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Books by R.

Turner Wilcox
FIVE CENTURIES OF

THE
THE
THE
THE

MODE
MODE
MODE
MODE

AMERICAN COSTUME

IN FURS

FOOTWEAR
IN HATS AND HEADDRESS
IN COSTUME
IN

OF
AMERICAN COSTUME
FIVE CENTURIES

FIVE CENTURIES

OF

AMERICAN COSTUME
by

R.

TURNER WILCOX

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS


NEW YORK

Copyright

1963 R. Turner Wilcox

PUBLISHED SIMULTANEOUSLY IN THE


UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND IN CANADA
COPYRIGHT UNDER THE BERNE CONVENTION

THIS BOOK

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS BOOK


MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM WITHOUT THE
PERMISSION OF CHARLES SCRIBNEr's SONS.

A 2.63

[MH1

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


Library of Congress Catalog Card

Number 63-9768

1215671

To Ray and Ruth Wilcox

FOREWORD
THIS WORK WAS UNDERTAKEN upon the suggestion of my publishers
who wished a book on American everyday costume covering that of the
American Indians, the European warriors who followed Columbus and the
civilians who eventually came to stay and build in the New World. What at
seemed almost too ambitious

first

pattern.

upon

The

story has

project

resolved

finally

been worked out principally in

research, the execution of

which proved

into

itself

illustrations

founded

to be exciting, absorbing

and

rewarding.

The

might appear

subject

in light vein to

deep into antiquity, history and the

some but

it is

a study that leads

For

art of all peoples.

instance,

it

was

fascinating to begin with the

American Indians and

were not always garments

wear but some form of body decoration has

to

their tattooing.

There

always been eagerly sought and has always been found. In that ever-present
desire to decorate the
flowers, furs, horns

human

and

form,

man

so forth, even

by mutilation of the

and reshaping some parts of the body


the pain incurred. Instances of pain

has succeeded by taking from nature,

as the ears,

changed down the

The American way

of

life

nose and mouth, despite

and discomfort continue

for vanity's sake even in our supposedly enlightened

of dress has not

flesh as in tattooing

enough

has evolved a

way

and that

Any

is

full dress

for other peoples to wish to copy

adaptability. "Casual dress"

what we have

dress of

is

of dressing

is

and therein

of historic everyday apparel to

is

lies

is

pure

appropriate
It is

attrac-

the proof of

our book.

that thought in
all

mind

is

a possible inspiration

present this collection

those interested and

working

in so vital

a subject as dress costume.

R.T.W.
Tenafly,

1962

New

Jersey

its

the predominant note of our everyday dress

tried to portray in

With

it

which

not specified.

any people anywhere in the world

in the design of costume.

spirit

ages.

any hour of day or evening where

tive

endured

day and age. So the

Americana. Simple, comfortable and wherewithal smart,


for

to be

CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
THE EARLIEST SETTLERS IN AMERICA
Vikings
zation

Eskimos
The Aztec

The Coming

Civilization

of the

The

White Men
Inca

The Mayan CiviliThe North

Civilization

American Indians

PLATESpages

17

11-27

CHAPTER TWO

MILITARY 1492 TO
Ancient. Armies

28

1700
Medieval Period

Armor, Crossbow and Arrow


tury

an

Hat

The

Marine

France

War

Thirty Years

Soldiers'

in

of

Spain of the i6th Cen-

Buffcoat

Passing

British

Develop

Helmet and Iron Skullcap


Cocked
Hair and Wigs Boots
Jack Leather

New Amsterdam

PLATESpages

Uniform

Scarlet Cloth

Grenadier Cap

Sailor

Lansquenets

Army Uniform

and Armor

Liveries

34-40

CHAPTER THREE

MILITARY 18TH CENTURY

41

Epaulettes
European Standing Armies Colors
French Regiments
Prussian Influence European Mercenaries into Militia English Militia
American Militia of Farmers and Woodsmen Hunting Dress Uniform
Indian Moccasin
The Rifle Lack of Uniform Cloth The Cockade
Problems of the Uniform Cocked Hat
The Continental Army
Tricorne
Natural Hair in
Jockey Cap Hungarian Shako Wigs
Mid-Century
Sailor
British Marine Dress
U.S. Uniform in 1798
Green for the Marine Corps Basic Blue for Dress and Parade

