQVLQJWKHYDSRXUVLPXOWDQHRXVO\SUHKHDWLQJWKHGU\LQJDLU
,QWKHIRXUHIIHFWHYDSRUDWRURSHUDWLQJLQFRQMXQFWLRQZLWKWKHWZRVWDJHVSUD\GU\HU
DWDGU\LQJWHPSHUDWXUHRI&DVGHVFULEHGRQSDJHWKHUHLVDSSUR[LPDWHO\
NJKYDSRXUZLWKDWHPSHUDWXUHRIDERXW&DYDLODEOH+RZHYHUE\PHDQVRI
NJKDLUDW&LWLVRQO\SRVVLEOHWRFRQGHQVHNJK7KHUHIRUHDQDGGL
WLRQDOFRQGHQVHURSHUDWHGZLWKZDWHULVQHFHVVDU\$QRWKHULQFRQYHQLHQFHRIWKLV
V\VWHPLVWKDWWKHDGGLWLRQDOFRQGHQVHUVKRXOGKDYHVXIILFLHQWFDSDFLW\WRFRSHZLWK
WKHH[WUDGXW\LQFDVHWKHDPELHQWWHPSHUDWXUHLQFUHDVHV)XUWKHUGXULQJVWDUWXSRI



1,52$6

)LJ+XPLGLW\FKDUWIRUDLUZDWHU VHWRIDGLDEDWLFFXUYHV
EDVHGRQZDWHURI& 




1,52$6

WKHHYDSRUDWRULWLVQHFHVVDU\WRKDYHDWOHDVWWKHIDQVRIWKHVSUD\GU\HURSHUDWLQJWR
JHWVWDEOHFRQGLWLRQVLQWKHHYDSRUDWRU7KHUHIRUHWKLVZD\RIVDYLQJHQHUJ\LQWKH
VSUD\GU\HULVQRWXVHGLQSUDFWLFHEXWRQO\LQFOXGHGDVWKHUHLVDSDWHQWGHVFULELQJLW
DVDSRVVLELOLW\


+HDW5HFXSHUDWLRQ
:HW6FUXEEHU
7KHKHDWFRQWDLQHGLQWKHH[KDXVWDLUFDQEHUHFRYHUHGLQGLIIHUHQWZD\V,IWKHZHW
VFUXEEHUGHVFULEHGRQSDJHLVRSHUDWLQJZLWKPLONRUZKH\DVZDVKLQJPHGLXP
DQHYDSRUDWLRQLVDFKLHYHG7KHPDLQSXUSRVHRIDZHWVFUXEEHULVRIFRXUVHWRSUHYHQW
DLUSROOXWLRQE\UHFRYHULQJWKHSRZGHUFRQWDLQHGLQWKHH[KDXVWDLU+RZHYHULQWKH
VFUXEEHUWKHH[KDXVWDLULVFRROHGIURPWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHWRWKHZHWEXOEWHPSHUD
WXUHLHWRDERXW&WKXVXWLOL]LQJWKHKHDWIRUSUHHYDSRUDWLRQRIWKHPLONEHIRUH
WKLVHQWHUVLQWRWKHHYDSRUDWRU7KHHIIHFWRIWKHZHWVFUXEEHURQWKHWRWDOKHDWHFRQ
RP\RIWKHPLONSRZGHUSURGXFWLRQOLQHLVVXEVWDQWLDODQGWKHVDYLQJVWRJHWKHUZLWK
SURGXFWUHFRYHU\DUHFRYHULQJUXQQLQJFRVWVLQFOXVLYHRIWKHUHODWLYHO\VKRUWUHWXUQRI
WKHLQYHVWPHQW
7RH[SODLQWKHHYDSRUDWLRQSURFHVVDQ,;GLDJUDPLVXVHG6HH)LJ7KHVWDUWLQJ
SRLQWLVWKHFRQGLWLRQRIDLUHQWHULQJWKHVFUXEEHU7KLVDLUZLOOFRQWDLQPRLVWXUHSDUWO\
GXHWRWKHPRLVWXUHDOZD\VSUHVHQWLQDPELHQWDLU XVXDOO\JNJGU\DLU SDUWO\GXHWR
WKHHYDSRUDWHGZDWHUGXULQJWKHGU\LQJSURFHVV HJJNJGU\DLUDVLQWKHSUHYLRXV
FDVHZLWKWKHWZRVWDJHVSUD\GU\HURSHUDWHGDW&VHHSDJH 7KHVXPZLOOEH
DURXQGJPRLVWXUHNJGU\DLU SRLQW$ :LWKDQRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKH
GU\HULQOHWWHPSHUDWXUHWRWKHVFUXEEHURI&DQGRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHIURPWKHVFUXE
EHURI&ZHZLOOJHWDPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRIJNJGU\DLU SRLQW% DVWKHFXUYH
ZLOOIROORZWKHDGLDEDWLFOLQHV7KHHYDSRUDWLRQLVWKHUHIRUHJJ JPRLV
WXUHNJGU\DLU
$VZHKDYHDERXWNJKDLULQFOXGLQJWKHDLUIURPWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUZHJHW
DQHYDSRUDWLRQRIDERXWNJKFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRRIWKHWRWDOZDWHUHYDSRUDWLRQ
LQWKHGHK\GUDWLRQV\VWHP
7KHKHDWVDYLQJVDUHKRZHYHUDFKLHYHGRQO\LIWKHZHWVFUXEEHUFDQRSHUDWHZLWKWKH
SURGXFWDVVFUXEELQJPHGLXPZKLFKLVWKHFDVHZLWKVNLPPLONDQGZKH\:DWHULV
XVHGZKHQZKROHPLONSRZGHULVSURGXFHG
7KHWHPSHUDWXUHLQWKHVFUXEEHURIIHUVIDYRXUDEOHFRQGLWLRQVIRUEDFWHULDOFRQWDPLQD
WLRQ7KHVFUXEEHUVKRXOGWKHUHIRUHEHXVHGRQO\ZKHQPLONRIILUVWFODVVLVDYDLODEOH
,IWKHHTXLSPHQWLVRSHUDWHGDFFRUGLQJWRWKHLQVWUXFWLRQPDQXDOZKLFKGHVFULEHVLQ



1,52$6




1,52$6

WHUPHGLDWHFOHDQLQJDIWHUKRXUVWKHEDFWHULRORJLFDODFWLYLW\ZLOOEHPLQLPDODVWKH
UHWHQWLRQWLPHLVFRQVLGHUDEO\OHVVWKDQWKHJHQHUDWLRQWLPHRIWKHEDFWHULD
$VLWZDVWKHFDVHZLWKSUHKHDWLQJZLWKFRQGHQVDWHWKHZHWVFUXEEHURIIHUVDPXOWLSOH
DGYDQWDJHDVEHVLGHVWKHKHDWUHFXSHUDWLRQLWVROYHVWKHSROOXWLRQSUREOHPDQGIXUWKHU
WKHV\VWHPKDVDVXEVWDQWLDOHYDSRUDWLRQFDSDFLW\3DUWRIWKHDGYDQWDJHLVKRZHYHU
ORVWDJDLQGXHWRWKHQHHGHGLQWHUPHGLDWHFOHDQLQJDIWHUKRXUV8VHRIZHWVFUXE
EHUVFLUFXODWHGZLWKSURGXFWLVWKHUHIRUHQRWXVHGYHU\RIWHQLQWKHLQGXVWU\
7KHDERYHPHQWLRQHGV\VWHPVIRUVDYLQJHQHUJ\DSDUWIURPWZRVWDJHGU\LQJKDYHDOO
UHTXLUHGWKDWWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGVSUD\GU\HUDUHRSHUDWHGDWWKHVDPHWLPH+RZHYHU
LQVRPHFDVHVRQO\WKHVSUD\GU\HULVRSHUDWHG$WWHPSWVKDYHWKHUHIRUHEHHQPDGHWR
GHYHORSDKHDWUHFXSHUDWRUIRUWKHVSUD\GU\HUDORQH


+HDW5HFXSHUDWRUV
7KHDLPLQDKHDWUHFXSHUDWRULVWRWUDQVIHUWKHKHDWFRQWDLQHGLQWKHRXWOHWDLUKDYLQJ
WHPSHUDWXUHVRI&IURPWKHVSUD\GU\HUDQGWRXWLOL]HLWHJWRSUHKHDWWKHGU\
LQJDLU%XWLWLVDOVRSRVVLEOHWRXVHWKHUHFXSHUDWHGKHDWWRKHDWZDWHUIRUFOHDQLQJ
SXUSRVHVRUDLUIRUKHDWLQJURRPV,QWKHIROORZLQJRQO\SUHKHDWLQJRIWKHGU\LQJDLULV
GLVFXVVHG
,QSULQFLSOHWKHUHDUHWZRGLIIHUHQWUHFXSHUDWLQJV\VWHPV


$LUWR$LU

$LU/LTXLG$LU

%RWKV\VWHPVDUHLQFRUSRUDWHGDIWHUWKHILQHVVHSDUDWRU+RZHYHULQFRUSRUDWLQJDEDJ
ILOWHUSULRUWRWKHKHDWUHFXSHUDWRULQFUHDVHVWKHHIILFLHQF\DVGHSRVLWVRQWKHKHDWVXU
IDFHFDQQRWEHFRPSOHWHO\DYRLGHGHYHQZLWKFRUUHFWO\VHOHFWHGDLUYHORFLWLHVLQWKH
GXVWORDGHGDLU,WLVSRVVLEOHWRRSHUDWHWKHUHFXSHUDWRUVHYHUDOGD\VZLWKRXWFOHDQLQJ
EXWVKRXOGLWSURYHQHFHVVDU\WRFOHDQWKHHTXLSPHQWWKLVLVGRQHE\PHDQVRIDEXLOW
LQ&,3V\VWHP
,IWKHKHDWUHFXSHUDWRULVGHVLJQHGWRFRROWKHRXWJRLQJDLUEHORZWKHFRQGHQVDWLRQ
WHPSHUDWXUH GHSHQGLQJXSRQPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWSHUNLORGU\DLU DOVRWKHFRQGHQVDWLRQ
HQWKDOS\LVXVHGIRUSUHKHDWLQJ,QWKLVFDVHDEDJILOWHULVLQVWDOOHGSULRUWRWKHKHDWUH
FXSHUDWRUWRDYRLGGHSRVLWVLQWKHLQWHUPHGLDWH]RQHEHWZHHQWKHGU\DQGZHWDUHD
(YHQELJJHUVDYLQJVDUHWKHQSRVVLEOHWKDQWKHRQHVGHVFULEHGEHORZZKLFKDUHDOO
FDOFXODWHGZLWKRXWFRQGHQVDWLRQ




1,52$6

Warm air

Cooled air

Preheated air

Cold air

CIP return

CIP in

)LJ+HDWUHFXSHUDWRUW\SHDLUWRDLU


)LJ2QHVWDJHVSUD\GU\HUZLWKKHDWUHFXSHUDWRUW\SHDLUWRDLU




1,52$6


$LUWR$LU+HDW5HFXSHUDWRU
,QWKHKHDWUHFXSHUDWRUW\SHDLUWRDLUVHH)LJWKHGU\LQJDLULVSUHKHDWHGE\PHDQV
RIWKHRXWJRLQJDLUSDVVLQJFRXQWHUFXUUHQWO\RYHUWKHKHDWVXUIDFHRIWKHUHFXSHUDWRU
7KLVVXUIDFHLVIRUPHGDVDQXPEHURIWXEHVLQVLGHRIZKLFKWKHRXWJRLQJZDUPDLULV
SDVVLQJZKLOHWKHFROGDLULVSDVVLQJRQWKHRXWVLGH
7KHLQFRUSRUDWLRQRIWKLVHTXLSPHQWLQDQH[LVWLQJSODQWPD\SURYHGLIILFXOWDQGH[
SHQVLYHDVLWPD\UHTXLUHODUJHDQGORQJDLUGXFWVIURPZKLFKSDUWRIWKHUHFXSHUDWHG
HQHUJ\LVORVWGXHWRUDGLDWLRQLIWKHGXFWVDUHQRWLQVXODWHG,QQHZLQVWDOODWLRQVLWLV
HDVLHUWRLQFRUSRUDWHWKLVW\SHRIKHDWUHFXSHUDWRUDVWKHDUUDQJHPHQWFDQEHRSWL
PL]HGZLWKVKRUWDLUGXFWV6HH)LJ
7KHWHPSHUDWXUHWRZKLFKWKHDLUFDQEHSUHKHDWHGGHSHQGVXSRQWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRI
WKHRXWJRLQJDLU7KHUHIRUHWKLVW\SHRIKHDWUHFXSHUDWRULVPRVWEHQHILFLDOLQFRPEL
QDWLRQZLWKDRQHVWDJHVSUD\GU\HUZKHUHWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHRXWJRLQJDLULVKLJK
7KHILJXUHVPHQWLRQHGEHORZDUHEDVHGXSRQDRQHVWDJHSODQWDVPHQWLRQHGLQWKHWD
EOHRQSDJH















$PELHQWDLUSUHKHDWHGIURP&WR&
2XWJRLQJDLUFRROHGIURP&WR&

:LWKRXW5HFXSHUDWRU
)XHOFRQVXPSWLRQ
NJK
(OHFWULFHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ
N:
FRUUHVSRQGLQJWR.FDONJSRZGHU
:LWK5HFXSHUDWRU
)XHOFRQVXPSWLRQ
NJK
(OHFWULFHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ
N:
FRUUHVSRQGLQJWR.FDONJSRZGHU
RUDQHWVDYLQJRI

$LU/LTXLG$LU+HDW5HFXSHUDWRU
$QRWKHUV\VWHPPRUHIOH[LEOHUHJDUGLQJWKHLQVWDOODWLRQLVWKHDLUOLTXLGDLUKHDWUH
FXSHUDWRUVHH)LJ7KLVV\VWHPLVGLYLGHGLQWZRKHDWH[FKDQJHUVLQEHWZHHQ
ZKLFKDKHDWWUDQVIHUOLTXLGLVFLUFXODWHGIRUH[DPSOHZDWHU6HH)LJD,IGXHWR
ORZDLUWHPSHUDWXUHVGXULQJZLQWHULWPD\EHH[SHFWHGWKDWWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHZD
WHUJHWVEHORZ]HURDQDQWLIUHH]HDJHQWLVDGGHGWRWKHZDWHU$VWKHKHDWWUDQVIHUFR
HIILFLHQWLVKLJKHUIRUDLUOLTXLGWKDQIRUDLUDLUWKLVV\VWHPLVPRUHHIILFLHQWWKDQWKH
DLUWRDLUKHDWUHFXSHUDWRUGHVSLWHWKHIDFWWKDWWZRKHDWVXUIDFHVDUHQHHGHG
7KHKHDWWUDQVIHUVXUIDFHSODFHGLQWKHRXWJRLQJDLULVIRUPHGDVDEXQGOHRIWXEHVLQ
VLGHZKLFKWKHGXVWORDGHGDLULVSDVVHG2QWKHRXWVLGHRIWKHWXEHVWKHZDWHUVWUHDPV



1,52$6

Warm air

Preheated air

Cold air

CIP return

Cooled air
CIP in

)LJ+HDWUHFXSHUDWRUW\SHDLUOLTXLGDLU


)LJD2QHVWDJHVSUD\GU\HUZLWKKHDWUHFXSHUDWRUW\SHDLUOLTXLGDLU



1,52$6

FRXQWHUFXUUHQWO\7KHKHDWWUDQVIHUVXUIDFHSODFHGLQWKHLQOHWDLULVDQRUPDOILQQHG
WXEHKHDWH[FKDQJHU:DWHULVUHF\FOHGE\PHDQVRIDFHQWULIXJDOSXPS
,IDUHFXSHUDWRURIWKLVW\SHLVLQVWDOOHGLQDRQHVWDJHVSUD\GU\HUWKHEHORZPHQ
WLRQHGKHDWVDYLQJVDUHSRVVLEOH

$PELHQWDLUSUHKHDWHGIURP&WR&

2XWJRLQJDLUFRROHGIURP&WR&



:LWKRXW5HFXSHUDWRU

)XHOFRQVXPSWLRQ
NJK

(OHFWULFHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ
N:

FRUUHVSRQGLQJWR.FDONJSRZGHU



:LWK5HFXSHUDWRU

)XHOFRQVXPSWLRQ
NJK

(OHFWULFHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQ
N:

FRUUHVSRQGLQJWR.FDONJSRZGHU

RUDQHWVDYLQJRI

,ILQGLUHFWRLORUJDVILUHGDLUKHDWHUVDUHXVHGWKHKHDWWUDQVIHUOLTXLGFDQDIWHUWKH
SDVVDJHWKURXJKWKHH[KDXVWDLUKHDWH[FKDQJHUEHSDVVHGWKURXJKDKHDWH[FKDQJHU
SODFHGLQWKHFRPEXVWLRQDLUGXFWZKHUHE\HYHQIXUWKHUVDYLQJVFDQEHDFKLHYHG



2WKHU0HDQVRI6DYLQJ(QHUJ\
:KHQDQHZPLONSRZGHUIDFWRU\LVGHVLJQHGWKHUHLVDYHU\VLPSOHPHWKRGRISUH
KHDWLQJWKHGU\LQJDLUQDPHO\E\ORFDWLQJWKHDLULQOHWILOWHUVLQVLGHWKHEXLOGLQJZKHUH
WKHGU\HULV7KHQWKHLQFRPLQJDLULVSLFNLQJXSWKHUDGLDWLRQKHDWIURPWKHGU\HUDQG
SRVVLEO\DOVRIURPWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGRWKHUHTXLSPHQWHVSHFLDOO\LIWKHDLULQOHWWRWKH
EXLOGLQJLVSODFHGDWWKHWRSDQGWKHDLUILOWHULVSODFHGDWWKHERWWRPRIWKHEXLOGLQJRU
YLFHYHUVD$SRWHQWLDOGLVDGYDQWDJHRIWKLVPHWKRGLVWKHGDQJHUWKDWWKHFROGDLUIURP
RXWVLGHPD\KLWDQGFRROVRPHSDUWVXQGHVLUDEO\F\FORQHVIRUH[DPSOHFDXVLQJWKH
ULVNRIFRQGHQVDWLRQDQGGHSRVLWV%HVLGHVWKHLQFRPLQJDLULVSLFNLQJXSQRWRQO\
KHDWEXWDOVRPRLVWXUHUHVXOWLQJLQDQLQFUHDVHLQWKHRXWOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUHZKLFK
PHDQVDORZHUFDSDFLW\
,ILQGLUHFWRLORUJDVILUHGDLUKHDWHUVDUHXVHGLWLVSRVVLEOHWRLQVWDOODSURFHVV
DLUFRPEXVWLRQDLUKHDWUHFXSHUDWRUGLUHFWO\RQWKHDLUKHDWHU7KHFRPEXVWLRQDLUKDV
W\SLFDOO\DWHPSHUDWXUHRI!&EXWWKHTXDQWLW\LQNJKLVORZIXUWKHUWKHUHZLOO
DOZD\VEHDULVNWKDWLQDOHDNLQJKHDWH[FKDQJHUVRPHRIWKHFRPEXVWLRQDLUZLOOHQWHU
WKHSURFHVVOLQHVWUHDP$KHDWH[FKDQJHUZLWKUHF\FOLQJZDWHUFDQEHXVHGDVDQDO
WHUQDWLYH



1,52$6




1,52$6

$OODERYHPHQWLRQHGKHDWH[FKDQJHV\VWHPVZRUNLQWKHVDPHWHPSHUDWXUHOHYHODQG
WKHUHIRUHFDQQRWEHXVHGVLPXOWDQHRXVO\
$QRWKHUZD\RIVDYLQJHQHUJ\LVWRVWDUWXSWKHHTXLSPHQWQHHGHGIRUWKHSURGXFWLRQ
RIPLONSRZGHULQWKHULJKWVHTXHQFHLHWRHQVXUHWKDWWKHVSUD\GU\HULVVWDUWHGVR
ODWHWKDWLWZLOOQRWEHZDLWLQJIRUFRQFHQWUDWHDVDFRQVLGHUDEOHDPRXQWRIHQHUJ\LV
ZDVWHGGXULQJVXFKDZDLWLQJWLPH&RPSXWHUL]HGLQVWUXPHQWDWLRQLQFOXGLQJDXWRPDWLF
VWDUWXSLVDUHPHG\WRRYHUFRPHVXFKSUREOHPV
:KHQPLONSRZGHULVVROGLWZLOODOZD\VKDYHWRIXOILOPD[LPXPPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWV
ZKLFKLQPRVWFDVHVLVIRUVNLPPLONSRZGHU'XULQJVWRUDJHRIWKHSRZGHUWKHUH
ZLOODOZD\VEHDFHUWDLQPRLVWXUHDEVRUSWLRQGHSHQGLQJXSRQWKHDPELHQWFRQGLWLRQV
DQGWKHSDFNLQJPDWHULDO7KHSRZGHUWKHUHIRUHKDVWREHPDQXIDFWXUHGDWDORZHU
PRLVWXUHFRQWHQWWRFRPSHQVDWHIRUWKLVDEVRUSWLRQ1HHGOHVVWRVD\WKHFORVHUWKH
PDQXIDFWXUHUFDQJHWWRWKHOLPLWWKHPRUHHQHUJ\LVVDYHGDVWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQ
WKHSRZGHULVGLUHFWUHODWHGWRWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH7KXVKLJKHUPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW
PHDQVPRUHFDSDFLW\.FDO
7KHGHFLVLRQDVWRZKDWKHDWUHFXSHUDWLRQV\VWHPWRVHOHFWGHSHQGVXSRQORFDOFRQGL
WLRQVVXFKDVSULFHVIRUVWHDPRLODQGHOHFWULFLW\)XUWKHUGLIIHUHQWOHYHOVRIUDWHRILQ
WHUHVWVKRXOGEHWDNHQLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQ(DFKFDVHVKRXOGWKHUHIRUHEHFDOFXODWHG
WKRURXJKO\LQRUGHUWRILQGWKHRSWLPDOVROXWLRQWKXVHQVXULQJWKHVKRUWHVWUHWXUQRI
WKHLQYHVWPHQW




1,52$6







1,52$6




$QDO\WLFDO0HWKRGV
5DZ0LON&RQFHQWUDWHDQG
3RZGHU3URSHUWLHV

:KHQSURGXFLQJPLONSRZGHUIRUFRPPHUFLDOXVHLWPXVWFRPSO\ZLWKFHUWDLQVWDQ
GDUGVERWKEDFWHULRORJLFDOFKHPLFDODQGSK\VLFDO2EYLRXVO\WKHTXDOLW\RIWKHILQDO
SRZGHULVDIXQFWLRQRIWKHUDZPLONTXDOLW\,WLVWKHUHIRUHYLWDOIRUDSURILWDEOHSUR
GXFWLRQWRKDYHPLONRIILUVWFODVVDQGWREHDEOHWRDQDO\]HERWKWKHPLONDQGWKH
SRZGHUWRNQRZLIWKH\PHHWWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVYHU\RIWHQGHWHUPLQHGE\RIILFLDOH[
SRUWDXWKRULWLHVRUGLUHFWE\WKHJRYHUQPHQWV
,QWKLVFKDSWHUWKHPRVWFRPPRQDQDO\WLFDOPHWKRGVDUHGHVFULEHGDQGLWLVGLVFXVVHG
KRZWRDOWHUWKHUHOHYDQWSURFHVVLQJSDUDPHWHUVLQRUGHUWRFKDQJHWKHSDUWLFXODUSURS
HUW\WKDWIDLOVWRPHHWWKHVWDQGDUG


5DZ0LON4XDOLW\
6NLPPLON
7KHPLONVKRXOGEHIUHVKDQGVWRUHGDWPD[&IRUPD[KRXUVDIWHUPLONLQJDQG
VKRXOGQRWKDYHKDGDQ\SUHWUHDWPHQWRWKHUWKDQ
6HSDUDWLRQRIFUHDPGHVOXGJLQJE\PHDQVRIDFHQWULIXJH
 2QHKHDWWUHDWPHQWDWPD[&DQGVHF
7KHPLONVKRXOGEHRIDFODVV$TXDOLW\DQGEHIUHHIURPDQ\DGGLWLYHVDQGVXV
SHQGHGVROLGV ILOWHUHGPLFURQV ZLWKDW\SLFDOVSHFLILFDWLRQDVGHWDLOHGEHORZ














7RWDOVROLGV
7RWDOSODWHFRXQW
7KHUPRSKLOHFRXQW
7KHUPRSKLOHVSRUHFRXQW
6HGLPHQWWHVW
S+ 

7LWUDWDEOHDFLGLW\
7UXHODFWLFDFLG
3URWHLQFRQWHQW
)DWFRQWHQW
1RQFRQGHQVDEOHJDVHV

DSSUR[
PD[PO
PD[PO
PD[PO
PD[PJ
EHWZHHQDQG
PD[DVODFWLFDFLG
PD[PJJ
EHWZHHQDQGRQ61)
PD[
PD[E\ZHLJKW




1,52$6




1,52$6

:KROH0LON
7KHPLONPXVWEHIUHVKDQGVWRUHGDWPD[&IRUPD[KRXUVDIWHUPLONLQJDQG
PXVWQRWKDYHKDGDQ\SUHWUHDWPHQWRWKHUWKDQ
6HSDUDWLRQRIFUHDPGHVOXGJLQJE\PHDQVRIDFHQWULIXJH
6WDQGDUGL]DWLRQRIIDWFRQWHQWE\VHSDUDWLRQRIFUHDPDQGRUDGGLWLRQRIVNLPPLON
 2QHKHDWWUHDWPHQWDWPD[&DQGVHF
7KHPLONVKRXOGEHRIDFODVV$TXDOLW\DQGEHIUHHIURPDQ\DGGLWLYHV DSDUWIURP
IUHVKFUHDPIRUVWDQGDUGL]DWLRQ DQGVXVSHQGHGVROLGV ILOWHUHGPLFURQV ZLWKD
W\SLFDOVSHFLILFDWLRQDVGHWDLOHGEHORZ















7RWDOVROLGV
7RWDOSODWHFRXQW
7KHUPRSKLOHFRXQW
7KHUPRSKLOHVSRUHFRXQW
6HGLPHQWWHVW
S+ 

7LWUDWDEOHDFLGLW\
7UXHODFWLFDFLG
3URWHLQFRQWHQW
)DWFRQWHQW
1RQFRQGHQVDEOHJDVHV

DSSUR[
PD[PO
PD[PO
PD[PO
PD[PJ
EHWZHHQDQG
PD[DVODFWLFDFLG
PD[PJPO
EHWZHHQDQGRQ61)
PD[RQWRWDOVROLGV
PD[E\ZHLJKW

6ZHHW:KH\
7KHZKH\RULJLQDWHVIURPWKHSURGXFWLRQRIFKHHVHPDGHIURPIUHVKFRZ
VPLONIUHH
IURPDQ\DGGLWLYHV7KHZKH\ZLOOKDYHKDGRQHVLQJOHSUHWUHDWPHQWEHLQJVHSDUDWLRQ
RIIDWDQGLQVROXEOHSDUWLFOHV
7KHVZHHWZKH\ZLOOW\SLFDOO\FRUUHVSRQGWRWKHIROORZLQJVSHFLILFDWLRQ













7RWDOVROLGV
&XUGILQHVWHVW
S+ 

7LWUDWDEOHDFLGLW\
7UXHODFWLFDFLG
)DWFRQWHQW
/DFWRVHFRQWHQW
3URWHLQFRQWHQW
&DOFLXPFRQWHQW
0DJQHVLXPFRQWHQW
&KORULGHFRQWHQW
1RQFRQGHQVDEOHJDVHV

DSSUR[
PD[PJNJ
PLQ
PD[DVODFWLFDFLG
PD[PJJ
PD[
PLQPD[RQ61)
PLQRQ61)
PD[SSP
PD[SSP
PD[PJO
PD[E\ZHLJKW

:KHQWKHZKH\LVVWRUHGEHWZHHQWKHFKHHVHIDFWRU\DQGWKHHYDSRUDWLRQSURFHVVDWD
WHPSHUDWXUHH[FHHGLQJ&WKHQWKHVWRUDJHWLPHVKRXOGQRWH[FHHGRQHKRXU,IWKH
VWRUDJHWHPSHUDWXUHLVEHORZ&WKHQWKHVWRUDJHWLPHVKRXOGQRWH[FHHGWHQKRXUV



1,52$6

 1D2+
VWUHQJWK

$FLGLW\







































1

6+






































1

17K








































1
'







































$OFDOLFRQYHUWHGWR
/DFWLF$FLG





































)LJ&RPSDULVRQRIWLWUDWDEOHDFLGLW\EDVHGRQVROHO\RQDOFDOLFRQVXPSWLRQ




1,52$6

$QDO\VHVIRU5DZ0LON
$FLGLW\ S+ 
7KHS+LVDPHDVXUHRIWKHK\GURJHQLRQ + DFWLYLW\LQDTXHRXVVROXWLRQV7KHPRVW
H[DFWPHDVXUHRIS+LVREWDLQHGHOHFWURPHWULFDOO\E\PHDQVRIDS+PHWHU7KHS+LQ
QRUPDOIUHVKPLONIURPKHDOWK\FRZVLV9DOXHVKLJKHUWKDQLQGLFDWH
PDVWLWLVLQIHFWLRQVZKHUHDVYDOXHVEHORZLQGLFDWHWKHSUHVHQFHRIFRORVWUXPRU
EDFWHULDOGHWHULRUDWLRQ0LONZLWKGHYLDWLQJS+VKRXOGEHUHMHFWHGIURPWKHPLONSRZ
GHUSURGXFWLRQDVWKHKHDWVWDELOLW\PRVWSUREDEO\ZLOOEHLQIHULRU


7LWUDWDEOH$FLGLW\
7KHDFLGLW\LQPLONLVPHDVXUHGIRUH[DPSOHE\WLWUDWLRQZLWKDQ1D2+VROXWLRQ
DQGLQGLFDWHVWKHFRQVXPSWLRQRI1D2+QHFHVVDU\WRVKLIWWKHS+YDOXHIURP
 FRUUHVSRQGLQJWRIUHVKPLON WRDS+YDOXHRI SKHQROSKWKDOHLQ 
/DFWLFDFLGLVDQRUJDQLFDFLGZLWKRQHFDUER[\OLFDFLG&+&+2+&22+KDYLQJD
PROHFXODUZHLJKWRI2QHPOQ1D2+WKHUHIRUHFRUUHVSRQGVWR
[
  JRIODFWLFDFLG


,IWKHWLWUDWLRQUHTXLUHVHJPOQ1D2+WKHUHVXOWLVRIWHQH[SUHVVHGDV


[ODFWLFDFLG

VHH)LJ 

+RZHYHUIUHVKPLONFRQWDLQVSUDFWLFDOO\QRODFWLFDFLGDQGWKHFRQVXPSWLRQRI1D2+
LVXVHGWRFKDQJHWKHS+YDOXHRIWKHIROORZLQJFRPSRQHQWV
&DUERQGLR[LGH 
&LWUDWHV 

&DVHLQ


$OEXPLQJOREXOLQ
3KRVSKDWHV

7LWUDWDEOHDFLGLW\


HTXLYDOHQWWR




HTXLYDOHQWWR

ODFWLFDFLG
ODFWLFDFLG
ODFWLFDFLG
ODFWLFDFLG
ODFWLFDFLG
ODFWLFDFLG

7KHGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIDFLGLW\LQIUHVKPLONE\PHDQVRIWLWUDWLRQLVWKHUHIRUHPRUHD
PHDVXUHRIWKHEXIIHUDFWLRQRIPLONWKDQDQ\WKLQJHOVH
,WLVWKXVQHFHVVDU\WRWDONDERXWWKHGHYHORSHGDFLGLW\ZKLFKLVWKHUHVXOWRIEDFWHULDO
DFWLYLW\SURGXFLQJODFWLFDFLGGXULQJPLONFROOHFWLRQWUDQVSRUWDWLRQDQGSURFHVVLQJ



1,52$6

Vacuum

C
100ml

A
25ml

)LJ/DERUDWRU\PHDVXULQJHTXLSPHQWIRU$LULQ0LON&RQFHQWUDWH




1,52$6

7KHGHYHORSHGDFLGLW\ZLOOQHHGOHVVWRVD\EHPRUHSURQRXQFHGLIWKHPLONLVQRW
FRROHG
,QRUGHUWRDYRLGWKHXQFHUWDLQWLHVDERXWWKHGHJUHHRIWLWUDWDEOHDFLGLW\RUGHYHORSHG
DFLGLW\LWLVQHFHVVDU\WRXVHGLUHFWGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIODFWLFDFLGGXULQJWKHSURFHVVLQJ
7KLVLVGRQHLQRUGHUWRILQGZKHWKHUDQ\RIWKHLQVWDOOHGHTXLSPHQWLVUHVSRQVLEOHIRU
GHYHORSLQJDFLGLW\H[SUHVVLQJDFWLYLW\RIQRWRQO\WKHEDFWHULDDOLYHDIWHUDSDVWHXUL]D
WLRQEXWDOVRSUHYLRXVDFWLYLW\RIEDFWHULDNLOOHGGXULQJWKHKHDWWUHDWPHQW


$QDO\VHVIRU0LON&RQFHQWUDWH
&RQWHQWRI$LULQ0LON&RQFHQWUDWH
$LULQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHVKRXOGEHDYRLGHGE\DQ\PHDQVDVLWXSVHWVWKHZKROHFRQFHQ
WUDWHSUHWUHDWPHQWDQGGU\LQJ
,WLVSRVVLEOHWRPHDVXUHWKHFRQWHQWRIDLULQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHE\XVLQJWKHHTXLSPHQW
DVVKRZQLQ)LJ7KHDSSDUDWXVLVVHWXQGHUYDFXXPZLWKWKHJODVVVWRSSHUDQG
YDOYH%&DQG'FORVHGDQG$RSHQ7KHV\VWHPLVILOOHGXSE\1D&OVROXWLRQE\
VXFNLQJLWLQWRWKHDSSDUDWXVE\DYDFXXPSXPSOHDYLQJWKHPOFRQFHQWUDWHFRQ
WDLQHUHPSW\DQGFFPRIDLULQWKHJUDGXDWHGJODVVWXEHRQWKHDLUVLGH7KHFRQ
FHQWUDWHWREHWHVWHGVKRXOGQRZEHILOOHGLQWRWKHPOFRQWDLQHUZKLFKLVWKHQ
FORVHG7KHDPRXQWRIDLU VKRXOGEHFFP LQWKHDLUFRQWDLQHULVQRWHG7KHQWKH
YDFXXPSXPSLVVWDUWHGDJDLQDQGWKHYDOYH$LVRSHQHGVORZO\%\DSURSRUWLRQDO
FDOFXODWLRQRIWKHH[SDQVLRQ VKRZQLQPOLQWKHJUDGXDWHGJODVVSLSHV RIWKH
NQRZQDPRXQWRIDLULQWKHDLUFRQWDLQHUFRPSDUHGWRWKHH[SDQVLRQRIWKHXQ
NQRZQDPRXQWRIDLULQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLWLVSRVVLEOHWRFDOFXODWHWKHFRQWHQWRIPORI
DLUPORIFRQFHQWUDWH5HIHUHQFHLVPDGHWR1LUR$QDO\VLV1R%D


6ROXELOLW\
0HDVXUHPHQWRI,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[LVXVXDOO\SHUIRUPHGRQPLONSRZGHUVHHSDJH
6KRXOGLWIRUH[DPSOHQRWEHSRVVLEOHWRWUDFHWKHSUREOHPVZLWKWRRKLJK,QVROX
ELOLW\,QGH[E\FKDQJLQJWKHGU\LQJSDUDPHWHUVLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWRSHUIRUPWKHWHVW
RQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH7KHDPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWHWREHXVHGLVFDOFXODWHGDVIROORZV


JFRQFHQWUDWH 

J SRZGHU [ 

76 RI FRQFHQWUDWH

JSRZGHU JVNLPPLONJZKROHPLONRUJZKH\SRZGHU7KHUHVWRIWKHSUR
FHGXUHLVDVGHVFULEHGIRUSRZGHU



1,52$6

Weight A of powder

Drying oven
Desiccator

Weight B of dry powder

)LJ'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIPRLVWXUH




1,52$6

6FRUFKHG3DUWLFOHV
0HDVXUHPHQWLVXVXDOO\SHUIRUPHGRQPLONSRZGHUVHHSDJH6KRXOGLWIRUH[DP
SOHQRWEHSRVVLEOHWRWUDFHWKHSUREOHPLQWKHVSUD\GU\HULIWKHUHDUHWRRPDQ\
VFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWRORRNDWWKHILOWHUSDGLQDPLFURVFRSH,IWKH
EURZQSDUWLFOHKDVQRWJRWDVSUD\SDUWLFOHVWUXFWXUHEXWUDWKHUWKDWRIDMHOO\OXPS
WKHQWKHSUREOHPLVPRVWOLNHO\IURPGHSRVLWVLQWKHWXEHVLQWKHHYDSRUDWRU7KH
6FRUFKHG3DUWLFOHWHVWLVWKHUHIRUHSHUIRUPHGRQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH7KHDPRXQWRIFRQ
FHQWUDWHWREHXVHGLV


JFRQFHQWUDWH 

J SRZGHU [ 

76 RI FRQFHQWUDWH

JSRZGHU JVNLPPLONJZKROHPLONRUJZKH\SRZGHU7KHUHVWRIWKH
SURFHGXUHLVDVGHVFULEHGIRUSRZGHU


$QDO\VHVIRU0LON3RZGHU
0RLVWXUH
$OOPLONSRZGHUKDVWRPHHWDUHTXLUHPHQWIRUUHVLGXDOPRLVWXUH)RUVNLPPLONLWLV
XVXDOO\DQGIRUZKROHPLONXVXDOO\7KHUHPD\QDWXUDOO\EHGHYLDWLRQVIURP
FRXQWU\WRFRXQWU\
7KHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWZLOOKDYHDQLQIOXHQFHRQWKHNHHSLQJTXDOLW\RIWKHSRZGHU
+LJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW KLJKZDWHUDFWLYLW\$Z ZLOOWKXVGHFUHDVHWKHNHHSLQJTXDOLW\
DVWKHSURWHLQVZLOOGHQDWXUDWHDQGWKHODFWRVHZKLFKLVIRXQGLQDQDPRUSKRXVVWDJH
ZLOOFU\VWDOOL]HFDXVLQJWKHIUHHIDWWRLQFUHDVHLQZKROHPLONSRZGHUVDQGR[LGDWLRQ
RIWKHIDWZLOOEHWKHUHVXOW7KH0DLOODUGUHDFWLRQZKLFKLVDUHDFWLRQEHWZHHQWKH
1+JURXSLQWKHDPLQRDFLGO\VLQHDQGODFWRVHEHFRPHVPRUHSURQRXQFHGDQGWKH
SRZGHUPD\HYHQEHFRPHEURZQDQGOXPS\7KH0DLOODUGUHDFWLRQLVGLUHFWO\SURSRU
WLRQDOWRWKHVWRUDJHWLPHWHPSHUDWXUHDQGUHVLGXDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW7KHPRLVWXUH
FDQEHFRQWUROOHGE\WKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHGU\HURUE\DSSO\LQJPRUHKHDWWR
WKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HU0RLVWXUHDEVRUSWLRQVKRXOGEHDYRLGHGDQGGHKXPLGLILFDWLRQRI
WKHFRROLQJDLULVUHFRPPHQGHGLQKXPLGDUHDV
7KHSDFNLQJPDWHULDOVKRXOGEHRIVXFKDTXDOLW\WKDWYHU\OLWWOHYDSRXUZLOOSHQHWUDWH
WKHEDJRUFRQWDLQHU$VWKHUHZLOODOZD\VEHVRPHYDSRXUGLIIXVLRQ DQGWKHGLIIXVLRQ
GLUHFWLRQLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHZDWHUYDSRXUSUHVVXUH LWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWRVWRUHWKH
SRZGHULQDGU\FRROSODFHZKHUHWKHZDWHUYDSRXUSUHVVXUHZLOOEHORZ



1,52$6

100 ml

Weight of empty cylinder

Fill up with powder


Loose bulk density

Tapping
Tapped bulk density

)LJ'HWHUPLQDWLRQRISRZGHUEXONGHQVLW\




1,52$6

5HVLGXDOPRLVWXUHLVGHWHUPLQHGE\DVLPSOHGU\LQJRYHQPHWKRG7KHSRZGHULVGULHG
DW&IRUWKUHHKRXUV7KHGLIIHUHQFHLQZHLJKW LHZHLJKWORVV LVGHWHUPLQHG
DQGWKHPRLVWXUHFDOFXODWHGLQSHUFHQWRIWKHSRZGHUZHLJKWVHH)LJ
9DULRXVTXLFNPHWKRGVIRUGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIPRLVWXUHKDYHDOVREHHQGHYHORSHG7KH\
XVXDOO\ZRUNZLWKDSRZHUIXOKHDWLQJODPSWKHYROWDJHRIZKLFKFDQEHDGMXVWHG7KLV
W\SHRIHTXLSPHQWZLOOQHYHUEHVRDFFXUDWHDVWKHGU\LQJRYHQPHWKRGEXWLVDJUHDW
KHOSGXULQJRSHUDWLRQRIDSODQWDVWKHRSHUDWRUFDQKDYHTXLFNUHVSRQVHIURPWKH
ODERUDWRU\HQDEOLQJKLPWRILQGVXLWDEOHGU\LQJSDUDPHWHUV
$XWRPDWLFFRQWURORIWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLVPHDVXUHGZLWKLQIUDUHGOLJKW7KHUHIOHF
WLRQIURPWKHVDPSOHLVGLUHFWSURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDQGWKHRXWSXWLV
XVHGWRFRQWUROWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHE\UHJXODWLRQRIHLWKHUWKHIHHGSXPSRUWKHKHDW
DSSOLHGWRWKHKHDWLQJVHFWLRQRIWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HU


%XON'HQVLW\
7KHEXONGHQVLW\LVDQHFRQRPLFDOO\FRPPHUFLDOO\DQGIXQFWLRQDOO\LPSRUWDQWSURS
HUW\:KHQVKLSSLQJSRZGHUVRYHUORQJGLVWDQFHVWKHSURGXFHUVDUHRIFRXUVHLQWHU
HVWHGLQDKLJKEXONGHQVLW\LQRUGHUWRUHGXFHWKHVKLSSLQJYROXPH$KLJKEXONGHQ
VLW\DOVRVDYHVSDFNLQJPDWHULDODQGVWRUDJHFDSDFLW\
)RUVRPHSRZGHUVWKHDLPLVDORZEXONGHQVLW\REWDLQHGE\DJJORPHUDWLRQIRURSWL
FDOUHDVRQVRUEHFDXVHRIUHTXLUHPHQWVWRLQVWDQWSRZGHUSURGXFWLRQ
%XONGHQVLW\LVGHILQHGDVWKHZHLJKWRIDJLYHQYROXPHRISRZGHUDQGLVH[SUHVVHGLQ
JPOJPORUJO7KHUHFLSURFDOYDOXHLVWKHEXONYROXPHZKLFKLVH[SUHVVHGLQ
POJRUPOJ7KHEXONYROXPHLVXVXDOO\XVHGZKHQDJUDGXDWHGF\OLQGHUJODVVLV
XVHGIRUWKHGHWHUPLQDWLRQ7KHYROXPHRIJRISRZGHULVWKHQPHDVXUHGLQWKH
F\OLQGHU$VWRWKHRWKHUPHWKRGJLYLQJWKHEXONGHQVLW\WKHZHLJKWRIWKHSRZGHULQD
POF\OLQGHULVPHDVXUHG%RWKUHVXOWVFDQQDWXUDOO\EHFRQYHUWHGWRWKHRWKHUH[
SUHVVLRQ6HH)LJ7KHYDOXHPD\HLWKHUEHH[SUHVVHGDVWDSSHGWLPHV ORRVH 
WDSSHGWLPHV SRXUHG WLPHVRUWLPHV9DULRXVW\SHVRIHTXLSPHQWFDQ
EHXVHGIRUWKHWDSSLQJ$OVRPDQXDOWDSSLQJLVXVHG7KHLQWHQVLW\RIWKHWDSSLQJLV
QDWXUDOO\LQIOXHQFLQJWKHYDOXH
7KHEXONGHQVLW\RIPLONSRZGHUVLVDYHU\FRPSOH[SURSHUW\DVLWLVDUHVXOWRIVHY
HUDORWKHUSURSHUWLHV+RZHYHUWKHSULPDU\IDFWRUVGHWHUPLQLQJWKHEXONGHQVLW\DUH
3DUWLFOHGHQVLW\JLYHQE\

WKHVROLGVGHQVLW\DIXQFWLRQRISURGXFWFRPSRVLWLRQ

WKHFRQWHQWRIRFFOXGHGDLULQWKHSDUWLFOHV
 $PRXQWRILQWHUVWLWLDODLULHDLUEHWZHHQSDUWLFOHV DJJORPHUDWLRQ 
 )ORZDELOLW\





1,52$6




1,52$6

7KHVHSURSHUWLHVDUHGLVFXVVHGLQWKHIROORZLQJ


3DUWLFOH'HQVLW\2FFOXGHG$LU
7KHSDUWLFOHGHQVLW\LVJLYHQE\WKHGHQVLW\RIWKHSRZGHUVROLGVDQGWKHRFFOXGHGDLU
LQWKHSDUWLFOHV7KHSRZGHUVROLGVGHQVLW\H[SUHVVHVWKHGHQVLW\RIVROLGVZLWKRXWDQ\
DLUDQGLVJLYHQE\WKHFRPSRVLWLRQRIWKHSRZGHU:KHQWKHFRPSRVLWLRQDQGWKHGHQ
VLW\RIWKHVLQJOHFRPSRQHQWVDUHNQRZQWKHGHQVLW\RIWKHVROLGV 'VROLGV FDQEH
FDOFXODWHGXVLQJWKHIROORZLQJIRUPXOD


'6ROLGV 



$ % &


HWF  :
'$
'%
'&

 


ZKHUH$%&DUHHTXLYDOHQWWRWKHFRPSRVLWLRQDQG'$'%DQG'&WKHFRUUH
VSRQGLQJVROLGVGHQVLW\:LVWKHSHUFHQWDJHRIPRLVWXUH7KHVROLGVGHQVLWLHVRI
YDULRXVW\SLFDOFRPSRQHQWVLQPLONSRZGHUVDUHDVIROORZV
6ROLGVDLUDQGPRLVWXUHIUHH

'HQVLW\JPODW&

0LONIDW 

1RQIDWPLONVROLGV
&DOFLXPFDVHLQDWHSKRVSKDWHFRPSOH[
$PRUSKRXVODFWRVH
%HWDODFWRVH

$OSKDODFWRVHPRQRK\GUDWH
















3RZGHUVROLGVGHQVLW\FDQQRWEHFKDQJHGZLWKRXWFKDQJLQJWKHFRPSRVLWLRQDQGLV
WKXVIRUDJLYHQSURGXFWFRQVWDQW
7KHSDUWLFOHGHQVLW\PD\EHPHDVXUHGLQDQDLUS\FQRPHWHU+RZHYHUDVWKLVHTXLS
PHQWLVQRWDYDLODEOHLQDOOODERUDWRULHVWKHSHWUROHXPHWKHUPHWKRGZLOOEHGLVFXVVHG
$JLYHQDPRXQWRISRZGHULVPL[HGZLWKDJLYHQYROXPHRISHWUROHXPHWKHULQD
JUDGXDWHGPHDVXULQJF\OLQGHU

ZKHUH
'SDUWLFOH 
:SDUWLFOH
9SDUWLFOH
9SDUWLFOH

'SDUWLFOH 

:

99 

SDUWLFOHGHQVLW\LQJFFP
ZHLJKWRISRZGHULQJ
YROXPHRISRZGHUSHWUROHXPHWKHULQPO
YROXPHRISHWUROHXPHWKHULQPO



 

1,52$6

WPNI
mg / g

Low Heat

Medium Heat

High Heat

g / ccm
Bulk Density
1250 x Tapped

)LJ%XONGHQVLW\DVLQIOXHQFHGE\WKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUH
 H[SUHVVHGLQPJ:31,JVNLPPLONSRZGHU 




1,52$6


7KHRFFOXGHGDLUFRQWHQWLVFDOFXODWHGDVIROORZV


9RD 

ZKHUH

9RD 
'SDUWLFOH 
'VROLGV







'SDUWLFOH 'VROLGV

 

9ROXPHRIRFFOXGHGDLULQFFPJSRZGHU
3DUWLFOHGHQVLW\VHHIRUPXOD  
'HQVLW\RIVROLGVVHHIRUPXOD  

7KHSDUWLFOHGHQVLW\IRUWKHUHFLSURFDOYDOXHRIWKHRFFOXGHGDLUFRQWHQWLVLQIOXHQFHG
E\PDQ\IDFWRUVSUHYLRXVO\GLVFXVVHG7KH\DUHVXPPDUL]HGKHUH







3DVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHPLONSULRUWRHYDSRUDWLRQ
$PRXQWRIDLULQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
)RDPLQJDELOLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
7\SHRIZKHHOXVHGRUVL]HRIQR]]OH
6ROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
'U\LQJFRQGLWLRQV RQHVWDJHRUWZRVWDJH 


3DVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHPLONSULRUWRHYDSRUDWLRQ
7KHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHPLONSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQFKDQJHVWKHGHQD
WXUDWLRQGHJUHHRIWKHZKH\SURWHLQVDQGWKHUHE\WKHLUSK\VLFDOVWDJHDQGEHKDYLRXU
GXULQJGU\LQJ+LJKSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHUHVXOWVLQPDQ\GHQDWXUHGZKH\SUR
WHLQVEHLQJYHU\FRPSDFWDQGGLIIHUHQWIURPXQGHQDWXUHGZKH\SURWHLQVZKLFKDUH
VSRQJHOLNH8QGHQDWXUHGZKH\SURWHLQVKDYHDKLJKHUZDWHUELQGLQJSRZHU$ELJ
JHUWRUGULYLQJIRUFHLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\WRHYDSRUDWHWKHODVWPRLVWXUHZLWKFDVH
KDUGHQLQJDVDUHVXOW$KLJKGHJUHHRIGHQDWXUDWLRQZLOOWKHUHIRUHJLYHORZRFFOXGHG
DLUFRQWHQW KLJKSDUWLFOHDQGEXONGHQVLW\ DQGYLFHYHUVD6HH)LJ
$PRXQWRIDLULQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
7KHDPRXQWRIDLULQWKHIHHGQDWXUDOO\JLYHVDKLJKFRQWHQWRIRFFOXGHGDLUHVSHFLDOO\
LIWKHVXUURXQGLQJDLUWHPSHUDWXUHGXULQJWKHFULWLFDOVWDJHRIWKHGU\LQJLVKLJKFDXV
LQJFDVHKDUGHQLQJ6HHSDJH
)RDPLQJDELOLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
7KHIRDPLQJDELOLW\RIWKHIHHGLVGHWHUPLQLQJKRZPXFKRIWKHDLUZKLSSHGLQWRWKH
FRQFHQWUDWHZLOOUHPDLQWKHUHDQGLQWKHFUHDWHGGURSOHWV6HHSDJHDQGSDJH




1,52$6




1,52$6

7\SHRIZKHHOXVHGRUVL]HRIQR]]OH
%HVLGHVWKHIRDPLQJDELOLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHWKHW\SHRIZKHHODQGQR]]OHLVGHFL
VLYHDVWRWKHDPRXQWRIDLUWKDWZLOOEHZKLSSHGLQWRWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
6ROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
)HHGFRQFHQWUDWLRQSOD\VDQLPSRUWDQWUROHDQGKLJKFRQFHQWUDWLRQJLYHVOHVVRFFOXGHG
DLUFRQWHQW
'U\LQJFRQGLWLRQV RQHVWDJHRUWZRVWDJH 
7KHGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQVDQGWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHSDUWLFOHGXULQJWKHGU\LQJDUHRQHRIWKH
PDLQIDFWRUV*HQWOHGU\LQJLHORZVXUURXQGLQJWHPSHUDWXUHVDVLQWZRVWDJHGU\LQJ
UHVXOWVLQORZRFFOXGHGDLU


,QWHUVWLWLDO$LU
7KLVLVDYHU\FRPSOH[SURSHUW\WRR7KHOHVVLQWHUVWLWLDODLU WKHDLUWKDWRFFXSLHVWKH
VSDFHEHWZHHQSDUWLFOHVDJJORPHUDWHV WKHKLJKHUEXONGHQVLW\
7KHDPRXQWRILQWHUVWLWLDODLULVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQDQGWKH
GHJUHHRIDJJORPHUDWLRQ7KHFRQWHQWRILQWHUVWLWLDODLUFDQEHFDOFXODWHGDVIROORZV


9  
LD

ZKHUH
9  

'SRZGHU 
'SDUWLFOH 

LD





'SRZGHU 'SDUWLFOH

 

9ROXPHRILQWHUVWLWLDODLULQFFPJSRZGHU
3RZGHUEXONGHQVLW\ WDSSHG[ LQJFFPSDJH
3DUWLFOHGHQVLW\LQJFFPVHHIRUPXOD  

$SRZGHUZLWKSDUWLFOHVRIWKHVDPHGLDPHWHUZRXOGEHLGHDOIURPDGU\LQJSRLQWRI
YLHZEXWXQGHVLUDEOHIURPDEXONGHQVLW\SRLQWRIYLHZDVWKHDLUVSDFH WKHLQWHUVWL
WLDODLU EHWZHHQWKHSDUWLFOHVZLOOEHYHU\ODUJHWKXVUHVXOWLQJLQORZEXONGHQVLW\7KH
LGHDOLVDZLGHSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQZLWKHQRXJKVPDOOSDUWLFOHVWRILOORXWWKH
VSDFHEHWZHHQWKHPHGLXPDQGODUJHSDUWLFOHVWKXVUHVXOWLQJLQDSRZGHUZLWKKLJK
EXONGHQVLW\7KHUHLVKRZHYHUDOLPLWDVWRKRZVPDOOSDUWLFOHVDUHZDQWHGIURPD
UHFRYHU\SRLQWRIYLHZSOXVWKHIDFWWKDWDSRZGHUZLWKPDQ\VPDOOSDUWLFOHVZLOOEH
GXVW\)XUWKHUPRUHWKH\ZLOODIIHFWWKHIORZDELOLW\QHJDWLYHO\
$ZLGHUSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQEXWLQWKHELJJHUSDUWLFOHVL]HVSHFWUXPLVWKHUHIRUH
ZDQWHG7KLVFDQEHREWDLQHGE\XVLQJKLJKVROLGVFRQWHQWDQGRUYLVFRVLW\UHGXFLQJ
WKHYHORFLW\RIWKHZKHHORUSUHVVXUHRIWKHSUHVVXUHQR]]OHVRUXVLQJELJJHUQR]]OH
VL]H7KHUHVXOWZLOOKRZHYHUEHYHU\GXELRXVLQDVLQJOHVWDJHGU\HUZKHUHWKHELJJHU



1,52$6

Grinding grit 180

Metal r

10 Hole

Washer S S Width = 2
Plast cover

Meterial: 1 mm AISI 304

Nut 3/8 - 16 UNC

)LJ$SSDUDWXVIRUPHDVXULQJWKHIORZDELOLW\




1,52$6

SDUWLFOHVFDOOIRUKLJKHURXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHWKXVLQFUHDVLQJWKHRFFOXGHGDLUFRQWHQW
GXHWRUHDVRQVDOUHDG\GLVFXVVHG FDVHKDUGHQLQJ 3RZGHUVZLWKH[WUHPHO\KLJKEXON
GHQVLW\FDQWKHUHIRUHRQO\EHDFKLHYHGLQWZRVWDJHGU\HUV
7KHSRZGHUOHDYLQJWKHFKDPEHUZLOODVHDUOLHUGLVFXVVHGEHVOLJKWO\DJJORPHUDWHG
GXHWRWKHSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ,QDRQHVWDJHGU\HUHTXLSSHGZLWKSQHXPDWLFFRQ
YH\LQJV\VWHPWKHSUREOHPGRHVQRWRFFXUGXHWRWKHPHFKDQLFDOWUHDWPHQWLWLVH[
SRVHGWR%XWLQWZRVWDJHGU\HUVWKHSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQLVVLJQLILFDQW7KHDJ
JORPHUDWLRQLVGHYHORSHGGXHWRWKHSRZGHUEHLQJPRUHWKHUPRSODVWLF$VWKHPH
FKDQLFDOWUHDWPHQWLQWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HULVYHU\JHQWOHWKHDJJORPHUDWHVDUHQRWEUR
NHQXS$SUHVVXUHFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPLVWKHUHIRUHUHFRPPHQGHGLIDSRZGHUZLWKYHU\
KLJKGHQVLW\LVZDQWHG,WVKRXOGKRZHYHUEHSRLQWHGRXWWKDWWKHSULPDU\DJJORPHUD
WLRQKDVDSRVLWLYHLQIOXHQFHRQWKHIORZDELOLW\RIWKHSRZGHU
,WKDVEHHQREVHUYHGWKDWIUHVKO\PDGHSRZGHURIWHQH[KLELWVORZEXONGHQVLW\ZKLFK
LQFUHDVHVVHYHUDOGD\VDIWHUWKHSURGXFWLRQ7KLVLVFDXVHGE\WKHHOHFWURVWDWLFFKDUJH
RIWKHSRZGHUPDNLQJWKHSDUWLFOHVVWLFNWRJHWKHUIRUPLQJDJJORPHUDWHV$VWKH
WLPHSDVVHVWKHSRZGHUZLOOORVHWKHFKDUJHDQGEHKDYHQRUPDOO\$QHIIHFWLYHHDUWK
FRQQHFWLRQRIDOOSDUWVRIWKHGU\LQJHTXLSPHQWFDQWRVRPHH[WHQWVROYHWKLVSUREOHP


)ORZDELOLW\
7KHIORZDELOLW\RIDSRZGHULVQRWIXOO\XQGHUVWRRG7ZRIUHHIORZLQJSRZGHUVPL[HG
WRJHWKHUZLOOQRWQHFHVVDULO\EHIUHHIORZLQJ$JRRGIORZDELOLW\LVREWDLQHGIURP
ODUJHSDUWLFOHVRUDJJORPHUDWHVZLWKRXWVPDOOSDUWLFOHVWKLVZLOOKRZHYHUWHQGWRGH
FUHDVHWKHEXONGHQVLW\$OVRWKHSDUWLFOHVXUIDFHSOD\VDQLPSRUWDQWUROHDQGHVSH
FLDOO\WKHFRQWHQWRIIUHHIDW1R]]OHVDUHJHQHUDOO\EHOLHYHGWRSURGXFHSDUWLFOHVZLWK
EHWWHUIORZSURSHUWLHVWKDQWKHZKHHOHVSHFLDOO\LQZKROHPLONSRZGHU$SRZGHU
ZLWKDJRRGIORZDELOLW\ZLOOLQFUHDVHHVSHFLDOO\WKHSRXUHGDQGORRVHEXONGHQVLW\
0DQ\DWWHPSWVKDYHEHHQPDGHWRGHYHORSDVXLWDEOHPHWKRGIRUPHDVXULQJWKHIORZ
DELOLW\VRPHPHWKRGVDUHPHDVXULQJWKHDQJOHRIUHSRVHIRUDJLYHQDPRXQWRISRZ
GHUDQGVRPHPHWKRGVWKHWLPHLWWDNHVWKHSRZGHUWRSDVVWKURXJKDKROHLQDIXQQHO
ZLWKDJLYHQGLDPHWHU&RPPRQIRUWKHVHPHWKRGVDUHKRZHYHUWKDWWKH\DUHVXLWDEOH
IRUSRZGHUVZLWKDJRRGIORZDELOLW\ZKHUHDVWKH\FDQQRWEHXVHGLIWKHSRZGHULVQRW
IUHHIORZLQJ)XUWKHUWKHUHVXOWLVLQIOXHQFHGE\WKHDPELHQWFRQGLWLRQVHVSHFLDOO\WKH
KXPLGLW\RIWKHDLU
$PHWKRGGHYHORSHGE\1,52LVKRZHYHUVXLWDEOHIRUDQ\NLQGRISRZGHU,QWKLV
PHWKRGWKHWLPHLVPHDVXUHGE\DJLYHQYROXPHRISRZGHUWRIORZWKURXJKZHOOGH
ILQHGVOLWVLQDGUXPURWDWLQJZLWKDJLYHQUHYROXWLRQPLQ6HH)LJ




1,52$6

Dissolving powder in water

Dilution with water

Centrifugation

Centrifugation

)LJ'HWHUPLQDWLRQRILQVROXELOLW\LQGH[




1,52$6

6ROXELOLW\
7KDWPLONSRZGHUKDVWREHVROXEOHLQZDWHULVREYLRXV+RZHYHUQRWDOORIWKHFRP
SRQHQWVLQWKHSRZGHUVDUHVROXEOHZKHQUHFRQVWLWXWHGLQZDWHU,QSRZGHUVSURGXFHG
LQPRGHUQGU\HUVWKLVDPRXQWLVYHU\VPDOODQGDSSURDFKLQJVROXELOLW\1HYHU
WKHOHVVSRZGHUVZLWKDEDGVROXELOLW\DUHVWLOOSURGXFHGDQGDQ\GU\HUFDQLQIDFWEH
PDORSHUDWHGUHVXOWLQJLQDSRZGHUZLWKEDGVROXELOLW\
7KHPHWKRGIRUPHDVXULQJWKHVROXELOLW\LVYHU\VLPSOHZHOOGHILQHGDQGHDV\WRSHU
IRUP


JRIVNLPPLONSRZGHUJRIZKROHPLONSRZGHURUJRIZKH\SRZGHU
RUHTXLYDOHQWDPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWHGHSHQGLQJRQVROLGVFRQWHQW LVPL[HGZLWK
PORIZDWHUDWDSSUR[&LQDPL[HUDWKLJKVSHHGIRUVHF7KHPLONLV
WKHQOHIWIRUPLQDIWHUZKLFKLWLVVWLUUHGZLWKDVSDWXODPOLVILOOHGLQWRD
JUDGXDWHGPOFHQWULIXJHJODVVZLWKFRQLFDOO\JUDGXDWHGERWWRP7KHJODVVLV
VSXQLQDFHQWULIXJHIRUPLQWKHVHGLPHQWIUHHOLTXLGLVVXFNHGRIIWKHJODVV
LVILOOHGXSDJDLQZLWKZDWHU WRPDNHWKHUHDGLQJHDVLHU DQGWKHFRQWHQWLV
VWLUUHGXS7KHQWKHJODVVLVSXWLQWRWKHFHQWULIXJHDQGVSXQIRUPLQDIWHU
ZKLFKWKHVHGLPHQWLVUHDG6HH)LJ

7KHVHGLPHQWLVH[SUHVVHGLQPODQGLVWHUPHG,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[,WLVXVXDOO\EHORZ
POLQSRZGHUIURPJRRGTXDOLW\PLONGULHGLQPRGHUQZHOOGHVLJQHGHYDSRUDWRUV
DQGGU\HUV
7KHUHDVRQVIRUKLJK,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[ LHEDGVROXELOLW\ LQDSRZGHUPD\EHPDQ\
,WLVXVXDOO\GHQDWXUHGFDVHLQVRUYHU\FRPSOH[FRPELQDWLRQVRIFDVHLQZKH\SURWHLQ
DQGODFWRVHWKHFKHPLVWU\RIZKLFKLVQRWIXOO\XQGHUVWRRG7KHPDLQFRQWULEXWLQJ
IDFWRUVDUH


%DGTXDOLW\PLONZLWKDKLJKGHYHORSPHQWRIODFWLFDFLGLHEDFWHULDODFWLYLW\ZLOO
UHVXOWLQKLJK,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[DVDQ\H[WHQVLYHKHDWWUHDWPHQWZLOOFDXVHDQLU
UHYHUVLEOHSURWHLQGHQDWXUDWLRQHVSHFLDOO\RIWKHFDVHLQV

+LJKWHPSHUDWXUHVRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHGXULQJWKHHYDSRUDWLRQZLOOFDXVHDSUR
QRXQFHGDJHWKLFNHQLQJUHVXOWLQJLQYLVFRVLW\LQFUHDVHDQGEDGDWRPL]DWLRQLH
KLJKWHPSHUDWXUHVGXULQJWKHGU\LQJ

*HQHUDOO\LWPD\EHVDLGWKDWWKHKLJKHUWHPSHUDWXUHVDQGYLVFRVLWLHVGXULQJWKH
SURFHVVLQJWKHKLJKHU,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[PD\EHH[SHFWHG3RZGHUVZLWKDKLJK
ODFWRVHFRQWHQWVXFKDVEDE\IRRGZLOOSUDFWLFDOO\QHYHUJHWDKLJK,QVROXELOLW\,Q
GH[DVODFWRVHSURWHFWVWKHSURWHLQVIURPGHQDWXUDWLRQ

3RZGHUVGULHGDFFRUGLQJWRWKHRQHVWDJHGU\LQJSULQFLSOHZLOOPRUHHDVLO\JHWD
KLJK,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[WKDQIURPWKHWZRVWDJHGU\LQJSULQFLSOH



1,52$6

Dissolving powder i wat

Filtration

Vacuum

Disc A-C

)LJ'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIVFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHV




1,52$6

,WLVQRWRQO\WKHGU\HUZKLFKLVWREODPHIRUKLJK,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[$OVRWKHHYDSR
UDWRUPD\KDUPWKHFRQFHQWUDWH,WLVKRZHYHUPHDVXUHGYHU\UDUHO\%XWLIDIDFWRU\
KDVXQWUDFHDEOHSUREOHPVLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWRLQYHVWLJDWHWKHFRQFHQWUDWH7KLVLV
GRQHE\XVLQJWKHVDPHPHWKRGDVGHVFULEHGDERYHEXWZLWKDQDPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWH
GHSHQGLQJRQWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWDQGFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHVSHFLILHGDPRXQWRISRZGHU
6HHSDJH,IPLONSRZGHUVZLWKKLJK,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[DUHXVHGLQFRPSRXQGHG
SURGXFWVOLNHEDE\IRRGDFRUUHVSRQGLQJO\KLJKHU,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[VKRXOGEHH[
SHFWHG


6FRUFKHG3DUWLFOHV
6FRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVDUHJHQHUDOO\DFFHSWHGWREHDPHDVXUHIRUDQ\GHSRVLWVLQWKHGU\
LQJFKDPEHUKDYLQJEHHQH[SRVHGWRKLJKWHPSHUDWXUHVWKXVJHWWLQJVFRUFKHGGLVFRO
RXUHGDQGDWWKHVDPHWLPHLQVROXEOH
+RZHYHULWLVQRWRQO\WKHGU\HUWKDWFRQWULEXWHVWRWKHVFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVDVHYHQWKH
UDZPLONPD\FRQWDLQVRPHGLUWRUVHGLPHQWDQGLIQRWFODULILHGLQDVHSDUDWRUWKHVH
ZLOOEHIRXQGLQWKHSRZGHU
$OVRIURPWKHHYDSRUDWRUEURZQLQVROXEOHMHOO\OXPSVPD\FRQWULEXWHWRWKHVFRUFKHG
SDUWLFOHVLIGHSRVLWVKDYHEHHQIRUPHGLQWKHWXEHVGXHWRLQVXIILFLHQWFRYHUDJHRIWKH
WXEHV UHPHGLHVIRUWKLVKDYHEHHQGLVFXVVHGHDUOLHUSDJH RULQVXIILFLHQWFOHDQLQJ
,ILWKDVEHHQFRQFOXGHGWKDWWKHVFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVRULJLQDWHIURPWKHGU\HUWKHUHDVRQ
LVYHU\RIWHQGHSRVLWVLQWKHZKHHORUDURXQGWKHQR]]OHVRULQWKHDLUGLVSHUVHU+RZ
WRVROYHWKHSUREOHPPD\GLIIHUIURPFDVHWRFDVHEXWDGMXVWPHQWRIWKHDLUGLVSHUVHU
ZLOOXVXDOO\KHOSLQPRVWFDVHV
7KHWHVWIRUGHWHUPLQLQJVFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVLVVLPSOHDQGUDSLG


JVNLPPLONSRZGHUJZKROHPLONSRZGHURUJZKH\SRZGHU RU
HTXLYDOHQWDPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWHGHSHQGLQJRQWRWDOVROLGV LVPL[HGZLWK
PORIZDWHURI&LQVHFLQWKHVDPHNLQGRIPL[HUDVXVHGIRULQVROX
ELOLW\LQGH[7KHPLONVROXWLRQLVILOWHUHGDQGWKHILOWHUSDGLVFRPSDUHGZLWKD
VWDQGDUGIRUFODVVLILFDWLRQ7KHVFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVDUHH[SUHVVHGDV$%&RU'
GHSHQGLQJRQWKHLQWHQVLW\DQGFRORXURIWKHSDUWLFOHVOHIWRQWKHILOWHU6HH
)LJ

,IVFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHVFDQQRWEHWUDFHGWRWKHHYDSRUDWRUVHHSDJHRUWKHVSUD\
GU\HUWKH\PD\RULJLQDWHIURPPLONSRZGHUXVHGLQFRPSRXQGHGSURGXFWVOLNHEDE\
IRRG




1,52$6




1,52$6

7RWDO)DW
7KHWRWDOIDWLQWKHZKROHPLONSRZGHULVDTXHVWLRQRIVWDQGDUGL]LQJWKHUDZPLON
SULRUWRWKHSURFHVVLQJDQGKDVJRWQRWKLQJWRGRZLWKWKHGU\LQJSURFHVV
7KHVWDQGDUGL]LQJLVFDUULHGRXWHLWKHUE\DGGLQJVNLPPLONRUFUHDPWRWKHPLONRU
UHPRYLQJFUHDPIURPWKHPLONGHSHQGLQJRQWKHFRQWHQWRIIDWLQWKHUDZPLONDQG
WKHIDWFRQWHQWDLPHGDWLQWKHILQDOSRZGHU6WDQGDUGL]LQJWDQNVHTXLSSHGZLWKDJLWD
WRUVDUHLQPRVWFDVHVXVHGEXWRWKHUPHWKRGVDUHDOVRUHFRPPHQGDEOH
$VWKHIDWFRQWHQWLQWKHUDZPLONLQSUDFWLFDOO\DOOFDVHVLVWRRKLJKZKHQSURGXFLQJ
ZKROHPLONSRZGHUVNLPPLONSRZGHULVVRPHWLPHVXVHGIRUVWDQGDUGL]LQJ7KH
HTXLSPHQWQHHGHGLVDQLQOLQHSRZGHUOLTXLGEOHQGHUNQRZQIURPUHFRPELQLQJ
SODQWV$VWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWZLOOLQFUHDVHE\DGGLQJVNLPPLONSRZGHUWKHHYDSRUDWRU
VKRXOGEHGHVLJQHGDFFRUGLQJO\
)RUDQDFFXUDWHGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIWKHIDWLQZKROHPLONSRZGHUWKH5RVH*RWWOLHE
PHWKRGLVXVHGDQGIRUDTXLFNGHWHUPLQDWLRQWKH*HUEHUPHWKRGLVXVHG


6XUIDFH)UHH)DW
,QZKROHPLONSRZGHUWKHIDWLVSUHVHQWDVILQHJOREXOHVFRYHUHGZLWKDPHPEUDQH
VXEVWDQFHDQGGLVWULEXWHGHYHQO\LQWKHSDUWLFOHV+RZHYHUQRWDOOWKHIDWLVSURWHFWHG
E\DPHPEUDQHHVSHFLDOO\RQWKHVXUIDFHRIWKHSDUWLFOHEXWLWLVDOVRIRXQGLQVLGHWKH
SDUWLFOHV7KLVW\SHRIIDWLVWHUPHG)UHH)DWDQGLWZLOOKDYHDGLUHFWLQIOXHQFHRQWKH
VKHOIOLIHRIWKHSRZGHUDQGLVGLUHFWO\UHVSRQVLEOHIRUWKHQRQZHWWDEOHVXUIDFHZKHQ
WKHSRZGHULVPL[HGZLWKFROGZDWHU
)UHHIDWLQWKHZKROHPLONSRZGHUFDQQRWEHDYRLGHGEXWUHGXFHGFRQVLGHUDEO\7KLVLV
GRQHE\


$YRLGLQJH[FHVVLYHSXPSLQJDQGDJLWDWLRQRIWKHUDZXQFRQGHQVHGPLON5HFLU
FXODWLRQLQWKHHYDSRUDWRUVKRXOGEHDYRLGHGE\DOOPHDQV

7KHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQRIWKHPLONSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWRUSOD\VDUROH'LUHFWSDV
WHXUL]DWLRQHVSHFLDOO\DWORZWHPSHUDWXUHUHVXOWVLQORZYLVFRVLW\RIWKHFRQFHQ
WUDWHDQGDILQHDWRPL]DWLRQZLWKDELJVXUIDFHWRPDVVUDWLROHDGLQJWRLQFUHDVHG
IUHHIDWFRQWHQW

7KHIUHHIDWLVPRVWHIILFLHQWO\UHGXFHGE\KRPRJHQL]DWLRQRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
SUHIHUDEO\LQDWZRVWDJHKRPRJHQL]HU,QWKHILUVWVWDJHDSUHVVXUHGURSRI
NJFPLVDSSOLHG7KHIDWJOREXOHVZLOOGLVLQWHJUDWHLQWRVPDOOJOREXOHV
ZKLFKPLJKWGXHWRVWDWLFHOHFWULFLW\DJJORPHUDWHDJDLQLHWKH\ZLOOFRQVLVW



1,52$6

Petroleumether

Shaking 15 min.

Filtration

Evaporation and weighing residual 

)LJ'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIVXUIDFHIUHHIDW




1,52$6

RIPDQ\VPDOOIDWJOREXOHV,QWKHVHFRQGVWDJHDSUHVVXUHGURSRINJFP
LVDSSOLHGEUHDNLQJXSDERYHPHQWLRQHGDJJORPHUDWHV


,WLVDJHQHUDOUXOHWKDWQR]]OHVSURGXFHDSRZGHUZLWKDORZHUIUHHIDWFRQWHQW
WKDQZLWKWKHZKHHOPDLQO\GXHWRWKHKRPRJHQL]DWLRQHIIHFWRIWKHQR]]OH

$Q\VWURQJPHFKDQLFDOKDQGOLQJRIWKHSRZGHUVKRXOGEHDYRLGHGDQGWKHQLWLV
QRWDVWRQLVKLQJWKDWWKHWZRVWDJHGU\LQJJLYHVDSRZGHUZLWKDORZHUIUHHIDW
FRQWHQWWKDQWKHRQHVWDJHGU\LQJ

,QSODQWVZLWKLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGVWKHIUHHIDWZLOOLQFUHDVHLIWKHEHGWHPSHUD
WXUHLVWRRORZVLJQLI\LQJWRRKLJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHSRZGHUZKLFKUHVXOWV
LQODFWRVHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ6HHKRZHYHUSDJHZKHUHSURGXFWLRQRIZKROH
PLONSRZGHUZLWKKLJKIUHHIDWXVHGLQWKHFKRFRODWHLQGXVWU\LVGLVFXVVHG

7RGHWHUPLQHWKHIUHHIDWLQWKHSRZGHUPORISHWUROHXPHWKHUDQGJRISRZGHU
DUHPL[HGVORZO\IRUH[DFWO\PLQ7KHPL[WXUHLVILOWUDWHGDQGPORIWKHILOWUDWH
LVHYDSRUDWHGWKHUHVLGXHZHLJKHGDQGWKHIUHHIDWSHUFHQWDJHLVFDOFXODWHGHLWKHU
EDVHGRQWRWDOIDWRUPRUHFRPPRQO\EDVHGRQWKHSRZGHU6HH)LJ
,QDQRWKHUPHWKRGIRUGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIWKHIUHHIDWWROXHQHLVXVHGDQGWKHH[WUDFWLRQ
WLPHLVVRPHWLPHVDVORQJDVKRXUV7KHUHVXOWZLOOQDWXUDOO\EHGLIIHUHQWIURPWKDW
REWDLQHGE\WKHDERYHPHWKRG
,WLVJHQHUDOO\DFFHSWHGWKDWWKHILUVWPHWKRGJLYHVUHVXOWVUHSUHVHQWLQJWKHVXUIDFHIUHH
IDWZKHUHDVWKHRWKHUPHWKRGVUHSUHVHQWWKHWRWDOIUHHIDWLHDOVRZKDWLVLQVLGHWKH
SRUHVDQGFDSLOODU\QHWZRUN


:HWWDELOLW\
7KHZHWWDELOLW\LVDPHDVXUHIRUWKHDELOLW\RIDSRZGHUWREHZHWWHGZLWKZDWHUDWD
JLYHQWHPSHUDWXUH7KLVDQDO\WLFDOPHWKRGLVRQO\XVHGZKHQSURGXFLQJLQVWDQWSRZ
GHUV,WLVREYLRXVWKDWWKHZHWWDELOLW\GHSHQGVRQWKHVXUIDFHVRIWKHDJJORPHUDWHVRU
VLQJOHSDUWLFOHVDUHWKH\ZDWHUUHSHOOHQWRUZLOOWKH\DEVRUEZDWHUWRRTXLFNO\WKXV
IRUPLQJDILOPWKURXJKZKLFKWKHZDWHUFDQQRWSHQHWUDWH
*HQHUDOO\VSHDNLQJZHWWLQJLVDSURFHVVLQZKLFKWKHJDVHRXVSKDVHDWWKHVXUIDFHRI
WKHVROLGSKDVHLVUHSODFHGE\DOLTXLGSKDVHDOOWKUHHSKDVHVFRH[LVWLQJIRUVRPH
WLPHVRWKDWDFHUWDLQDPRXQWRILQWHUPL[WXUHVDQGVROXWLRQV PDLQO\RIWKHVROLGDQG
WKHOLTXLGSKDVH LVQRWRQO\SRVVLEOHEXWXVXDOO\XQDYRLGDEOH
%HVLGHVWKLVPLONSRZGHUPXVWEHFRQVLGHUHGDVDFRPSRVLWHVXUIDFHZLWKWKHVHSD
UDWHO\HQFORVHGVXUIDFHVFRQQHFWHGE\PRUHRUOHVVVWDEOH
EULGJHV
WRIRUPDFRPSOH[
FDSLOODU\QHWZRUN)RUVLPSOLILFDWLRQOHWXVILUVWGLVFXVVWKHPHFKDQLVPRIZHWWLQJD
VLQJOHVXUIDFH



1,52$6




NIRO A/S

The factor deciding if there will be any wetting at all is the interfacial tension between
the particle surface and the water. Skim milk powder particles will usually be wetted
easily (provided there is less than 0.03% fat on the surface), as the powder material is
mainly lactose being in an amorphous phase and protein, both absorbing water readily.
However, whole milk powder particles are always covered by a layer of fat, making
them water repellent. The amount of this surface free fat varies between 0.5 and 3% of
the powder.
This water repellence of the particles caused by their fat coating may be overcome,
and an interfacial tension facilitating the wetting may be achieved by adding a surface
active agent to the surface free fat. It has been known for years that phospholipids
such as lecithin are well suited for this purpose. Lecithin has the advantage of being a
natural product and even a natural component of milk, and being both lipophilic and
hydrophilic it is able to absorb water. See page 249.
When the particles have been wetted, the individual components of the milk powder
start dissolving and dispersing, thus forming a concentrated solution of milk around
the particles. At the same time the particles start sinking to the bottom, but it should
be mentioned that, in order to make the particles sink, the density of the particles has
to be greater than that of the water.
The density of a particle depends on its composition and amount of occluded air. During the first stages of reconstitution the density of the particles decreases, mainly because the lactose and the minerals, which are the heaviest milk components, start dissolving faster than the other components. At the same time, the density of the solution
being formed is increased because of the dissolving lactose, so that the difference between the densities of the particles and of the surrounding liquid is reduced. The particle density may even become the same or lower than that of the liquid, so that, after
the initial sinking, the particles start to rise again. Thus to prevent this, the particle
density should be high, i.e. the content of occluded air should be low. See page 211.
The reconstitution of a mass of powder is more complicated. As already mentioned,
powder is a composite surface with a greatly ramified system of capillaries of various
dimensions and a complicated geometrical pattern thus having different capillary attraction effects.
Under these conditions there will be wetting not only on the surface of the water, but
also of particles lying above the surface, as the water is drawn toward them by capillary attraction. This replacement of interstitial air by water through capillary penetration is very often incomplete, as the amount of penetrating water is insufficient, thus
leaving air bubbles between the wetted particles. In this way we have all three phases
going on simultaneously, resulting in the coexistence of their products of varying concentrations. This coexistence is very dangerous, because after a short time the space
between the particles will be filled with milk of different, including high, concentrations. This results in a sticky jelly with islands of unwetted powder and residual air.
Furthermore, lumps, that are wet and swollen outside and dry inside, are created. As
- 211 -

1,52$6

)LJ'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIZHWWDELOLW\




1,52$6

WKHVHDUHLPSHUYLRXVWRZDWHUWKHLUFRPSOHWHUHFRQVWLWXWLRQLVH[WUHPHO\GLIILFXOWHYHQ
ZLWKVWURQJDJLWDWLRQ
7RREWDLQDIXOO\UHFRQVWLWXWHGPLONLQDUHDVRQDEO\VKRUWWLPHDQGZLWKPLQLPXPHI
IRUWFDSLOODU\SHQHWUDWLRQRIZDWHULQWRWKHSRZGHUPXVWWKHUHIRUHEHDYRLGHG7KH
FDSLOODU\HIIHFWGHSHQGVRQWKHVWUXFWXUHRIWKHSRZGHULHWKHVL]HRIWKHDJJORPHU
DWHVWKHVL]HDQGWKHDPRXQWRIQRQDJJORPHUDWHGSDUWLFOHVWKHDPRXQWRILQWHUVWLWLDO
DLUDQGWKHVSHFLILFVXUIDFHDUHDRIWKHSRZGHU3HQHWUDWLRQRIZDWHULQWRWKHSRZGHULV
HDVLO\DYRLGHGGHOD\HGWRDOORZGLVSHUVLRQEHIRUHGLVVROXWLRQZKHQWKHSRZGHU
FRQVLVWVRIODUJHDJJORPHUDWHV
7KHDJJORPHUDWLRQLVGLVFXVVHGRQSDJH
7KHDQDO\WLFDOPHWKRGLVVLPSOHDQGHDV\WRSHUIRUP


JVNLPPLONSRZGHURUJZKROHPLONLVSRXUHGLQWRPOZDWHUDWD
JLYHQWHPSHUDWXUHXVXDOO\&&7KHWLPHUHTXLUHGIRUDOOWKHSRZGHUWR
EHZHWWHGLVPHDVXUHGE\PHDQVRIDVWRSZDWFK,')SUHVFULEHVWKHXVHRIJ
VNLPPLONRUZKROHPLONSRZGHULQPOZDWHUDWDWHPSHUDWXUHRI&6HH
)LJ

6NLPPLONSRZGHUVKRXOGEHZHWWHGZLWKLQVHFWREHWHUPHGLQVWDQW)RUZKROH
PLONSRZGHUWKHUHLVQRUHTXLUHPHQWEXWPDQ\SURGXFHUVRILQVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZ
GHUPDQXIDFWXUHWKHSRZGHUWRWKHVDPHVWDQGDUGDVYDOLGIRUWKHVNLPPLONSRZGHU
+RZHYHUIRUWKHVXEVHTXHQWGLVSHUVLQJSURFHVVHVSHFLDOO\IRUZKROHPLONSRZGHULW
LVDGYDQWDJHRXVWKDWWKHZHWWDELOLW\LVDERXWVHFDVLWHDVHVWKHVXEVHTXHQWGLV
SHUVLRQRIWKHSRZGHULQWRWKHZDWHU


'LVSHUVLELOLW\
$QRWKHULPSRUWDQWSURSHUW\RILQVWDQWSRZGHUVLVWKHDELOLW\WRGLVSHUVHLQZDWHUE\
JHQWOHVWLUULQJ7KLVPHDQVWKDWWKHSRZGHUVKRXOGGLVLQWHJUDWHLQWRDJJORPHUDWHV
ZKLFKDJDLQVKRXOGGLVLQWHJUDWHLQWRWKHVLQJOHSULPDU\SDUWLFOHV
7RREWDLQDJRRGGLVSHUVLELOLW\RIDSRZGHULWLVQHFHVVDU\WKDWWKHSRZGHULVZHWWDEOH
DQGWKDWWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQLVRSWLPDOLHQRILQHSDUWLFOHVVKRXOGEHSUHVHQW
7KHDQDO\WLFDOPHWKRGLVYHU\GLIILFXOWWRGHILQHDQGSHUIRUPDQGWKHUHSURGXFLELOLW\LV
YHU\SRRU7KHUHDUHQXPHURXVPHWKRGVDQGWKHUHVXOWVFDQQRWEHFRPSDUHG
%HLQJDZDUHRIWKDW,')KDVGHYHORSHGDQHZGLVSHUVLELOLW\WHVW7KLVWHVWLVEDVHGRQ
GHWHUPLQLQJWKHFDSDELOLW\RIDSRZGHU JRIVNLPRUJRIZKROHPLONSRZGHU 
EHLQJSRXUHGRQDVXUIDFHRIZDWHU J& WRGLVLQWHJUDWHLQWRSDUWLFOHVFDSDEOH
RISDVVLQJWKURXJKDPLFURQVLHYHZKHQDSSO\LQJWKHSUHVFULEHGPDQXDOVWLUULQJ
IRUVHF7KHDPRXQWRISRZGHUSDVVLQJWKHVLHYHDQGEHLQJGLVVROYHGRUGLVSHUVHG



1,52$6

Mixing powder with water

Filtration

Weighing

)LJ'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIGLVSHUVLELOLW\




1,52$6

LVIRXQGE\WKHGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIWRWDOVROLGVRIWKHILOWUDWHDQGH[SUHVVHGLQSHUFHQWDJH
DVGLVSHUVLELOLW\6HH)LJ
7KHSRZGHULVFRQVLGHUHGLQVWDQWE\,')LIWKHGLVSHUVLELOLW\LVDWOHDVW ZKROH
PLON RU VNLPPLON +RZHYHUSODQWVZLWKQHZGU\LQJWHFKQRORJ\HDVLO\SUR
GXFHSRZGHUVZLWKDGLVSHUVLELOLW\RI
7KHUHLVQRGRXEWWKDWWKLVWHVWSUHVHQWVDPRUHUHOLDEOHEDVLVIRUDVVHVVPHQWRILQVWDQW
PLONSRZGHUVWKDQWKHZHWWDELOLW\WHVW2QWKHRWKHUKDQGLWLVDWHVWUHTXLULQJUHOD
WLYHO\KLJKH[SHQGLWXUHRIZRUNVRLWFDQKDUGO\EHXVHGDVDURXWLQHWHVW%HVLGHV
HYHQZKHQXVLQJVNLOOHGZRUNHUVWKHUHSURGXFLELOLW\LVUDWKHUSRRU
$PRUHVLPSOHPHWKRGLVWRSRXUJRIVNLPPLONSRZGHURUJRIZKROHPLON
SRZGHULQWRPORIZDWHUDWURRPWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWKHQPDQXDOO\VWLUZLWKDWHD
VSRRQXQWLOWKHSRZGHULVGLVSHUVHGOHDYLQJQROXPSVRQWKHERWWRPRIWKHJODVV7KH
WLPHXVHGLVPHDVXUHGE\PHDQVRIDVWRSZDWFK
$IWHUVRPHWUDLQLQJWKHUHSURGXFLELOLW\LVIDLUO\JRRGDQGWKHPHWKRGLVTXLFN)XU
WKHUPRUHLWKDVWKHVXSUHPHDGYDQWDJHWKDWLWLVMXVWZKDWWKHKRXVHZLIHGRHVZKHQ
VKHZDQWVWRSUHSDUHDJODVVRIPLON


6OXGJH
6LPLODUWRWKH,')GLVSHUVLELOLW\ XVHGRQO\IRULQVWDQWFROGZDWHUVROXEOHZKROHPLON 
EXWRQO\JSRZGHULQPOZDWHUDW&DQG&LVXVHG7KHVLHYHXVHGLV
PLFURQ7KHUHVLGXHRQWKHVLHYHDIWHUILOWUDWLRQLVZHLJKHGDQGUHFRUGHG


6ORZO\'LVSHUVLEOH3DUWLFOHV 6'3 
7KHVDPHSURFHGXUHDVIRU6OXGJHLVXVHG$IWHUILOWUDWLRQWKURXJKWKHPLFURQ
VLHYHWKHPLONLVSRXUHGLQWRDWHVWWXEHZKLFKLVHPSWLHGDJDLQLPPHGLDWHO\7KHUH
PDLQLQJILOPZLWKXQGLVVROYHGSDUWLFOHVDJJORPHUDWHVLVFRPSDUHGZLWKDSKRWRJUDSK
JUDGHVFDOH7KH6'3LVGHWHUPLQHGLQERWK&DQG&ZDUPZDWHU7KHUHP
HG\WRLPSURYHWKH6'3YDOXHLVDJJORPHUDWLRQ


+RW:DWHU7HVW
6LPLODUWRWKH6OXGJHWHVWXVLQJ&7KHUHFRQVWLWXWHGILOWHUHGPLONLVSRXUHGLQWR
WZRJUDGXDWHGFRQLFDOFHQWULIXJHJODVVHVVLPLODUWRZKDWLVXVHGIRUWKH,QVROXELOLW\



1,52$6




1,52$6

,QGH[DQGVSXQLQDFHQWULIXJHIRUPLQ7KHUHVXOWLVH[SUHVVHGLQPOVHGLPHQWIURP
WKHWZRJODVVHVDGGHGWRJHWKHU7KHUHVXOWVKRXOGSUHIHUDEO\EHPO


&RIIHH7HVW
6LPLODUWR+RW:DWHU7HVWEXWXVLQJFRIIHHDW&/LNH6'3DQGWKH+RW:DWHU
7HVWWKHUHVXOWLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHGHJUHHRIDJJORPHUDWLRQEXWIRUWKHFRIIHHWHVW
DOVRWKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQRIWKHPLONSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQ &LQVHFZLWK
:31,PJJ WKHFRQWHQWRI&DDQGWRWDOSURWHLQFRQWHQWLVLPSRUWDQW
:LWKKLJKFRQWHQWRISURWHLQVLQWKHPLON -HUVH\FRZVRUPLONIURPORZVHDVRQ LWLV
GLIILFXOWWRSURGXFHSRZGHUVZLWKDJRRGFRIIHHWHVWZKLFKVKRXOGEHPO6WDQ
GDUGL]LQJWKHPLONZLWKODFWRVHRUSHUPHDWHWRDGMXVWWKHSURWHLQFRQWHQWLVXVHGLQWKH
LQGXVWU\&RQFHQWUDWHSUHKHDWLQJWR&DQGRUDGGLWLRQRISKRVSKDWHVDQGRUFLWUDWHV
WRSUHFLSLWDWHWKHLRQLF&DFDQEHXVHGDVZHOO


5DWHRI+\GUDWLRQ
:KHQWKHSRZGHUSDUWLFOHVDUHGLVSHUVHGHYHQO\LQWKHZDWHUWKH\VWDUWWRGLVVROYH
8VXDOO\WKHGLVVROXWLRQVWDUWVDOUHDG\DWWKHYHU\ILUVWFRQWDFWZLWKZDWHUDQGWKHZHW
WLQJGLVSHUVLQJDQGGLVVROYLQJRUK\GUDWLRQWDNHSODFHVLPXOWDQHRXVO\7KHDELOLW\RID
SRZGHUWRGLVVROYHFRPSOHWHO\LVH[SUHVVHGLQWKH,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[ VHHSDJH 
+RZHYHUWKLVPHWKRGUHTXLUHVDUDWKHUVWURQJPHFKDQLFDODJLWDWLRQIROORZHGE\XSWR
PLQVWDQGLQJZKLOHWKHLGHDRILQVWDQWSRZGHUVLVWRSUHVHQWWRWKHFRQVXPHUVWKH
SRVVLELOLW\RISUHSDULQJUHFRQVWLWXWHGPLONLQDVKRUWWLPHE\PHDQVRIJHQWOHPDQXDO
VWLUULQJ7KHUHFRQVWLWXWLRQSURFHGXUHXVHGE\WKHFRQVXPHULVVXSSRVHGWRFRUUHVSRQG
WRWKHRQHXVHGDWWKHDERYHGLVSHUVLELOLW\WHVW$WWKLVVWDJHKRZHYHUWKHSRZGHUPD\
EHGLVVROYHGRQO\SDUWO\
7RILOOWKLVJDSEHWZHHQWKHWZRPHWKRGVDPRGLILHGVROXELOLW\WHVWIRUWKHGHWHUPLQD
WLRQRIWKHUDWHRIK\GUDWLRQHVSHFLDOO\IRULQVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHUFDQEHDSSOLHG
,QWKLVPHWKRGJRISRZGHULVSRXUHGLQWRPORIZDWHULQDQRUGLQDU\VROXELOLW\
LQGH[JODVV7KHJODVVLVWXUQHGXSVLGHGRZQWLPHVDIWHUZKLFKLWLVVSXQLQDFHQWUL
IXJHIRUPLQ7KHUHVXOWLQJVHGLPHQWLVXVHGLQWKHFDOFXODWLRQRIWKHUDWHRIK\GUD
WLRQ


5DWHRIK\GUDWLRQ  POVHGLPHQW[ ,QVROXELOLW\,QGH[




 

1,52$6

Powder sample

Vacuum

Flowmeter

Salt solution

)LJ'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIK\JURVFRSLFLW\




1,52$6

$QDO\VHVIRU:KH\3RZGHU
:KHQSURGXFLQJZKH\SRZGHUHVSHFLDOO\WKHQRQFDNLQJW\SHWKHIROORZLQJDQDO\VHV
DQGVRPHRIWKRVHPHQWLRQHGXQGHU$QDO\VHVIRU0LON3RZGHUDUHDSSURSULDWH


7RWDO0RLVWXUHDQG)UHH0RLVWXUH
'XULQJWKHPDQXIDFWXUHRIQRQFDNLQJZKH\SRZGHUWKHODFWRVHLVFU\VWDOOL]HGGXULQJ
ZKLFKSURFHVVWKHODFWRVHSLFNVXSRQHPROHFXOHRIZDWHU,QRUGHUWRGHWHUPLQHWKH
GHJUHHRIFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWKHZDWHUERXQGWRWKHFU\VWDOV FU\VWDOZDWHU LVPHDVXUHGDV
WKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQWKHWRWDOPRLVWXUHDQGWKHIUHHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW
7KHWRWDOPRLVWXUHLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKH.DUO)LVKHUWLWUDWLRQWKHSULQFLSOHRIZKLFKLV
DUHDFWLRQEHWZHHQLRGLQHDQGVXOSKXUGLR[LGHLQWKHSUHVHQFHRIZDWHU7KHIUHHPRLV
WXUHFRQWHQWLVGHWHUPLQHGLQDGU\LQJRYHQDW&LQKRXUV


FU\VWDOZDWHU WRWDOPRLVWXUHIUHHPRLVWXUH

 

7KHGHJUHHRIFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQLVFDOFXODWHGDVIROORZV


&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQ 

&U\VWDOZDWHU[[

/DFWRVH

 

)RUUDSLGURXWLQHWHVWVRIVZHHWZKH\WKHILJXUHRIODFWRVHPD\EHXVHG


+\JURVFRSLFLW\DQG&DNLQJ3URSHUWLHV
7KHK\JURVFRSLFLW\LHWKHDELOLW\WRDEVRUEPRLVWXUHRIWKHZKH\SRZGHUVLVGHWHU
PLQHGE\WKHGHJUHHRIFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRIWKHODFWRVH%XWDOVRWKHVDOWVDQGHYHQWKH
SURWHLQVDEVRUEZDWHUKRZHYHURQO\LQDOLPLWHGDPRXQWFRPSDUHGZLWKWKHODFWRVH
7KHK\JURVFRSLFLW\RIDJLYHQSRZGHULVGHWHUPLQHGE\SDVVLQJDLUZLWKDJLYHQKX
PLGLW\ 5+DW& WKURXJKDJLYHQDPRXQWRISRZGHU VHH)LJ :KHQ
HTXLOLEULXPKDVEHHQREWDLQHGWKHDEVRUEHGPRLVWXUHLVFDOFXODWHGE\ZHLJKLQJWKH
SRZGHUVDPSOHEHIRUHDQGDIWHUWKHDEVRUSWLRQ


+\JURVFRSLFLW\ 

ZHLJKWLQFUHDVHIUHH:DWHU [

ZHLJKWLQFUHDVH

 


LQQRQK\JURVFRSLFSRZGHUWKLVYDOXHVKRXOGEH
7KHFDNLQJSURSHUWLHVRIZKH\SRZGHUDUHHYHQPRUHLPSRUWDQWDVWKH\DUHDPHDVXUH
IRUWKHWHQGHQF\WRIRUPKDUGOXPSVLQEDJVGXULQJVWRUDJH



1,52$6




1,52$6


7KHUHLVQRGLUHFWUHODWLRQEHWZHHQWKHK\JURVFRSLFLW\DQGFDNHQHVVDVDULFKFU\VWDO
OL]DWLRQLQLWVHOILVQRWHQRXJKWRSUHYHQWFDNLQJ7KXVLWLVRILPSRUWDQFHWKDWWKH
FU\VWDOVDUHVPDOODQGWKDWWKH\DUHHYHQO\GLVWULEXWHGLQDOOWKHSRZGHUSDUWLFOHV'XH
WRWKHPRLVWXUHDEVRUSWLRQLQQRQFU\VWDOOL]HGRUEDGO\FU\VWDOOL]HGSRZGHUWKHFU\V
WDOOL]DWLRQRIDQ\UHPDLQLQJDPRUSKRXVODFWRVHZLOOVWDUWPDLQO\RQWKHVXUIDFHRIDO
UHDG\H[LVWLQJFU\VWDOV7KHUDWHLVWKXVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQWKHLQGL
YLGXDOFU\VWDOV$IWHUWHUPLQDWLRQRIWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWKHYDSRXUSUHVVXUHRIWKH
SRZGHUPRLVWXUHEHFRPHVKLJKHUWKDQWKDWRIWKHVXUURXQGLQJDLUVRWKDWWKHPRLVWXUH
DEVRUSWLRQLVIROORZHGE\DPRLVWXUHGHVRUSWLRQ7KHVWLFN\SRZGHUIRUPHGGXULQJWKH
PRLVWXUHLQFUHDVHZLOOGXULQJWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQEHFRPHFHPHQWHGLQKDUGOXPSV
7KHPHWKRGIRUGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIFDNHQHVVLVFDUULHGRXWDVIROORZV






7KHSRZGHUVDPSOHIURPWKHK\JURVFRSLFLW\WHVWLVGULHGDWDWHPSHUDWXUHRI
&IRUKRXUDIWHUZKLFKLWLVFRROHGLQDGHVLFFDWRU7KHSRZGHULVWKHQ
VLIWHGWKURXJKDPLFURQVLHYHLQDVKDNLQJDSSDUDWXVIRUPLQ$Q\SRZGHU
ZKLFKKDVQRWSDVVHGWKURXJKWKHVLHYHLVZHLJKHG
'HJUHHRI FDNLQJLQ 

JSRZGHUOHIWRQWKHVLHYH[

JSRZGHUXVHG


1RQFDNLQJZKH\SRZGHUVVKRXOGKDYHDGHJUHHRIFDNLQJRI




 

1,52$6




1,52$6

'HK\GUDWLRQRI)RRGVWXIIV



'LIIHUHQW)RRG,QJUHGLHQWV
)RRGVWXIIVDUHYHU\RIWHQDYDLODEOHDVDQDTXHRXVVROXWLRQDVOXUU\RUDSDVWHKDYLQJ
DOLPLWHGVKHOIOLIHGXHWREDFWHULDODFWLYLW\GHVWUR\LQJWKHQXWULWLYHYDOXHRIWKHSURG
XFWXQOHVVLWLVNHSWDWORZWHPSHUDWXUHVRUSUHVHUYDWLYHVDUHDGGHGVXJDURUVDOWIRU
H[DPSOHWRUHGXFHWKHEDFWHULDODFWLYLW\
5HPRYDORIZDWHUIURPWKHSURGXFWZLOOOLNHZLVHUHGXFHWKHEDFWHULDODFWLYLW\LQWKH
ILQDOSURGXFWDQGWKXVHQVXUHDQDOPRVWLQILQLWHVKHOIOLIHLIWKHSURGXFWLVGU\HQRXJK
DQGNHSWLQDGU\FROGSODFH
$QLPDORUYHJHWDEOHIRRGSURGXFWVRUFRPELQDWLRQVKHUHRIDUHFKDUDFWHUL]HGE\WKHLU
FRQWHQWRI






3URWHLQV
&DUERK\GUDWHV
)DW
6WDUFK
2WKHULQJUHGLHQWV

3URWHLQV
*HQHUDOO\VSHDNLQJWKHPRUHSURWHLQWKHHDVLHUEHFRPHVWKHGU\LQJ:LWKLQFUHDVHG
SURWHLQFRQWHQWWKHYLVFRVLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOLQFUHDVHDQGWRPDLQWDLQJRRG
DWRPL]DWLRQLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRUHGXFHWKHVROLGVFRQWHQW'U\LQJHFRQRP\LVWKXVUH
GXFHGDVDSXUHSURWHLQSURGXFW HJJZKLWH1DRU.FDVHLQDWH LVGULHGIURPDIHHG
RIVROLGVDQGWKHILQDOSURGXFWFRQVLVWVRIVLQJOHSDUWLFOHV
3URWHLQVDUHGLIILFXOWWRDJJORPHUDWH QRELQGLQJPDWHULDO LQFRQYHQWLRQDOGU\HUV7KH
0XOWL6WDJH'U\HULVWKHUHIRUHVHOHFWHGLIDJJORPHUDWHGSRZGHUVDUHDLPHGDW
+\GURO\VHGSURWHLQVDUHJHQHUDOO\PRUHGLIILFXOWWRGU\DVWKHVKRUWFKDLQPROHFXOHV
EHFRPHWKHUPRSODVWLFDQGK\JURVFRSLFZKLFKPDNHVWKHSURGXFWVWLFNWRWKHGU\LQJ
FKDPEHUZDOOV




1,52$6




1,52$6

&DUERK\GUDWHV
&DUERK\GUDWHVRIGLIIHUHQWRULJLQVDQGIRUPVDUHIRXQGLQPRVWIRRGSURGXFWV*HQHU
DOO\VSHDNLQJWKHPRUHFDUERK\GUDWHWKHPRUHGLIILFXOWEHFRPHVWKHGU\LQJSURFHVV
DVFDUERK\GUDWHVLIGULHGIURPDQRQFU\VWDOOL]HGIHHGDUHWKHUPRSODVWLFDQGK\JUR
VFRSLF&DUERK\GUDWHVZLOOUHGXFHWKHYLVFRVLW\RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
2QHODUJHJURXSRIFDUERK\GUDWHVLVODFWRVHZKLFKLVIRXQGRQO\LQPLONDQGE\
SURGXFWVIURPPLONSURFHVVLQJIRUH[DPSOHLQZKH\IURPFKHHVHSURGXFWLRQ7KHDG
YDQWDJHRIODFWRVHIURPDGU\LQJSRLQWRIYLHZLVWKDWLWFDQEHSUHFU\VWDOOL]HGLIIRXQG
LQDVXSHUVDWXUDWHGVROXWLRQ KLJKVROLGVORZWHPSHUDWXUH 7KHVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHP
SHUDWXUHLVLQFUHDVHGE\SUHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQDQGGU\LQJEHFRPHVHDVLHU
6XFURVHLVXVHGLQIRRGSURGXFWVDVDVZHHWHQHUDQGDOVRWRDGGFDORULHVLQHJEDE\
IRRGVDQGRWKHUSRZGHUHGEHYHUDJHV,IWKHILQDOVXFURVHFRQWHQWLQDSURGXFWPXVWEH
ODUJHUWKDQZKDWLVSRVVLEOHWRLQFRUSRUDWHLQOLTXLGIRUPLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHWREH
GULHGLWLVSRVVLEOHWRDGGLWLQGU\IRUPLQWRWKHVSUD\GU\HUGXULQJWKHGU\LQJRIWKH
OLTXLGIHHGDQGWKXVREWDLQDEOHQGHGDJJORPHUDWHGKRPRJHQHRXVILQDOSURGXFW
)UXFWRVHDVIRXQGLQDOOIUXLWVLVYHU\WKHUPRSODVWLFDQGK\JURVFRSLF3URGXFWVOLNH
IUXLWVWKHUHIRUHFDQQRWEHVSUD\GULHGXQOHVVDILOOHULVXVHGDVFDUULHUVNLPPLONVROLGV
RUPDOWRGH[WULQHIRUH[DPSOH
0DOWRGH[WULQHLVDQRWKHUFDUERK\GUDWHZKLFKLVIUHTXHQWO\XVHGDVDILOOHUFDUULHURU
VZHHWHQHU:LWKD'(RILWFDQEHXVHGLQPDQ\IRRGSURGXFWVDVLWLVHDV\WR
GU\
&DUERK\GUDWHVDUHH[FHOOHQWDVELQGLQJPDWHULDODQGDJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWVFDQHDVLO\
EHSURGXFHGLIWKHVSUD\GU\LQJSODQWLVGHVLJQHGIRUWKLVSXUSRVH


)DW
,IIDWLVQRWIRXQGLQWKHRULJLQDOIRRGSURGXFWLWPD\EHDGGHGWRUHDFKDFHUWDLQ
FRPSRVLWLRQ7KHPRUHIDWLQDSURGXFWWKHORZHUWKHYLVFRVLW\DQGWKHPRUHGLIILFXOW
EHFRPHVWKHVSUD\GU\LQJ SRZGHUGHSRVLWV ,IWKHIDWLVIRXQGLQIUHHIRUP XQSUR
WHFWHGE\SURWHLQV LQWKHILQDOSURGXFWWKHGU\LQJRSHUDWLRQEHFRPHVHYHQPRUHGLIIL
FXOW+RPRJHQL]DWLRQRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHSULRUWRVSUD\GU\LQJLVWKHUHIRUHUHFRP
PHQGHG+RPRJHQL]DWLRQZLOOLQFUHDVHWKHYLVFRVLW\RIDFRQFHQWUDWHVOLJKWO\




1,52$6


)LJ6SUD\GU\HUIRURQHVWDJHGU\LQJ 6'3 

)LJ6SUD\GU\HUZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDVDIWHUGU\HU 6', 




1,52$6

6WDUFK
,IWKHVWDUFKLVSUHFRROHGLWLQFUHDVHVWKHYLVFRVLW\,WLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\WRORZHU
WKHVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHWREHGULHG


2WKHU,QJUHGLHQWV
7KHUHLVDZLGHYDULHW\RIRWKHULQJUHGLHQWVWKDWDUHW\SLFDOO\DGGHGLQVPDOOTXDQWLWLHV
VXFKDV






9LWDPLQV
)ODYRXULQJV
(PXOVLILHUV
6WDELOL]HUV
&RORXUV


,QJHQHUDOWKHVHGRQRWFDXVHWRRPDQ\SUREOHPVGXULQJVSUD\GU\LQJ


6DOWVDQGRWKHUFKHPLFDOV

7KHKLJKHUVDOWDQGFKHPLFDOFRQWHQWWKHPRUHGLIILFXOWEHFRPHVWKHGU\LQJGXHWRLQ
FUHDVHGK\JURVFRSLFLW\


2UGLQDU\0LON3RZGHUV
1RQDJJORPHUDWHGPLONLVXVXDOO\UHIHUUHGWRDVRUGLQDU\PLONSRZGHU7KHPRVW
FRPPRQRQHVDUHVNLPPLONDQGZKROHPLONSRZGHUV
7KHDSSOLHGGU\LQJSURFHVVPD\EHHLWKHURQHVWDJHGU\LQJVHH)LJGLVFXVVHGRQ
SDJHRUWZRVWDJHGU\LQJVHH)LJGLVFXVVHGRQSDJH
3ULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQWKHPLONLVFODULILHGLQDVHSDUDWRUWRUHPRYHGLUWHWFDQGLI
VNLPPLONSRZGHULVSURGXFHGWKHIDWLVDOVRUHPRYHG
,QWKHHYDSRUDWRUWKHPLONLVSDVWHXUL]HGDW&GHSHQGLQJRQWKHSRZGHUVSHFL
ILFDWLRQWREHFRPSOLHGZLWK VHHSDJH 7KHPLONLVWKHQFRQGHQVHGWRVRO
LGVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHPLONTXDOLW\DQGWKHGU\LQJV\VWHPXVHG
7KHVSUD\GU\HULVRSHUDWHGDWWHPSHUDWXUHVRI&IRUZKROHPLONSRZGHUDQG
&IRUVNLPPLONSRZGHU



1,52$6

Fines

Primary particles

Agglomerates

)LJ6SUD\GU\HUZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDV
DJJORPHUDWRULQVWDQWL]HU 6', 




1,52$6

,QRQHVWDJHGU\LQJWKHVSUD\GU\HULVRSHUDWHGLQVXFKDZD\WKDWWKHSRZGHUKDV
UHDFKHGWKHILQDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWZKHQOHDYLQJWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU,QWKHWZRVWDJH
GU\LQJSURFHVVWKHSULPDU\GU\LQJLVFDUULHGRXWWRDERXWDERYHWKHILQDOPRLV
WXUHFRQWHQW7KHH[FHVVPRLVWXUHLVHYDSRUDWHGLQDVWDWLFIOXLGEHGDQGRUD9LEUR
)OXLGL]HUDQGWKHFRROLQJLVGRQHLQHLWKHUDSQHXPDWLFFRROLQJV\VWHPRULQD9LEUR
)OXLGL]HU
%RWKURWDU\DWRPL]HUDQGQR]]OHVPD\EHXVHGIRUDWRPL]LQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWH,IQR]
]OHVDUHXVHGLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRKHDWWKHFRQFHQWUDWHWR&LPPHGLDWHO\EHIRUH
WKHDWRPL]DWLRQLQRUGHUWRORZHUWKHYLVFRVLW\7RGD\PRVWQHZGU\HUVRSHUDWHZLWK
KHDWHGFRQFHQWUDWHDOVRLIWKH\DUHRSHUDWHGZLWKURWDU\DWRPL]HUVDVLWEHVLGHVWKH
SDVWHXUL]LQJHIIHFWEULQJVDORQJH[WUDHYDSRUDWLRQFDSDFLW\
7\SLFDOGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQVDUHVKRZQEHORZ



21(67$*(
1R]]OHV

7:267$*(

:KHHO

1R]]OHV

:KHHO

6NLP :KROH 6NLP :KROH 6NLP :KROH 6NLP :KROH



'U\LQJWHPS &

























6ROLGVFRQW




















7KHSRZGHUFDQEHFKDUDFWHUL]HGE\
&RQVLVWLQJRIVLQJOHSDUWLFOHV
 +LJKEXONGHQVLW\
 'XVW\LILWLVVNLPPLONSRZGHU
 1RQLQVWDQW



,QVWDQW0LON3RZGHUV
'XULQJWKHODVWIHZGHFDGHVWKHUHKDVEHHQDJURZLQJPDUNHWIRUSRZGHUVZKLFKDUH
LQVWDQWO\VROXEOHLQFROGZDWHU
2UGLQDU\QRQDJJORPHUDWHGSRZGHUVWHQGWROXPSZKHQPL[HGZLWKZDWHUDQGLI
VWURQJPHFKDQLFDOVWLUULQJLVQRWDSSOLHGLWPD\UHVXOWLQDQLQKRPRJHQHRXVPL[WXUH
ZKLFKLVQRWDWWUDFWLYHWRWKHFRQVXPHU
,WKDVIRUDORQJWLPHEHHQNQRZQWKDWDQDJJORPHUDWHGSRZGHULHDSRZGHUZKHUH
WKHVLQJOHSDUWLFOHVKDYHIRUPHGELJJHUJUDQXODWHVRUDJJORPHUDWHVVHH)LJSRV



1,52$6

Fines

Primary particles

Agglomerates

)LJ$JJORPHUDWLRQE\ILQHVUHWXUQ )RUFHGVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ 




1,52$6

VHVVHVFRPSOHWHO\GLIIHUHQWSURSHUWLHVZKHQPL[HGZLWKZDWHUWKDQLWLVWKHFDVHZLWK
RUGLQDU\SRZGHU
7KHDJJORPHUDWLRQLVLQGHWDLOGLVFXVVHGRQSDJH
7KHSODQWLVRSHUDWHGVRWKDWWKHSRZGHUOHDYHVWKHSULPDU\GU\LQJVWDJHZLWK
KLJKHUPRLVWXUHWKDQZDQWHGLQWKHILQDOSURGXFW7KHF\FORQHIUDFWLRQLVUHWXUQHGWR
WKHDWRPL]LQJGHYLFHZKHUHWKHGU\ILQHSDUWLFOHVZLOOFROOLGHZLWKWKHSULPDU\SDUWL
FOHVWKXVIRUPLQJDJJORPHUDWHV6HH)LJ
7KHSRZGHUOHDYLQJWKHFKDPEHULVWKHUHIRUHZDUPPRLVWDQGFRQVLVWVRIVWDEOHDJ
JORPHUDWHV&RQVHTXHQWO\E\JHQWOHDIWHUGU\LQJSHUIRUPHGLQLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGV
DQGRUD9LEUR)OXLGL]HUWKHDJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWVWUXFWXUHVDUHPDLQWDLQHG7KH
FRROLQJVKRXOGDOZD\VEHGRQHLQDIOXLGEHG
7KHSRZGHUREWDLQHGE\WKLVSURFHVVFDQEHFKDUDFWHUL]HGE\
DJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWVWUXFWXUH
 QRQGXVW\
 ORZHUEXONGHQVLW\WKDQIRUSRZGHUIURPWKHSQHXPDWLFSODQW
 JRRGIORZDELOLW\



7KHGHFUHDVHGGU\LQJDLURXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHDQGFRQVHTXHQWO\ORZHUSURGXFWWHPSHUD
WXUHZLOOUHVXOWLQ
LPSURYHGVROXELOLW\EHFDXVHRIOHVVWKHUPDOGDPDJH
 ORZFRQWHQWRIRFFOXGHGDLUEHFDXVHLQWKHFULWLFDOVWDJHRIWKHGU\LQJ
ZLWKDZDWHUFRQWHQWRIWKHEORZLQJXSRIWKHSDUWLFOHVLVDYRLGHG



,IZHOLPLWWKHDERYHSURFHVVWRVNLPPLONSRZGHUZHZLOOE\WKHPHUHDJJORPHUD
WLRQREWDLQDSURGXFWZLWK


JRRGLQVWDQWSURSHUWLHV

%HVLGHVWKHPDQXIDFWXULQJHTXLSPHQWLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRKDYHFRQWURORIWKHTXDOLW\RI
WKHILQDOSRZGHUHVSHFLDOO\UHJDUGLQJWKHLQVWDQWSURSHUWLHV
,WLVQRWDVWRQLVKLQJWKDWWKHILUVWPHWKRGZKLFKZDVLQWURGXFHGWRGLVWLQJXLVKLQVWDQW
SURGXFWVZDVEDVHGRQGHWHUPLQLQJWKHSURSHUW\FDOOHGZHWWDELOLW\DVWKLVLVWKHPRVW
FRQVSLFXRXVIHDWXUHRIDQLQVWDQWSURGXFWFRPSDUHGZLWKDQRUGLQDU\SURGXFW,WZDV
PHDVXUHGDVWKHWLPHQHFHVVDU\IRUZHWWLQJRIDJLYHQDPRXQWRISRZGHULHWKHWLPH
IURPWKHILUVWFRQWDFWZLWKZDWHUXQWLOWKHSRZGHUKDGFRPSOHWHO\SDVVHGWKHZDWHU
VXUIDFH



1,52$6


/HFLWKLQDWLRQGRVLQJHTXLSPHQW




1,52$6

,WKDVODWHUEHHQUHDOL]HGWKDWZHWWLQJLVRQO\DILUVWVWHSRIDUDWKHUFRPSOLFDWHGUHFRQ
VWLWXWLRQSURFHVVDQGWKDWWKLVSURFHVVFRQVLVWVRIDQXPEHURISKHQRPHQDZKLFKFDQ
EHGHVFULEHGDVIROORZV


5HFRQVWLWXWLRQSKHQRPHQRQ

0LON3RZGHU3URSHUW\






:HWWLQJ 
'LVSHUVLQJ
'LVVROYLQJ

:HWWDELOLW\
'LVSHUVLELOLW\
6ROXELOLW\

6SOLWWLQJWKHUHFRQVWLWXWLRQSURFHVVLQWRWKHDERYHVWHSVKHOSVWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHSURF
HVVIRULQVWDQFHWREHDEOHWRILQGWKHUHDVRQVIRUWKHODFNRILQVWDQWSURSHUW\2QWKH
RWKHUKDQGRQHPXVWEHDZDUHWKDWWKHUHLVQRVKDUSERUGHUOLQHEHWZHHQWKHVHLQGLYLG
XDOUHFRQVWLWXWLRQVWHSVDQGLWLVWKHUHIRUHLPSRVVLEOHWRGHWHUPLQHWKHLQGLYLGXDO
SURSHUWLHVLQGHSHQGHQWO\RIWKHRWKHUV)RUDJRRGHYDOXDWLRQRISURGXFWSURSHUWLHVDOO
WKHVHTXDOLILFDWLRQVKDYHWREHFRQVLGHUHG


,QVWDQW6NLP0LON3RZGHU
,QRUGHUWRREWDLQDVNLPPLONSRZGHUZLWKJRRGLQVWDQWSURSHUWLHVWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQ
SOD\VWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQWSDUW
:HWWLQJDQGGLVSHUVLQJRIDVLQJOHVNLPPLONSRZGHUSDUWLFOHLQZDWHULVQRSUREOHP
DVWKHSDUWLFOHZLOOGLVVROYHTXLFNO\,IDEXONRIXQDJJORPHUDWHGVNLPPLONSRZGHULV
SRXUHGLQWRZDWHUWKHILUVWSRZGHUWRFRPHLQWRFRQWDFWZLWKWKHZDWHUZLOOGLVVROYH
IRUPLQJDFRQFHQWUDWHILOPLPSHUYLRXVWRZDWHUWKXVVWRSSLQJDQ\IXUWKHUZHWWLQJ
7KHUHVXOWLQJPL[WXUHZLOOEHGLIILFXOWWRGLVSHUVHOHDYLQJZHWWHGOXPSVZLWKGU\SRZ
GHULQVLGHRQWKHVXUIDFHRIWKHZDWHU
,QRUGHUWRDYRLGWRRTXLFNZHWWLQJRIWKHSDUWLFOHVWKHVHDUHDJJORPHUDWHGWKXVUHGXF
LQJWKHVSHFLILFVXUIDFH7KHVSHFLILFVXUIDFHFDQDOVREHUHGXFHGE\ELJJHUSULPDU\
SDUWLFOHVKRZHYHUZLWKDULVNRIDKLJKLQVROXELOLW\LQGH[
)XUWKHUPRUHWKHLQVWDQWSURSHUWLHVHVSHFLDOO\WKHZHWWDELOLW\DUHLPSURYHGLIWKHDJ
JORPHUDWHVDUHVRFRPSDFWWKDWWKHPRLVWXUHDEVRUSWLRQDQGGLVVROYLQJSURFHVVDUH
SURORQJHGHQDEOLQJDGLVSHUVLRQRIWKHSRZGHUDJJORPHUDWHVLQWKHZDWHUDIWHUZKLFK
WKHILQDOGLVVROXWLRQFDQWDNHSODFH1HHGOHVVWRVD\WKHSRZGHUVKRXOGDOVRKDYHD
JRRGLQVROXELOLW\LQGH[
7KHDJJORPHUDWLRQLVLPSURYHGE\
5HGXFWLRQRIWKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHEHIRUHHYDSRUDWLRQ
 +LJKHUVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
 %LJJHUSULPDU\SDUWLFOHV





1,52$6

1 Processing line
(basic powder manufacture)

2 Processing line
(lecithination and packaking)

Standardized milk
25 - 28% F

Basic powder
storage

Heat treatment

Powder dosing

Evaporation

Preconditioning
(fines separating)

Homogenization

Lecithination

Spray drying
(+ agglomeration)

Conditioning

Fluid bed drying

Packaging

Fluid bed cooling

Gas filling

Basic powder
storage

)LJ3URFHVV'LDJUDP,QVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHU




1,52$6

,QFUHDVHGUHF\FOHGDPRXQWRIILQHV
 )LQHVLQWURGXFWLRQFORVHUWRWKHZKHHORUQR]]OH
 ,QFUHDVHGPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHSRZGHUIURPWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU

7\SLFDORSHUDWLRQFRQGLWLRQVIRUWKHVSUD\GU\HUZKHQSURGXFLQJDILUVWFODVVLQVWDQW
VNLPPLONSRZGHUGHSHQGLQJRQW\SHRIGU\HUZLOOEH
'U\LQJWHPSHUDWXUH&&
 6ROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH



,QVWDQW:KROH0LON3RZGHU
,QWKHFDVHRIZKROHPLONSRZGHULWLVUHTXLUHGWKDWWKHZDWHULV!&DVZKROHPLON
SRZGHUSDUWLFOHVDUHDOZD\VFRYHUHGE\DWKLQOD\HURIIDWPDNLQJWKHSRZGHUUHSHOOHQW
LQFROGZDWHU+RZHYHUWKHUHKDVLQWKHODVWGHFDGHVEHHQDQHYHULQFUHDVLQJGHPDQG
IRUFROGZDWHULQVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHUVREHVLGHVWKHDJJORPHUDWLRQLWLVQHFHVVDU\
WRDSSO\DVXUIDFHDFWLYHDJHQW
)RUWKLVSXUSRVHOHFLWKLQ RULJLQDWLQJIURPVR\EHDQV GLVVROYHGLQSXUHEXWWHURLOLQ
RUGHUWRPDNHDOLTXLGPD\EHXVHG/HFLWKLQLVVXSHULRUDVWRWKHIXQFWLRQDOSHUIRUP
DQFHLHDFKLHYLQJRILQVWDQWSURSHUWLHV7KHEXWWHURLOLVFKRVHQDOVRLQRUGHUWRXVHD
QDWXUDOPLONFRPSRQHQWDVXVLQJDYHJHWDEOHIDWHYHQLWLVGRQHLQPDQ\FDVHVFRXOG
EHFRQVLGHUHGDIDOVLILFDWLRQ
7KHDPRXQWRIOHFLWKLQDQGRIWKHWRWDOIUHHIDW LHRULJLQDOIUHHIDWDGGHGEXWWHURLO
OHFLWKLQ LQWKHILQDOSRZGHUPD\YDU\IURPDQGUHVSHFWLYHO\+RZ
HYHUYDULDWLRQVZLWKLQWKHVHOLPLWVUHVXOWLQUDWKHUELJGLIIHUHQFHVDVWRWKHGHVLUHG
SURSHUWLHV
2QHPXVWEHDZDUHWKDWDKLJKDPRXQWRIWRWDOIUHHIDWWRJHWKHUZLWKKLJKDPRXQWRI
OHFLWKLQLPSURYHVWKHZHWWDELOLW\EXWRQWKHRWKHUKDQGLWLVDIIHFWLQJWKHIORZDELOLW\
DQGPD\VHULRXVO\DIIHFWWKHGLVSHUVLELOLW\$WOHFLWKLQOHYHOV!LWLVSRVVLEOHWR
GHWHFWWKHFKDUDFWHULVWLFVR\IODYRXU7KHVWUXFWXUHRIWKHSRZGHUDQGWKHGHJUHHRIDJ
JORPHUDWLRQDUHRILPSRUWDQFHWRRDVSRRUO\DJJORPHUDWHGSRZGHUVUHTXLUHKLJKHU
DPRXQWRIZHWWLQJDJHQWWKDQZHOODJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWV
7KHSURFHVVLQJGLDJUDPIRUWKHSURGXFWLRQRILQVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHULVVKRZQLQ
)LJ,WFDQEHVHHQWKDWWKHZKROHSURFHVVKDVEHHQVSOLWLQWRWZRVXEVHTXHQW
SURFHVVOLQHVLHWKHPDQXIDFWXUHRIDEDVLFSRZGHULQDSODQWDVVKRZQLQ)LJ
IROORZHGE\WKHOHFLWKLQDWLRQDQGSDFNLQJOLQH)LJ
7KHVSOLWWLQJRIWKHSURFHVVOLQHLQWRWZRLVWKHPRVWDGYDQWDJHRXVZD\RIRSHUDWLRQ
DVLWZLOOEHH[SODLQHGEHORZ




1,52$6

Powder

Fines

Lecithin + oil

Instant whole milk powder

)LJ7ZRVWDJHOHFLWKLQDWLRQSODQW

Dosing tank
Lecithin
Butteroil

Mixing tank

Hot water unit

)LJ/HFLWKLQGRVLQJHTXLSPHQW




1,52$6

,QWKHWZRVWDJHSURFHVVWKHEDVLFSRZGHULVFROOHFWHGIRULQWHUPHGLDWHVWRUDJH,WLV
LPSRUWDQWWRSUHYHQWDQ\GDPDJHWRWKHSRZGHUE\PHFKDQLFDOWUHDWPHQW7KHLQWHU
PHGLDWHVWRUDJHLVWKHUHIRUHSUHIHUDEO\DFFRPSOLVKHGLQWRWHELQVRUVLPLODUFRQWDLQHUV
RIP
7KHEDVLFSRZGHULVWKHQWUDQVIHUUHGIURPWKHWRWHELQVLQWRWKHVXSSO\VLORDQGLVPH
WHUHGLQWRWKHILUVW9LEUR)OXLGL]HUE\PHDQVRIDGRVLQJVFUHZ7KHSRZGHULVKHDWHG
DQGDWWKHVDPHWLPHDQ\ILQHVDUHEORZQRII
7KHOHFLWKLQGRVLQJHTXLSPHQWFRQVLVWVRIWZRYHVVHOVGRVLQJSXPSSRZGHUWUDSZLWK
WZRIOXLGQR]]OHDQGFRQWUROSDQHO7KHILUVWYHVVHOVHUYHVIRUWKHSUHSDUDWLRQRIZHW
WLQJDJHQWDQGWKHVHFRQGRQHDVVXSSO\YHVVHOIURPZKHUHWKHZHWWLQJDJHQWLVPH
WHUHGWRWKHWZRIOXLGQR]]OHIRUVSUD\LQJRQWRWKHSRZGHU6HH)LJ
7KHIORZVWHPSHUDWXUHVDQGSUHVVXUHVRIWKHZHWWLQJDJHQWDQGRIWKHDWRPL]LQJDLU
DUHUHFRUGHG,QWHUORFNLQJLQWKHFRQWUROSDQHOHQVXUHVWKDWWKHIORZRISRZGHUZLOO
VWRSDXWRPDWLFDOO\LIIRUVRPHUHDVRQQROHFLWKLQLVDSSOLHG&RQVHTXHQWO\QRSRZGHU
ZLOOOHDYHWKHSODQWZLWKRXWDSURSHUOHFLWKLQFRDWLQJ7KHVHFRQG9LEUR)OXLGL]HU
DOVRVXSSOLHGZLWKZDUPDLUHQVXUHVDJHQWOHEXWSURSHUPL[LQJRIWKHSRZGHUWRRE
WDLQDXQLIRUPGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHOHFLWKLQPL[RYHUWKHSDUWLFOHVXUIDFH
7KHSRZGHUOHDYLQJWKHOHFLWKLQDWLRQXQLWLVSDFNHGLQWRUHWDLOSDFNDJHV7KHILOOLQJ
PDFKLQHLVSODFHGSUHIHUDEO\GLUHFWO\EHORZWKHOHFLWKLQDWLRQXQLWZLWKDKRSSHUIRU
VKRUWLQWHUPHGLDWHVWRUDJHWRDYRLGDQ\XQQHFHVVDU\WUDQVSRUW
$VVKRZQRQWKHSURFHVVGLDJUDPRQ)LJ WKHGRWWHGOLQH WKHSRZGHUSURGXFWLRQ
DQGOHFLWKLQDWLRQFDQEHPDGHLQRQHFRQWLQXRXVSURFHVV,QWKLVFDVHWKHSRZGHUWUDS
ZLWKOHFLWKLQQR]]OHLVSODFHGEHWZHHQWKHLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGDQGWKH9LEUR
)OXLGL]HU)LJ2QWKLVIORZVKHHWUHFHSWLRQSUHWUHDWPHQWVWDQGDUGL]DWLRQDQG
HYDSRUDWLRQHTXLSPHQWDUHVKRZQ7KHSURGXFWTXDOLW\FDQEHFRPSDUHGZLWKWKHRQH
DFKLHYHGE\WKHVSOLWSURFHVVRSHUDWLRQGHVFULEHGDERYH
+RZHYHUWKHUHDUHPDQ\UHDVRQVIRUSUHIHUULQJWKHVSOLWSURFHVVRSHUDWLRQDVUHWDLO
SDFNLQJRIPLONSRZGHULVQHYHUDIXOO\FRQWLQXRXVRSHUDWLRQVLQFHWKHUHLVDOZD\VD
QDWXUDOEUHDNEHWZHHQWKHSRZGHUSURGXFWLRQDQGWKHSDFNLQJ'XULQJWKLVEUHDNWKH
SRZGHUPXVWEHVWRUHGLQEXONIRURQHWRVHYHUDOGD\VSUHIHUDEO\LQWRWHELQVWRDYRLG
GDPDJH
)RUTXDOLW\UHDVRQVLWLVEHWWHUWRVWRUHXQOHFLWKLQDWHGSRZGHU7KHOHFLWKLQDWLRQSURF
HVVWKHUHIRUHILWVEHVWDVDSDUWRIWKHSDFNLQJOLQHIRUPLQJRQHFRQWLQXRXVRSHUDWLRQ
7KHLQWHUPHGLDWHVWRUDJHRIWKHSRZGHUDIWHUSURGXFWLRQPDNHVLWSRVVLEOHWRDQDO\]H
WKHSURGXFWWRFODVVLI\LWDQGWRFDOFXODWHWKHFRPSRVLWLRQDQGTXDQWLW\RIZHWWLQJ
DJHQWLQRUGHUWRDFKLHYHWKHGHVLUHGSURSHUWLHV
$IXUWKHUDGYDQWDJHRIWKHVSOLWSURFHVVRSHUDWLRQLVWKDWILQHVFUHDWHGGXULQJVWRUDJH
DQGWUDQVSRUWFDQEHEORZQRIILQWKHILUVW9LEUR)OXLGL]HURIWKHOHFLWKLQDWLRQXQLW



1,52$6

HQ
R
&

JQ
WLD LU
H $
+

UH
LOW)
J
D%

VH
QL
)

VH LU
O] $
]R
1
WKL
Z
HO
]]
R
1

UL
$
JQ
LO
RR
&

LU$
J
QL
U\
'

UH
E
P
DK
&
J
LQ\
U
'
UH
WD
H
+
UL
$

QD
)\
OS
SX
6

HN
DW
,QU
L$

UQX
WH
5

FWL
DW
6

HY
HL
6

UH
]L
LGX
O)
R
UE
L9

GH
%
G
LX
O)

LU$
%
)6

LU$

P
HW
V\
6
G
HH
)

HW
DWU
QH
FQ
R
&

UHX
VV
HU
3K
JL
+

UH
WD
H
+

HW
DWU
QH
FQ
R
&

S
P
X3

UH
G
Z
R3

)LJ&RPSOHWHSODQWIRUSURGXFWLRQRILQVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHU 06' 

UH
VU
HS
LVG
LU$

WV
XD Q
K[ D)
(

HW
DO
3
OHR
+

P
RWW LU$
R%

Lecithin Unit



0
7
3
,
,&
1
$
6

HJ
UX
3
UL
$

VH
O]
]R
1
3
,
&

GH
L]G
LX
O)

P
WHV
\6
\
OS
SX
6U
L$
UH
]L
LGX
O)
R
UE
L9

UVH
OWL
)
HQ
L)
LU
$
UH
WLO
)
HQ
L)
JQ
OLR QD
R )
&

UH
\U
'
WQ
DO
3
3,
&

VN
QD
7




1,52$6

7KHTXDOLW\RIWKLVUHMHFWHGILQHVSRUWLRQFRUUHVSRQGVWRRUGLQDU\ QRQDJJORPHUDWHG 
ZKROHPLONSRZGHUDQGFDQEHVROGDVVXFK7KHDPRXQWLVXVXDOO\OHVVWKDQ
7RGD\KRZHYHUPRVWLQVWDQWZKROHPLONLVSURGXFHGLQ06'SODQWVHTXLSSHGZLWKD
OHFLWKLQGRVLQJHTXLSPHQWSODFHGEHWZHHQWKHLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGDQGWKH9LEUR
)OXLGL]HULQRQHSURFHVVLQJVWHSVHH)LJ7KHILQDOSRZGHULVFRQYH\HGWRVLORV
E\OHQLHQWORZVSHHGYDFXXPFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPVEHLQJYHU\JHQWOHWRWKHDJJORPHU
DWHGSURGXFWEHIRUHSDFNLQJHLWKHULQUHWDLOSDFNVRUNJEDJJLQJOLQHV7KHFRQ
YH\LQJOLQHVPD\EHHTXLSSHGZLWKSUHJDVVLQJE\1&2IRUSURORQJLQJWKHVKHOI
OLIH


:KH\
7KHHYHULQFUHDVLQJDWWHQWLRQWRDQGXQGHUVWDQGLQJIRUSROOXWLRQSUREOHPVE\WKHSXE
OLFDVZHOODVDQLQWHQVLYHLQGXVWULDOL]DWLRQLQWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\E\MRLQLQJVPDOOSUR
GXFWLRQXQLWVKDYHPDGHWKHWUDGLWLRQDORXWOHWRIZKH\VXFKDVUHWXUQWRWKHPLON
VXSSOLHUVIRUFDWWOHRUSLJIHHGLQJDVDIHUWLOL]HURUVLPSO\GXPSLQJLWLQWRWKHULYHUV
RUGUDLQVYHU\SUREOHPDWLF,QWKHUHFHQW\HDUVLWKDVWKHUHIRUHEHHQQHFHVVDU\WRILQG
DOWHUQDWLYHXVHVIRUWKLVSURGXFWZKLFKKDVDOZD\VEHHQUHJDUGHGDVDZDVWHSURGXFW
DQGWUHDWHGDFFRUGLQJO\+RZHYHUWKHGU\PDWWHUFRQWDLQVFRPSRQHQWVRIKLJKQXWUL
WLYHYDOXHDQGQHZWHFKQLTXHVKDYHPDGHLWSRVVLEOHWRXWLOL]HWKHVH
,WLVLPSRUWDQWWKDWWKHZKH\LVWUHDWHGDVDILUVWFODVVSURGXFWLHFRROHGDQGSURF
HVVHGZLWKLQIHZKRXUVRWKHUZLVHLWZLOOQRWEHSRVVLEOHWRSURGXFHDILUVWFODVVSURG
XFW6RPHRIWKHSURFHVVHVDUHHYHQLPSRVVLEOHWRSHUIRUPLIWKHZKH\LVRISRRU
TXDOLW\
7KHFRPSRVLWLRQRIIUHVKZKH\IURPDFRQYHQWLRQDOFKHHVHSURGXFWLRQLVDSSUR[L
PDWHO\DVIROORZV





DSSUR[RIGU\PDWWHU


:DWHU




3URWHLQ




/DFWRVH




$VK




)DW



+RZHYHULWLVZHOONQRZQWKDWWKHDERYHPHQWLRQHGFRPSRVLWLRQFKDQJHVWRDJUHDW
H[WHQWGHSHQGLQJRQWKHW\SHRIFKHHVHXVHRIGLIIHUHQWVWDUWHUFXOWXUHDQGGLIIHUHQW
UHQQHWW\SH)XUWKHUWKHPLONFRPSRVLWLRQHLWKHUGXHWRVHDVRQDOYDULDWLRQVRUEUHHG
RIFRZVFKDQJHV7KLVWRJHWKHUZLWKWKHIOXFWXDWLQJTXDQWLW\DYDLODEOHPDNHVWKH
ZKH\SUREOHPVHYHQPRUHGLIILFXOWWRVROYH



1,52$6

&+((6(

&+((6(352'8&7,21

352&(66,1*

*$/$&726,'$6(

)(('25
:$67(

5($&725

*/8&26(*$/$&726(

:+(<

3(50($7(

8/75$),/75$7,21

6(3$5$7,21

)%'5<,1*

/$&726</85($

85($

0,/.

3527(,1

(9$325$7,21

/$&726(

)(50(17$7,21
&5<67$//,=$7,21
6(3$5$7,21

)$7
6(3$5$7,21

027+(5/,4825

(/(&752',$/<6,6

'(67,//$7,21

<($67

$/&2+2/

)$7

027+(5/,4825

&+((6(

32:'(5

6.,00,/.
121+<*526&23,&
:+(<
)$7(15,&+('
:+(<
(/(&752',$/<6('
:+(<

6,1*/(&(//3527(,1
3527(,1
:+(<
3(50($7(

)LJ9DULRXVSURFHVVHVIRUZKH\WUHDWPHQW




1,52$6

)LJLOOXVWUDWHVWKHYDULRXVW\SLFDOSURFHVVHVIRUWUHDWLQJZKH\)XUWKHUPRUHWKH
VSUD\GU\LQJRIVNLPPLONIRUODWHUUHFRQVWLWXWLRQIRUFKHHVHSURGXFWLRQVHHSDJH
DVZHOODVVSUD\GU\LQJRISURFHVVHGFKHHVHVHHSDJHDUHVKRZQ


'XPSLQJ
(YHUVLQFHWKHLQGXVWULDOL]DWLRQRIFKHHVHSURGXFWLRQZKH\KDVLQODUJHDPRXQWVEHHQ
GXPSHGLQWRULYHUVODNHVRUVLPLODUZDWHUUHVHUYRLUV+RZHYHUDVWKHZKH\FRQWDLQV
RUJDQLFVXEVWDQFHVR[\JHQLVUHTXLUHGIRUWKHGHFRPSRVLWLRQDQGGXPSLQJRIZKH\
ZLOOWKHUHIRUHKDYHDJUHDWLQIOXHQFHRQWKHHQYLURQPHQW,IWKHGXPSLQJLVRIVXFKD
TXDQWLW\WKDWWKHGHFRPSRVLWLRQUHTXLUHVDOOWKHR[\JHQDYDLODEOHLQWKHZDWHUDOOOLIH
ZLOOGLHIROORZHGE\DSXWUHIDFWLYHSURFHVV,WLVWKHUHIRUHREYLRXVWKDWWKHDPRXQWRI
ZKH\ZKLFKFDQEHGXPSHGSHUKRXUGHSHQGVRQWKHDPRXQWRIR[\JHQDYDLODEOH
ZKLFKLVDJDLQGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHDPRXQWRIZDWHUSHUKRXUDQGLWVFRQWHQWRIR[\JHQ
,WLVWKHUHIRUHGLIILFXOWWRVWDWHH[DFWDPRXQWVRIZKH\ZKLFKPD\EHGXPSHG,QVRPH
FRXQWULHV'HQPDUNIRUH[DPSOHLWLVHYHQIRUELGGHQWRGXPSDQ\WKLQJZLWKRXWD
SUHULQVHLQDVSHFLDOFOHDQLQJSODQW$VDJXLGHWKHGHJUHHRIRUJDQLFLPSXULWLHVLQ
ZDVWHZDWHULVH[SUHVVHGE\WKHUHTXLUHPHQWIRUR[\JHQIRUELRORJLFDOGHFRPSRVLWLRQ
LQDGD\V
SHULRGQDPHO\WKHVRFDOOHG%2'$YHUDJHZDVWHZDWHUIURPKRXVHKROGV
ZLOOKDYHD%2'RIPJR[\JHQSHUOLWUH:LWKDQDYHUDJHDPRXQWRIOLWUHV
SHUSHUVRQSHUGD\LWFRUUHVSRQGVWRJR[\JHQDOVRNQRZQDVDSHUVRQHTXLYDOHQW
)RUZKH\WKH%2'LVDSSUR[JR[\JHQOLWUHLHOLWUHRIZKH\FRUUHVSRQGVWR
SHUVRQ
,QVWHDGRIFOHDQLQJWKHZKH\LQVSHFLDOFOHDQLQJSODQWVVRPHGDLULHVKDYHGLVSRVHGRI
ODUJHTXDQWLWLHVRIZKH\E\VSUD\LUULJDWLQJLWRYHUWKHILHOGVZKLFKLVDQHIIHFWLYH
PHWKRGJLYLQJEHQHILWERWKWRWKHIDFWRU\DQGWRWKHIDUPHU7KHDPRXQWRIZKH\SHU
KHFWDUHGHSHQGVRQWKHSDVWXUHDQGWKHUDLQIDOO7KHLUULJDWLRQLVXVXDOO\GRQHLQDF\
FOHZLWKGD\VEHWZHHQHDFKGR]HZKLFKPHDQVWKHUHVKRXOGEHSOHQW\RIODQGQHDU
WKHFKHHVHIDFWRU\ EXWDWOHDVWPIURPQHDUHVWKDELWDWLRQ 7KHDPRXQWZKLFKFDQ
EHVSUD\HGLVDERXWPKDGD\


8WLOL]DWLRQRI/LTXLG:KH\DV)RGGHU
:KH\KDVDOZD\VEHHQUHJDUGHGDVDQDFFHSWDEOHIRGGHUPDLQO\IRUSLJV+RZHYHU
WKHIOXFWXDWLQJVXSSO\DQGVROLGVFRQWHQWKDYHPDGHWKHGLUHFWXVHSUREOHPDWLF




1,52$6




1,52$6

7HVWVPDGHLQ'HQPDUNPRUHWKDQ\HDUVDJRZLWKIHHGLQJSLJVFRQFOXGHGWKDW
NJRIVNLPPLONFRXOGEHUHSODFHGE\NJRIZKH\
 NJRIEDUOH\FRXOGEHUHSODFHGE\NJRIZKH\
3LJVRINJRUPRUHFDQGULQNDERXWNJRIZKH\SHUGD\


+RZHYHUWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVWRWKHTXDQWLW\DQGTXDOLW\RIWKHEDFRQDQGWKHPHDWKDYH
EHHQLQWHQVLILHGDQGEUHHGLQJKDVSURYLGHGSLJVDEOHWRXWLOL]HDJUHDWHUDPRXQWRI
SURWHLQIURPWKHIRRGZKLFKPHDQVWKDWLIWKHSLJVVKRXOGKDYHZKH\DVWKHRQO\SUR
WHLQVRXUFHWKHDPRXQWRIZDWHUIURPWKHZKH\ZRXOGFDXVHSUREOHPVLQWKHZD\RI
GLJHVWLRQ,QRUGHUWRPHHWWKHVHSUREOHPVDPL[WXUHRIZKH\DQGVNLPPLON  
KDVEHHQXVHGHLWKHUGLUHFWRUHYDSRUDWHGWR76
:KH\XVHGIRUVRZVKDVSURYHGWREHDJRRGLGHDSDUWO\EHFDXVHWKH\KDYHDJUHDW
QHHGIRUOLTXLGV NJGD\ SDUWO\EHFDXVHRIDJUHDWQHHGIRUYLWDPLQ%DQG
ZKH\FRQWDLQVDJUHDWDPRXQWRIHVSHFLDOO\% ULERIODYLQ DQGSDQWRWKHQLFDFLG
)RUFDWWOHIHHGLQJOLTXLGZKH\KDVDOVRSURYHGWREHYDOXDEOHKRZHYHUZKHQ
PRQWKVROGDPL[WXUHRIVNLPPLONDQGZKH\LVUHFRPPHQGDEOHDQGQRWXQWLOWKHFDOI
LVPRQWKVROGFDQLWPDQDJHSXUHZKH\LQDQDPRXQWRINJGD\,WZLOOEH
SURILWDEOHWRXVHOLTXLGZKH\XQWLOWKH\DUHPRQWKVROGDVLWFDQUHSODFHDJUHDW
DPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWHVRUVNLPPLON,WKDVHYHQEHHQSURYHGWKDWIDWWHGFDOYHVKDG
ELJJHUGDLO\JURZWKDQGWKHERGLHVDQGWKH\LHOGZHUHPXFKEHWWHUWKDQIRUIDWWHG
FDOYHVIHGRQWKHVDPHDPRXQWRIIHHGXQLWVLQWKHIRUPRIVNLPPLON
)URPWKHDERYHLWFDQEHVHHQWKDWOLTXLGZKH\FDQHDVLO\EHXVHGIRUIHHGLQJSLJVDQG
FDOYHV+RZHYHUGXHWRWKHELJTXDQWLWLHVQHHGHGDQGWKHZD\WKHZKH\KDVEHHQ
WUHDWHGDWWKHFRQVXPHU
VSODFH YHU\RIWHQWKHZKH\LVGD\VROGIHUPHQWHGDQGWKHUH
IRUHFRQWDLQVE\SURGXFWVOHDGLQJWRPDOQXWULWLRQ WKHXVHRIOLTXLGZKH\LVQRWVRDW
WUDFWLYHHVSHFLDOO\LQODUJHVWRFNKROGV
&RQVHTXHQWO\WKHIDFWRULHVDUHYHU\RIWHQWDNLQJDGYDQWDJHRIVSUD\GU\LQJWKHZKH\
WKXVWUDQVIRUPLQJLWLQWRDSRZGHU7KLVPHDQVWKDWWKHNHHSLQJTXDOLW\RIWKHZKH\LV
SURORQJHGWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWRIWKHGULHGSURGXFWLVFRQVWDQWDQGVHDVRQDOYDULDWLRQV
LQWKHVXSSO\DUHDYRLGHG


3URGXFWLRQRI:KH\3RZGHUIURP7UDGLWLRQDO&KHHVH3URGXFWLRQ
3ULRUWRWKHGU\LQJWKHZKH\LVSUHFRQFHQWUDWHGZKLFKUHPRYHVDERXWRIWKHZD
WHU7KLVLVFDUULHGRXWLQDPXOWLHIIHFWIDOOLQJILOPHYDSRUDWRUZLWKYDSRXUUHFRP
SUHVVLRQLQRUGHUWRVDYHVWHDP$SDUWIURPWKHDFWXDOHYDSRUDWLQJFDODQGULDVWKH
HYDSRUDWRULVHTXLSSHGZLWKSUHKHDWHUVIRUKHDWLQJWKHZKH\E\PHDQVRIYDSRXUEH
IRUHLWLVILQDOO\SDVWHXUL]HGE\PHDQVRIOLYHVWHDPHLWKHUGLUHFWRULQGLUHFW



1,52$6

PH
Addition to 1000 1 Raw Whey at 5 o C
0 without addition

4,6

1 250 ml
2 500 ml
3 1000 ml
Hydrogen Peroxide (35%)
Formaldehyde (40%)

4,8
5,0

5,2
5,4
5,6
5,8
1

6,0
6,2

6,4
0

24

48

)LJ3UHVHUYDWLRQRIZKH\ZLWKIRUPDOGHK\GHDQGSHUR[LGH




3,3
2
72 hours

1,52$6

7KHHYDSRUDWHGZKH\LVSXPSHGHLWKHUWRFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVRUGLUHFWWRWKHVSUD\
GU\HUE\DSXPSZLWKYDULDEOHVSHHG7KHVSUD\GU\HUPD\EHZLWKHLWKHUSQHXPDWLF
FRQYH\LQJRUIOXLGEHGVIRUDIWHUGU\LQJDQGFRROLQJ
7KHSUHWUHDWPHQWSULRUWRHYDSRUDWLRQLVDVIROORZV7KHUDZIUHVKZKH\VKRXOGEH
FRROHGWR&LPPHGLDWHO\DIWHULWLVGUDLQHGRIIWKHFKHHVHYDWLQRUGHUWRDYRLG
EDFWHULDOGHFRPSRVLWLRQZLWKDWURXEOHVRPHGU\LQJDVDUHVXOW3UHVHUYDWLRQRIWKH
FRROHGUDZZKH\LVSRVVLEOHZLWK+2RUIRUPDOGHK\GH)RUPDOGHK\GHLVEHWWHUVHH
)LJ)XUWKHUWKHSUHVHQFHRI+2ZLOOUHVXOWLQDVLJQLILFDQWSLWWLQJFRUURVLRQRI
WKHLPSHOOHUVLQWKHSXPSVRIWKHHYDSRUDWRU
,WLVDGYLVDEOHWRFODULI\WKHZKH\LQRUGHUWRUHPRYHFDVHLQPLFHOOHVZKLFKZLOOEXUQ
DQGVWLFNWRWKHHYDSRUDWRUWXEHVDQGUHVXOWLQGLVFRORXUHGSDUWLFOHVLQWKHILQDOSRZ
GHU7KHUHPDLQLQJIDWLQWKHZKH\VKRXOGDOVREHUHPRYHGE\WKHVHSDUDWLRQDVIDW
PD\WHQGWRJLYHGHSRVLWVLQWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU
7KHZKH\ZLOOW\SLFDOO\FRUUHVSRQGWRWKHIROORZLQJVSHFLILFDWLRQ

6HGLPHQWWHVW

PD[PJPO

S+ 

PLQ

7LWUDWDEOHDFLGLW\

PD[

7UXHODFWLFDFLG

PD[PJPO

)DWFRQWHQW

PD[

/DFWRVHFRQWHQW

PLQPD[

3URWHLQFRQWHQW

PLQ

1RQFRQGHQVDEOHJDVHV
PD[E\ZHLJKW

&DOFLXPFRQWHQW

PD[SSP

0DJQHVLXPFRQWHQW 
PD[SSP

&KORULGHFRQWHQW

PD[SSP

:KHQWKHZKH\LVVWRUHGEHWZHHQWKHFKHHVHIDFWRU\DQGWKHHYDSRUDWLRQSURFHVVDWD
WHPSHUDWXUHH[FHHGLQJ&WKHQWKHVWRUDJHWLPHVKRXOGQRWH[FHHGRQHKRXU,IWKH
VWRUDJHWHPSHUDWXUHLVEHORZ&WKHQWKHVWRUDJHWLPHVKRXOGQRWH[FHHGWHQKRXUV


(YDSRUDWLRQ
,QWKHHYDSRUDWRUWKHZKH\LVSUHKHDWHGWR& GHSHQGLQJRQWKHUXQQLQJFRQGL
WLRQV DIWHUZKLFKLWLVSDVWHXUL]HG%\PHDQVRIWKHWHPSHUDWXUHDQGKROGLQJWLPH
FRPELQDWLRQLWLVSRVVLEOHWRFRQWUROWKHGHJUHHRIGHQDWXUDWLRQRIWKHSURWHLQVDQG
WKXVLWLVSRVVLEOHWRSURGXFHSRZGHUVPHHWLQJVSHFLILFUHTXLUHPHQWV
*HQHUDOO\VSHDNLQJWKHYLVFRVLW\RIWKHZKH\FRQFHQWUDWHLQFUHDVHVDQGWKHQRQFDNLQJ
SURSHUWLHVEHFRPHEHWWHUE\LQFUHDVLQJWKHSDVWHXUL]LQJWHPSHUDWXUHWLPH7KHZKH\LV
HYDSRUDWHGWRDVROLGVFRQWHQWVXLWDEOHIRUWKHVXEVHTXHQWVSUD\GU\LQJSURFHVVDQG



1,52$6




















CONDENSATION TEMPERATURE C

MASS FLOW kg/h 

)LJ(YDSRUDWLRQUDWLR&DVDIXQFWLRQRIPDVVIORZDQG
HYDSRUDWLRQFDSDFLW\


)LJ3UHFRQFHQWUDWLRQRIZKH\SULRUWRWUDQVSRUWWR
FHQWUDOO\SODFHGGU\LQJLQVWDOODWLRQ




1,52$6

PD\YDU\IURPWRVROLGV$VWKHUDZZKH\FRQWDLQVRQO\VROLGVLWPHDQV
WKDWH  VHH)RUPXOD  RQSDJH 7KHHYDSRUDWRUPXVWWKHUHIRUHEHHTXLSSHG
ZLWKIHHGIORZFRQWURODQGGHQVLW\FRQWUROVLQFHHYHQVPDOOYDULDWLRQVZLOOUHVXOWLQ
WUHPHQGRXVIOXFWXDWLRQVLQWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH6HHGLDJUDP)LJ
6SHFLDODWWHQWLRQVKRXOGDOVREHSDLGWR&DFRQWHQWLQWKHZKH\&DSKRVSKDWHLVD
VDOWZKLFKZLOOSUHFLSLWDWHLIWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQDQGWHPSHUDWXUHLQFUHDVH(VSHFLDOO\
LWPD\SUHVHQWDSUREOHPLQWKHILUVWHIIHFWDQGIRUPGHSRVLWVRQWKHWXEHVLIQRWUH
PRYHGLQDGHFDOFLILFDWLRQSURFHVVVHHSDJH$OWHUQDWLYHO\DQLQWHUPHGLDWHDFLG
ZDVKDIWHUKRXUVLVUHTXLUHG
6LQFHUDZZKH\FRQWDLQVOHVVVROLGVWKDQVNLPPLONLWZLOOLQDQHYDSRUDWRUGHVLJQHG
IRUVNLPPLONUHVXOWLQOHVVFRQFHQWUDWHDVWKHHYDSRUDWLRQFDSDFLW\LVSUDFWLFDOO\WKH
VDPH7KLVPD\KDYHWKHHIIHFWWKDWDJRRGFRYHUDJHRIWKHWXEHVLQWKHODVWVWDJHFDQ
QRORQJHUEHDFKLHYHGDQGUHF\FOLQJRUVSOLWWLQJLVQHFHVVDU\
5HPRYLQJSDUWRIWKHZDWHUIURPWKHZKH\LQDK\SHUILOWUDWLRQSODQWWRVROLGV
PD\DOVREHGRQHWRLQFUHDVHWKHRXWSXWIURPWKHHYDSRUDWRU
$SUHHYDSRUDWLRQPD\DOVREHGRQHLILWLVLPSRVVLEOHWRREWDLQVXIILFLHQWZKH\
!OGD\ WRPDNHWKHZKH\SRZGHUSURGXFWLRQSURILWDEOH6PDOOGDLULHVPD\
WKHQSUHHYDSRUDWHWKHLUZKH\LQDQHYDSRUDWRUWRDSSUR[VROLGVFRROLWDQG
WUDQVSRUWWKHFRQFHQWUDWHWRDIDFWRU\FHQWUDOO\ORFDWHG7KHWUDQVSRUWFRVWVDUHWKHUHE\
UHGXFHG7KHSUHFRQGHQVHGZKH\PD\WKHQEHPL[HGZLWKUDZZKH\IURPWKHIDF
WRU\
VRZQSURGXFWLRQDIWHUZKLFKWKHILQDOHYDSRUDWLRQWDNHVSODFHIROORZHGE\WKH
VSUD\GU\LQJVHH)LJ,WLVZHOONQRZQWKDWLWLVFKHDSHUWRUHPRYHZDWHULQDQ
HYDSRUDWRUWKDQLQDVSUD\GU\HU DERXW DQGLWLVWKXVQRWDVWRQLVKLQJWKDWWKHHI
IRUWVLQWKHGHYHORSPHQWZRUNKDYHEHHQFRQFHQWUDWHGRQLQFUHDVLQJWKHVROLGVFRQWHQW
IURPWKHHYDSRUDWRU7KHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHVSUD\GU\HUPXVWEHLQFUHDVHG
DERXW&76 ZKLFKPHDQVWKDWWKHSRZGHUWHPSHUDWXUHZLOOJHWLQWRWKHVWLFN
LQJSRLQWWHPSHUDWXUH]RQHUHVXOWLQJLQVHYHUHSUREOHPVLQWKHGU\HUVXFKDVZDOOGH
SRVLWVDQGEORFNHGF\FORQHV
7KHVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHPSHUDWXUHGHSHQGVRQWKHFRPSRVLWLRQRIWKHZKH\SRZGHUDQG
PDLQO\RQWKHIROORZLQJFRPSRQHQWV
/DFWLFDFLGFRQWHQWDQGVDOWV
 $PRUSKRXVODFWRVHFRQWHQW
 0RLVWXUHFRQWHQW



/DFWLF$FLG&RQWHQW
,WKDVEHHQIRXQGWKDWWKHVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHPSHUDWXUHRIRQHSDUWLFXODUVZHHWZKH\
SRZGHUVDPSOHZDV&%\JUDGXDODGGLWLRQRIODFWLFDFLGXSWRWKHVWLFNLQJ
SRLQWWHPSHUDWXUHGHFUHDVHGOLQHDUO\GRZQWR& 7KHVDPSOHVKDGDPRLVWXUHFRQ
WHQWRIZKLFKDOVRLQIOXHQFHVWKHVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHPSHUDWXUHKRZHYHUQRWWR



1,52$6

STICKING ZONE

STICKING FREE ZONE

POWDER MOISTURE % 

)LJ5HODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDLUWHPSHUDWXUH
SDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWKHVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHPSHUDWXUH




1,52$6

VXFKDJUHDWH[WHQW 3DUWLDORUFRPSOHWHQHXWUDOL]DWLRQVKLIWVWKHVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHP
SHUDWXUHXSDJDLQKRZHYHUQRWXSWRWKHVDPHOHYHODVWKDWRIVZHHWZKH\GXHWRWKH
LQFUHDVHGFRQWHQWRIVDOWV
$PRUSKRXV/DFWRVH&RQWHQW
7KHFRQYHUVLRQRIDPRUSKRXVODFWRVHLQWRODFWRVHPRQRK\GUDWHE\FU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ
VHHSDJH UHVXOWVLQDULVHLQWKHVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHPSHUDWXUH,WKDVEHHQIRXQGWKDW
DZKH\SRZGHUZLWKFU\VWDOOL]HGODFWRVHKDGDVWLFNLQJSRLQWRI&ZKLOHWKH
VDPHSURGXFWEXWSUHFU\VWDOOL]HGWRRQO\KDGDVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHPSHUDWXUHRI
&7KLVDOORZVIRUDQLQFUHDVHLQWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWRIDSSUR[LIWKHFRQFHQ
WUDWHLVSURSHUO\SUHFU\VWDOOL]HGOHDYLQJRQO\DVPDOOSDUWRIDPRUSKRXVODFWRVHLQWKH
ILQDOSRZGHU
0RLVWXUH&RQWHQW
7KHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRIZKH\SRZGHUDOVRWKHLQWHUPHGLDWHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRIWKH
VHPLGULHGSURGXFWDVIRXQGLQWKHVSUD\GU\HUEHWZHHQDWRPL]DWLRQDQGSRZGHURXW
OHWKDVDFRQVLGHUDEOHLQIOXHQFHRQWKHVWLFNLQJSRLQW7KHJUDSKLQ)LJVKRZV
WKHUHODWLRQEHWZHHQWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH WR DQGWKHVWLFNLQJWHPSHUDWXUH WV :KHQ
NHHSLQJRWKHUSDUDPHWHUVFRQVWDQWLWLVREYLRXVWKDWWKHSRZGHUPRLVWXUHGHSHQGVRQ
WKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH7KHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHSURGXFWSDUWLFOHVLQWKHVSUD\GU\HULV
ORZHUWKDQWKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWKLVGLIIHUHQFHLQWHPSHUDWXUHLQFUHDVHVE\LQ
FUHDVLQJPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW7KHOLQH WV VKRZVWKHVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHPSHUDWXUHRIDSDU
WLFXODUZKH\SRZGHUDVLQIOXHQFHGE\WKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW7KLVOLQHFURVVHVWKHSURG
XFWWHPSHUDWXUHOLQHDWDSRLQW 7SF ZKLFKUHSUHVHQWVWKHPD[LPXP FULWLFDO PRLVWXUH
FRQWHQWDQGDWWKHVDPHWLPHWKHPLQLPXP FULWLFDO RXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH 7RF WKDW
PD\EHXVHGIRUGU\LQJWKLVSDUWLFXODUZKH\FRQFHQWUDWHZLWKRXWKDYLQJWURXEOHZLWK
VWLFNLQJ
,WPD\EHVHHQWKDWDQRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHRI&JLYLQJDSURGXFWWHPSHUDWXUHRI
DERXW&DQGDPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRIFRUUHVSRQGVWRDVWLFNLQJSRLQWRI&
6RXQGHUWKHVHFRQGLWLRQVWKHGU\HULVUXQQLQJZLWKDVDIHW\PDUJLQRI&EHORZWKH
VWLFNLQJSRLQWFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRDERXWPRLVWXUH
+RZHYHUWKHFRQGLWLRQVPD\YDU\VRPHZKDWGXULQJWKHUXQFDXVLQJWKHSURGXFWWHP
SHUDWXUHWRULVHDERYHWKHVWLFNLQJSRLQW7KLVZRXOGIRUH[DPSOHKDSSHQXQGHUWKH
IROORZLQJFRQGLWLRQV
7KHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHGURSVE\&
 7KHIHHGFRQFHQWUDWLRQLQFUHDVHVE\

 7KHDEVROXWHKXPLGLW\RIWKHLQOHWGU\LQJDLULQFUHDVHVE\DERXWJP 
 7KHDFLGLW\RIWKHSURFHVVHGZKH\LQFUHDVHVE\DERXWODFWLFDFLG

7KHDERYHH[DPSOHLVYDOLGIRURQHW\SHRIVZHHWZKH\ZKHQUXQQLQJDWDQLQOHWWHP
SHUDWXUHRI&DQGZLWKDIHHGFRQFHQWUDWLRQRIVWUDLJKWIURPWKHHYDSRUDWRU





1,52$6

Lactose

Lactose

)LJ/DFWRVHPROHFXOHLQ DQG FRQILJXUDWLRQ

)LJ0XWDURWDWLRQ


)LJ7UDQVIRUPDWLRQRI ODFWRVHWR LQKRXU
 H[SUHVVHGLQRIREWDLQDEOH
WUDQVIRUPDWLRQWRWKHHTXLOLEULXP 




1,52$6

ZLWKQRSUHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ7KHVHFRQGLWLRQVDUHTXLWHFRPPRQIRUVZHHWZKH\ZLWK
RXWSUHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ


&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQRI:KH\&RQFHQWUDWH
3UHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHVKLIWVWKHVWLFNLQJWHPSHUDWXUHXSZDUGVDVWKH
FU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ\LHOGVDFRQFHQWUDWHZLWKPXFKOHVVDPRUSKRXVODFWRVHWREHGULHG,WLV
WKXVSRVVLEOHWRXVHFRQVLGHUDEO\KLJKHUIHHGFRQFHQWUDWLRQVDQGLQOHWWHPSHUDWXUHV
,QRUGHUWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHWKHRUHWLFEDFNJURXQGIRUWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQSURFHVVLWLV
QHFHVVDU\WRORRNLQWRWKHSK\VLFRFKHPLFDOSURSHUWLHVRIWKHODFWRVHZKLFKIRUP
DERXWRIWKHVROLGVRIWKHZKH\
/DFWRVHLVDGLVDFFKDULGHTXLWHGLIIHUHQWLQLWVEHKDYLRXUIURPRWKHUFRPPRQVXJDUV$
GLVWLQFWLYHIHDWXUHRIWKHODFWRVHLVLWVDSSHDUDQFHLQGLIIHUHQWPRGLILFDWLRQVZLWKSK\V
LFRFKHPLFDOLQWHUUHODWLRQVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHWHPSHUDWXUH
,QDQDTXHRXVVROXWLRQWKHODFWRVHPROHFXOHLVSUHVHQWLQDQDQGDIRUPDVVKRZQ
LQ)LJ
7KHDQGIRUPVDUHLQDUHYHUVLEOHHTXLOLEULXPLHWKHUHLVDFRQWLQXRXVWUDQVIRU
PDWLRQRIWKHIRUPLQWRWKHIRUPDQGYLFHYHUVDFDOOHGPXWDURWDWLRQVHH)LJ
7KHSURSRUWLRQRIWKHIRUPWRWKHIRUPLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHWHPSHUDWXUHVHH
)LJ
,QZKH\SRZGHUSURGXFHGDFFRUGLQJWRWKHSURFHVVGHVFULEHGDERYHZLWKDSQHXPDWLF
FRQYH\LQJV\VWHPWKHODFWRVHLVSUHVHQWLQDQDPRUSKRXVRUJODVV\VWDWH7KLVIRUPRI
ODFWRVHLVH[WUHPHO\K\JURVFRSLFDEVRUELQJZDWHUIURPWKHDLUIRUPLQJODFWRVH
PRQRK\GUDWH
7KHODFWRVHPRQRK\GUDWHZKLFKLVQRWK\JURVFRSLFLVDOVRIRUPHGLQOLTXLGZKH\
FRQFHQWUDWHVE\FU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRIWKHODFWRVHIURPVXSHUVDWXUDWHGVROXWLRQV$VWKH
IRUPLVOHVVVROXEOHWKDQWKHIRUPDWDJLYHQWHPSHUDWXUHWKHIRUPUHDFKHVWKH
SRLQWRIVXSHUVDWXUDWLRQILUVWDQGIRUPVFU\VWDOVRIODFWRVHPRQRK\GUDWH,Q)LJ
WKHGLVVROYLQJSURSHUWLHVRIDQGODFWRVHDUHVKRZQLQUHODWLRQWRWKHWHPSHUDWXUH
7KHUHPRYDORIODFWRVHIURPWKHVROXWLRQGXHWRWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQPHDQVWKDWWKH
SURSRUWLRQEHWZHHQDQGODFWRVHFKDQJHVVRWKDWWKHVROXWLRQFRQWDLQVPRUH
ODFWRVHWKDQFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHHTXLOLEULXP
'XHWRWKHPXWDURWDWLRQWKHVROXWLRQRIODFWRVHEHFRPHVDJDLQVXSHUVDWXUDWHGVR
WKDWWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQFRQWLQXHV7KLVSURFHVVZLOOFRQWLQXHDVORQJDVWKHVROXWLRQLV
VXSHUVDWXUDWHGDQGZLOOQRWVWRSXQWLOWKHVDWXUDWLRQSRLQWLVUHDFKHG



1,52$6

Temp.
o
C

Solubility in %

Solubility in 100 ml H2 O

(expressed as anhydride)

(expressed as anhydride)

Total
Lactose

Total
Lactose


)LJ6ROXELOLW\RI DQG ODFWRVHLQZDWHUDWGLIIHUHQWWHPSHUDWXUHV




1,52$6

/DFWRVHFDQEHVXSHUVDWXUDWHGE\





,QFUHDVLQJWKHFRQWHQWRIODFWRVHLQUHODWLRQWRZDWHUFRQWHQW7KLVLVGRQHE\
HYDSRUDWLRQ
&RROLQJWKHVROXWLRQDVODFWRVHEHFRPHVOHVVVROXEOHLQZDWHUDWORZHUWHPSHUD
WXUHV


$ULFKFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQLVWKHUHIRUHDFKLHYHGE\FRQFHQWUDWLQJWKHZKH\WRDVROLGVFRQ
WHQWDVKLJKDVSRVVLEOHDQGE\FRROLQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
7KHUDWHRIPXWDURWDWLRQLVGLUHFWO\LQIOXHQFHGE\WKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHVROXWLRQDQG
DVLWDSSHDUVIURP)LJLWSURFHHGVUHODWLYHO\IDVWDWKLJKWHPSHUDWXUHVZKHUHDVLW
JRHVYHU\VORZO\DWWHPSHUDWXUHVQHDUWKHIUHH]LQJSRLQW,WLVWKXVFOHDUWKDWWKHFRQGL
WLRQVSURPRWLQJPXWDURWDWLRQDQGFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQDUHFRQIOLFWLQJ
7KLVPHDQVWKDWE\FRROLQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWHWRRIDVWWRDWRRORZWHPSHUDWXUHWKHSUR
SRUWLRQRIODFWRVHZKLFKZLOOFU\VWDOOL]HZLOOEHORZHYHQWKRXJKWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ
SURFHHGVTXLFNO\7KLVLVGXHWRWKHVORZPXWDURWDWLRQUHVXOWLQJLQRQO\DVPDOO
DPRXQWRIODFWRVHEHLQJWUDQVIRUPHGLQWRODFWRVH
$WHPSHUDWXUHFRPSURPLVHLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\WRREWDLQDQRSWLPDOGHJUHHRIFU\V
WDOOL]DWLRQ
7KHDFWXDOREWDLQDEOHVROLGVFRQWHQWGHSHQGVRQWKHW\SHRIZKH\GHJUHHRIGHQDWXUD
WLRQRIWKHZKH\SURWHLQVS+RIWKHZKH\DQGWKHDELOLW\RIWKHHYDSRUDWRU
$OWKRXJKWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQSURFHVVLVQRWIXOO\XQGHUVWRRGLWLVDZHOONQRZQIDFW
WKDWWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDNHVSODFHRQWKHVXUIDFHRIDOUHDG\H[LVWLQJFU\VWDOV,QRUGHU
WRSURPRWHWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQODFWRVHFU\VWDOVRUZHOOFU\VWDOOL]HGZKH\SRZGHULV
VHHGHGWRWKHVXSHUVDWXUDWHGVROXWLRQ$VWKHVXUIDFHDUHDRIWKHVHHGLQJPDWHULDOLVWKH
LPSRUWDQWIDFWRUDVXIILFLHQWDPRXQWRIVPDOOFU\VWDOVVKRXOGEHDGGHGWRWKHFRQFHQ
WUDWH,IODFWRVHFU\VWDOV ODFWRVHPRQRK\GUDWH DUHXVHGDSSUR[ZZVKRXOG
EHDGGHGWRWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
&RROLQJRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVGRQHLQVWDQWDQHRXVO\WR&LQDIODVKFRROHU VHHSDJH
 FRQQHFWHGWRWKHHYDSRUDWRUDIWHUZKLFKLWLVFRROHGVORZO\ &K WRDERXW
&LQVSHFLDOO\GHVLJQHGFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVVHH)LJ7KLVPD\DOORZWKHPX
WDURWDWLRQWRSURFHHGDWDUHDVRQDEOHVSHHGUHVXOWLQJLQDULFKFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRIDERXW
RIWKHODFWRVH'XULQJWKHZKROHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWLPHLWLVRIVLJQLILFDQWLPSRU
WDQFHWKDWWKHFRQWHQWRIWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNEHYLJRURXVO\DJLWDWHGFRQWLQXRXVO\
7KLVLVGRQHLQRUGHUWRWUDQVSRUWVXSHUVDWXUDWHGVROXWLRQWRWKHVXUIDFHRIWKHFU\VWDOV
VLPXOWDQHRXVO\UHSODFLQJWKHVDWXUDWHGVROXWLRQ7KHDJLWDWLRQDOVRSUHYHQWVWKHYLV
FRVLW\RIWKHWKL[RWURSLFVXVSHQVLRQIURPJHWWLQJWRRKLJKDQGIXUWKHUPRUHVHGLPHQWD
WLRQRIWKHODFWRVHFU\VWDOVGRHVQRWWDNHSODFH



1,52$6

Whey concentrate in

Cooling water out

Cooling water in

Precryst. whey concentrate out


)LJ:KH\FU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNV

VISCOSITY
cps

o max

TIME

)LJ9LVFRVLW\GHYHORSPHQWGXULQJWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRI
ZKH\FRQFHQWUDWH




1,52$6

7KHYLVFRVLW\RIWKHFU\VWDOOL]HGZKH\FRQFHQWUDWHLVPDLQO\LQIOXHQFHGE\
+HDWWUHDWPHQWEHIRUHWKHHYDSRUDWLRQ
 6ROLGVFRQWHQWRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
 6L]HRIWKHODFWRVHFU\VWDOV



+HDW7UHDWPHQWEHIRUHWKH(YDSRUDWLRQ
7KHGHJUHHRIGHQDWXUDWLRQRIWKHZKH\SURWHLQVKDVDJUHDWLQIOXHQFHRQWKHYLVFRVLW\
RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHDVZHOODVRQWKHUDWHRIFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWKHGU\LQJSURSHUWLHVDQG
WKHILQDOSRZGHUSURSHUWLHV7KHSURSHUWLHVRIWKHSURWHLQVPD\DOVRYDU\LQGLIIHUHQW
W\SHVRIZKH\DQGFRQVHTXHQWO\WKH\PD\UHTXLUHGLIIHUHQWKHDWWUHDWPHQW
$VDJXLGHOLQHWKHSUHKHDWLQJWHPSHUDWXUHVKRXOGEHLQDQDUURZUDQJHRI&
+LJKHUSUHKHDWLQJWHPSHUDWXUHQRUPDOO\UHVXOWVLQKLJKHUYLVFRVLW\DQGSUREOHPVZLWK
SXPSLQJRIWKHFU\VWDOOL]HGFRQFHQWUDWHPD\RFFXU/RZHUWHPSHUDWXUHWKDQ&ZLOO
GHFUHDVHWKHYLVFRVLW\EXWDWWKHVDPHWLPHSUREOHPVZLWKGHSRVLWVLQWKHGU\LQJ
FKDPEHUPD\RFFXUGXHWRDQLQFUHDVHGWKHUPRSODVWLFLW\FDOOLQJIRUKLJKHUSDUWL
FOHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHZLWKDQLQIHULRUSURGXFWDVDUHVXOW
,WLVWKXVDJHQHUDOUXOHWKDWWKHSUHKHDWLQJWHPSHUDWXUHLVNHSWDWVXFKDOHYHOWKDWWKH
YLVFRVLW\LVDERXWF3
6ROLGV&RQWHQWRIWKH&RQFHQWUDWH
,WJRHVZLWKRXWVD\LQJWKDWWKHKLJKHUVROLGVFRQWHQWWKHKLJKHUYLVFRVLW\LQWKHFRQFHQ
WUDWHEXWDOVRGXULQJWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWKHYLVFRVLW\XQGHUJRHVGHHSFKDQJHVSDUWO\
GXHWRWKHGHFUHDVHLQWHPSHUDWXUHEXWDOVRGXHWRWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQLWVHOI
6L]HRIWKH/DFWRVH&U\VWDOV
$W\SLFDOGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHYLVFRVLW\GXULQJWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQLVVKRZQLQ)LJ
7KHPD[LPXPYLVFRVLW\DWWKHWLPHWPD[IRUDJLYHQDPRXQWRIFRQFHQWUDWHLV
UHDFKHGDIWHUDVKRUWWLPH KRXU DQGPD\JRDVKLJKDVVHYHUDOWKRXVDQGF37KH
UHDVRQLVWKDWWKHVL]HRIWKHODFWRVHFU\VWDOVLVYHU\VPDOO ELJVSHFLILFVXUIDFH DQG
WKHLUPRWKHUOLTXRUVROXWLRQVWLOOKDVDUHODWLYHO\KLJKVROLGVFRQWHQWZKLFKPHDQVWKDW
WKHIULFWLRQEHWZHHQWKHFU\VWDOVDQGWKHPRWKHUOLTXRULVELJ$VWLPHSDVVHVWKHODF
WRVHFU\VWDOVJURZDQGWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWRIWKHPRWKHUOLTXRUVROXWLRQGHFUHDVHVUH
VXOWLQJLQDGHFUHDVHRIWKHYLVFRVLW\
7KHYLVFRVLW\DWWPD[PD\EHVRKLJKWKDWDJLWDWLRQLVQRORQJHUSRVVLEOH+RZHYHU
DWWKHWLPHWLQRQFU\VWDOOL]HGFRQFHQWUDWHZLWKORZYLVFRVLW\LVSXPSHGLQWRWKHFU\V
WDOOL]DWLRQWDQNDQGWKHUHE\WKHFRQWHQWRIWKHWDQNLVGLOXWHGLQWKHZD\RIYLVFRV
LW\
7KHFXUYHWRQLVWKHUHIRUHWKHLQWHUHVWLQJRQHDQGXQGHUQRUPDOFRQGLWLRQVWKHYLVFRV
LW\GRHVQRWSUHVHQWDQ\SUREOHPVSURYLGHGWKHKHDWWUHDWPHQWLVFRQWUROOHG7KH



NIRO A/S

The curve to-n is therefore the interesting one, and under normal conditions the viscosity does not present any problems, provided the heat treatment is controlled. The
CRYSTALLIZED LACTOSE
25 C. SEEDED WITH 2

/oo LACTOSE

40 C. SEEDED WITH 1 o /oo LACTOSE

HOURS

Fig. 132

Fig. 133

Lactose crystallization as a function of time

Evaporator, two flash coolers with crystallization tanks, and a


compact dryer for continuous production of semi-crystallized
whey powder

- 256 -

1,52$6

FU\VWDOVL]HDLPHGDWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVDQGWKHELJJHVWFU\VWDOVKRXOGQRW
H[FHHG7KLVLQRUGHUWRHQVXUHWKDWDOOVSUD\SDUWLFOHVFRQWDLQDWOHDVWRQHODFWRVH
FU\VWDOHQDEOLQJDIXUWKHUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWRSURFHHGGXULQJWKHILQDOGU\LQJ7KLVLV
SRVVLEOHDVWKHPRWKHUOLTXRUVROXWLRQDJDLQEHFRPHVVXSHUVDWXUDWHGGXHWRWKHHYDSR
UDWLRQ
8QGHUQRUPDOFRQGLWLRQVLWLVSRVVLEOHWRREWDLQFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRIWKHODFWRVH
7KLVPD\EHGHWHUPLQHGLQDYHU\VLPSOHZD\E\XVLQJDQRUGLQDU\KDQGUHIUDFWRPHWHU
ZKLFKJLYHVWKHUHIUDFWLYHLQGH[RUGLUHFWRIVXJDULQVROXWLRQ
7KHUHIUDFWLYHLQGH[RUGLUHFWRIVXJDULVPHDVXUHGDWVKRUWLQWHUYDOVRIPLQ
GLUHFWIURPWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGWKHDYHUDJHDULWKPHWLFDOYDOXHLVFDOFXODWHG 6,QDQ
DYHUDJHVDPSOHRIWKHFU\VWDOOL]HGZKH\FRQFHQWUDWHDVHFRQGUHIUDFWRPHWULFUHDGLQJLV
PDGH 67KHGHJUHHRIFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQZLOOZLWKDJRRGDSSUR[LPDWLRQEH
 [[
&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQ  6 6

/[76[ 6

 

ZKHUH


6

VXJDU UHILQGH[ RIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHGLUHFWIURPWKHHYDSRUDWRU

6

VXJDU UHILQGH[ RIWKHFU\VWDOOL]HGFRQFHQWUDWH

/

ODFWRVH PD\EHXVHG 

76

WRWDOVROLGVFRQWHQWLQ

6HPL&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQRI:KH\&RQFHQWUDWH
$VLWFDQEHVHHQIURP)LJWKHPDMRULW\RIWKHODFWRVHLVFU\VWDOOL]HGDIWHU
KRXUV$FRQWLQXRXVVHPLFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQSURFHVVKDVWKHUHIRUHEHHQGHYHORSHG7KH
UHVXOWLQJSRZGHUH[KLELWVJRRGSK\VLFDOSURSHUWLHV
7KHZKH\LVSUHFRQGHQVHGWRVROLGVDIWHUZKLFKLWLVIODVKFRROHGWR&
7KHFRQFHQWUDWHLVSXPSHGWRDQRUGLQDU\VLQJOHZDOOHGWDQNHTXLSSHGZLWKDQDJLWD
WRU7KHYROXPHRIWKHWDQNFRUUHVSRQGVWRKRXUVSURGXFWLRQ7KHFRQFHQWUDWHLV
VHHGHGDVGHVFULEHGDERYHLQRUGHUWRVWDUWWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ
:KHQWKHWDQNLVIXOOWKHSURGXFWLVGLVFKDUJHGDWWKHVDPHVSHHGDVQHZSURGXFWLV
SXPSHGLQ7KHVHPLFU\VWDOOL]HGFRQFHQWUDWHLVSXPSHGWRIODVKFRROHU1RZKHUHLW
LVFRROHGWR&DQGSXPSHGWRDQHZWDQNZLWKDYROXPHFRUUHVSRQGLQJWR
KRXUVLQRUGHUWRILQLVKWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ%HFDXVHRIWKHKHDWFUHDWHGE\WKHFU\VWDOOL
]DWLRQWKHWHPSHUDWXUHZLOOLQFUHDVHE\&:KHQWKHWDQNLVIXOOWKHVSUD\GU\LQJ
LVVWDUWHG6HH)LJ




)LJ(YDSRUDWRUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVDQGVSUD\GU\HUZLWK
SQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP

1,52$6




1,52$6

6SUD\'U\LQJRI:KH\&RQFHQWUDWHV
7KHVSUD\GU\LQJPD\EHSHUIRUPHGDFFRUGLQJWRWKUHHGLIIHUHQWSURFHVVHVGHSHQGLQJ
RQWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVWRWKHILQDOSRZGHU
6SUD\GU\LQJE\WKHSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJSURFHVV
6SUD\GU\LQJE\WKHIOXLGEHGSURFHVV
 6SUD\GU\LQJE\WKHEHOWSURFHVV




6SUD\'U\LQJE\WKH3QHXPDWLF&RQYH\LQJ3URFHVV
,QWKLVSURFHVVWKHZKH\FRQFHQWUDWHLVIHGWRWKHDWRPL]DWLRQGHYLFHZKLFKPD\HL
WKHUEHRIWKHSUHVVXUHQR]]OHW\SHRUDURWDU\DWRPL]HU$VHDUOLHUGHVFULEHGWKHGU\LQJ
LVHIIHFWHGE\LQWURGXFWLRQRIKRWDLUWKURXJKWKHDLUGLVSHUVHULQWRWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU
7KHDLUWDNHVXSWKHHYDSRUDWHGZDWHUIURPWKHFRQFHQWUDWHDQGWKHQSDVVHVWKURXJK
WKHF\FORQHVZKHUHWKHSRZGHUSDUWLFOHVFDUULHGDORQJDUHVHSDUDWHG
7KHPDLQSDUWRIWKHSRZGHUSDUWLFOHVLVGLVFKDUJHGIURPWKHFRQLFDOERWWRPRIWKH
FKDPEHU+HUHLWLVIHGWRWKHSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJDQGFRROLQJV\VWHPZKLFKDOVR
FROOHFWVWKHDERYHPHQWLRQHGF\FORQHIUDFWLRQ
7KHWRWDODPRXQWRISRZGHULVVHSDUDWHGLQDF\FORQHWKHSRZGHULVVLIWHGDQGEDJJHG
RII
7KLVW\SHRISODQWLVVKRZQLQ)LJDQGFRPSULVHVDIDOOLQJILOPHYDSRUDWRUDQGD
VSUD\GU\LQJSODQWZLWKSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP7KHSRZGHUIURPVXFKDSODQW
KDVWKHIROORZLQJFKDUDFWHULVWLFV
FRQVLVWVRILQGLYLGXDOSDUWLFOHV
 WHQGVWRGHYHORSGXVW
 KLJKEXONGHQVLW\
 KLJKK\JURVFRSLFLW\DQGWHQGHQF\WRFDNH

7KLVNLQGRISRZGHULVPDLQO\XVHGDVDQLPDOIRGGHU7KHK\JURVFRSLFWHQGHQF\LVGXH
WRWKHODFWRVHLQWKHSRZGHUEHLQJLQWKHVRFDOOHGDPRUSKRXVVWDJHZKLFKPHDQVZD
WHUDEVRUELQJDQGVWLFN\7KHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHDQGFRQWHQWRIUHVLGXDOPRLVWXUHPXVW
WKHUHIRUHEHNHSWORZ7KLVPHDQVDOVRWKDWWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWPXVWEHNHSWORZ7KH
FRQGLWLRQVIRUWKLVSURFHVVDUHXVXDOO\WKHIROORZLQJ


3DVWHXUL]DWLRQDW&
 (YDSRUDWLRQWRVROLGV
 'U\LQJDWDWHPSHUDWXUHRI&

6SUD\GU\LQJRISUHFU\VWDOOL]HGZKH\FRQFHQWUDWHFDQEHSHUIRUPHGXQGHUPXFKPRUH
HFRQRPLFDOFRQGLWLRQVDVWKHGU\LQJWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWFDQEHLQ
FUHDVHG7KHWRWDOGU\LQJFRVWVFDQWKXVEHUHGXFHG$VPRVWRIWKHODFWRVHLVFU\VWDO





)LJ(YDSRUDWRUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVDQGVSUD\GU\HUZLWK
9LEUR)OXLGL]HU

1,52$6




1,52$6

OL]HGDQGWKHUHIRUHFDQDEVRUEYHU\OLWWOHZDWHUWKHSRZGHUZLOOEHRIDPXFKEHWWHU
TXDOLW\EHFDXVHWKHFDNLQJWHQGHQF\KDVEHHQUHGXFHG
7\SLFDOSURFHVVLQJFRQGLWLRQVDUHDVIROORZV
3DVWHXUL]DWLRQDW&
 (YDSRUDWLRQWRVROLGV
 &U\VWDOOL]DWLRQ
 'U\LQJDWDWHPSHUDWXUHRI&



6SUD\'U\LQJE\WKH)OXLG%HG3URFHVV
,QVWDOODWLRQRIVWDWLFLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGVDQGRU9LEUR)OXLGL]HUVIRUDIWHUGU\LQJDQG
FRROLQJZLOOLPSURYHWKHGU\LQJHFRQRP\7KHSULQFLSOHLVWKDWWKHVSUD\GU\HULVRS
HUDWHGLQVXFKDZD\WKDWWKHSRZGHULVGULHGWRDPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRILQWKH
SULPDU\GU\LQJVWDJH
7KHH[FHVVPRLVWXUHLVUHPRYHGLQWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUE\DKRWDLUVWUHDPGU\LQJWKH
SRZGHUWRWKHILQDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW%\LQWURGXFLQJFROGDLUWRDODWHUVHFWLRQRIWKH
9LEUR)OXLGL]HUWKHSRZGHULVFRROHGWRWKHZDQWHGWHPSHUDWXUH7KHDLUXVHGIRUWKH
DIWHUGU\LQJDQGFRROLQJLVSDVVHGWKURXJKDF\FORQHZKHUHWKHSRZGHUFDUULHGDORQJ
ZLWKWKHDLULVUHFRYHUHGDQGUHWXUQHGWRJHWKHUZLWKWKHPDLQF\FORQHIUDFWLRQWRWKH
DWRPL]HUIRUDJJORPHUDWLRQ7KHDJJORPHUDWLRQPHDQVWKDWWKHSRZGHUZLOOEHIUHH
IORZLQJDQGWKHVSHFLILFVXUIDFHUHGXFHGVRWKDWDQ\PRLVWXUHDEVRUSWLRQLVIXUWKHUUH
GXFHGUHVXOWLQJLQDSRZGHUZLWKSUDFWLFDOO\QRFDNLQJWHQGHQF\
,Q)LJDIORZVKHHWRIWKHQRQFDNLQJZKH\SURFHVVLVVKRZQLQFOXGLQJHYDSRUD
WRUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVDQGVSUD\GU\HUZLWKVWDWLFIOXLGEHGDQG9LEUR)OXLGL]HUV
7\SLFDOGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQVDUH
3DVWHXUL]DWLRQDW&
 (YDSRUDWLRQWRVROLGV
 &U\VWDOOL]DWLRQ
 'U\LQJDWDWHPSHUDWXUHRI&



6SUD\'U\LQJE\WKH%HOW3URFHVV
$QRWKHUSURFHVVLVWKHVRFDOOHGEHOWSURFHVVRUZHWSURFHVVZKLFKLVHVSHFLDOO\DG
YDQWDJHRXVZKHQSRZGHUVZLWKYHU\JRRGFDNLQJK\JURVFRSLFSURSHUWLHVDUHUHTXLUHG
VHHDOVR'U\LQJRI3HUPHDWHSDJH RUZKHQGU\LQJODFWLFDFLGZKH\ZKLFKLV
YHU\WKHUPRSODVWLFGXHWRWKHKLJKFRQWHQWRIODFWLFDFLGEHLQJOLTXLGLQGU\IRUP
HYHQDWORZWHPSHUDWXUH/DFWLFDFLGZKH\SRZGHULVWUHPHQGRXVO\VWLFN\GXULQJWKH
VSUD\GU\LQJSURFHVV$ORZGU\LQJSDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUHLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\LQRUGHU
WRDYRLGFKDPEHUGHSRVLWV7\SLFDOGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQVDUH
3DVWHXUL]DWLRQDW&
 (YDSRUDWLRQWRVROLGV





1,52$6

)LJ6SUD\GU\HUZLWKEHOWIRUDIWHUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ




NIRO A/S

Crystallization
Drying at a temperature of 150C
Moisture content ex chamber 12-15%

In order to avoid condensation in the cyclones, due to a low outlet temperature (approx. 55C), hot air may be introduced into the cyclones thus reducing the relative
humidity.
Bag filters - standard or CIP-able - are not recommended due to the high moisture/relative humidity in the exhaust air. Wet scrubbers are therefore recommended.
The high moisture content in the powder means that the crystallization will continue
in the powder to an even greater extent than in the process featuring fluid beds only,
as discussed on page 261. This crystallization is improved, if the wet powder is kept
at the high moisture content for 5-10 min. This is done on a belt conveyor or a rotating disc between the chamber outlet and the Vibro-Fluidizer, where the final drying
takes place, see Fig. 136. The powder will consist of big agglomerates which will
have a low bulk density and extremely good instant and non-caking properties. The
bulk density may be increased by a hammer mill treatment.
Spray Drying of High Concentrated Whey Concentrate
In an attempt to improve drying economy, the solids content in the concentrate has
been experimentally increased up to 70-75% TS. To avoid crystallization in the last
effect, as the lactose becomes supersaturated, the evaporator is equipped with a specially designed high concentrator operating with recycling and at a higher boiling
temperature. Further, the higher temperature is necessary to lower the viscosity of the
concentrate to avoid blocked tubes.
When the concentrate has reached its final solids content, it is flash cooled, and the
crystallization takes place instantaneously. Normal crystallization tanks are not necessary, only an intermediate tank with agitation. However, the high temperature during
the long recycling time in the evaporator has its price. The whey proteins are denatured, and valuable nutritional values are lost. Further, the Maillard reaction will start
resulting in a pronounced discolouring and bad flavour in the final powder. Therefore,
even though the economy is attractive the end result - the final powder - does not meet
international standards.

Production of Acid Whey Powder


Not all whey originates from traditional cheese production giving sweet whey with a
pH of min. 6.3. Cottage cheese, quark, Fromage Frais, Queso Fresco, Mozzarella, or
similar products give whey with a pH of 4.6 due to the precipitation of the milk.

- 263 -

1,52$6




1,52$6

/DFWLFDFLGLVYHU\K\JURVFRSLFDQGWKHUPRSODVWLFDQGWKXVYHU\GLIILFXOWWRGU\1HX
WUDOL]DWLRQFDQEHQHFHVVDU\ WRDS+RI DQGWKHIROORZLQJQHXWUDOL]LQJDJHQWV
FDQEHXVHG


0J 2+ IRUPV0JODFWDWHZKLFKLVDGU\VDOWDQGSUHIHUUHGE\WKHHQGXVHUV
DVLWGRHVQRWUHVXOWLQGDUNFRORXULQJRIWKHPHDWRIWKHDQLPDOVW\SLFDOO\
FDOYHVHDWLQJWKHSURGXFW

&D 2+ LVDOVRXVDEOHEXWDVWKHFRQWHQWRI&D LVDOUHDG\KLJKLQWKHDFLG


ZKH\WKHDQLPDOVPD\JHWGLJHVWLYHSUREOHPV

1D2+LVVRPHWLPHVXVHGEXWLVQRWUHFRPPHQGDEOHDV1DODFWDWHLVK\JUR
VFRSLFDQGWKHUPRSODVWLF)XUWKHULWGLVFRORXUVWKHPHDWIURPWKHDQLPDOVIHG
ZLWKWKHSURGXFW



$FLGZKH\IURPDFLGLILFDWLRQE\PLQHUDODFLGVOLNH+&ORU+62QHHGQRWEHQHXWUDO
L]HGEXWVSHFLDOSUHFDXWLRQVVKRXOGEHWDNHQLQWKHVHOHFWLRQRIWKHVWDLQOHVVVWHHOXVHG
IRUWKHIDEULFDWLRQRIWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGVSUD\GU\HUDVFRUURVLRQLVDSUREOHPHVSH

FLDOO\GXHWRWKH&O LRQV
*HQHUDOO\VSHDNLQJDFLGZKH\LVPRUHGLIILFXOWWRGU\WKDQVZHHWZKH\DQGDGGLWLRQ
RIIUHHIORZLQJDJHQWVXFKDV7L[RVLOLVUHFRPPHQGHGGXULQJWKHGU\LQJRS
HUDWLRQ


:KH\ZLWK)DW
7KHDGGLWLRQRIIDWWRWKHZKH\FRQFHQWUDWHSULRUWRWKHGU\LQJLVXVHGWRRI
WKHGU\PDWWHULVQRUPDO7KLVSURGXFWLVWKHQXVHGGLUHFWO\RULQDGU\PL[LQJRSHUD
WLRQWRPDNHGLIIHUHQWFDOIPLONUHSODFHUV7KHIDWXVHGLVPDLQO\RIDFKHDSVRUWVXFK
DVODUGRUWDOORZ3UHFDXWLRQVDJDLQVWWKHSUHVHQFHRISRO\XQVDWXUDWHGIDWDFLGVVKRXOG
EHWDNHQE\DGGLWLRQRIDQWLR[LGDQWVWRSUHYHQWILUHVLQWKHGU\HU
:DOOGHSRVLWVFDQEHDYRLGHGWRDJUHDWH[WHQWE\LQWURGXFLQJZDUPDLUDW&WDQ
JHQWLDOO\LQWRWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHUDWWKHF\OLQGULFDOSDUWRIWKHFKDPEHU7KHDPRXQW
RIDLUWREHXVHGLVDERXWRIWKHDPRXQWRIGU\LQJDLU
IDWHQULFKHGZKH\SRZGHUVKDYHSURYHGWRGRPLQDWHWKHPDUNHW7KHPRVWVXLW
DEOHSODQWIRUWKLVSURGXFWLVWKH&RPSDFWGU\HUGLVFXVVHGRQSDJHDQGEHORZDUH
WKHUHFRPPHQGHGWHFKQRORJLFDOSURFHVVLQJVWHSV


6ZHHWZKH\RIJRRGTXDOLW\ZLWKQRUPDOFRQWHQWRIZKH\SURWHLQVVKRXOGEH
XVHGLHFDVHLQZKH\LVQRWUHFRPPHQGHGDVWKHZKH\SURWHLQFRQWHQWLVORZ
UHVXOWLQJLQKLJKIUHHIDWOHYHOVDQGIDWHPXOVLRQVWDELOLW\



)LJ3URFHVVLQJRIIDWHQULFKHGZKH\SRZGHU

1,52$6




1,52$6

7KHS+VKRXOGQRWEHORZHUWKDQLQWKHUDZZKH\,WLVSRVVLEOHWRQHX
WUDOL]HZLWK0J 2+ WRLPSURYHWKHIDWHPXOVLRQVWDELOLW\DQGWRVWDELOL]HHV
SHFLDOO\VDOWVRIFLWUDWHVSKRVSKDWHVDQGODFWDWHV7KHZKH\SURWHLQVVKRXOGQRW
EHK\GURO\VHGDQGDJRRGLQGLFDWLRQLVPD[1+JVROLGV


7KHORZHUS+LQWKHUDZZKH\WKHPRUHQHXWUDOL]LQJDJHQWDQGWKHPRUHGLIIL
FXOWWKHGU\LQJ3RZGHURILQIHULRUTXDOLW\LVWKHHQGUHVXOW



,PPHGLDWHO\DIWHUWKHFKHHVHSURFHVVWKHZKH\PXVWEHSDVWHXUL]HGDW&IRU
VHFDQGFRROHGWR&IRUVWRUDJH



3DVWHXUL]DWLRQWR&QRKROGLQJEHIRUHHYDSRUDWLRQWRVROLGVDQGIODVK
FRROLQJWR&



&RROLQJWR&GXULQJKRXUV &K LQFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNV



$GGLWLRQRIVRGLXPKH[DPHWDSKRVSKDWHRUVRGLXPSRO\SKRVSKDWHWRELQG&D
LRQV



0L[LQJIDWDQGHPXOVLILHUVDW&



0L[LQJIDWHPXOVLILHUZLWKWKHZKH\FRQFHQWUDWH



,QOLQHKHDWLQJE\PHDQVRIDFRQFHQWUDWHSUHKHDWH[FKDQJHUWR&7KHKROG
LQJWLPHRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHDWWKLVWHPSHUDWXUHVKRXOGEHDVVKRUWDVSRVVLEOHWR
DYRLGPHOWLQJRIWKHODFWRVHFU\VWDOV



7ZRVWDJHKRPRJHQL]LQJDWEDUJ

 6SUD\GU\LQJSUHIHUDEO\ZLWK&,3DEOHEDJILOWHUWRDYRLGSUREOHPVZLWKEORFNHG
F\FORQHV
 'XULQJVSUD\GU\LQJDGGLWLRQRIIUHHIORZLQJDJHQW
 &RROLQJLQD9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDQGEDJJLQJRII
6HH)LJ
)RUIDWLQZKH\WKH0XOWL6WDJH'U\HUZLWK&,3DEOHEDJILOWHULVUHFRPPHQGHG
VHHSDJH GXHWRLWVVSHFLDOGHVLJQZKHUHWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVVSUD\HGRQWRWKHIOX
LGL]HGSRZGHUOD\HUWRDYRLGH[FHVVLYHSRZGHUGHSRVLWVLQWKHSODQW)RUKLJKHUIDW
FRQWHQWVWKHSURGXFWEHFRPHVWRRGLIILFXOWWRGU\GXHWRVHYHUHSRZGHUGHSRVLWVLQWUD
GLWLRQDOVSUD\GU\HUV7KHLQWHJUDWHGEHOWGU\HUW\SH),/7(50$7 )0' VHH
)LJLVWKHUHIRUHFKRVHQ,QWKLVSODQWWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVVSUD\HGGRZQZDUGVRQWR
DVORZO\PRYLQJEHOWRQZKLFKWKHSRZGHUDFFXPXODWHVDVDOD\HU PDW RISRZGHU
ZKLFKLVFRQWLQXRXVO\EHLQJFRQYH\HGRXWRIWKHGU\LQJ]RQHLQWRWKHDIWHUGU\LQJDQG
FRROLQJ]RQH7KHSURFHVVDLU SULPDU\GU\LQJVHFRQGDU\GU\LQJDQGFRROLQJ LVH[
KDXVWHGWKURXJKWKHSRZGHUPDWDQGWKHEHOW FRQVLVWLQJRIDSRURXVV\QWKHWLFIRRG



1,52$6


)LJ,QWHJUDWHGEHOWGU\HU7\SH),/7(50$7 )0' 




1,52$6

JUDGHPDWHULDO DQGWKURXJKDF\FORQH7KHDPRXQWRISRZGHUHQWUDLQHGLQWKHDLU
IURPWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHULVYHU\ORZ7KHF\FORQHLVWKHUHIRUHHTXLSSHGZLWKD
EXFNHWIRUPDQXDOHPSW\LQJRIWKHILQHVSRZGHU
7KHXVHRIZKH\SRZGHUZLWKRUZLWKRXWIDWLVH[WHQVLYH+RZHYHUWKHELJJHVWSDUWLV
XVHGDVDQLPDOIRGGHUHLWKHUGLUHFW XSWRRIWKHWRWDOIRRG RUDVDQLQJUHGLHQWLQ
DILQDOIRUPXODWHGPL[


0RWKHU/LTXRU
,QODFWRVHSURGXFWLRQWKHUHPDLQLQJSURGXFWDIWHUVHSDUDWLRQRIWKHODFWRVHFU\VWDOV
XVXDOO\E\GHFDQWLQJ VHHSDJH LVFDOOHGPRWKHUOLTXRU$VLWXVXDOO\FRQWDLQV
SURWHLQODFWRVHVROXWLRQFU\VWDOVDQGVDOWVLWLVGLIILFXOWWRGU\DVWKHVDOWVDQG
ODFWRVHPDNHLWYHU\K\JURVFRSLFDQGGHSRVLWVLQWKHFKDPEHUDUHWKHUHIRUHQRUPDOO\
VHHQ
,WLVKRZHYHUSRVVLEOHWRDSSO\WKHVDPHWHFKQLTXHDVHDUOLHUGHVFULEHGLQWURGXFLQJ
ZDUPDLUDW&WDQJHQWLDOO\LQWRWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHUZKHUHE\WKHPHQWLRQHGSURE
OHPVFDQEHPLQLPL]HG7KHLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGGU\HUVZLOODOVREHDGYDQWDJHRXVIRU
WKLVSURGXFW)DWVRIYDULRXVW\SHVFDQDOVREHDGGHGWRWKHPRWKHUOLTXRUSULRUWRWKH
GU\LQJ&RROLQJRIWKHSRZGHULVWKHQSHUIRUPHGLQD9LEUR)OXLGL]HULQWRZKLFKFROG
DLULVDSSOLHG'ULHGPRWKHUOLTXRULVXVHGDVVWRFNIRRGDQGLVVSHFLDOO\VXLWHGIRU
DQLPDOVWKDWFDQQRWXWLOL]HWKHODFWRVHVXFKDVSRXOWU\
6SHFLDODWWHQWLRQVKRXOGKRZHYHUEHSDLGWRWKHKLJKVDOWFRQWHQWZKLFKPD\OHDGWR
WURXEOHVRPHGLJHVWLRQIRUVRPHDQLPDOV$QRWKHUWKLQJLVWKHDEVHQFHRIWKHDPLQR
DFLG0HWKLRQLQHZKLFKLVRQO\SUHVHQWLQZKH\SURWHLQVLQDOLPLWHGDPRXQW6\QWKHWLF
0HWKLRQLQH RUILVKPHDORUVR\SURWHLQV VKRXOGEHDGGHG


:KH\3URWHLQV :3& 
$VGLVFXVVHGLQWKHSUHYLRXVFKDSWHUZKH\FRQWDLQVDERXWSURWHLQFRUUHVSRQGLQJ
WRRIWKHGU\PDWWHU7KHVHSURWHLQVDUHNQRZQDVVHUXPSURWHLQVRUZKH\SUR
WHLQV$VWKHQXWULWLYHYDOXHLVFRQVLGHUHGYHU\KLJKDQGDVKXPDQPLONFRQWDLQVPRUH
ZKH\SURWHLQVWKDQFRZ
VPLONQXPHURXVDWWHPSWVKDYHEHHQPDGHWRVHSDUDWHWKHVH
SURWHLQVIURPWKHZKH\HVSHFLDOO\IRUXVHLQEDE\IRRGSRZGHUV
7KHPRVWDFFHSWHGDQGZLGHO\XVHGSURFHVVLVXOWUDILOWUDWLRQ7KLVSURFHVVLVKRZHYHU
FRQVLGHUHGZHOONQRZQWRWKHUHDGHUVDQGLVWKHUHIRUHQRWGLVFXVVHGKHUH
7KHVROLGVFRQWHQWDQGWKHFRPSRVLWLRQRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHDOVRNQRZQDVUHWHQWDWH
IURPWKHXOWUDILOWUDWLRQFDQEHYDULHGWRPHHWVSHFLDOUHTXLUHPHQWVLQWKHILQDOSURGXFW



1,52$6

POWDER
o
TEMPERATURE C

INSOLUBILITY
INDEX IN ML

)LJ6ROXELOLW\RIWKHILQDO:3&SURGXFWDVDIXQFWLRQRIWKHDLU
RXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHIURPWKHVSUD\GU\HU


)LJ7DOOIRUPGU\HUIRUZKH\SURWHLQSURGXFWV 7)' 




NIRO A/S

Commercially, whey proteins are available with three different protein contents: 35%
WPC, 60% WPC, and 80% WPC.
If 100 kg of normal sweet whey with 6% solids is used, then approx. 20 kg of 35%
WPC is discharged from the ultrafiltration module with a solids content of about 10%,
which is increased by evaporation to 45% before the spray drying. Approx. 8 kg of
60% WPC is discharged with a solids content of about 15%, evaporated to 42% before the spray drying. High protein concentration results in high viscosity, and it is
necessary to add water (diafiltration) during the final filtration, if 80% WPC is produced. 3 kg of 80% WPC is discharged with a solids content of about 28-30%. Due to
the high protein content it is dried directly.
Whey protein concentrates can be used direct, together with ordinary milk concentrates, in formulas for baby food thus obtaining a product with a composition similar
to mothers milk.
The whey protein concentrates can also be used in the production of cream cheese or
other soft type cheeses or as filler (water binder) in sausages replacing the meat.
The drying of whey protein concentrates is easy, but to maintain a good solubility of
the product, it is essential to use low outlet air temperatures to avoid denaturation, see
Fig. 139. Two-stage drying is therefore recommended.
As the solids content of the concentrate is low due to the high protein content, the
spray drying plants are always equipped with bag filters after the cyclones. However,
as the filter fraction may not always have the same quality as the main product, the
Tall-Form Dryer is often selected, as the special air outlet minimizes the cyclone fraction and consequently also the filter fraction. See page 75 and Fig. 140.
The tendency today is to produce agglomerated instant whey proteins. Due to the lack
of lactose as binder, especially in 80% WPC, the agglomeration is difficult. However,
by selecting the Multi-Stage Dryer, see page 203, Fig. 85, it is possible to obtain a sufficient agglomeration. As the proteins are very hydrophilic, they will absorb water instantaneously at their first contact with water, which makes the dispersion difficult.
By agglomeration and lecithination the water absorption is delayed just sufficiently to
allow the powder to be dispersed in the water before the final dissolution.
The powder has the same applications as the concentrates, but does have the supreme
advantage of an almost infinite keeping quality.

Permeate
The other product from the ultrafiltration is the permeate, usually containing about
4.5% lactose. The permeate can be used for fermenting, production of glucosegalactose or lactylurea, or concentrated, crystallized and then dried.
- 271 -




)LJD&RPSDFWGU\HUIRUSHUPHDWH'U\SURFHVV

&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQ

(YDSRUDWRU

'U\HU

1,52$6




1,52$6

7KHFRQFHQWUDWLRQFDQEHGRQHHLWKHULQDK\SHUILOWUDWLRQSODQWDQGDQHYDSRUDWRURULQ
DQHYDSRUDWRUDORQHWRVROLGV6SHFLDODWWHQWLRQVKRXOGKRZHYHUEHSDLGWRWKH
&D 32 FRPSOH[DVLWLVDZHOONQRZQIDFWWKDWLWZLOOSUHFLSLWDWHDWKLJKWHPSHUD
WXUHVHVSHFLDOO\LIWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQLVKLJKDQGWKHS+LVULJKW
,IWKH&DLVQRWLQDFWLYDWHGWKHSUHFLSLWDWLRQZLOORFFXUDVGHSRVLWVRQWKHKHDWVXU
IDFHLQWKHHYDSRUDWRUHVSHFLDOO\LQWKHILUVWHIIHFW,WLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\WRPDNH
DQLQWHUPHGLDWHFOHDQLQJRIWKHHYDSRUDWRUDIWHUKRXUVZLWKDFLG
,QWKHLQGXVWU\WKH&DSKRVSKDWHLVSUHFLSLWDWHGLQWKHZKH\SHUPHDWHE\DGMXVWLQJWKH
S+WRE\DGGLWLRQRIFDXVWLF 0J 2+ RU1D2+VHHDOVRSDJH DIWHUZKLFK
WKHSURGXFWLVKHDWHGWR&7KHSUHFLSLWDWHG&DSKRVSKDWHFDQWKHQEHUHPRYHG
E\FHQWULIXJDWLRQRUPHPEUDQHILOWUDWLRQ7KHGLVFKDUJHGSURGXFWFDQEHGULHGDQG
VROGDVPLONFDOFLXP
$IWHUWKHGHFDOFLXPSURFHVVWKHSURGXFWFDQEHHYDSRUDWHGDQGGULHGGLUHFWO\EXWLWLV
UHFRPPHQGHGWRQHXWUDOL]HLWE\DGGLQJFLWULFRUDFLGLFDFLGDVLWZLOORWKHUZLVH
JLYHSUREOHPVZLWKGHSRVLWVLQWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU
,WLVQRWSRVVLEOHWRGU\WKLVFRQFHQWUDWHGLUHFWGXHWRWKHK\JURVFRSLFWHQGHQF\RIWKH
UHVXOWLQJSRZGHUDQGFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQLVQHFHVVDU\7KLVLVFDUULHGRXWH[DFWO\DVGH
VFULEHGXQGHUWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRIZKH\FRQFHQWUDWHDQGDOVRWKHGU\LQJLVHTXDOWR
WKHGU\LQJRIZKH\+RZHYHUWKUHHGLIIHUHQWVSUD\GU\LQJSURFHVVHVVKRXOGEHPHQ
WLRQHG


7KH'U\3URFHVV



7KH:HW3URFHVV



7KH7,;27+(503URFHVV

'U\3URFHVV
,QWKHVRFDOOHGGU\SURFHVVWKHSUHFU\VWDOOL]HGSHUPHDWHFRQFHQWUDWHLVGULHGLQD
&RPSDFWGU\HU VHH)LJD 5RWDU\DWRPL]DWLRQLVSUHIHUUHGDVWKHDWRPL]HUZKHHO
RIIHUVWKHEHVWDOWHUQDWLYHDVLWFDQKDQGOHSURGXFWVFRQWDLQLQJFU\VWDOVZLWKRXWZHDU
)XUWKHUURWDU\DWRPL]DWLRQLVLGHDOIRUFRQFHQWUDWHVZLWKKLJKYLVFRVLW\
7KHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGKRZHYHULVWRRORZ IUHHPRLV
WXUH WRDOORZIRUIXUWKHUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRIWKHODFWRVH7KHPRELOLW\RIZDWHUQHHGHGWR
IRUPODFWRVHFU\VWDOVLVVLPSO\QRWSUHVHQW+LJKHUPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHSRZGHULQ
WKHIOXLGEHGQHHGHGIRUWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWRSURFHHG PDGHSRVVLEOHEHFDXVHRIWKH
VXSHUVDWXUDWLRQRIWKHODFWRVHGXULQJWKHGU\LQJSURFHVV ZLOOPDNHWKHIOXLGL]DWLRQRI
WKHSRZGHULQWKHIOXLGEHGLPSRVVLEOHDQGDQ\DWWHPSWWRPDNHLWKDSSHQZLOOUHVXOW
LQGU\LQJRXWRIWKHZDWHUVRWKDWDSRVWFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQZLOOQRWWDNHSODFH







)LJE7DOOIRUPGU\HUIRUSHUPHDWH:HWSURFHVV

&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQ

(YDSRUDWRU

'U\HU

1,52$6




1,52$6

+RZHYHUWKHUHVXOWLQJSRZGHUZLOOH[KLELWQRUPDOJRRGK\JURVFRSLFDQGFDNLQJWHQ
GHQFLHVDQGWKHGU\LQJHFRQRP\ZLOOEHDFFHSWDEOH$VDOZD\VIRFXVKDVWREHRQ
SRZGHUHPLVVLRQ&\FORQHVFDQEHXVHGIROORZHGE\ZHWVFUXEEHUVXVLQJZDWHUDV
VFUXEELQJPHGLXPRUQRUPDOEDJILOWHUV'XHWRWKHUHODWLYHORZPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQ
WKHH[KDXVWDLUQHHGHGIRUWKHSURFHVVWRZRUNDWDOOLWFDQDOVREHSDVVHGWKURXJKD
&,3DEOHEDJILOWHU VHHSDJH $OOSRZGHUZLOOWKHUHE\EHFROOHFWHGDVILUVWJUDGH
SRZGHUDQGSRZGHUHPLVVLRQLVDYRLGHG
:HW3URFHVV
$VSHUPHDWHSRZGHULVXVHGWKURXJKRXWWKHZRUOGDOVRLQFRXQWULHVZKHUHWKHFOLPDWH
LVKXPLGWKHSRZGHUZLOODEVRUEPRLVWXUHIURPWKHDPELHQWLIWKHODFWRVHLVQRWWR
WDOO\FU\VWDOOL]HG$VH[SODLQHGXQGHUWKHGU\SURFHVVWKHODFWRVHFDQQRWUHDFKD
FU\VWDOOL]DWLRQGXHWRODFNRIPRELOHZDWHUGXULQJWKHSURFHVV7KHUHPDLQLQJ
DPRUSKRXVODFWRVHZLOOWKHUHIRUHDEVRUEPRLVWXUHIURPWKHDLUZKHQWKHEDJLV
RSHQHGLIWKHDPELHQWDLUKDVDKLJKHQRXJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW7KHSRZGHUZLOOFDNH
DQGOXPSLQJZLOOEHWKHUHVXOWOHDYLQJDQXQDWWUDFWLYHSURGXFWWRWKHHQGXVHU
7KHEHOWRUZHWSURFHVVIRUZKH\SRZGHUDVGHVFULEHGRQSDJHLVWKHUHIRUHRIWHQ
DSSOLHGWRSHUPHDWHDVZHOO7KHSHUPHDWHLVHYDSRUDWHGLQDPXOWLVWDJHHYDSRUDWRU
SUHIHUDEO\LQFOXGLQJDFDOFLXPSKRVSKDWHSUHFLSLWDWLRQVHSDUDWLRQSURFHVVWRDOORZIRU
DKUXQZLWKRXWLQWHUPHGLDWHFOHDQLQJ VHHSDJH 7\SLFDOO\WKHFRQFHQWUDWH
UHDFKHVD76EHIRUHIODVKFRROLQJWR&IROORZHGE\IXUWKHUFRROLQJDQG
FU\VWDOOL]DWLRQLQFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVGXULQJKRXUVEHIRUHVSUD\GU\LQJ
7KHDFWXDOGU\LQJLVW\SLFDOO\GRQHLQD7DOO)RUPVSUD\GU\LQJSODQWXVLQJLQOHWWHP
SHUDWXUHVRI&GHSHQGLQJRQDPELHQWFRQGLWLRQVDQGDQRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH
RI&FORVHWRWKHGHZSRLQW UHDGKLJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW RIWKHRXWOHWDLU7KH
ORZRXWOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUHUHVXOWVLQDPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHSRZGHUOHDYLQJWKHGU\
LQJFKDPEHUDVKLJKDV7KHPRLVWDQGUHODWLYHO\FROGSRZGHULVGLVFKDUJHG
RQWRDVORZO\PRYLQJWLPLQJEHOWRUGLVFZLWKDUHVLGHQFHWLPHRIPLQ
$VWKHFRQFHQWUDWHZLWKWKHVDWXUDWHGODFWRVHVROXWLRQLVGULHGLWEHFRPHVVXSHUVDWX
UDWHGDJDLQKRZHYHUWKHODFWRVHZLOOQRWFU\VWDOOL]HGXULQJWKHVSUD\GU\LQJSURFHVV
7KHWLPHLVVLPSO\WRRVKRUWEXWDVWKHSRZGHULVGLVFKDUJHGRQWRWKHWLPLQJEHOWDWD
KLJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWWKHUHODWLYHFROGSRZGHUZLWKVXSHUVDWXUDWHGODFWRVHZLOOVWDUW
WRFU\VWDOOL]HDVWKHUHLVHQRXJKPRELOHZDWHUDQGWLPHIRUWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQSURF
HVVWRSURFHHG
:KHQWKHSRZGHUKDVEHHQILQDOO\FU\VWDOOL]HGRQWKHEHOWRUWKHGLVFLWLVGLVFKDUJHG
LQWRD9LEUR)OXLGL]HUIRUILQDOGU\LQJDQGFRROLQJ
7KHH[KDXVWDLUDW&IURPWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHUFRQWDLQVDKLJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQ
J+2NJGU\DLU6SHFLDODWWHQWLRQVKRXOGWKHUHIRUHEHSDLGWRWKHH[KDXVWV\VWHP







)LJF7KH7,;27+(503URFHVV

3UH$LU)LOWHU
6XSSO\)DQV

$LU+HDWHUV

)LQH$LU)LOWHUV

'HKXPLGLILHU

3URGXFW2XW

0LOO

&RPELQHG
%DFN0L[
3OXJ)ORZ
)OXLG%HG

6$1,&,370
%DJ)LOWHU

([KDXVW
)DQ

&RROLQJ0HGLD

'U\LQJ$LU

:HW6FUXEEHU

6FUHZ&RQYH\RU
ZLWK
7ZR$XJHUV

0
7

095(YDSRUDWRU

526,1$,5(
3DGGOH'U\HU

([KDXVW
)DQ

1,52$6




1,52$6

$LUH[KDXVWWKURXJKF\FORQHVDQGZHWVFUXEEHUVLVDQDOWHUQDWLYHRIWHQXVHGGHSHQGLQJRQ
W\SHRIGU\HUHVSHFLDOO\WKHDLUH[WUDFWLRQGHVLJQ+RZHYHUVSHFLDODWWHQWLRQVKRXOGVWLOO
EHSDLGWRWKHSRZGHUH[WUDFWLRQIURPWKHF\FORQHVDVWKHPRLVWILQHVSDUWLFOHVDUHVWLFN\
DQGQRUPDOURWDU\YDOYHVZLOOQRWZRUN9HQWXULVZLWKDSRVLWLYHDLUSRZGHUH[WUDFWLRQDW
WKHEDVHRIWKHF\FORQHVKRXOGWKHUHIRUHEHHVWDEOLVKHG7KHH[KDXVWDLUFDQDOVREHSDVVHG
WKURXJKD&,3DEOHEDJILOWHUSURYLGHGWKHGU\HUGHVLJQLVVRWKDWWKHILQHVDPRXQWFDQEH
FRQWUROOHGWRDYRLGFORJJLQJRIWKHILOWHUEDJV
(YHQWKRXJKLWKDVEHHQDUJXHGHDUOLHUWKDWSURGXFWVZLWKFU\VWDOVDUHEHVWDWRPL]HGE\D
URWDU\DWRPL]HUDGU\HUZLWKQR]]OHVLVFKRVHQIRUWKHZHWSURFHVVVHH)LJE7KLVLV
EHFDXVHWKHZHWSHUPHDWHSRZGHULVYHU\VWLFN\DQGDQ\REVWUXFWLRQVWRWKHDLUSRZGHU
PRYHPHQWLQDWUDGLWLRQDOGU\LQJFKDPEHUZLWKWKHDLUH[KDXVWGXFWSURWUXGLQJLQWRWKH
FKDPEHUZLOOUHVXOWLQSRZGHUGHSRVLWV7KHODPLQDUGRZQZDUGDLUIORZLQWKHGU\HUFRP
ELQHGZLWKQR]]OHDWRPL]DWLRQLVWKHUHIRUHFKRVHQDWWKHFRVWRIQR]]OHZHDU
7,;27+(503URFHVV

5HDOL]LQJWKDWWKHSULFHIRUSHUPHDWHSRZGHULVORZPDQ\DWWHPSWVKDYHEHHQPDGHWR
GHYHORSDSURFHVVLQYROYLQJORZLQYHVWPHQWORZHQHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQDQGUHGXFHG
VSDFHUHTXLUHPHQWV
7KH7,;27+(50SURFHVVGHYHORSHGE\1LUR SDWHQWSHQGLQJ RIIHUVWKHVHDGYDQ
WDJHVKRZHYHULWKDVRQO\EHHQWHVWHGRQDSLORWSODQWEXWLQGXVWULDOVL]HSODQWVDUH
DOUHDG\EHLQJGHVLJQHG6HH)LJF
7KHSURFHVVLVVLPSOHDQGUHTXLUHVWKHIROORZLQJHTXLSPHQW
(YDSRUDWRU LQFUHDVLQJWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWIURPWRQRIODVKFRROLQJDQGSUH
FU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ 


7950XOWLHIIHFWRU095VROXWLRQVFDQEHFKRVHQ7RHQVXUHKSURGXFWLRQD
GHFDOFLILFDWLRQSURFHVVVKRXOGEHLQFOXGHG

3DGGOH'U\HU(YDSRUDWRU LQFUHDVLQJWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWWR 




+HUHD526,1$,5(SDGGOHGU\HULVVHOHFWHG,WFRQVLVWVRIDGRXEOHMDFNHWHG
KRUL]RQWDOWXEHKHDWHGE\PHDQVRIVWHDP$VKDIWLQWKHFHQWUHZLWKSDGGOHVLV
PRYLQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWHVORZO\IRUZDUGZKLOHWKHHYDSRUDWLRQWDNHVSODFH7R
UHPRYHWKHYDSRXUDFRXQWHUFXUUHQWDLUVWUHDPLVHVWDEOLVKHGZKLFKLVSDVVHG
WKURXJKDZHWVFUXEEHUIRUFOHDQLQJDQGWRJHWKHUZLWKWKHHYDSRUDWLRQLWVHOIWKLV
NHHSVWKHWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHSURGXFWORZDQGGLVFRORXULQJLVDYRLGHG$VWKH
ODFWRVHZLOOEHVXSHUVDWXUDWHGDVSRQWDQHRXVFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQZLOORFFXU

$YLVFRVLW\LQFUHDVHZLOOWDNHSODFHSDUWO\GXHWRWKHLQFUHDVHLQWKHVROLGVFRQ
WHQWDQGFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQEXWGXHWRWKHWL[RWURSLFQDWXUHRIWKHSURGXFWWKHYLJRU
RXVPHFKDQLFDOWUHDWPHQWLQWKH526,1$,5(ZLOONHHSWKHSURGXFWIOXHQW



3UH$LU)LOWHU




6XSSO\)DQV

3URGXFW2XW

'HKXPLGLILHU

6LHYH

%ORZ7KURXJK9DOYH

0LOO

)LJ&RPELQHGEDFNPL[SOXJIORZIOXLGEHGIRUGU\LQJODFWRVH

$LU+HDWHUV

&RPELQHG
%DFN0L[
3OXJ)ORZ
)OXLG%HG

2YHUVL]H5HWXUQ

)LQH$LU)LOWHUV

:HW3URGXFW,Q

%DJ)LOWHU

([KDXVW
)DQ

1,52$6




1,52$6

:KHQWKHSURGXFWLVGLVFKDUJHGDW76LWLVOLNHDSDVWH
6FUHZ&RQYH\RU&RROHU


7KHQH[WSURFHVVLQJVWHSLVDKROGLQJFXULQJVWHSWDNLQJSODFHLQDVFUHZFRQ
YH\RUZLWKWZRDXJHUV7KHVFUHZFRQYH\RULVGRXEOHMDFNHWHGDQGFKLOOHGZDWHU
LVFLUFXODWHGWRFRROWKHSURGXFW7KLVLVGRQHIRUWKHIROORZLQJUHDVRQV


7KHODFWRVHEHFRPHVVXSHUVDWXUDWHGDJDLQDQGIXUWKHUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQLV
REWDLQHGDVWKHKROGLQJWLPHLVORQJHQRXJKWRREWDLQDOPRVWFU\VWDO
OL]DWLRQ

%URZQLQJRIWKHSURGXFWLVDYRLGHG

7KHYLVFRVLW\LVLQFUHDVLQJIDFLOLWDWLQJWKHIROORZLQJGLVLQWHJUDWLRQLQWKH
IOXLGEHG

)OXLG%HG'U\LQJ


$WWKHGLVFKDUJHWKHSURGXFWH[KLELWVDWH[WXUHVXLWDEOHIRUIOXLGEHGGU\LQJ7KH
SURGXFWLVWKHUHIRUHSDVVHGRQWRDFRPELQHGEDFNPL[SOXJIORZIOXLGEHGVLPL
ODUWRWKHODFWRVHIOXLGEHGVHHEHORZ

0LOOLQJRIWKHILQDOSURGXFWLVUHFRPPHQGHG

7KHUHVXOWRIWKHDERYHSURFHVVLVDVDYLQJRIHQHUJ\DQGEXLOGLQJUH
TXLUHPHQWV

1RSUHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVDUHQHHGHGWKHKLJKFRQFHQWUDWLRQVWHSWDNHVSODFH
DWDWPRVSKHULFSUHVVXUHDQGVSUD\GU\LQJLVQRWQHFHVVDU\

/DFWRVH
:KH\RUSHUPHDWHFRQFHQWUDWHIURPWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVFDQDOVREHSDVVHG
WKURXJKDGHFDQWHUZKHUHWKHPDLQSRUWLRQRIWKHODFWRVHFU\VWDOVLVVHSDUDWHG7KH
FU\VWDOVDUHWKHQZDVKHGLQRUGHUWRUHPRYHUHVLGXDOVRIPRWKHUOLTXRUDIWHUZKLFKLW
LVGULHGLQDVSHFLDOO\GHVLJQHGIOXLGEHGVHH)LJ7KHIOXLGEHGLVGLYLGHGLQWR
WKUHHVHFWLRQV7KHILUVWVHFWLRQLVDVWDWLRQDU\EDFNPL[EHGLQWRZKLFKWKHZHWFU\V
WDOVZLWKPRLVWXUHDUHIHGE\DURWDWLQJGLVF7RDYRLGOXPSIRUPDWLRQVWKLVVHF
WLRQLVHTXLSSHGZLWKDURWDWLQJUDNH)URPWKHEDFNPL[VHFWLRQWKHSRZGHUHQWHUVWKH
SOXJIORZIOXLGEHGVHFWLRQIRUWKHILQDOGU\LQJ+RWDLURIDERXW&LVXVHGIRUWKH
GU\LQJ
7KHDYHUDJHFU\VWDOVL]H  LVRILPSRUWDQFHIRUWKHIOXLGL]DWLRQYHORFLW\WKDW
FDQEHXVHGDQGLWWKHUHIRUHLQIOXHQFHVWKHSHUIRUPDQFHRIWKHIOXLGEHGDVVPDOOHU



1,52$6




1,52$6

FU\VWDOVZRXOGUHTXLUHORZHUIOXLGL]DWLRQYHORFLW\RUWRRELJFDUU\RYHURISURGXFWWR
WKHEDJILOWHUZRXOGEHWKHUHVXOW3UHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQGXULQJKRXUVLVWKHUHIRUHXVHG
WRJURZWKHVL]HRIODFWRVHFU\VWDOV
)URPWKHVHFRQGGU\LQJVHFWLRQWKHSRZGHUHQWHUVWKHFRROLQJVHFWLRQZKLFKOLNHWKH
ODVWGU\LQJVHFWLRQLVGHVLJQHGDVDSOXJIORZIOXLGEHG7KHDLUXVHGIRUFRROLQJ
VKRXOGEHGHKXPLGLILHG$OOWKHH[KDXVWDLULVSDVVHGWKURXJKDEDJILOWHUIRUVHSD
UDWHLRQRIILQHVZKLFKDUHUHWXUQHGWRWKHEDJPL[VHFWLRQ/DFWRVHSURGXFHGWKLVZD\
LVWHUPHGFUXGHODFWRVH$PRUHUHILQHGW\SHSKDUPDFHXWLFDOODFWRVHLVSURGXFHGE\
UHGLVVROYLQJWKHZDVKHGFU\VWDOVIURPDERYHPHQWLRQHGGHFDQWHUDQGWKHQFU\VWDOOL]LQJ
DVHFRQGWLPHE\FRROLQJIROORZHGE\DQRWKHUGHFDQWLQJZDVKLQJSULRUWRWKHILQDO
IOXLGEHGGU\LQJ
/DFWRVHSRZGHULVYHU\RIWHQFODVVLILHGZLWKGLIIHUHQWFU\VWDOVL]HV0LOOLQJRIWKH
SRZGHUDIWHUWKHIOXLGEHGDQGILQDOVLIWLQJLVWKHUHIRUHXVHG


'HPLQHUDOL]HG:KH\
'XULQJWKHFKHHVHSURFHVV1D&ODQG&D&ODUHRIWHQDGGHG6RPHRIWKHVHVDOWVZLOO
EHFRQWDLQHGLQWKHZKH\DQGDUHLQVRPHFDVHVXQZDQWHGLIIRUH[DPSOHWKHZKH\LV
XVHGLQEDE\IRRGSURGXFWLRQZKHUHDORZVDOWFRQWHQWLVDLPHGDW
'LIIHUHQWSURFHVVHVKDYHEHHQGHYHORSHGDQGVKDOOLQVKRUWEHPHQWLRQHGKHUH
0HPEUDQHILOWUDWLRQ
,RQH[FKDQJH
 (OHFWURGLDO\VLV




0HPEUDQH)LOWUDWLRQ
,QWKHQDQRILOWUDWLRQSURFHVVRIWKHVDOWVLVUHPRYHG GHSHQGLQJRQWKHSHUPH
DELOLW\RIWKHODFWRVHFKRVHQLQWKHPHPEUDQH WRJHWKHUZLWKZDWHULQWKHQDQRILOWUD
WLRQSODQW
1DQRILOWUDWLRQLVDQ52SURFHVVZLWKUHODWLYHRSHQPHPEUDQHVWUXFWXUHDOORZLQJLQ
SDUWLFXODUO\VPDOOPRQRYDOHQWLRQVVXFKDV1DDQG&OWRSDVVWKURXJKWKHPHP
EUDQH
7KHSURFHVVXVHVSUHVVXUHORZHU EDU WKDQWKDWDSSOLHGLQDQRUPDO52SODQWWR
HQVXUHWKDWDVPXFKRIWKHVDOWVDQGDVOLWWOHDVSRVVLEOHRIWKHODFWRVHSDVVHVWKURXJK
WKHPHPEUDQH7\SLFDOILJXUHVIRUPROHFXOHSHQHWUDWLRQIRUGLIIHUHQWPHPEUDQHVDUH




1,52$6

)LJ)ORZVKHHW,RQH[FKDQJH




1,52$6




&DVH

&DVH

/DFWRVHSHQHWUDWLRQLQWRWKHSHUPHDWH







1D&OSHQHWUDWLRQLQWRWKHSHUPHDWH











7KHVLPXOWDQHRXVUHPRYDORIZDWHUDQGPRQRYDOHQWLRQVZLWKRXWORVLQJPDMRURUJDQLF
FRPSRQHQWVOLNHODFWRVHDQGSURWHLQVPDNHVWKHQDQRILOWUDWLRQDQLPSRUWDQWWRROIRUD
FRPELQHGFRQFHQWUDWLRQDQGGHPLQHUDOL]DWLRQSURFHVV
,RQ([FKDQJH
7RYLVXDOL]HWKLVSURFHVVWZRORWVRIUHVLQVZLWKGLIIHUHQWFKDUDFWHULVWLFVVKRXOGEH
XVHGVHH)LJ7KHUHVLQVXVXDOO\FRQVLVWRISRO\VW\UHQHDQGGLYLQ\OEHQ]HQHLQ
IRUPRIVPDOOVSKHUHVZLWKDGLDPHWHURIPPKDYLQJDODUJHQXPEHURIDW
WDFKHGERQGVRQWKHLUVXUIDFHZKLFKFDQDEVRUE UHYHUVLEO\ RQHVSHFLILFW\SHRILRQV
7KHLRQVDUHGLYLGHGLQWRFDWLRQV +1D.&DHWF DQGDQLRQV 2+&O62
HWF :KHQWKHZKH\LVSDVVHGWKURXJKWKHILUVWORWRIUHVLQVWKHFDWLRQH[FKDQJHUDOO
WKHFDWLRQVDUHUHSODFHGE\+ZKHUHDVDOOWKHDQLRQVSDVVWKURXJKWKHFDWLRQ
H[FKDQJHUXQDIIHFWHG'XULQJWKHVXEVHTXHQWSDVVDJHRIWKHGHFDWLRQL]HGZKH\
WKURXJKWKHVHFRQGORWRIUHVLQVLQWKHDQLRQH[FKDQJHUDOOWKHDQLRQVDUHUHSODFHGE\
2+7KHWUDQVIHURIZKH\WKURXJKWKHUHVLQEHGVFRQWLQXHVXQWLOWKHUHVLQVDUHVDWX
UDWHGZLWKFDWLRQVDQGDQLRQV7KLVSRLQWLVFRQWUROOHGE\PHDQVRIDFRQGXFWLYLW\PH
WHUDIWHUZKLFKWKHUHVLQEHGVDUHSXUJHGRIZKH\ZDVKHGZLWKZDWHUDQGUHJHQHUDWHG
E\PHDQVRIDFLGDQGDONDOLVROXWLRQV7KHVHVROXWLRQVVKRXOGEHVXIILFLHQWO\FRQFHQ
WUDWHGWRUHPRYHWKHDEVRUEHGFDWLRQVDQGDQLRQVDQGUHSODFHWKHPE\+DQG2+
EULQJLQJWKHPEDFNWRWKHLUSUHYLRXVVWDWH7KHWUHDWPHQWZLWKDFLGDQGDONDOLQHUH
VXOWVDWWKHVDPHWLPHLQDVXIILFLHQWFOHDQLQJ$IWHUWKHUHJHQHUDWLRQWKHUHVLQVDUH
ZDVKHGZLWKFOHDQZDWHUSUHIHUDEO\FRQGHQVDWHIURPDQHYDSRUDWRUDQGDUHWKHQ
UHDG\IRUDQRWKHUEDWFK$W\SLFDOF\FOHZRXOGEHWZRKRXUV
SURGXFWLRQDQGIRXU
KRXUV
UHJHQHUDWLRQ:KH\WUHDWHGLQDQLRQH[FKDQJHSODQWZLOOEHGHPLQHUDOL]HG
7KHSURFHVVLQJKROGLQJWLPHLVPLQDQGDVWKHSURFHVVLQJWHPSHUDWXUHLV
&QREDFWHULRORJLFDOJURZWKLVH[SHULHQFHG
(OHFWURGLDO\VLV
,QDQHOHFWURGLDO\VLVSODQWDQXPEHURILRQVHOHFWLYHPHPEUDQHVPDGHIURPDSSUR[L
PDWHO\WKHVDPHPDWHULDODVWKHUHVLQVLVDSSOLHGLQIRUPRIFHOOV(DFKFHOO
FRQVLVWLQJRIRQHFDWLRQLFDQGRQHDQLRQLFPHPEUDQHLVDUUDQJHGLQDVWDFNDQDOR
JRXVWRDSODWHKHDWH[FKDQJHU7KHVSDFLQJEHWZHHQHDFKPHPEUDQHLVDERXWPP
%HWZHHQHDFKRIWKHDERYHPHQWLRQHGFHOOVIORZVDGLOXHQWVDOWVROXWLRQ
7KHHQWLUHVWDFNLVSODFHGEHWZHHQDVHULHVRI'&HOHFWURGHVSURYLGLQJDQHOHFWULF
ILHOG8QGHULQIOXHQFHRIWKHHOHFWULFILHOGWKHFDWLRQVZLOOPLJUDWHLQWKHGLUHFWLRQRI
WKHHOHFWULFFXUUHQWLHWRZDUGVWKHSROHDQGSDVVWKURXJKWKHFDWLRQPHPEUDQH



1,52$6


7RSRI7DOOIRUP6SUD\'U\HU 7)' 
QR]]OHDVVHPEO\LQDLUGLVSHUVHU




1,52$6

LQWRWKHIOXVKLQJVDOWVROXWLRQZKLFKLVUHF\FOHGGXULQJRSHUDWLRQ7KHDQLRQVZLOOPL
JUDWHLQWKHRSSRVLWHGLUHFWLRQRIWKHHOHFWULFFXUUHQWLHWRZDUGVWKHSROHDQGSDVV
WKURXJKWKHDQLRQPHPEUDQHLQWRWKHIOXVKLQJVDOWVROXWLRQ/LNHWKHIOXVKLQJVDOWVR
OXWLRQWKHZKH\LVUHF\FOHGGXULQJRSHUDWLRQYLDDEDWFKWDQNZLWKDFRQGXFWLYLW\PHWHU
DWWDFKHG7RREWDLQVXIILFLHQWFRQGXFWLYLW\RIWKHZKH\WREHWUHDWHGDSUHFRQFHQWUD
WLRQWRVROLGVDVZHOODVDSURFHVVLQJWHPSHUDWXUHRI&LVQHFHVVDU\
7KHUHFLUFXODWLRQWLPHGHSHQGVRQWKHUHTXLUHGGHPLQHUDOL]DWLRQOHYHODQGPD\UHDFK
XSWRKRXUVLIGHPLQHUDOL]LQJLVDLPHGDW1DWXUDOO\WKLVUHVXOWVLQEDFWHULD
JURZWK7RDYRLGWKLVWKHWHPSHUDWXUHPD\EHORZHUHGZKLFKKRZHYHUZLOOUHVXOWLQ
DQLQFUHDVHGSODQWVL]HDQGWKXVKLJKHULQYHVWPHQWRUIRUPDOGHK\GHPD\EHDGGHG
$VWKHVDOWFRQWHQWGHFUHDVHVLQWKHZKH\WKHFRQGXFWLYLW\GHFUHDVHVDQGLWLVQHFHV
VDU\WRLQFUHDVHWKHDSSOLHGYROWDJHWRFRPSHQVDWHIRUWKLV7RNHHSWKHVDOWFRQWHQWLQ
WKHIOXVKLQJZDWHUDWDQRSWLPXPOHYHOLWLVGLOXWHGDVWKHSURFHVVFRQWLQXHV([FHVV
VDOWVROXWLRQLVSDVVHGWRWKHGUDLQ7KHFOHDQLQJRIWKHPHPEUDQHVLVGRQHE\SDVVLQJ
DFLGDQGDONDOLQHWKURXJKWKHSODQWDQRSHUDWLRQODVWLQJWRKRXUVGHSHQGLQJRQWKH
SODQWPDQXIDFWXUHUV
6SUD\GU\LQJRIGHPLQHUDOL]HGZKH\LVGRQHDVIRUQRUPDOVZHHWZKH\DVGLVFXVVHGRQ
SDJH+RZHYHUGXHWRWKHORZHUVDOWFRQWHQWWKHGU\LQJEHFRPHVHDVLHU


6SHFLDO3URGXFWV
%DE\)RRG
,WKDVDOZD\VEHHQDQDFFHSWHGIDFWWKDWWKHEHVWIRRGIRUEDELHV\RXQJHUWKDQVL[
PRQWKVLVPRWKHU
VPLONGXHWRWKHFRPSRVLWLRQDQGFRQWHQWRIYDULRXVYLWDPLQVDQG
HVVHQWLDODPLQRDFLGV+RZHYHUPDQ\EDELHVDUHIHGZLWKRUGLQDU\FRZ
VPLONWR
ZKLFKVRPHZDWHUDQGVXJDUDUHDGGHG
)RUVWRUDJHVWDELOLW\YROXPHDQGFRQYHQLHQFHSRZGHUHGEDE\IRRGRIGLIIHUHQWFRP
SRVLWLRQVWREHGLVVROYHGLQZDWHUEHIRUHXVHKDVEHHQGHYHORSHGE\WKHPXOWLQDWLRQDO
FRPSDQLHVLQWKHLUDWWHPSWWRUHVHPEOHPRWKHU
VPLON7KH\KDYHJDLQHGLQFUHDVLQJ
DFFHSWDQFHGXULQJWKHODVW\HDUVLQFOXGLQJIRUPXODWLRQVPDGHIRUK\SHUDOOHUJLFED
ELHV
7KHFRPSRVLWLRQRIKXPDQDQGFRZ
VPLONLVDVIROORZV








&DVHLQ

/DFWDOEXPLQ
3URWHLQWRWDO
)DW 

&DUERK\GUDWHV

+XPDQPLONJO

&RZ
VPLONJO



























1,52$6




1,52$6

0LQHUDOVDOWV
7RWDOVROLGV













)URPWKHDERYHWDEOHLWLVREYLRXVWKDWZKROHPLONIURPFRZVFDQQRWMXVWEHGLOXWHG
ZLWKZDWHUDQGDGGHGDOLWWOHVXJDU,QPRGHUQSURGXFWLRQRIEDE\IRRGSRZGHUHDFK
FRPSRQHQWLQZKROHPLONIURPFRZVLVVWDQGDUGL]HGWREHDVFORVHWRWKHFRPSRVLWLRQ
RIKXPDQPLONDVSRVVLEOH)RUVRPHIRUPXODWLRQVPLONLVQRWHYHQXVHG
3RZGHUHGEDE\IRRGDYDLODEOHRQWKHPDUNHWFRPSULVHVDODUJHJURXSRISURGXFWVZLWK
GLIIHUHQWFRPSRVLWLRQVZKLFKFDQEHFODVVLILHGLQWKHIROORZLQJJURXSV






2UGLQDU\ZKROHPLONSRZGHU
:KROHPLONSRZGHUZLWKDGGHGFDUERK\GUDWHV
)HUPHQWHGPLON
+XPDQL]HGPLON
3URGXFWVZLWKVWDUFK


2UGLQDU\:KROH0LON3RZGHU
7KHVLPSOHVWW\SHRIEDE\IRRGLVZKROHPLONSRZGHUZLWKWRIDWLQWKHVROLGV
RUKDOIFUHDPPLONSRZGHUZLWKDERXWIDW8VXDOO\VRPHYLWDPLQVDUHDGGHGHJ
$%DQG'LQRUGHUWRHTXDOL]HWKHVHDVRQDOYDULDWLRQVLQWKHYLWDPLQFRQWHQWRI
QDWXUDOPLONDQGWRNHHSLWWKURXJKRXWWKH\HDUDWWKHRSWLPXPVWDQGDUGOHYHOUH
TXLUHGIRUEDELHV
*HQHUDOO\VSHDNLQJWKHVHSURGXFWVGRQRWUHTXLUHDQ\VSHFLDOIHHGWUHDWPHQWEXWDUH
SURGXFHGLQDFRQWLQXRXVIORZIURPHYDSRUDWRUWRGU\HU7KHYLWDPLQVDUHDGGHGHLWKHU
WRWKHOLTXLGPLONRUGRVHGFRQWLQXRXVO\LQWRWKHFRQFHQWUDWHE\PHDQVRIWKHGRVLQJ
SXPS7RHQVXUHXQLIRUPGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHYLWDPLQVHVSHFLDOO\WKHIDWVROXEOHRQHV
KRPRJHQL]DWLRQRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVUHTXLUHG
:KROH0LON3RZGHUZLWKDGGHG&DUERK\GUDWHV
7KLVJURXSRIEDE\IRRGVLVDJDLQEDVHGRQIXOOFUHDPRUKDOIFUHDPPLONZLWKDGGHG
VXFURVHDQGPDOWRGH[WULQH7KHVXFURVHLVDGGHGWRWKHPLONSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQ
7KLVDOORZVIRUSDVWHXUL]DWLRQRIWKHVXFURVHDVZHOODQGDILQDOSURGXFWZLWKDQDF
FHSWDEOHSODWHFRXQWLVSURGXFHG7RGD\LQGXVWULDOUHDG\PDGHPDOWRGH[WULQHLVDYDLO
DEOHLQPRVWSODFHV7KHPDOWRGH[WULQHLVWKHQPL[HGZLWKSDUWLDOO\FRQFHQWUDWHGPLON
9HU\RIWHQYLWDPLQVDUHDGGHGDVZHOO7KHZKROHPL[WXUHPXVWEHKRPRJHQL]HGEH
IRUHGU\LQJ,IWKHSUHSDUDWLRQRIWKHIHHGLVDEDWFKSURFHVVWKHUHZLOOEHVRPHVWRUDJH
DQGGHOD\EHWZHHQWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGWKHGU\HU
)HUPHQWHG0LON
7KHQH[WJURXSRISURGXFWVLVIHUPHQWHGPLONXVXDOO\KDOIFUHDPPDGHE\PHDQVRI
VSHFLDOFXOWXUHVWDUWHUVWUDLQV,QWKLVFDVHWKHSUHFRQFHQWUDWHGPLONXVXDOO\QRWFRQ
FHQWUDWHGWRPRUHWKDQ76LVLQRFXODWHGE\DVWDUWHU ZKLFKLVQRUPDOO\D
PL[WXUHRIVWUHSWRFRFFXVODFWLFDQGODFWREDFLOOXV DQGIHUPHQWHGDWDVOLJKWO\HOHYDWHG



1,52$6




1,52$6

WHPSHUDWXUHIRUWRKRXUV$IWHUWKHUHTXLUHGDFLGLW\KDVEHHQDFKLHYHGWKHIHU
PHQWHGFRQFHQWUDWHLVKRPRJHQL]HGFRROHGDQGVSUD\GULHG
+XPDQL]HG0LON
7KHELJJHVWJURXSRIEDE\IRRGVLVWKHVRFDOOHGKXPDQL]HGPLON+XPDQPLONKDVD
YHU\GLIIHUHQWFRPSRVLWLRQIURPFRZ
VPLONDVLWKDVDKLJKHUFRQWHQWRIODFWRVHD
ORZHUFRQWHQWRISURWHLQVZLWKGLIIHUHQWSURWHLQFRPSRVLWLRQ PDLQO\DQDOEXPHQPLON
ZKLOHFRZ
VPLONLVDFDVHLQPLON DQGDGLIIHUHQWIDWFRPSRVLWLRQ DVLWKDVDFRQVLG
HUDEO\KLJKHUFRQWHQWRIXQVDWXUDWHGIDWDFLGV DQGDORZHUFRQWHQWRIPLQHUDOV
7KHUHDUHGLIIHUHQWVWHSVRIKXPDQL]DWLRQ7KHVLPSOHVWRQHLVPHUHO\WRLQFUHDVHWKH
FRQWHQWRIODFWRVHDQGDGGVRPHYHJHWDEOHIDWWRLQFUHDVHWKHDPRXQWRIXQVDWXUDWHG
IDWDFLGV2WKHUDGGLWLYHVVXFKDVYLWDPLQVIHUULFLRQVRUODFWXORVH JDODNWRVLGR
IUXFWRVH DUHXVHGDVZHOOZLWKWKHDLPRIFRQYHUWLQJFRZ
VPLONLQWRDFRPSRVLWLRQDV
FORVHDVSRVVLEOHWRKXPDQPLON
7ZRPDLQJURXSVRIKXPDQL]HGEDE\IRRGGRPLQDWHWKHPDUNHW
%DE\)RRG&RPSRVLWLRQ


$JHRI%DE\
PRQWKV

PRQWKV

3URWHLQ
&DVHLQ
:KH\SURWHLQ









)DW
$QLPDO
9HJHWDEOH









&DUERK\GUDWH
/DFWRVH
0DOWRGH[WULQH









$VK







$VFDQEHVHHQRQSDJHFRZ
VPLONFRQWDLQVDERXWWZLFHDVPXFKSURWHLQDVKX
PDQPLONLWFRQWDLQVOHVVFDUERK\GUDWHDQGDERXWWKHVDPHDPRXQWRIIDW7KHSUH
GRPLQDQWW\SHRISURWHLQLVQRWWKHVDPHLQWKHWZRNLQGVRIPLON7KXVWKHFXUG
IRUPHGE\KXPDQPLONLVVRIWDQGIORFFXOHQWLQWKHEDE\
VVWRPDFKZKHUHDVWKDWRI
FRZ
VPLONLVPRUHWHQDFLRXVDQGHODVWLF)XUWKHUPRUHFRZ
VPLONFRQWDLQVPRUHPLQ
HUDOVDOWV HVSHFLDOO\&D DQGOHVVYLWDPLQV
,IZHORRNDWWKHSURWHLQZHILQGWKDWDGLOXWLRQRIFRZ
VPLONZLWKFDUERK\GUDWHVDQG
IDWXQWLOWKHSURWHLQFRQWHQWLVJOLVQRWHQRXJKDVWKHFRPSRVLWLRQRIWKHSURWHLQ



1,52$6




1,52$6

GLIIHUVWRDJUHDWH[WHQWLQWKHWZRNLQGVRIPLON:3&VHHSDJHLVXVHGH[WHQ
VLYHO\LQEDE\IRRGPDQXIDFWXUHWRDGMXVWWKHSURWHLQFRQWHQW
&KHHVHZKH\WKHSURWHLQFRQWHQWRIZKLFKLVSUDFWLFDOO\RQO\ODFWDOEXPLQDQGEHWDJ
OREXOLQLVRIWHQXVHGIRUVWDQGDUGL]LQJ,WLVKRZHYHUQRWUHFRPPHQGHGWRXVHLWGL
UHFWO\DVWKHPLQHUDOFRQWHQWZRXOGEHFRPHWRRODUJHLQWKHILQDOSURGXFW
5HPRYDORISDUWRIWKHVDOWVE\PHPEUDQHILOWUDWLRQRUGHPLQHUDOL]DWLRQHLWKHUE\LRQ
H[FKDQJHRUHOHFWURGLDO\VLVLVWKHUHIRUHQRZDGD\VXVHGPRUHDQGPRUHVHHSDJH
5HJDUGLQJWKHIDWFRQWHQWKXPDQPLONFRQWDLQVPRUHWKDQFRZ
VPLONDQGIXUWKHUPRUH
LWFRQWDLQVPRUHRIWKHSRO\XQVDWXUDWHGIDWDFLGVVXFKDVOLQROHLFDQGDUDFKLGRQLFDF
LGVEHLQJQHFHVVDU\IRUDEHWWHUXWLOL]DWLRQRIWKHVXSSOLHGHQHUJ\,WLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHV
VDU\WRDGGIDWDIWHUWKHSURWHLQVWDQGDUGL]DWLRQ
9HJHWDEOHIDW RIWHQFRUQSDOPRUVXQIORZHURLO LVWKHUHIRUHDGGHGDVLWFRQWDLQV
DERYHPHQWLRQHGSRO\XQVDWXUDWHGIDWDFLGV,WKDVEHHQGLVFXVVHGWRUHSODFHWKHDQLPDO
IDWFRPSOHWHO\EXWWKHHQGSURGXFWZRXOGWKHQEHVKRUWRIROHLFDFLGEHLQJSUHVHQWLQ
WKHDQLPDOIDW
7KHPLQHUDOFRQWHQWRIFRZ
VPLONLVDERXWIRXUWLPHVWKDWRIKXPDQPLON'XULQJWKH
VWDQGDUGL]DWLRQZLWKHVSHFLDOO\ZKH\SURWHLQV SURYLGHGWKHZKH\LVGHPLQHUDOL]HG 
EXWDOVRZLWKIDWDQGSRVVLEO\ODFWRVHWKHPLQHUDOFRQWHQWLVUHGXFHGWRDQDFFHSWDEOH
OHYHO+RZHYHULQPRVWFDVHVWKHLURQFRQWHQWKDVQRZEHFRPHWRRORZDQGLURQODF
WDWHLURQVDFFKDUDWHRULURQVXOSKDWHDUHRIWHQDGGHG
7KHYLWDPLQFRQFHQWUDWLRQLQFRZ
VPLONLVXVXDOO\VPDOOHUWKDQLQKXPDQPLON)XU
WKHUPRUHLWYDULHVZLWKWKHVHDVRQVRYLWDPLQVDUHDOZD\VDGGHGWRWKHEDE\IRRGDOVR
EHFDXVHWKHSURFHVVLQJGHVWUR\VSDUWRIWKHYLWDPLQV
6SHFLDOSURGXFWVZKHUHWKHVR\SURWHLQVDUHUHSODFLQJWKHPLONSURWHLQVDUHSURGXFHG
IRUDOOHUJLFEDELHV'XHWRWKHVR\SURWHLQVWKHFRQFHQWUDWHZLOOKDYHDKLJKYLVFRVLW\
DQGLWLVWKXVQHFHVVDU\WRORZHUWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWWR
3URGXFWVZLWK6WDUFK
$QRWKHUELJJURXSRIEDE\IRRGVIRUEDELHV!PRQWKVFRQWDLQVVWDUFKW\SLFDOO\
ZLWKWKHIROORZLQJDSSUR[LPDWHFRPSRVLWLRQ

 ZKROHPLONFRQFHQWUDWH

 VWDUFK

 VDFFKDURVH

 YLWDPLQVPLQHUDOV

7KHVWDUFKFDQEHDGGHGWRWKHSURFHVVHLWKHUE\GU\GRVLQJRULQOLTXLGIRUPWRJHWKHU
ZLWKWKHUHPDLQLQJFRPSRQHQWV



1,52$6




1,52$6

'U\GRVLQJZKROHPLONDQGVXFURVHDUHPL[HGDQGSDVWHXUL]HGDIWHUZKLFKLWLV
HYDSRUDWHGWRDERXWWRWDOVROLGVDQGVSUD\GULHGXVLQJDQLQOHWWHPSHUDWXUHRI
&7KHSRZGHUHGVWDUFKLVGRVHGYLDWKHILQHVUHWXUQV\VWHPLQWRWKHVSUD\
GU\HUDQGLVDJJORPHUDWHGZLWKWKHFRQFHQWUDWHSDUWLFOHV7KHDJJORPHUDWLRQRIWKH
VWDUFKLVYHU\LPSRUWDQWWRDYRLGVHSDUDWLRQLQWKHFDQVGXULQJVWRUDJH$VSRZ
GHUHGVWDUFKRIWHQFRQWDLQVEDFWHULDDJDPPDUDGLDWLRQFDQEHQHFHVVDU\WRHQVXUH
DQDFFHSWDEOHHQGSURGXFW

/LTXLGPL[LQJDQGSDVWHXUL]LQJRIIHUWKHDGYDQWDJHWKDWWKHVWDUFKFDQEHSDVWHXU
L]HG,IWKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHLVNHSWEHORZ&WKHVWDUFKZLOOQRWEH
SUHFRRNHGDQGWKHPL[WXUHLVGULHGIURPDIHHGZLWKVROLGVDQGDGU\LQJWHP
SHUDWXUHRI&,IWKHSDVWHXUL]LQJWHPSHUDWXUHH[FHHGV&WKHVWDUFKZLOOEH
SUHFRRNHGDQGWKHYLVFRVLW\ZLOOLQFUHDVH'XHWRWKLVWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWPXVWEH
UHGXFHGWR'U\LQJWHPSHUDWXUHVZLOOEH&%DJILOWHUVRQWKHH[KDXVW
DLUPXVWEHIRUHVHHQDVWKHSRZGHUORVVZLOORWKHUZLVHEHWRRKLJK

0DQXIDFWXUHRI%DE\)RRG3RZGHU
7KHVWDQGDUGL]DWLRQFDQRIFRXUVHEHFDUULHGRXWLQGU\IRUPLHE\DVLPSOHGU\PL[
LQJRIWKHYDULRXVFRPSRQHQWV%XWRQHRIWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQWWKLQJVWREHWDNHQLQWR
FRQVLGHUDWLRQZKHQSURGXFLQJEDE\IRRGLVWKHEDFWHULRORJLFDOTXDOLW\RIWKHHQG
SURGXFW
$VLWLVPXFKHDVLHUWRSDVWHXUL]HWKHSURGXFWLQOLTXLGIRUPWKDQLWLVWRNHHSGU\
SURGXFWVXQLQIHFWHGGXULQJSURFHVVLQJ VRPHRIWKHPPD\HYHQFRQWDLQDQXQDFFHSW
DEOHOHYHORIEDFWHULD LWLVSUHIHUUHGWRPL[DOOWKHLQJUHGLHQWVLQOLTXLGIRUPSULRUWR
SDVWHXUL]LQJDQGGU\LQJ
7KLVPL[LQJLVFDUULHGRXWWRDVROLGVFRQWHQWRIXVLQJSUHHYDSRUDWHGPLON
ZLWKVROLGVDVEDVLV'HPLQHUDOL]HGDQGRUXOWUDILOWUDWHGZKH\SRZGHUFRP
SRQHQWVDUHPL[HG)XUWKHUFDUERK\GUDWHVDQGIDWDUHDGGHGLIQHFHVVDU\7KHPL[LQJ
LVFDUULHGRXWLQELJWDQNVHTXLSSHGZLWKYROXPHRUZHLJKWLQGLFDWLRQ7KHPL[WXUHLV
SDVWHXUL]HGDQGHYDSRUDWHGWRDERXWVROLGVGHSHQGLQJRQFRPSRVLWLRQDIWHU
ZKLFKWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVKRPRJHQL]HGDQGILQDOO\GULHG,WLVLPSRUWDQWWRDYRLGFRQ
WDPLQDWLRQDIWHUWKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQ2SHQEXIIHUWDQNVPXVWWKHUHIRUHEHDYRLGHG
7KHEDE\IRRGFRQFHQWUDWHFDQEHGULHGLQDQRUPDOVSUD\GU\HURIWKHW\SHXVXDOO\
XVHGLQWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\
+RZHYHUGXHWRWKHFRPSRVLWLRQWKHSURGXFWVGRQRWEHKDYHOLNHRUGLQDU\PLONSRZ
GHUVLQWKHGU\HU7KLVLVFDXVHGE\WKHKLJKHUFRQWHQWRIFDUERK\GUDWHVDQGIDW7KH
SRZGHUEHFRPHVWKHUPRSODVWLFDQGVWLFN\DQGZDOOGHSRVLWVDQGF\FORQHSUREOHPV
PD\ZHOORFFXUUHVXOWLQJLQSURGXFWORVVDQGULVNRIFRQWDPLQDWLRQ



)LJ)ORZVKHHWRIEDE\IRRGSODQZLWKZHWPL[LQJDQG
KLJKFRQFHQWUDWRUIRUIHHGSUHSDUDWLRQ

1,52$6




1,52$6




$YHUDJHUXQQLQJFRQGLWLRQVDUHXVXDOO\


6ROLGVLQIHHG



)HHGWHPSHUDWXUH

&

'U\LQJWHPSHUDWXUH

&

,QFDVHDSURGXFWZLWKYHU\KLJKFRQWHQWRIFDUERK\GUDWHVLVZDQWHGLWPD\EHQHFHV
VDU\WRXVHDORZHUGU\LQJWHPSHUDWXUHWKDQGHVFULEHGDERYH
%\DSSO\LQJILQHVUHWXUQDQDJJORPHUDWHGLQVWDQWDQGIUHHIORZLQJSURGXFWLVRE
WDLQHG7KHH[FHVVPRLVWXUHLVHYDSRUDWHGLQWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HULQZKLFKDOVRWKH
FRROLQJRIWKHSRZGHULVFDUULHGRXW/HFLWKLQLVVRPHWLPHVVSUD\HGRQWRWKHSRZGHU
WKXVLPSURYLQJWKHLQVWDQWSURSHUWLHV
+RZHYHUWKHPRVWFRPPRQO\XVHGGU\LQJSODQWVIRUEDE\IRRGDUHHLWKHUWKH7DOO
)RUP'U\HURUWKH0XOWL6WDJH'U\HULIDSURGXFWZLWKELJDJJORPHUDWHVLVZDQWHG
7KHVHWZRGU\HUVRIIHUPDQ\DGYDQWDJHVIRUWKLVW\SHRISURGXFW


7KH\RSHUDWHZLWKQR]]OHVUHVXOWLQJLQDPRUHIUHHIORZLQJSRZGHU

7KHSOXJIORZDLUVWUHDPPLQLPL]HVZDOOGHSRVLWVVRWKDWORQJHURSHUDWLRQWLPH
EHWZHHQFOHDQLQJLVSRVVLEOH

7KHVSHFLDODLURXWOHWGHVLJQLQWKH7DOO)RUPGU\HUUHGXFHVWKHF\FORQHIUDFWLRQ
OHDGLQJWROHVVF\FORQHSUREOHPV7KLVSODQWFDQSURGXFHDJJORPHUDWHGDQGQRQ
DJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWV

7KHVSHFLDODLURXWOHWGHVLJQLQWKH0XOWL6WDJHGU\HURIIHUVDQRSWLPDODJJORP
HUDWLRQRIWKHSRZGHU

,Q)LJLVVKRZQKRZWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGGU\HUDUHFRQQHFWHGWRDYRLGFRQWDPLQD
WLRQ7KHHYDSRUDWRULVZRUNLQJDVVODYHWRWKHVSUD\GU\HUDQGLVHTXLSSHGZLWKDQ
HQFORVHGEXIIHUWDQNZLWKOHYHOFRQWUROEHORZWKHFDODQGULD&RQWUROORRSVHQVXUHD
FRQVWDQWVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHIHGWRWKHVSUD\GU\HU
,QVRPHFDVHVWKHILQDOSURGXFWPD\FRQWDLQDQXQDFFHSWDEOHQXPEHURIEDFWHULDRULJL
QDWLQJIURPWKHUDZPDWHULDOXVHGLQWKHIRUPXODV,WLVQRZSRVVLEOHWR8+7WUHDWWKH
SUHPL[SULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQ7KHKLJKWHPSHUDWXUH & LVUHDFKHGE\GL
UHFWVWHDPLQMHFWLRQLQWRWKHSUHPL[7KHWHPSHUDWXUHLVLPPHGLDWHO\IODVKHGEDFNWR
&LQDIODVKUHJHQHUDWLYHSUHKHDWHUMXVWSULRUWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQ6HH)LJ
7KHSRZGHUVKRXOGEHSDFNHGLQFDQVRIOEV7RSURORQJWKHVKHOIOLIHDJDVSDFN
LQJZLWK1LVUHFRPPHQGHG2[\JHQFRQWHQWVKRXOGEHOHVVWKDQ




1,52$6

Air out

Air in

Condensate

Steam
Concentrate out

Concentrate in

)LJ8+7SODQWIRUEDE\IRRG




1,52$6

&DVHLQDWHV
&DVHLQDWHVDUHSURGXFHGE\GLVVROYLQJSUHFLSLWDWHGFDVHLQE\PHDQVRIVRGLXPK\
GUR[LGHVRGLXPSKRVSKDWHRUFDOFLXPK\GUR[LGH
&DVHLQDWHVDUHW\SLFDOO\XVHGDVSURWHLQVRXUFHLQEDE\IRRGHPXOVLILHUDQGIRDPVWD
ELOL]HULQLFHFUHDPDQGGHVVHUWVDQGHPXOVLILHUZDWHUELQGHULQPHDWSURGXFWV
)UHVKO\SUHFLSLWDWHGDFLGFDVHLQFXUGLVWKHEHVWVWDUWLQJPDWHULDOIRUSURGXFWLRQRI
VSUD\GULHGFDVHLQDWHV7KHW\SHRIDFLGXVHGIRUWKHSUHFLSLWDWLRQRIWKHFDVHLQ FDVHLQ
SUHFLSLWDWHVDWWKHLVRHOHFWULFSRLQWFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRDS+RI GRHVQRWPDWWHU
KRZHYHULIWKHHQGSURGXFWLVWREHXVHGIRUDQLPDORUKXPDQFRQVXPSWLRQDODFWLF
DFLGIHUPHQWHGSUHFLSLWDWHGVNLPPLONLVSUHIHUUHG
$VVROXWLRQVRIVRGLXPFDVHLQFRQWDLQSUDFWLFDOO\RQO\SURWHLQWKH\ZLOOKDYHDKLJK
YLVFRVLW\7KHYLVFRVLW\ZLOOLQFUHDVHZLWKLQFUHDVLQJVROLGVFRQWHQWEXWDOVRLIWKH
FRQFHQWUDWHLVNHSWDWDKLJKWHPSHUDWXUHIRUDORQJWLPH$OVRWKHS+SOD\VDUROHDQG
WKHYLVFRVLW\LVORZHVWLQWKHS+UDQJHRI
%HFDXVHRIWKHKLJKYLVFRVLW\WKHVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHUHGLVVROYHGFRQFHQWUDWHKDVWR
EHNHSWORZDQGLVXVXDOO\LQWKHUDQJHRIGHSHQGLQJXSRQWKHSURFHVV
7KHGLVVROXWLRQRIFDVHLQE\PHDQVRIDONDOLQHFDQEHFDUULHGRXWLQWZRGLIIHUHQW
ZD\V



%DWFK3URFHVV
&RQWLQXRXV3URFHVV


%DWFK3URFHVV
,QWKHEDWFKSURFHVVWKHFDVHLQFXUGOHDYHVWKHFDVHLQSUHVVDWDVROLGVFRQWHQWRI
VROLGV7KHFXUGLVGLVSHUVHGLQZDUPZDWHULQDVWHDPMDFNHWHGYDW7KHGLV
SHUVLRQLVVORZO\KHDWHGWR&GXULQJFRQWLQXRXVDJLWDWLRQDQGDGGLWLRQRID1D2+
VROXWLRQWRDS+RI
$VWKHUHDFWLRQEHWZHHQWKHFDVHLQDQG1D2+RU &D 2+  WDNHVVRPHWLPH 
PLQGXULQJZKLFKWKHWHPSHUDWXUHLV& WKHYLVFRVLW\LQFUHDVH DJHWKLFNHQLQJ LV
VLJQLILFDQW)XUWKHUPRUHWKHYLVFRVLW\LQFUHDVHLVLQWHQVLILHGDVLWWDNHVVRPHWLPHWR
VSUD\GU\DEDWFK'XULQJWKLVWLPHDQRWKHUSUREOHPDULVHVVLQFHDGLVFRORXULQJGXHWR
WKH0DLOODUGUHDFWLRQEHWZHHQUHPDLQLQJODFWRVHDQGDPLQRDFLGVFDQQRWEHDYRLGHG
7KHILQDOSURGXFWZLOOWKXVEHFRPHOLJKW\HOORZDQGPD\HYHQJHWDJOXH\WDVWH
&RQWLQXRXV3URFHVV
,QFUHDVLQJPDUNHWLQWHUHVWLQKLJKTXDOLW\VRGLXPRUFDOFLXPFDVHLQDWHKDVPDGHLWDW
WUDFWLYHWRGHYHORSDQLPSURYHGWHFKQLTXHRISURGXFWLRQ([SHULPHQWVKDYHUHVXOWHG



1,52$6

Casein
Water

Caseinate


)LJ6FKHPDWLFGLDJUDPRIDFRQWLQXRXVFRQYHUVLRQSODQW
IRUSURGXFWLRQRI1$FDVHLQDWH




1,52$6

LQDFRQWLQXRXVSURFHVVOLQHIRUGLVVROXWLRQRIDFLGFDVHLQVXVSHQVLRQVLQWRFDVHLQDWH
VROXWLRQV
)URPDWHFKQLFDOSRLQWRIYLHZWKHWDVNLVVLPSOHWKHGLIILFXOWSRLQWLVWRILQGDSSUR
SULDWHHTXLSPHQWWKDWFDQZRUNUHOLDEO\ZLWKDYLVFRXVPDWHULDO
2QWKHEDVLVRIWKHLQIRUPDWLRQDYDLODEOHLQWKHOLWHUDWXUHFRQFHUQLQJWKHEDWFKSURF
HVVWKHFRQWLQXRXVSURFHVVFDQEHGLYLGHGLQWRWKHIROORZLQJVWDJHV








'LVLQWHJUDWLRQRIWKHFDVHLQSDUWLFOHV
'RVLQJRIWKHDOFDOLQH
0L[LQJ

$SDUWIURPWKHVHSURFHVVHVYLVFRVLW\DQGWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHVROXWLRQPXVWEHFRQ
WUROOHG
7KHVWDJHVLQWKHFRQWLQXRXVSURFHVVRIGLVVROXWLRQRIFDVHLQDUHVKRZQLQ)LJ
)UHVKO\SUHFLSLWDWHGZHOOZDVKHGDFLGFDVHLQFXUGDQGZDWHUDUHOHGLQWRWKHYHVVHO
ZKLFKLVSURYLGHGZLWKDVWLUUHU7KHTXDQWLW\RIZDWHULVFRQWUROOHGVRWKDWWKHVROLGV
FRQWHQWRIWKHFDVHLQVXVSHQVLRQLVNHSWDWWKHGHVLUHGYDOXH
)URPWKHYHVVHOWKHFDVHLQVXVSHQVLRQLVSXPSHGE\WKHSXPSWRWKHFROORLGPLOO
+HUHWKHVXVSHQVLRQRIFDVHLQSDUWLFOHVLQZDWHULVWUDQVIRUPHGLQWRDWKLFNSDVWH
7KHVL]HRIWKHFDVHLQSDUWLFOHVLVUHGXFHGVRPXFKWKDWWKHIROORZLQJSURFHVVRIGLV
VROYLQJLVDFFHOHUDWHGFRQVLGHUDEO\
)URPWKHFROORLGPLOOWKHFDVHLQSDVWHSDVVHVWRWKHPL[HUDQGVLPXOWDQHRXVO\D
VROXWLRQRIVRGLXPK\GUR[LGHRIDSSURSULDWHFRQFHQWUDWLRQLVDGGHGIURPGRVLQJ
HTXLSPHQW7KHDGGLWLRQRI1D2+RU&D 2+  LVFRQWUROOHGE\DQDXWRPDWLFS+FRQ
WUROOHU


7KHVRGLXPFDVHLQDWHVROXWLRQOHDYLQJWKHPL[HUSDVVHVWRHTXLSPHQWPHDVXULQJDQG
FRQWUROOLQJS+  WHPSHUDWXUH  DQGYLVFRVLW\  RIWKHVROXWLRQ
7KHVROXWLRQRIFDVHLQDWHWKHQHQWHUVWKHIHHGLQJWDQNRIWKHVSUD\GU\LQJSODQW
7KHWLPHLQWHUYDOZKHUHWKHFDVHLQGLVSHUVLRQGXULQJWKHSURFHVVRIGLVVROYLQJKDVD
ORZS+DQGWKHUHIRUHDYHU\KLJKYLVFRVLW\LVYHU\TXLFNO\SDVVHG7KHS+ILHOG
LVWKXVUHDFKHGZKHUHWKHYLVFRVLW\RIWKHVROXWLRQLVDWLWVPLQLPXP GHSHQGLQJ
XSRQVROLGVFRQWHQWDQGWHPSHUDWXUHLWPD\UHDFKVHYHUDOWKRXVDQGFSV 
%\PHDQVRIWKHFRQWLQXRXVSURFHVVOLQHLWLVSRVVLEOHWRUHGXFHWKHUHDFWLRQWLPHIURP
WKHPRPHQWWKHFDVHLQLVGRVHGZLWKWKHVROXWLRQRIWKHK\GUR[LGHXQWLOWKHILQLVKHG
FDVHLQDWHLVDYDLODEOHLQGU\SRZGHUIURPWRRIWKHWLPHQHHGHGLQWKHEDWFK
SURFHVV




1,52$6




1,52$6

,QWKLVZD\LWLVSRVVLEOHSDUWO\WRFRXQWHUDFWWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWDVWHGHIHFWVDQG
SDUWO\WRXWLOL]HWKHUHODWLRQEHWZHHQWHPSHUDWXUHDQGYLVFRVLW\RIVRGLXPFDVHLQDWHVR
OXWLRQV7KHKLJKHUWKHWHPSHUDWXUH LQDVKRUWHUWLPH WRZKLFKWKHVROXWLRQFDQEH
KHDWHGGXULQJWKHGLVVROXWLRQSURFHVVDQGHVSHFLDOO\LPPHGLDWHO\EHIRUHWKHGU\LQJ
WKHKLJKHUWKHVROLGVFRQWHQWVLQWKHVROXWLRQ
,QWKHFRQWLQXRXVSURFHVVLWLVSRVVLEOHEHFDXVHRIWKHVKRUWKROGLQJWLPHWRKDQGOH
FRQFHQWUDWHVZLWKDVROLGVFRQWHQWXSWRGHSHQGLQJRQW\SHRIDONDOLQH
6SUD\'U\LQJRI&DVHLQDWHV
6SUD\GU\LQJRIFDVHLQDWHVGRHVQRWSUHVHQWDQ\GLIILFXOWLHVDQGLVXVXDOO\FDUULHGRXW
XVLQJKLJKGU\LQJWHPSHUDWXUHV
7KHPDLQSUREOHPLVWKHORZVROLGVFRQWHQWUHVXOWLQJLQDORZSDUWLFOHGHQVLW\DQGD
ORZEXONGHQVLW\6SHFLDODWWHQWLRQVKRXOGWKHUHIRUHEHSDLGWRWKHSRZGHUUHFRYHU\
V\VWHPDQGEDJILOWHUVXVHG
,QRUGHUWRLQFUHDVHWKHSDUWLFOHGHQVLW\QR]]OHDWRPL]DWLRQDQGWZRVWDJHGU\LQJLV
UHFRPPHQGHG7KHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWLQWKHSRZGHUOHDYLQJWKHFKDPEHUFDQEHDV
KLJKDVDVFDVHLQDWHVDUHJRRGZDWHUELQGHUV7KHUHPDLQLQJPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW
LVHYDSRUDWHGLQ9LEUR)OXLGL]HUVLQZKLFKWKHIOXLGL]DWLRQYHORFLW\VKRXOGEHNHSW
ORZWRHQVXUHWKHSRZGHULVQRWFDUULHGRIIZLWKWKHGU\LQJDLU
7\SLFDOGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQVDUH

6RGLXP&DVHLQDWH

&DOFLXP&DVHLQDWH






&

&


&

&


'U\LQJWHPSHUDWXUH
6ROLGVFRQWHQW
)HHGWHPSHUDWXUH
0RLVWXUHLQFKDPEHUIUDFWLRQ

'XHWRWKHODFNRIFDUERK\GUDWHV ODFWRVH DVELQGHULWLVDOPRVWLPSRVVLEOHWRDJ


JORPHUDWHWKHFDVHLQDWHVLIWKH\DUHGULHGLQFRQYHQWLRQDOGU\HUVHYHQLIILQHVUHWXUQ
LVXVHG2QO\LQWKH0XOWL6WDJH'U\HU VHHSDJH)LJ LWLVSRVVLEOHDQGLIDQ
LQVWDQWSRZGHULVUHTXLUHGLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRXVHOHFLWKLQDWLRQIRUUHDVRQVDVGLVFXVVHG
IRUWKH:3&SRZGHUVHHSDJH
7KHPDMRULW\RIFDVHLQDWHVLVXVHGLQIRRGVWXIIVVXFKDVVDXVDJHVKDPVDQGOXQFKHRQ
PHDWZKHUHLWDFWVDVDIDWHPXOVLILHUDQGZDWHUELQGHUWKXVSURWHFWLQJWKHSURGXFW
DJDLQVWGU\LQJRXWDQGNHHSLQJLWIUHVKIRUDORQJHUWLPHDWWKHVDPHWLPHHQULFKLQJWKH
SURGXFWZLWKSURWHLQ
7KHHPXOVLI\LQJHIIHFWRIFDVHLQDWHVLVXWLOL]HGWRDJUHDWH[WHQWLQLPLWDWLRQPLON
SURGXFWVVXFKDVILOOHGPLONLPLWDWLRQPLONFRIIHHZKLWHQHUZKLSSHGFUHDPLFH
FUHDPPLONLFHHWF
7KHKLJKQXWULWLYHYDOXHRIFDVHLQDWHVPDNHVLWDSSOLFDEOHLQRWKHUIRRGVWXIIVLQZKLFK
WKHSURWHLQFRQWHQWVKRXOGEHHQULFKHGLQVSDJKHWWLDQGPDFDURQLIRUH[DPSOH



1,52$6




1,52$6

%DFWHULDFRQWDLQLQJ3URGXFWV
6SUD\GU\LQJDSURGXFWFRQWDLQLQJEDFWHULDLVHDVLO\GRQHKRZHYHUXQOHVVVSHFLDO
SUHFDXWLRQVDUHWDNHQWKHUHVXOWLQJSRZGHUZLOOFRQWDLQRQO\IHZOLYHEDFWHULD
6SUD\GU\LQJWULDOVFDUULHGRXWDWWKH1,52ODERUDWRU\VRPHWLPHDJRRQRUGLQDU\
VWDUWHUFXOWXUH LHPLONFXOWXUHGDFLGLILHGZLWKVWUHSWRFRFFXVEHWDFRFFXVDQGRWKHU
ODFWREDFLOOXVVWUDLQVZHOONQRZQWRWKHGDLU\LQGXVWU\ ZLWKVROLGVVKRZHGWKDW
WKHUHZDVRQO\DYHU\OLPLWHGQXPEHURIOLYHEDFWHULDLQWKHSRZGHU'U\LQJWHPSHUD
WXUHVHYHQDVORZDV&ZHUHHQRXJKWRLQDFWLYDWHWKHPDMRUSDUWHYHQWKHFXOWXUH
ZDVGULHGGXULQJWKHFRQVWDQWUDWH WKHORJDULWKPLFLQFUHDVH ZKHUHWKHEDFWHULDDUH
XVXDOO\PRVWUHVLVWDQWWRVXGGHQFKDQJHLQWKHFRQGLWLRQRIJURZWK'XULQJWKHVDPH
VHULHVRIWULDOVWKHGU\HUZDVRSHUDWHGLQVXFKDZD\WKDWWKHPRLVWXUHLQWKHSRZGHU
OHDYLQJWKHFKDPEHUZDVDERXWFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRDWHPSHUDWXUHRIWKHRXWJR
LQJDLURIDERXW&7KLVPHDQVWKDWWKHSDUWLFOHVKDYHQHYHUEHHQKHDWHGWRDKLJKHU
WHPSHUDWXUHWKDQ&'HVSLWHWKLVIDFWWKHDPRXQWRIOLYHEDFWHULDLQWKHSRZGHUZDV
YHU\ORZ7KLVPHDQVWKDWLWLVQRWRQO\GXHWRWKHWHPSHUDWXUHWKDWWKHEDFWHULDGRQRW
VXUYLYHWKHGU\LQJ(YHQWKRXJKLWLVQRWSURYHGLWVHHPVORJLFDOWKDWWKHVXGGHQ
FKDQJHLQWKHRVPRWLFSUHVVXUH GXHWRWKHHYDSRUDWLRQRIZDWHU FDQKDYHVRPHLQIOX
HQFH
:KHQVSUD\GU\LQJ\RJKXUWFXOWXUHVYDULRXVSURFHVVVWHSVDUHWDNHQLQRUGHUWRDYRLG
WKHVHGLVDGYDQWDJHV2QHW\SHRISRZGHUFDQEHSURGXFHGLIRQO\SDUWLDOIHUPHQWDWLRQ
LVXVHGE\VWRSSLQJWKHIHUPHQWDWLRQEHIRUHWKHS+UHDFKHVDFRDJXODWLRQRIWKH
FDVHLQFDQEHDYRLGHGDQGWKHORZHUFRQWHQWRIODFWLFDFLGZLOODOVRPDNHWKHGU\LQJ
HDVLHU
7KHSURFHGXUHLVDVIROORZV


6WDQGDUGL]DWLRQWRZDQWHGIDWFRQWHQWSDVWHXUL]DWLRQDW&HYDSRUDWLRQWR
DSSUR[LPDWHO\76FRROLQJWR&LQRFXODWLRQZLWKVWDUWHUIHUPHQWD
WLRQWRS+KRPRJHQL]DWLRQDWEDUFRROLQJWR&VSUD\GU\LQJDW
&PRLVWXUHH[FKDPEHUDVKLJKDVSRVVLEOHLH'U\LQJLQ9LEUR
)OXLGL]HUDW&WRPRLVWXUH6XUYLYDO[SHUJSRZGHULH

7KHUHVXOWLQJSRZGHULVXVHGZKHQSUHSDULQJ\RJKXUWE\UHFRQVWLWXWLQJLWLQZDWHUDQG
LQRFXODWLQJLWDWWKHRSWLPXPWHPSHUDWXUH & IRURQHGD\
5HFHQWO\WKHOLWHUDWXUHKDVGHVFULEHGDVHOHFWLYHPHWKRGFODLPHGWRJLYHEDFWHULD
VWUDLQVVXLWDEOHIRUVSUD\GU\LQJ7KHDERYHVSUD\GULHG\RJKXUWSRZGHULVUHSHDWHGO\
LQRFXODWHGDQGGULHGDQGDIWHUWKHIRXUWKJHQHUDWLRQSUDFWLFDOO\DOOWKHEDFWHULDVKRXOG
EHYLDEOH,WLVKRZHYHUDTXHVWLRQZKHWKHUVWUDLQVZLWKDQRUPDOHQ]\PHV\VWHP
FKDUDFWHULVWLFIRU\RJKXUWDUHSURGXFHG



1,52$6




1,52$6

0LON5HSODFHU
0LONUHSODFHURUILOOHGPLONLVDUHSODFHPHQWIRUZKROHPLONLQZKLFKWKHEXWWHUIDW
KDVEHHQUHSODFHGE\DFKHDSHUDQLPDORUYHJHWDEOHIDW
0LONUHSODFHULVXVHGDVIRGGHUIRUFDOYHVFKLFNHQVDQGSLJV)RUFDOYHVLWLVXVHGIRU
ERWKEUHHGLQJDQGIDWWHQLQJ7ZRTXDOLWLHVRIZKROHPLONUHSODFHUDUHSURGXFHGRQH
IRUHDFKSXUSRVH
+RZHYHUWKHILQLVKHGIRGGHUPL[WXUHKDVQRIL[HGFRPSRVLWLRQ7KHSURSRUWLRQRI
HDFKLQJUHGLHQWYDULHVDVIROORZV







)DW 

6NLPPLONVROLGV 061) 
'H[WURVHODFWRVHSRVVLEO\ZKH\VROLGV
(PXOVLI\LQJDJHQWV 
)ORXU

0LQHUDOVYLWDPLQV







7KHHPXOVLI\LQJDJHQWVLQFOXGH
0LQHUDOV 
9LWDPLQV 
$QWLELRWLFV








OHFLWKLQPRQRJO\FHULGHVVXFURJO\FHULGHV
&D1D0J&X32&O+&2
$'( %& 
7HUUDP\FLQRUDXUHRP\FLQ

7KHIDWHQULFKHGVNLPPLONSRZGHUFDQEHSURGXFHGLQWZRZD\V
'U\PL[LQJVNLPPLONSRZGHUDQGIDW
 'U\LQJDQHPXOVLRQRIVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHDQGIDW



'U\0L[LQJ6NLPPLON3RZGHUDQG)DW
7KHGU\PL[LQJSURFHGXUHZDVWKHWHFKQLTXHXVHGLQLWLDOO\7KHIDWHQULFKHGVNLP
PLONSRZGHUZDVSURGXFHGE\VSUD\LQJIDWRQWRVNLPPLONSRZGHUZKLFKZDVFDUULHG
RXWRQDFRQYH\LQJEHOWSDVVLQJDQR]]OH
+RZHYHUWKLVSURGXFWGLGQHLWKHUKDYHDJRRGVROXELOLW\QRUDJRRGVKHOIOLIH
6LQFHWKHQDQRWKHUPHWKRGKDVEHHQGHYHORSHGE\ZKLFKWKHIDWLVVSUD\HGLQWRD
FKDPEHUWRZKLFKVNLPPLONSRZGHULVFDUULHGLQDQDLUFXUUHQW7KLVUHVXOWVLQD
SURGXFWLQZKLFKWKHJOREXOHVRIIDWDUHFRYHUHGZLWKVNLPPLONSRZGHUSDUWLFOHV
7KLVSURGXFWLVLQPDQ\ZD\VYHU\JRRGDOWKRXJKIRUVRPHXVHVLWVTXDOLWLHVDUHQRW
JRRGHQRXJK,WLVRIFRXUVHWKHVWUXFWXUHRIWKHIDWZKLFKLVQRWLGHDODVDOOWKHIDWLV
SUHVHQWDVIUHHIDWDQGWKHJOREXOHVRIIDWDUHPXFKWRRELJ7KLVFDXVHVGHFUHDVHLQ
NHHSLQJSURSHUWLHVDVZHOODVLQGLJHVWLRQSUREOHPVIRUWKHFDOYHV



1,52$6




1,52$6

'U\LQJDQ(PXOVLRQRI6NLPPLON&RQFHQWUDWHDQG)DW
:LWKWKLVPHWKRGDSUHPL[LVQRUPDOO\SURGXFHGZKLFKFRQWDLQVDKLJKHUDPRXQWRI
IDW XSWRIDWRIWKHWRWDOVROLGVFRQWHQW WKDQLVGHVLUHGLQWKHILQLVKHGIRGGHU
PL[WXUH
7KHSUHPL[LVWKHQPL[HGZLWKRWKHUFRPSRQHQWVDFFRUGLQJWRWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVIURP
WKHHQGXVHU
7KHUDZSURGXFWVVKRXOGFRQVLVWRI D QRUPDOO\WUHDWHGVNLPPLON SDVWHXUL]HG KDY
LQJDQDFLGLW\RIPD['RUQLF ODFWLFDFLG DQG E ILUVWFODVVIDWVZLWKDIUHH
IDWW\DFLGFRQWHQWRIOHVVWKDQ DVROHLFDFLG KDYLQJDYHU\ORZFRQWHQWRILPSX
ULWLHVDQGZDWHU
7KHVNLPPLONLVHYDSRUDWHGWRVROLGVDQGKHDWHGWR&
7KHIDWVDUHPHOWHGDQGKHDWHGWRDSSUR[&%RWKYHJHWDEOHDQGDQLPDOIDWVFDQEH
XVHG,IWKHIDWLVGHOLYHUHGLQURDGWDQNHUVLWZLOOXVXDOO\KDYHDWHPSHUDWXUHRI
&DQGPHOWLQJHTXLSPHQWZLOOEHXQQHFHVVDU\
$QWLR[LGDQWV HJEXW\OK\GUR[\WROXLQH PD\EHDGGHGWRWKHPHOWHGIDW,IHPXOVLI\
LQJDJHQWVDUHGHVLUHGWKH\ZLOOKDYHWREHDGGHGDWWKLVVWDJH
7KHIDWLVWKHQKHDWHGWRDSSUR[&DQGPL[HGZLWKWKHVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHDQG
WKHPL[WXUHRIIDWDQGVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHLVWKHQOHGWKURXJKDKRPRJHQL]HUDQG
WKHHPXOVLRQLVUHDG\WREHGULHG
7KHPL[LQJRIIDWDQGVNLPPLONFDQEHGRQHDVD
%DWFK3URFHVV
 &RQWLQXRXV3URFHVV



%DWFK3URFHVV
)URPWKHHYDSRUDWRUWKHVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHLVSXPSHGYLDDQLQWHUPHGLDWHWDQNWR
WKHPL[LQJWDQN,QWKHPL[LQJWDQNWKHYROXPH RUZHLJKW GHQVLW\DQGWHPSHUDWXUH
RIWKHEDWFKDUHGHWHUPLQHG)URPWKLVWKHDPRXQWRIVNLPPLONVROLGVFDQEHFDOFX
ODWHGDQGWKXVDOVRWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJDPRXQWRIIDW
7KHIDWZKLFKLVVWRUHGLQDWDQNDW&LVSXPSHGWKURXJKDSUHKHDWHUWRWKH
PL[LQJWDQNZKHUHWKHFDOFXODWHGDPRXQWRIIDWLVDGGHGWRWKHVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWH
,QWKLVFDVHQRUPDOO\WKUHHPL[LQJWDQNVZLOOEHQHFHVVDU\2QHLVEHLQJHPSWLHGZKLOH
WKHRWKHURQHLVILOOHGDQGWKHPL[LQJWDNHVSODFHLQWKHWKLUGRQH




1,52$6




1,52$6

7KHSXUSRVHRIKRPRJHQL]LQJLVWRGLVLQWHJUDWHWKHIDWJOREXOHVWRPDNHWKHPPRUH
HDVLO\GLJHVWLEOHIRUWKHDQLPDOV7KHDLPIRUDPD[LPXPVL]HRIIDWJOREXOHVLV
DQGDPLQLPXPRIOHVVWKDQ
7KHKRPRJHQL]LQJFDXVHVDQLQFUHDVHLQWKHYLVFRVLW\$WRRYLVFRXVIHHGZLOOJLYHD
FRDUVHVSUD\IURPWKHDWRPL]HUGLIILFXOWGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQVDQGDSRRUSURGXFW7KH
DGGLWLRQRIHPXOVLILHUVFDQUHGXFHWKLVLQFUHDVHLQYLVFRVLW\%XWWKHQLQUHWXUQWKHUH
ZLOOXVXDOO\EHGLIILFXOWLHVZLWKDQLQFUHDVHGWHQGHQF\RIGHSRVLWVLQWKHGU\LQJFKDP
EHUDQGVRZKHQHYHUSRVVLEOHWKHDGGLWLRQRIHPXOVLILHUVLVDYRLGHG
&RQWLQXRXV3URFHVV
)RUFRQWLQXRXVPL[LQJRIIDWDQGVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHWKHHTXLSPHQWZLOOEHDVIRO
ORZV


$QHYDSRUDWRUIXUQLVKHGZLWKDXWRPDWLFFRQWURORIWKHZDWHUHYDSRUDWLYHFDSDF
LW\DQGVROLGVFRQWHQWRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH



$VWRUDJHWDQNIRUPHOWHGIDW



&HQWULIXJDOSXPSVIRUVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHDQGIDWWR



$SLVWRQSXPSZLWKWKUHHSLVWRQVRQWKHVDPHVKDIWZKLFKPDNHVLWSRVVLEOHWR
GRVHVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHIDWDQGSRVVLEO\HPXOVLILHUVLQDFRQVWDQWSURSRU
WLRQWRD



&RPELQDWRUIRUKHDWLQJDQGPL[LQJIDWDQGVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWH7KHSUR
SRUWLRQEHWZHHQWKHIDWDQGWKHVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHFDQEHDGMXVWHGE\FKDQJ
LQJWKHVWURNHRISLVWRQVRQWKHSXPS



)URPWKHFRPELQDWRUWKHPL[WXUHLVOHGWRDKRPRJHQL]HUZKLFKDOVRDFWVDV
IHHGSXPSIRUWKHGU\LQJSODQW$YDULDEOHVSHHGGULYHUHJXODWHVWKHIHHGUDWHWR
WKHVSUD\GU\HUFRQWUROOHGE\WKHRXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUH

7KHVSUD\GU\HULVGHVLJQHGHVSHFLDOO\ZLWKWKHSXUSRVHRIRSHUDWLQJZLWKWKHOHDVW
SRVVLEOHDPRXQWRIGHSRVLWVDQGDQHIILFLHQWFRROLQJRIWKHSURGXFHGSRZGHU
7KHPRVWLPSRUWDQWSDUDPHWHULVWKHRXWOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUHZKLFKPXVWEHVXIILFLHQWO\
ORZVRWKDWWKHSURSHUWLHVRIWKHSURGXFWZLOOQRWEHLQIOXHQFHGXQIDYRXUDEO\,QPRG
HUQVSUD\GU\LQJSODQWVWKHWHPSHUDWXUHIRUWKLVSURGXFWLV&IRUWKHLQOHWDLU
:KHQGU\LQJSURGXFWVZLWKDKLJKFRQWHQWRIIDWGHSRVLWVLQWKHGU\LQJSODQWDUHLQ
HYLWDEOH7KHGHSRVLWVDUHXQGHVLUDEOHDVWKH\PDNHWKHSODQWPRUHGLIILFXOWWRFOHDQ
DQGFDXVHDQLQFUHDVHGSURGXFWORVV%HVLGHVWKLVGHSRVLWVZKLFKKDYHEHHQVHWWOHGIRU
VRPHWLPHDQGKDYHEHFRPHVFRUFKHGPD\IDOOGRZQDQGPL[ZLWKWKHSRZGHUWKXV
PDNLQJDSRZGHURIRYHUDOOSRRUHUTXDOLW\)LQDOO\WKHGHSRVLWVPD\FDXVHDILUHDVWKH



1,52$6

)LJ6SUD\GU\HUIRUFDOIPLONUHSODFHUV &',& 




1,52$6

UHVXOWRIDQH[RWKHUPLFDXWRR[LGDWLRQSURFHVV:LWKWKHSUHFDXWLRQVVWDWHGEHORZWKH
GHSRVLWVFDQEHNHSWDWDPLQLPXP


$VXLWDEOHKRPRJHQL]LQJZLOOJLYHORZFRQWHQWRIIUHHIDW

(PXOVLILHUVVKRXOGEHDYRLGHGZKHQHYHUSRVVLEOH

$SODQWGHVLJQWKDWDYRLGVGHSRVLWV&RPSDFWRU06''U\HU

6NLPPLONSRZGHURUDQWLFDNLQJPD\SRVVLEO\EHDGGHGWRPDNHWKHSRZGHUOHVV
VWLFN\DQGPRUHIUHHIORZLQJWKXVNHHSLQJWKHFKDPEHUDQGF\FORQHVFOHDQ

6HFRQGDU\FRROLQJDLUOHGWDQJHQWLDOO\LQWRWKHGU\LQJFKDPEHU

7KHPDLQSDUWRIWKHSRZGHULVOHGIURPWKHFKDPEHUGLUHFWO\LQWRD9LEUR)OXLGL]HU
ZRUNLQJDVDFRROLQJEHGZKHUHWKHSRZGHULVFRROHGE\PHDQVRIDPELHQWDLUDQG
FRROHGGHKXPLGLILHGDLU
7KHSRZGHUIURPWKHF\FORQHVLVFRQYH\HGE\PHDQVRIYLEUDWRUFRQYH\RUVWRWKH
FKDPEHUIRUDJJORPHUDWLRQRUWRWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HUZRUNLQJDVDFRROLQJEHG7KH
WRWDODPRXQWRISRZGHULVEDJJHGRIIDWWKHHQGRIWKHFRROLQJEHGDIWHUKDYLQJEHHQ
VLIWHG6HH)LJ
3URGXFWLRQRIILOOHGPLONSRZGHUVIRUKXPDQFRQVXPSWLRQLVXVHGPRUHDQGPRUH
QRZ7KHFRPSRVLWLRQLVHTXDOWRWKDWRIZKROHPLONSRZGHULHZLWKIDW
9DULRXVYHJHWDEOHRLOVDUHXVHGDQGXVXDOO\WKHSURGXFWLRQLVEDVHGRQDPL[WXUHJLY
LQJDPHOWLQJFKDUDFWHULVWLFHTXDOWREXWWHUIDW9DULRXVYLWDPLQVDUHQDWXUDOO\DGGHG
PDLQO\$'DQG( 
7KHPL[LQJRIWKHVNLPPLONDQGRLOLVFDUULHGRXWDFFRUGLQJWRWKHFRQWLQXRXVSURFHVV
GHVFULEHGDERYH7KHGU\LQJLVGRQHLQDSODQWZLWKILQHVUHWXUQIRUDJJORPHUDWLQJDQG
OHFLWKLQGRVLQJHTXLSPHQWLQRUGHUWRPDNHWKHSRZGHULQVWDQW7KHSRZGHULVPDLQO\
XVHGLQELJLQVWLWXWLRQVVXFKDVFDQWHHQVKRWHOVKRVSLWDOVLQWKHDUP\HWF
7KLVW\SHRISRZGHULVPDLQO\PDQXIDFWXUHGLQFRXQWULHVZLWKDOLPLWHGORFDOPLON
SURGXFWLRQ7KHSRZGHULVEDVHGRQLPSRUWHGVNLPPLONSRZGHUZKLFKLVUHFRQVWL
WXWHGDQGPL[HGZLWKORFDOO\SURGXFHGIDW


:KROH0LON3RZGHUZLWK+LJK)UHH)DW&RQWHQW
7KHZKROHPLONSRZGHUSURFHVVLQJDWWHPSWVWRSURGXFHDSRZGHUZLWKDVORZDFRQ
WHQWRIIUHHIDWDVSRVVLEOHLQRUGHUWRSURORQJWKHVKHOIOLIH
7KHFKRFRODWHLQGXVWU\LVKRZHYHULQWHUHVWHGLQZKROHPLONSRZGHUZLWKDVKLJKD
IUHHIDWFRQWHQWDVSRVVLEOHDVLWUHGXFHVWKHYLVFRVLW\RIWKHFKRFRODWHSDVWH,WLV
WKHUHIRUHSRVVLEOHWRXVHOHVVFRFRDEXWWHUZKLFKLVDQH[SHQVLYHSURGXFW



1,52$6

)LJ0XOWLVWDJHGU\HUIRUSURGXFWLRQRIZKROHPLONSRZGHUZLWK
KLJKIUHHIDWFRQWHQW 06' 




1,52$6

7KHSURGXFWLVSURGXFHGE\SUHFU\VWDOOL]LQJWKHODFWRVHLQWKHZKROHPLONFRQFHQWUDWH
RUVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWHZKLFKLVWKHQPL[HGZLWKFUHDPLQWKHFRUUHFWSURSRUWLRQ
7KHVSUD\GU\HUVHOHFWHGIRUWKLVSRZGHULVWKH0XOWL6WDJH'U\HUVHH)LJ7KLV
SODQWRIIHUVPDQ\DGYDQWDJHVDVLWLVGHVLJQHGIRUSURGXFWVZLWKKLJKIDWFRQWHQWEH
LQJGLIILFXOWWRGU\$QRWKHUDGYDQWDJHRIWKLVGU\HULVWKHLQWHJUDWHGIOXLGEHGLQ
ZKLFKWKHSRZGHULVIOXLGL]HGDWDKLJKPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW'XHWRWKHGU\LQJWKHODFWRVH
KDVEHFRPHVXSHUVDWXUDWHGDJDLQVHH&U\VWDOOL]DWLRQRI:KH\&RQFHQWUDWHSDJH
DQGWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQFDQSURFHHGIXUWKHUUHVXOWLQJLQDKLJKIUHHIDWFRQWHQWDVWKH
ODFWRVHFU\VWDOVJURZDQGGHVWUR\WKHSURWHLQPHPEUDQHSURWHFWLQJWKHIDWJOREXOHV
$GGLWLRQRIXSWRODFWRVHEDVHGRQVROLGVWRWKHPLONEHIRUHHYDSRUDWLRQLP
SURYHVWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ XSWRRIWKHWRWDOIDW 
7KHKLJKIUHHIDWZLOORIFRXUVHFDXVHPRUHSUREOHPVLQWKHF\FORQHVFRPSDUHGZLWK
GU\LQJRIQRUPDOZKROHPLONSRZGHUEXWDVWKH06'SODQWLVHTXLSSHGZLWKDVSHFLDO
SUHF\FORQHRUD&,3DEOHEDJILOWHUWKHSUREOHPLVSDUWO\VROYHG7KHILQDOGU\LQJDQG
FRROLQJLVGRQHLQWKH9LEUR)OXLGL]HU,WLVLPSRUWDQWWKDWWKHILQDOSRZGHUPRLVWXUHLV
EHORZWRPDLQWDLQDJRRGFRORXURIWKHFKRFRODWH


3RZGHUVIRU&KHHVH3URGXFWLRQ
6NLPPLON
'XULQJWKHODVW\HDUVJUHDWHIIRUWVKDYHEHHQPDGHWRSURGXFHVNLPPLONSRZGHUIRU
ODWHUFKHHVHSURGXFWLRQWKHUHDVRQEHLQJWRFRXQWHUDFWVHDVRQDOYDULDWLRQVLQVXSSOLHV
RIUDZPLONIRUFKHHVHSURGXFWLRQ+RZHYHULWDOVRRSHQVWKHSRVVLELOLW\RIVHQGLQJ
SRZGHUWRFRXQWULHVZLWKQRPLONSURGXFWLRQRIWKHLURZQIRUPDNLQJVSHFLDOVRIW
FKHHVHZLWKDVKRUWVKHOIOLIHRURISURGXFLQJSRZGHUIRUVWRFNLISULFHVIRUFKHHVH
DUHORZZLWKDODWHUUHFRQVWLWXWLRQDQGFKHHVHPDNLQJLQPLQGEHFDXVHWKHNHHSLQJ
TXDOLW\RIWKHSRZGHULVEHWWHUFRPSDUHGZLWKWKDWRIFKHHVH
%HIRUHJRLQJLQWRGHWDLOVDERXWWKHGU\LQJWHFKQLTXHLWVKRXOGEHPHQWLRQHGWKDWXQ
OHVVUDZPLONRIWRSTXDOLW\ZLWKUHVSHFWWRK\JLHQHLVDYDLODEOHDVXLWDEOHSRZGHUIRU
PDNLQJFKHHVHRIJRRGTXDOLW\FDQQRWEHREWDLQHG
,WLVZHOONQRZQWKDWWKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHZKHQSURGXFLQJFRQYHQWLRQDO
FKHHVHRI*RXGDW\SHVKRXOGEHNHSWDWPD[&LQVHFDQGPDQ\SUHIHUWHP
SHUDWXUHVDVORZDV&LQRUGHUQRWWRGLVWXUEWKHQDWXUDOHQ]\PHV\VWHPLQWKH
PLON,WPD\ZHOOEHWKDWKLJKHUWHPSHUDWXUHVJLYHELJJHU\LHOGVLQWKHFKHHVHYDWEH
FDXVHZKH\SURWHLQVZLOOSUHFLSLWDWHDQGIROORZWKHFDVHLQLQWKHFKHHVHFXUGEXWEH
FDXVHRIWKHDPLQRDFLGFRPSRVLWLRQRIWKHZKH\SURWHLQVWKHUHVXOWZLOOEHELWWHU
WDVWHJHQHUDOO\GLVOLNHG1HZW\SHVRIFKHHVHVZKHUHWKHDURPDEDFWHULDDUHQRWSUH
GRPLQDQWDQGWKHULSHQLQJWLPHLVVKRUWGRQRWVHHPWREHKDYHWKLVZD\0LONZLWKD
KLJKEDFWHULDFRXQWHVSHFLDOO\WKHWKHUPRUHVLVWDQWVSHFLHVLVWKHUHIRUHQRWDFFHSWHG



1,52$6


%DVHRI06'VSUD\GU\HUDQGDWWDFKHG9LEUR
)OXLGL]HUVIRUILQDOGU\LQJFRROLQJ




1,52$6

IRUFRQYHQWLRQDOFKHHVHSURGXFWLRQDVWKHORZWHPSHUDWXUHVKDYHQRHIIHFWRQWKHVH
EDFWHULD
7KHFULWHULDRXWOLQHGDERYHJRIRUWKHPLONLQWHQGHGIRUGU\LQJIRUDODWHUSURGXFWLRQ
RIFKHHVHDVZHOOVRLWLVQRWSRVVLEOHWRXVHRUGLQDU\VNLPPLONSRZGHUDVWKLVLV
QRUPDOO\H[SRVHGWRDUDWKHUVWURQJKHDWWUHDWPHQW,WLVQHFHVVDU\WRXVHPLONSRZGHU
PDQXIDFWXUHGZLWKWKHSDUWLFXODUDLPLQPLQGWKHVRFDOOHGORZKHDWSRZGHU
6NLPPLONSRZGHUFDQEHFODVVLILHGDVIROORZV





:31,PJJSRZGHU

/RZKHDWSRZGHU

QRWOHVVWKDQ

0HGLXPKHDWSRZGHU

DERYHEXWEHORZ

+LJKKHDWSRZGHU

QRWPRUHWKDQ

7KH:31, :KH\3URWHLQ1LWURJHQ,QGH[ H[SUHVVHVWKHDPRXQWRIXQGHQDWXUHGZKH\
SURWHLQVLQWKHSRZGHUDQGLVDPHDVXUHIRUWKHKHDWWUHDWPHQWWRZKLFKWKHPLONKDV
EHHQH[SRVHGGXULQJWKHSURGXFWLRQ$VLWLVWKHDPRXQWRIGHQDWXUHGZKH\SURWHLQV
ZHDUHLQWHUHVWHGLQDQGDVWKHUHLVQRSUDFWLFDODQDO\WLFDOPHWKRGIRUGHWHUPLQDWLRQRI
WKHGHJUHHRIGHQDWXUDWLRQLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRGHWHUPLQHWKHDPRXQWRIWRWDOXQGHQD
WXUHGZKH\SURWHLQLQWKHUDZPLON6HDVRQDOYDULDWLRQVDQGWKHQDWXUHRIWKHZKH\
SURWHLQVLQWKHUDZPLONKRZHYHUPDNHLWQHFHVVDU\WRPHDVXUHWKHDPRXQWDWOHDVW
RQFHDZHHNEXWRQO\ORFDONQRZOHGJHDERXWWKHKHDWVWDELOLW\RIWKHZKH\SURWHLQVDW
DSDUWLFXODUWLPHRIWKH\HDUPDNHVLWSRVVLEOHWRFKRRVHWKHFRUUHFWKHDWDQGWLPH
FRPELQDWLRQLQRUGHUWRPHHWDVSHFLILFKHDWFODVVLILFDWLRQ
+RZHYHUDVWKHDPRXQWRIZKH\SURWHLQVJHQHUDOO\YDULHVIURPPJJ PDLQO\
PJJ LWLVQRWHQRXJKMXVWWRREWDLQD:31,RIPJJWKLVFRXOGPHDQXSWR
PJXQGHQDWXUHGZKH\SURWHLQVSHUJVNLPPLONSRZGHUZLWKWKHULVNRIELWWHUWDVWHLQ
WKHFKHHVH,WLVWKHUHIRUHQHFHVVDU\WRREWDLQDVKLJK:31,YDOXHVLQWKHSRZGHUDV
SRVVLEOH PHDQLQJORZWHPSHUDWXUHVDWSDVWHXUL]LQJ 
$VPHQWLRQHGWKHUHTXLUHPHQWWRWKHPLONTXDOLW\LVKLJKEXWWKHUHLVDSRVVLELOLW\IRU
DSDVWHXUL]DWLRQZLWKGLUHFWVWHDPLQMHFWLRQLQWKHPLONLPPHGLDWHO\EHIRUHHQWHULQJ
WKHILUVWHIIHFWZKHUHWKHPLONLVIODVKFRROHGWRWKHWHPSHUDWXUHLQWKHFDODQGULD7KLV
ZD\RIKHDWLQJKDVOLWWOHRUSUDFWLFDOO\QRLQIOXHQFHRQWKHZKH\SURWHLQVZKHUHDVWKH
HIIHFWRINLOOLQJWKHEDFWHULDLVLQFUHDVHG
6SHFLDODWWHQWLRQVKRXOGWKHUHIRUHEHSDLGWRWKHFRQWHQWRIWKHUPRSKLOHVSRUHIRUPLQJ
EDFWHULDDVWKH\ZLOOQRWEHGHVWUR\HGE\WKHORZSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUH7KH\
PD\HYHQVWDUWWRGHYHORSLQWKHSUHKHDWLQJV\VWHPDIWHUKRXUVLIVSHFLDODWWHQ
WLRQLQIRUPRIGHVLJQRIWKHHYDSRUDWRULVQRWWDNHQ6HHSDJH
%XWZKDWKDSSHQVWRWKHZKH\SURWHLQVLQWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGWKHVSUD\GU\HU"1RW
YHU\PXFKLQWKHHYDSRUDWRUDQGSUDFWLFDOO\QRWKLQJLQWKHVSUD\GU\HUSURYLGHGWKH



1,52$6




1,52$6

WHPSHUDWXUHVDUHQRWWRRKLJK,WLVVRWKDWWKHKLJKHUWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQWKHEHWWHUWKH
ZKH\SURWHLQVDUHSURWHFWHGDJDLQVWKHDWGHQDWXUDWLRQ
7\SLFDOSURGXFWLRQGDWDDUH


3UHKHDWWR&QRKROGLQJWLPH SRVVLEOHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWR&ZLWK
IODVKFRROLQJWR&EHIRUHHQWHULQJWKHILUVWFDODQGULDEXWZDWFKRXWIRU
WKHWKHUPRSKLOHEDFWHULDDQGHVSHFLDOO\WKHLUVSRUHV 

(YDSRUDWLRQWR76 QRKLJKHUWHPSHUDWXUHLQILUVWHIIHFWWKDQ& SRV


VLEOHVWRUDJHDW&IRUKRXUV 

6SUD\GU\LQJDW&RUHYHQ&

6LQJOHSDVVHYDSRUDWRUVDUHUHFRPPHQGHGDQGWZRVWDJHGU\LQJLVWREHSUHIHUUHGDV
WKLVSURYLGHVDPRUHJHQWOHGU\LQJEHFDXVHWKHSDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUHLVPXFKORZHU
HVSHFLDOO\GXULQJWKHFULWLFDOGU\LQJSKDVHIURPWRPRLVWXUHZKLFKUHVXOWVLQD
SRZGHUZLWKQRSURWHLQGHQDWXUDWLRQ7KHILQHVIUDFWLRQLVUHF\FOHGWRWKH9LEUR
)OXLGL]HUVZKHUHWRJHWKHUZLWKWKHFKDPEHUIUDFWLRQLWLVILQDOO\GULHGWRWKHZDQWHG
PRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDQGFRROHGEHIRUHEDJJLQJRII
7KHJHQWOHGU\LQJDQGDIWHUGU\LQJPHDQWKDWWKHUDWHRIK\GUDWLRQLHWKHWLPHIRU
FRPSOHWHGLVVROXWLRQZKHQUHFRQVWLWXWHGLVLPSURYHG
%HVLGHVJLYLQJDEHWWHUSURGXFWTXDOLW\WKHGU\LQJFRVWVDUHUHGXFHGDQGWKHHYDSRUD
WLRQFDSDFLW\LVLQFUHDVHGZKLFKLVDQDGYDQWDJHEHFDXVHRIWKHUHFRPPHQGHGORZHU
VROLGVIURPWKHHYDSRUDWRUPHDQLQJWKDWDJUHDWHUSDUWRIWKHHYDSRUDWLRQLVWUDQVIHUUHG
WRWKHVSUD\GU\HU
7KHOLWHUDWXUHGHVFULELQJWKHXVHRIVNLPPLONSRZGHULQFRQYHQWLRQDOFKHHVHSURGXF
WLRQKDVEHHQH[WHQVLYHGXULQJWKHODVW\HDUVDQGVRKDYHWKHFRPPHQWV,WZRXOGEH
WRROHQJWK\WRPHQWLRQWKHPDOOKHUHEXWWKH\FDQEHVXPPDUL]HGDVIROORZV
7KHEHVWHQGUHVXOWZDVIRXQGXVLQJORZSDVWHXUL]LQJWHPSHUDWXUHVEHIRUHWKHHYDSR
UDWLRQHYHQWKRXJKLWZDVSURYHGWKDWWKLVWHPSHUDWXUHKDGQRLQIOXHQFHRQWKHUHQ
QHWDELOLW\2QHDXWKRUFODLPVWKDWVWRUDJHRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHIRUKRXUVDW&ZLOO
UHVXOWLQLPSURYHGFXUGTXDOLW\ZKLFKLQDQ\FDVHLVLPSURYHGE\DGGLQJZY
&D&OWRWKHPLON7KHDPRXQWRIVNLPPLONSRZGHUZKLFKFDQEHXVHGGHSHQGVRQ
WKHW\SHRIFKHHVH7KHPRUHZDWHULQWKHILQDOFKHHVHWKHPRUHSRZGHU XSWR
EDVHGRQGU\PDWWHU FDQEHXVHG)RUFKHHVHVRI*RXGDRU&KHGGDUW\SH
EDVHGRQGU\PDWWHU LVQRUPDO3ULRUWRWKHXVHLQWKHFKHHVHYDWWKHSRZGHULVUHFRQ
VWLWXWHGWRVROLGVNHSWRYHUQLJKWDQGWKHQXVHGWRVWDQGDUGL]HZKROHPLONDW
VROLGVWRWKHZDQWHGIDWFRQWHQW2QHDUWLFOHGHVFULEHVWKHXVHRIVNLPPLON
SRZGHU RULJLQDWLQJIURPFRZ
VPLON IRUVWDQGDUGL]LQJEXIIDOR
VPLONWRDFDVHLQIDW
UDWLRRIIRUSURGXFWLRQRI&KHGGDUDQG(GDPW\SHFKHHVH



1,52$6

)LJ,QWHJUDWHGEHOWGU\HU7\SH),/7(50$7 )0' 




1,52$6

3RZGHUSURGXFHGGXULQJWKHVXPPHUPRQWKVLVSUHIHUUHGDVRIIIODYRXULQWKHPLON
IURPWKHZLQWHUPRQWKVPD\SUHVHQWSUREOHPV
$QRWKHUSRVVLELOLW\LVFKHHVHSURGXFWLRQIURPUHFRPELQHGSRZGHUDQGEXWWHURLOSUR
GXFHGIURPSUHFLSLWDWLRQRIFUHDP:KHQWKHUHFRPELQLQJLVGRQHIRDPLQJVKRXOGEH
DYRLGHGDVWKHUHVXOWLQJFKHHVHZLOOEHDW\SLFDO$IDWFDVHLQUDWLRRIVKRXOGEH
DLPHGDWDQGWKHPL[WXUHKRPRJHQL]HGDWPD[EDU+LJKHUSUHVVXUHVZLOOGDPDJH
WKHIDWJOREXOHVDQGIUHHIDWW\DFLGVZLOOODWHUFDXVHRIIIODYRXUVLQWKHFKHHVH$V
VPDOODQDPRXQWDVSRVVLEOHVKRXOGEHKRPRJHQL]HGDQGLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWKDWD
FUHDPFRQWDLQLQJIDWLVSUHSDUHGDQGPL[HGZLWKWKHUHPDLQLQJUHFRQVWLWXWHG
VNLPPLON
0RVWRIWKHDUWLFOHVPHQWLRQWKHXVHRIVNLPPLONSRZGHUDVDQDGYDQWDJHRXVZD\RI
OHYHOOLQJRXWVHDVRQDOYDULDWLRQVLQWKHPLONVXSSOLHVUHVXOWLQJLQDEHWWHUXWLOL]DWLRQRI
WKHFKHHVHPDQXIDFWXULQJHTXLSPHQW
5HWHQWDWH
8OWUDILOWUDWLRQRIZKROHPLONLVDZHOONQRZQWHFKQLTXHLQWKHFKHHVHSURGXFWLRQ
ZKHUHWKHUHWHQWDWHQRZZLWKDUHGXFHGFRQWHQWRIODFWRVHLVXVHGGLUHFWO\LQWKH
FKHHVHYDWZLWKDQLQFUHDVHGWKURXJKSXWDVDUHVXOWRUWKHUHWHQWDWHLVSDVVHGRQWRD
GLUHFWFRDJXODWLRQHTXLSPHQWIRUZKLWHVRIWFKHHVH7KHUHWHQWDWHFDQDOVREHVSUD\
GULHGGLUHFWO\IURPWKHXOWUDILOWUDWLRQHTXLSPHQWDWDVROLGVFRQWHQWRI7KHUH
VXOWLQJSRZGHUFDQWKHQEHUHFRQVWLWXWHGDWDODWHUGDWHLQRUGHUWROHYHORXWVHDVRQDO
YDULDWLRQV7KLVLVHVSHFLDOO\GRQHZLWKPLONIURPVKHHSDQGJRDWV


&KHHVH3RZGHU
,QRUGHUWRVSUD\GU\FKHHVHLWLVQHFHVVDU\WREULQJLWLQWRDOLTXLGIRUP7KLVLVGRQH
E\DQRUPDOPHOWLQJSURFHVVZKHUHWKHFKHHVHULQGLIDQ\LVUHPRYHGWKHFKHHVHLV
GLVLQWHJUDWHGDQGGXULQJKHDWLQJDQGDJLWDWLRQPHOWLQJVDOWVVXFKDVSKRVSKDWHVDQG
FLWUDWHVDUHDGGHGWRJHWKHUZLWKZDWHU
7KHDLPLVWRREWDLQDVROLGVFRQWHQWRIDERXWDQGDWHPSHUDWXUHRI&LQRUGHU
WRJHWDIHHGZKLFKLVQRWWRRYLVFRXVIRUDWRPL]DWLRQ)RUWKHGU\LQJDWHPSHUDWXUHRI
&LVXVHG7KHFRROLQJRIWKHSRZGHULVGRQHLQD9LEUR)OXLGL]HUVXSSOLHG
ZLWKDPELHQWDLULQWKHILUVWVHFWLRQDQGFROGGHKXPLGLILHGDLULQWKHODVWVHFWLRQ
7KHLQWHJUDWHGEHOWGU\HU)0'VHH)LJKDVSURYHGHVSHFLDOO\DGYDQWDJHRXVIRU
FKHHVHSRZGHUDVLWLVGLVFKDUJHGLQDQDJJORPHUDWHGIRUP)XUWKHUWKHF\FORQHIUDF
WLRQLVSUDFWLFDOO\]HURDQGGRHVWKXVQRWSUHVHQWDQ\RSHUDWLRQDOSUREOHPV
&KHHVHSRZGHULVPDLQO\XVHGLQGLSVGUHVVLQJVELVFXLWVFKLSVDQGGLUHFWDVIODYRXU
LQJRQKRWGLVKHVOLNHVSDJKHWWLDQGVRXSV



1,52$6


7RSRI),/7(50$76SUD\'U\HUVKRZLQJ
QR]]OHDVVHPEO\DQGDLUGLVSHUVHU




NIRO A/S

As a certain amount of aroma is lost during the drying it is recommended to use aged
cheese. In order to avoid problems with the odour form the exhaust air this may be filtered through activated carbon filters.

Cocoa-Milk-Sugar Mixtures
This type of powder is used extensively in vending machines for preparation of hot
chocolate drinks, but the powder is also sold in ordinary retail packages and used in
households.
The powder will usually have the following composition:
Cocoa:
Skim milk solids:
Sugar:

15-35%
40-60%
20-40%

If the amount of cocoa and sugar is not higher than 15% and 20%, respectively, the
single components may be spray dried as a mixture (which is homogenized) from a
feed with 45% solids and a drying temperature of 170-180C. In order to obtain a
free-flowing powder suitable for vending machines the cyclone fraction is recycled to
the atomizing device for agglomeration. The powder is after-dried and cooled in a Vibro-Fluidizer similar to the spray drying agglomeration process, as described in page
153.
If the amount of cocoa and sugar is higher, it is recommended to add the exceeding
amount in dry form. This is done via the fines return system by means of an additional
blow-through valve and a powder dosing equipment for the pre-mixed cocoa and
sugar which is stored in a silo. It should be observed that the sugar should be fine
ground to obtain an optimum agglomeration.

Coffee-Whitener
Coffee-whitener - artificial cream with vegetable oil - is another big group of recombined products that are spray dried.
The typical composition of a coffee-whitener is as follows:
Glucose syrup or maltodextrine with a DE of 25-30:

60-65%

Hydrogenated vegetable fat with melting point 35-40C:

30-32%

Na-caseinate:

3-5%

Artificial cream flavour, colour and emulsifiers:

1-3%

Phosphates:

1-3%
- 321 -

NIRO A/S

The above ingredients are recombined at 60-70C in large tanks to solids contents at
65-70%. The mixture is homogenized in two stages and then spray dried.
Both rotary and nozzle atomizers can be used, however nozzles are usually preferred,
as they give a more free-flowing powder. The powder must be instantly soluble in hot
beverages such as coffee or tea, and an agglomerated powder is therefore necessary.
In conventional dryers equipped with Vibro-Fluidizers and fines return system a drying temperature of 165-170C is used. The powder is discharged from the drying
chamber at max. 3.5% moisture to avoid powder deposits due to the high content of
glucose syrup being thermoplastic and tending to adhere to the drying chamber, if the
powder is too moist.
The final drying and cooling is done in a Vibro-Fluidizer. If a Multi-Stage Dryer is
used, it is possible to use higher drying temperatures (180-200C) without getting
problems with powder deposits.

Cappuccino Powder
In principle Cappuccino powder is used like coffee-whitener to "whiten" coffee, however, with the main purpose of getting a thick stable foam layer on the surface of the
coffee after reconstitution. A lot of Cappuccino powder is sold already mixed with instant soluble coffee and sugar - ready to use.
The foaming ability is achieved when the powder releases the gasses entrained in the
powder

Occluded gas in form of air and CO2; the latter has by purpose been injected into
the concentrate prior to drying

Interstitial air, due to the agglomeration of the product.

The composition of the concentrate is slightly different from that of coffee-whitener to


enhance the ability to form a thick layer of stable foam. The typical composition is as
follows:
Glucose syrup or maltodextrine with a DE of 25-30:

40-45%

Vegetable fat with melting point 35-40C:

20-25%

Low-Heat skim milk powder:

30-35%

Artificial cream flavour, colour and emulsifier:

1-3%

Phosphates:

1-3%

- 323 -

1,52$6




1,52$6

'XULQJWKHPL[LQJRIWKHLQJUHGLHQWVDW&WRDWRWDOVROLGVFRQWHQWRILW
LVLPSRUWDQWWRDYRLGLQFRUSRUDWLRQRIDLULQWRWKHFRQFHQWUDWHDVLWZLOOWDNHXS
VSDFHIRU&2WKHUHIRUHWKHPL[LQJVKRXOGEHGRQHXQGHUYDFXXP,WLVIXUWKHULP
SRUWDQWWRDYRLGORQJKROGLQJWLPHVDW&GXHWRDJHWKLFNHQLQJ
$IWHUPL[LQJWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVKRPRJHQL]HGLQWZRVWDJHVDWEDUJIROORZHG
E\DSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWR&IRUVHF7KHQLWLVFRROHGWR&
,QMHFWLRQRIOLTXLG&2LVGRQHXVLQJWKH/6,XQLWVHHSDJHDVWKLVRIIHUVWKHEHVW
GLVVROXWLRQRIWKH&2LQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH7KHDPRXQWRIOLTXLG&2WKDWFDQEHGLV
VROYHGLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHGHSHQGVRQWKHWHPSHUDWXUHDQGSUHVVXUHRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
/RZWHPSHUDWXUHDQGKLJKSUHVVXUHUHVXOWVLQPRUHGLVVROYHG&2
'U\LQJRIWKHFRQFHQWUDWHLVGRQHLQD0XOWL6WDJH'U\HUZLWKQR]]OHVVHHSDJH
DVWKLVSODQWRIIHUVWKHEHVWSRVVLELOLW\IRUDJJORPHUDWLRQWRLQFUHDVHWKHFRQWHQWRILQ
WHUVWLWLDODLU'U\LQJDLUWHPSHUDWXUHLVW\SLFDOO\&GHSHQGLQJRQDPELHQW
FRQGLWLRQV7KHEXONGHQVLW\RIWKHILQDOSRZGHULVW\SLFDOO\JFFPWKHIRDP
KHLJKWLVDSSUR[PPZLWKDVWDELOLW\RIKRXU




1,52$6




1,52$6

 /LVWRI)LJXUHV

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJD

)LJ


)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJD

)LJE

)LJ


)RUFHGUHFLUFXODWLRQHYDSRUDWRU

)DOOLQJILOPUHFLUFXODWLRQHYDSRUDWRU
(YDSRUDWLRQLQDIDOOLQJILOPHYDSRUDWRUWXEH
(YDSRUDWRUFDODQGULD
2QHVWDJHHYDSRUDWRU'HILQLWLRQRIYDULRXVVSHFLILFTXDQWLWLHV
DQGWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJKHDWIORZGLDJUDP
3ULQFLSOHRIWZRVWDJHHYDSRUDWLRQRIZDWHU
7KHUPR&RPSUHVVRU
7ZRVWDJHHYDSRUDWRUZLWKWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRU
+HDWIORZGLDJUDP7ZRVWDJHHYDSRUDWRUZLWKWKHUPRFRPSUHVVRU
0RQRWKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQVWDJH795HYDSRUDWRU
3RO\WKHUPDOFRPSUHVVLRQVWDJH795HYDSRUDWRU
2QHVWDJH095HYDSRUDWRU
+HDWIORZGLDJUDP095HYDSRUDWRU
:RUNLQJF\FOHRIDPHFKDQLFDOFRPSUHVVRU
&RPELQHG095795HYDSRUDWRU
&RPELQHG095095HYDSRUDWRU
)DOOLQJILOPUHFLUFXODWLRQHYDSRUDWRU
(YDSRUDWRUFDODQGULDVSOLWLQWZRVHFWLRQV
6HSDUDWRUZLWKWDQJHQWLDOLQOHW
:UDSDURXQGVHSDUDWRU
'\QDPLFSURGXFWGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHP



1,52$6




)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJD

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ



)LJ



)LJD

)LJE

)LJF

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

6WDWLFSURGXFWGLVWULEXWLRQV\VWHP
6SLUDOWXEHSUHKHDWHUV
6WUDLJKWWXEHSUHKHDWHUV
PJ:31,JSRZGHUDVDIXQFWLRQRIWKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQLQWHQVLW\
DUHODWLRQEHWZHHQWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWLPH
GHQDWXUDWLRQRIODFWRJOREXOLQ
'HYHORSPHQWRIIUHH6+JURXSVDVDIXQFWLRQRI
SDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUH
6ZLWFKDEOHLQGLUHFWKHDWH[FKDQJHUV
,QGLUHFWVSLUDOWXEHKHDWH[FKDQJHUZRUNLQJLQVHULHV
KHDWHGE\VWHDPDQGIODVKYDSRXU
'LUHFWSDVWHXUL]LQJV\VWHPZLWKGLUHFWFRQWDFWIODVK
UHJHQHUDWLYHV\VWHP
2SWLPDOEDFWHULDJURZWKFRQGLWLRQV
'XSOH[3UHKHDWHU 
'LUHFWFRQWDFWSUHKHDWHUIODVKFKDPEHU
0L[LQJFRQGHQVHU
6XUIDFHFRQGHQVHU
&RROLQJWRZHU
+LJKFRQFHQWUDWRUDQGIHHGV\VWHP
'HQVLW\FRQWUROE\PHDQVRIIHHGIORZ
'HQVLW\FRQWUROE\PHDQVRIVWHDPSUHVVXUHIORZ
'HQVLW\FRQWUROE\EDFNPL[LQJOLTXLGSDVWHXUL]HGPLON
RUFRQGHQVDWH
9DFXXPFRQWUROUHJXODWLQJWKHDPRXQWRIFRROLQJZDWHU
LQDPL[LQJFRQGHQVHU
9DFXXPFRQWUROEOHHGLQJV\VWHPLQDPL[LQJFRQGHQVHU
$JHWKLFNHQLQJDVDIXQFWLRQRIWHPSHUDWXUH VNLPPLONVROLGV 



1,52$6





)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJD

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJD



)LJE

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ


$JHWKLFNHQLQJDVDIXQFWLRQRIVROLGVFRQWHQW VNLPPLON& 
6SUD\GU\LQJSODQW
'LIIHUHQWW\SHVRIGU\LQJFKDPEHUV
5HPRYDEOHLQVXODWLRQSDQHOVIRUVSUD\GU\LQJFKDPEHUV
)LOWHUVWDQGDUGV
,QGLUHFWRLOILUHGDLUKHDWHU
$LUGLVSHUVHUKRUL]RQWDOER[GU\HU
&HLOLQJDLUGLVSHUVHUZLWKDGMXVWDEOHJXLGHYDQHV
3OXJIORZDLUGLVSHUVHU
)HHGV\VWHP
+,3(;KHDWH[FKDQJHU
6FUDSHG6XUIDFH+HDW([FKDQJHU
9LVFRVLW\RIZKROHPLONFRQFHQWUDWHVDVDIXQFWLRQRIKRPRJHQL]DWLRQ
SUHVVXUHDQGVROLGVFRQWHQWLQWKHFRQFHQWUDWH
1DQR9DOYH

+LJKSUHVVXUHQR]]OH'HODYDQ
+LJKSUHVVXUHQR]]OH6SUD\LQJ6\VWHP
7ZRIOXLGQR]]OH
&HQWHUF\FORQH
&\FORQH
&\FORQHEDWWHU\ZLWKFHQWUDOKRSSHU
5RWDU\YDOYHZLWKFRQLFDOURWRU
&ULWLFDOSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHUDQGJUDGHHIILFLHQF\FXUYHV
IRUDF\FORQH
%DJILOWHU



1,52$6

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJD

)LJ

)LJD

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJD

6SUD\GU\HUZLWKEDJILOWHU
6DQLWDU\ZHWVFUXEEHU
:HWVFUXEEHUUHF\FOHGZLWKZDWHU
:HWVFUXEEHUUHF\FOHGZLWKPLON
&,3DEOH%DJ)LOWHU3ULQFLSOH

5HYHUVHMHWDLUQR]]OH
$LUYH\RUIRUSUHFRROLQJRISRZGHU
3QHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP
9LEUR)OXLGL]HU
3HUIRUDWHGSODWH %8%%/(3/$7( 
&RQWUROURRP
,7$UFKLWHFWXUHIRUWKHFRQWUROV\VWHP
&RQYHQWLRQDOVSUD\GU\HUZLWKSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP 6'3 
:HLJKWYROXPHDQGGLDPHWHUGHFUHDVHRIDGURSOHWGXULQJ
LGHDOGU\LQJFRQGLWLRQV
:KHHOZLWKFXUYHGYDQHVIRUSRZGHUZLWKKLJKEXONGHQVLW\
6WHDPVZHSWZKHHO
)RDPLQJDELOLW\RIVNLPPLONFRQFHQWUDWH
7HPSHUDWXUHGHYHORSPHQW
7\SLFDOSDUWLFOHIURPRQHVWDJHGU\LQJ
6SUD\SDUWLFOH2QHVWDJHGU\LQJ
2YHUKHDWHGSDUWLFOH2QHVWDJHGU\LQJ
0LFURSKRWRRIVNLPPLONSRZGHUIURPDSODQWZLWK
SQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP
9LEUR)OXLGL]HULQVDQLWDU\GHVLJQ
%8%%/(3/$7(




1,52$6





)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJD

)LJE

)LJ

)LJD

)LJE

)LJF

)LJG

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJD

)LJE

)LJF

)LJ


6SUD\GU\HUZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HUIRUWZRVWDJHGU\LQJ
7\SLFDOSDUWLFOHIURPWZRVWDJHGU\LQJ
3UHVVXUHFRQYH\LQJV\VWHPIURP9LEUR)OXLGL]HUWRVLORV\VWHP
(QHUJ\FRQVXPSWLRQNJHYDSRUDWLRQDVDIXQFWLRQRI
UHVLGXDOPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW
3HUIRUDWHGSODWHIRUGLUHFWLRQDODLUIORZ %8%%/(3/$7( 
&RPSDFWVSUD\GU\HUZLWKSQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP &'3 
&RPSDFWVSUD\GU\HUZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDV
DJJORPHUDWRULQVWDQWL]HU &', 
0XOWLVWDJHVSUD\GU\HU 06' 
,QWHJUDWHG)LOWHU'U\HU
5HYHUVHMHWDLUQR]]OH
'HILQLWLRQRIGLIIHUHQWDJJORPHUDWLRQSURFHVVHV
6SRQWDQHRXVSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ
)RUFHGSULPDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ
6SRQWDQHRXVVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ
)RUFHGVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ
)LQHVUHWXUQURWDU\DWRPL]HUROGW\SH
)RUFHGVHFRQGDU\ILQHVUHWXUQIRUURWDU\DWRPL]HU)5$'
)RUFHGVHFRQGDU\ILQHVUHWXUQIRUQR]]OHDWRPL]HU
&RPSOHWHSODQWIRUSURGXFWLRQRIDJJORPHUDWHGSURGXFWV 06' 
$JJORPHUDWHVWUXFWXUH3RZGHUSURSHUWLHVUHODWLRQVKLS
2QLRQVWUXFWXUHGDJJORPHUDWH
&RPSDFWJUDSHVWUXFWXUHGDJJORPHUDWH
7KH3HHEOHV5HZHW,QVWDQWL]HU



1,52$6

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJD

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

5HZHWDJJORPHUDWLRQSODQW 1HVWOp 
)HHGV\VWHPIRUDUHZHWSODQW ZHWWLQJE\PHDQVRI
ZDUPZDWHUDWRPL]HGE\DQDWRPL]HU 
)HHGV\VWHPIRUDUHZHWSODQW:HWWLQJE\PHDQVRIZDUPPRLVWDLU
1LURPXOWLSXUSRVHUHZHWDJJORPHUDWLRQSODQW
3UHKHDWLQJE\PHDQVRIFRQGHQVDWH
+XPLGLW\FKDUWIRUDLUZDWHU VHWRIDGLDEDWLFFXUYHVEDVHG
RQZDWHURI& 
+HDWUHFXSHUDWRUW\SHDLUWRDLU

2QHVWDJHVSUD\GU\HUZLWKKHDWUHFXSHUDWRUW\SHDLUWRDLU
+HDWUHFXSHUDWRUW\SHDLUOLTXLGDLU
2QHVWDJHVSUD\GU\HUZLWKKHDWUHFXSHUDWRUW\SHDLUOLTXLGDLU
&RPSDULVRQRIWLWUDWDEOHDFLGLW\EDVHGVROHO\RQ
DOFDOLFRQVXPSWLRQ
/DERUDWRU\PHDVXULQJHTXLSPHQWIRU$LULQ0LON&RQFHQWUDWH
'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIPRLVWXUH
'HWHUPLQDWLRQRISRZGHUEXONGHQVLW\
%XONGHQVLW\DVLQIOXHQFHGE\WKHSDVWHXUL]DWLRQWHPSHUDWXUH
H[SUHVVHGLQPJ:31,JVNLPPLONSRZGHU 
$SSDUDWXVIRUPHDVXULQJWKHIORZDELOLW\
'HWHUPLQDWLRQRILQVROXELOLW\LQGH[
'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIVFRUFKHGSDUWLFOHV
'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIVXUIDFHIUHHIDW
'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIZHWWDELOLW\
'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIGLVSHUVLELOLW\
'HWHUPLQDWLRQRIK\JURVFRSLFLW\
6SUD\GU\HUIRURQHVWDJHGU\LQJ 6'3 



1,52$6





)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ



)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ






6SUD\GU\HUZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDVDIWHUGU\HU 6', 
6SUD\GU\HUZLWK9LEUR)OXLGL]HUDV
DJJORPHUDWRULQVWDQWL]HU 6', 
$JJORPHUDWLRQE\ILQHVUHWXUQ )RUFHGVHFRQGDU\DJJORPHUDWLRQ 
3URFHVV'LDJUDP,QVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHU
7ZRVWDJHOHFLWKLQDWLRQSODQW
/HFLWKLQGRVLQJHTXLSPHQW
&RPSOHWHSODQWIRUSURGXFWLRQRILQVWDQWZKROHPLONSRZGHU
9DULRXVSURFHVVHVIRUZKH\WUHDWPHQW
3UHVHUYDWLRQRIZKH\ZLWKIRUPDOGHK\GHDQGSHUR[LGH
(YDSRUDWLRQUDWLR&DVDIXQFWLRQRIPDVVIORZDQG
HYDSRUDWLRQFDSDFLW\
3UHFRQFHQWUDWLRQRIZKH\SULRUWRWUDQVSRUWWR
FHQWUDOO\SODFHGGU\LQJLQVWDOODWLRQ
5HODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWDLUWHPSHUDWXUH
SDUWLFOHWHPSHUDWXUHDQGWKHVWLFNLQJSRLQWWHPSHUDWXUH
/DFWRVHPROHFXOHLQDQGFRQILJXUDWLRQ
0XWDURWDWLRQ
7UDQVIRUPDWLRQRIODFWRVHWRLQKRXU H[SUHVVHGLQRI
REWDLQDEOHWUDQVIRUPDWLRQWRWKHHTXLOLEULXP 
6ROXELOLW\RIDQGODFWRVHLQZDWHUDWGLIIHUHQWWHPSHUDWXUHV
:KH\FU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNV
9LVFRVLW\GHYHORSPHQWGXULQJWKHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQRI
ZKH\FRQFHQWUDWH
/DFWRVHFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQDVDIXQFWLRQRIWLPH
(YDSRUDWRUWZRIODVKFRROHUVZLWKFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVDQGD
FRPSDFWGU\HUIRUFRQWLQXRXVSURGXFWLRQRIVHPLFU\VWDOOL]HG
ZKH\SRZGHU



1,52$6




)LJ



)LJ



)LJ

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJD

)LJE

)LJF

)LJ

)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

)LJ



)LJ

(YDSRUDWRUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVDQGVSUD\GU\HUZLWK
SQHXPDWLFFRQYH\LQJV\VWHP
(YDSRUDWRUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQWDQNVDQGVSUD\GU\HUZLWK
9LEUR)OXLGL]HU
6SUD\GU\HUZLWKEHOWIRUDIWHUFU\VWDOOL]DWLRQ
3URFHVVLQJRIIDWHQULFKHGZKH\SRZGHU
,QWHJUDWHGEHOWGU\HU7\SH),/7(50$7 )0' 
6ROXELOLW\RIWKHILQDO:3&SURGXFWDVDIXQFWLRQRIWKHDLU
RXWOHWWHPSHUDWXUHIURPWKHVSUD\GU\HU
7DOOIRUPGU\HUIRUZKH\SURWHLQSURGXFWV 7)' 
&RPSDFWGU\HUIRUSHUPHDWH'U\SURFHVV
7DOO)RUPGU\HUIRUSHUPHDWH:HWSURFHVV
7KH7,;27+(503URFHVV 
&RPELQHGEDFNPL[SOXJIORZIOXLGEHGIRUGU\LQJODFWRVH
)ORZVKHHW,RQH[FKDQJH
)ORZVKHHWRIDEDE\IRRGSODQWZLWKZHWPL[LQJDQG
KLJKFRQFHQWUDWRUIRUIHHGSUHSDUDWLRQ
8+7SODQWIRUEDE\IRRG
6FKHPDWLFGLDJUDPRIDFRQWLQXRXVFRQYHUVLRQSODQWIRU
SURGXFWLRQRI1DFDVHLQDWH
6SUD\GU\HUIRUFDOIPLONUHSODFHUV &',& 
0XOWLVWDJHGU\HUIRUSURGXFWLRQRIZKROHPLONSRZGHUZLWK
KLJKIUHHIDWFRQWHQW 06' 
,QWHJUDWHGEHOWGU\HU7\SH),/7(50$7 )0' 




1,52$6

 %LEOLRJUDSK\




6SUD\'U\LQJWKHGLWLRQ.0DVWHUV1,52$6

$QDO\WLFDO0HWKRGVIRU'U\0LON3URGXFWVWKHGLWLRQ,+DXJDDUG6UHQVHQ-.UDJ-
3LVHFN\DQG9:HVWHUJDDUG1,52$6

$YDQFHV7HFQROyJLFRVHQORV3URFHVRVGH)DEULFDFLyQGH3URGXFWRV/iFWHRVHQ3ROYR
&RQIHUHQFLD)$2&KLOH,QJ9DJQ:HVWHUJDDUG1,52$6

(QHUJ\ (FRQRP\ LQ (YDSRUDWLRQ DQG 6SUD\ 'U\LQJ ,QJ +DUDOG 7RUVVHO /0&
9lQHUVERUJ/HFWXUHKHOGDW'DLU\([KLELWLRQ3DULVWK1RYHPEHU

%DE\)RRG3RZGHU,+DXJDDUG6UHQVHQ1,52$6'DQLVK'DLU\,QGXVWU\-XQH

%XON 'HQVLW\ RI 0LON 3RZGHUV - 3LVHFN\ 1,52 $6 'DLU\ ,QGXVWULHV ,QWHUQDWLRQDO
)HEUXDU\

7KH 7KHRU\ DQG 3UDFWLFH RI $WRPL]DWLRQ LQ 6SUD\ 'U\LQJ . 0DVWHUV 1,52 $6
&KHPLFDO(QJLQHHU%LUPLQJKDP8QLYHUVLW\9RO1R

:HW 6FUXEEHUV  3RZGHU 3UREOHPV 6ROYHG - .UDJ + +DXEHUJ 1,52 $6 'DLU\
,QGXVWULHV,QWHUQDWLRQDO2FWREHU

0DQXIDFWXUHRI,QVWDQW:KROH0LON3RZGHU6ROXEOHLQ&ROG:DWHU'U-3LVHFN\9DJQ
:HVWHUJDDUG1,52$6'DLU\,QGXVWULHV0DUFK

3URGXFFLyQ GH /HFKH ,QVWDQWiQHD HQ 3ROYR 9DJQ :HVWHUJDDUG 1,52 $6 ,QGXVWULDV
/iFWHDV-XOLR$JRVWR

(YDSRUDWLRQ DQG 6SUD\ 'U\LQJ LQ WKH OLJKW RI $XWRPDWLRQ 1,52 $6 6FDQGLQDYLDQ
*DOD[\

&RQWLQXRXV 3URGXFWLRQ RI 6SUD\ GULHG 6RGLXP &DVHLQDWH $ %HUJPDQQ 1,52 $6
-RXUQDORIWKH6RFLHW\RI'DLU\7HFKQRORJ\$SULO

0LON 'URSOHWV WKHLU &UHDWLRQ DQG 'U\LQJ 'U - 3LVHFN\ 1,52 $6 :RUOG *DOD[\
1RYHPEHU

:LQWHU6FKRRORQ6SUD\'U\LQJYDULRXVDXWKRUV$XVWUDOLD

6WUXFWXUHDQG3URSHUWLHVRI2UJDQLF&RPSRQHQWV1ROOHU6WDQIRUG8QLYHUVLW\

'DLU\0LFURELRORJ\(0)RVWHU(WDO/RQGRQ0DFPLOOLDQ &R/WG




1,52$6

(ODERUDFLyQ GH /HFKH HQ 3ROYR \ 3URGXFWRV 'LpWLFRV ,QJ 1 3DUDUHGD 1,52 $6
$UJHQWLQD

6RPH$VSHFWVRI:KH\'U\LQJ,+DXJDDUG6UHQVHQ'U-3LVHFN\1,52$6

$WRPL]DFLyQSDUD3URGXFLU/HFKHHQ3ROYR1,52$6

6WDQGDUGVIRU*UDGHVRI'U\0LONV$'0,%XOOHWLQ

%DVLF 3ULQFLSOHV RI 6SUD\ 'U\LQJ RI 0LON , +DXJDDUG 6UHQVHQ 1,52 $6 /HFWXUH
JLYHQDW'DLU\([KLELWLRQ6$/,0$

7KH(IIHFWLYH8WLOL]DWLRQRI(QHUJ\LQWKH0LON3RZGHU,QGXVWU\'U-3LVHFN\1,52
$6

8WLOL]DWLRQRI:KH\9DJQ:HVWHUJDDUG1,52$6)$2&KHHVH3URGXFWLRQ6HPLQDU
9DOGLYLD

,QVWDQW9ROOPLOFKSXOYHU'U-3LVHFN\1,52$6'HXWVFKH0RONHUHL=HLWXQJ

'U\LQJ RI 0LON DQG 0LON 3URGXFWV VHF HGLWLRQ +DOODQG +HGULFN :HVWSRUW
&RQQHFWLFXW7KH$9,3XEOLVKLQJ&RPSDQ\,QF

&RQGHQVHG0LONDQG0LON3RZGHUVHYHQWKHGLWLRQ+XQ]LNHUSXEOLVKHGE\WKHDXWKRU
/D*UDQJH,OOLQRLV

(QHUJLXWQ\WWMDQGH L 0MRONSXOYHULQGXVWULQ 'U - 3LVHFN\ 1,52 $6 1RUGLVN
0HMHULLQGXVWUL

1HXHQWZLFNOXQJHQ EHLP (LQGDPSIHQ YRQ 0LOFK XQG0LOFKSURGXNWHQ'LSO,QJ-YDQ
/RRQ1LUR$WRPL]HU%9+ROODQG.RQVHUYHQ,QVWLWXW1HXPQVWHU0lU]

&RQFHQWUDFLyQSRU5HFRPSUHVLyQ0HFiQLFD&RPSDUDFLyQFRQOD7HFQRORJtD&OiVLFD
0U3DUDQW/DJXLOKDUUH)UDQFH

7HFQRORJtD GH OD /HFKH HQ 3ROYR /LF ( %LVJDDUG DQG ,QJ 9DJQ :HVWHUJDDUG 1,52
$66LPSRVLR$JUR,QGXVWULDO0H[LFR'LQDPDUFD\1RY

7KH 0LFURSURFHVVRU ,QVWUXPHQWDWLRQ )UHGHULN 6WHHQVHQ 1,52 $6 'DQLVK 'DLU\
,QGXVWU\'HQPDUN0D\

1XHYRV'HVDUUROORVHQOD(FRQRPtD7pUPLFDGHO3URFHVRGH6HFDGRSRU$WRPL]DFLyQ
9DJQ:HVWHUJDDUG1,52$6

%XOOHWLQDQG+HDW5HFXSHUDWRUV1,52$6

1XHYD 7HFQRORJtD GHO 6XHUR HQ 3ROYR ,QJ 9DJQ :HVWHUJDDUG 1,52 $6 ,QGXVWULDV
/iFWHDV

1HZ *HQHUDWLRQ RI 6SUD\ GU\HUV IRU 0LON 3URGXFWV 'U - 3LVHFN\ 1,52 $6 'DLU\
,QGXVWULHV,QWHUQDWLRQDO$SULO




1,52$6

+\JLHQLF,PSURYHPHQWVLQ(YDSRUDWRUVDQG6SUD\'U\HUV9:HVWHUJDDUG1,52$6
(XURSHDQ'DLU\0DJD]LQH-XQH

0HHWLQJ 3RZGHU 6SHFLILFDWLRQV WKURXJK &RUUHFW 6SUD\ 'U\HU 'HVLJQ 6HOHFWLRQ 'U
.HLWK0DVWHUV1,52$6

3URFHVVLQJ3ODQWVIRUWKH'DLU\,QGXVWU\9DJQ:HVWHUJDDUG1,52$6

,PSLDQWLGL3URFHVVRSHUO
,QGXVWULD/DOOLHUR&DVHDULD9DJQ:HVWHUJDDUG1,52$6

6SLUDO:RXQG0HPEUDQHV-UJHQ:DJQHU1,52$6'DQLVK'DLU\ )RRG,QGXVWU\
:RUOG:LGH

 <HDUV RI ,QVWDQW :KROH 0LON 3RZGHUV 'U -DQ 3LVHFN\ 1,52 $6 6FDQGLQDYLDQ
'DLU\,QIRUPDWLRQ

,')%XOOHWLQ'RFXPHQW

,')%XOOHWLQ'RFXPHQW

3URFHVVLQJ DQG 4XDOLW\ RI )RRGV 9RO  3 =HXWKHQ '7+  (OVHYLHU 6FLHQFH
3XEOLVKHUV/WG(VVH[(QJODQG

2PGDQQHOVH DI 3URWHLQ RJ /DNWRVH YHG 8+7EHKDQGOLQJ DI 0ON 6WXGLHRSJDYH Sn
.9/0HMHULEUXJVVWXGLHW+HQULN%R$QGHUVVRQRJ1LHOV/DQJH-UJHQVHQ

7KHUPDO 3URFHVVLQJ DQG 4XDOLW\ RI )RRGV 3 =HXWKHQ '7+ (OVHYLHU 6FLHQFH
3XEOLVKHUV/WG(VVH[(QJODQG

9DULRXV$QDO\WLFDO0HWKRGVIURP1='5,1='DLU\%RDUG1HZ=HDODQG

0LOFKHUKLW]XQJ XQG 6+*UXSSHQHQWZLFNOXQJ 2 .LUFKPHLHU HW DO 0LOFKZLVVHQVFKDIW
  

3URGXFWLRQ RI 3RZGHUHG %DE\ )RRGV , + 6UHQVHQ ( -UJHQVHQ 9 :HVWHUJDDUG
1,52$66FDQGLQDYLDQ'DLU\,QIRUPDWLRQ

)RUWVFKULWWHEHLP$JJORPHULHUHQZlKUHQGGHV6SUKWURFNQHUV(5HIVWUXS1,52$6
=)/(XURSHDQ)RRG6FLHQFH

$QHZJHQHUDWLRQRI&,3DEOHEDJILOWHUV9DJQ:HVWHUJDDUG1LUR$66',

7KHQHZ1LUR,QWHJUDWHG)LOWHU'U\HU,)'9DJQ:HVWHUJDDUG1LUR$6'DQLVK
'DLU\ )RRG,QGXVWU\6HSWHPEHU

(IIHFWRIODFWRVHFU\VWDOOLVDWLRQRQWKHR[LGDWLYHVWDELOLW\RILQIDQWIRUPXOD0.
7KRPVHQ-&.QXGVHQ-5LVERDQG/+6NLEVWHG7KH5R\DO9HWHULQDU\DQG$JUL
FXOWXUDO8QLYHUVLW\'HQPDUNSXEOLVKHGLQ0LOFKZLVVHQVFKDIW  

3DWHQWDSSOLFDWLRQ:2$$XJ