PLATESpages

49-56

CHAPTER FOUR

MILITARY 19TH CENTURY

57

Color in Uniform Discarded

Hair and Whiskers Shortened


New Marine Uniform
Changes in Dress West Point Adopts Gray
Seamen
War with Mexico Campaign Uniform Blue and Gray ChevBrilliant

rons in 1847

Dark Blue Frock Coat

in 1850's

The Civil War


North
The Sewing Machine and

American Confederate Machine-made Shoes


Uniforms
White Cork Helmet Khaki First Used by the

Spanish-American

Hat
18

War

Stable Dress of the

Puttees, a British First

PLATESpages

61-78
xi

Rough Riders

British

Campaign

CONTENTS
CHAPTER FIVE

MILITARY 20TH CENTURY

79

Khaki, U.S. Army, 1902


New British Features in World War I
The
Overseas Cap and the Return of the Helmet
World War II
New Uniform Color
Eisenhower Jacket
Changes of i960
Permanent Trouser

Crease

Cap

Service

Camouflage and the Jungle Suit

U.S. Dress Manual, Navy, 1959


lettes

Fourragere

The

Service Dress

Armor

Traditional Sailor Garb Retained

Women

in

Service

Korean

War

CHAPTER

SIX

in the

New

Inventions

The Air Force

Boots

Aiguil-

Soldiers'

in

Trips Into

Outer Space

PLATESpages

18

86-103

THE COLONISTS 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES


The

Settlers

dam

Spanish

Beaver

Portuguese

French

104

Dutch

New

Amster-

English in Virginia, Delaware and the Carolinas

Tobacco
The Huguenots in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, the Carolinas and
Virginia
English Settlers of New England
Pilgrim Fathers
Puritans
Quakers
Swedish on the Delaware
Germans in Pennsylvania
German, Swiss and Scotch-Irish Trekked Southward by Way of Philadelphia
Regional Dress
The Frontiersman
Muffs
Cloaks
The Change of
Men's Dress to Modern Form

PLATES pages

13

113-125

CHAPTER SEVEN

DRESS 18TH CENTURY

CIVIL

Fashion

Masks
ing

pak

Babies

English

The Hairdo
Brides
Wigs
Cocked Hat
HatmakWoodsman's ShoeThe American Cobbler

Fashions

Caps and Bonnets


Banyan
Footwear

Workman's

126

Clothes

French

Fashions

Washington's

Inauguration

Dress

Simple

Fashions Precede the French Revolution


5

PLATES pages

132-136

CHAPTER EIGHT
CIVIL

DRESS 19TH CENTURY

The Country Spreads West


Fashions

Shawl

137

Discovery of Gold

French and English


Cloaks
Feminine Underwear
Roman Sandals
Spencer
Hairdo
Turbans
London Sets the Tone for Men
Beau

Xll

CONTENTS
Cravat
American Collars and
Frock
Hat
Bathing
Brummell
Garibaldi Shirt
Sewing Machine
American Paper Patterns
Shirts
Growth of ManufacturSilk Top Hat
'Thirties
Machine to Factory
Bloomer
Petticoat into
and
Mrs.
Sleeve
Pantalets
Leg-of-Mutton
ing
Hairdo
ManBonnets and Caps
Bustle
Steel Hoops
Crinoline
Mourning
Aprons
Bodice
Basque
Silk
Petticoats
Footwear
tles

Top Hat of Polished


Tuxedo
Box Coat
Sack Coat
Frock Coat
Norfolk
Suit
Clothes
Country
Derby
Boater
Beaver
Silk
Gibson Girl
Feminine Tailored Suit
Cowboy
Sea Bathing
Sports
Underwear
MarGown
Feminine
Waist
Princess
Wasp
and Man
Crease in Trousers
Bathing
The Coming of the Bathroom
cel Wave

Trouser Cuffs

PLATES pages

148-155

CHAPTER NINE

CENTURY

CIVIL DRESS20TH
Men 1900 to 1910

The American Way

Peg-top Trousers

Men's Dress
ing Dress Broad Shoulders

of

Women

1900

London

the Arbiter

Norfolk Suit

Motor-

Masculine Underwear

Front

Corset

Day

Rainy

Skirt

Men

Lingerie

World War

1910 to

Natural Figure
Slouch

Harem

Skirt

Effect of Italian Military Silhouette

the Fashion

Robe de

Style

Paul Poiret and the

Short Chemise Frock

American Synthetic Fabrics


Boyish Form or Debutante
Lingerie End of Brown and Black Stockings
Blond Hosiery

Cloth

Jersey

Paris Sets

1920

Bathing Suit

1910 to 1920

Women

Footwear

Polo Shirt

Straight

1910

to

of Life

Polo Coat

Hairdo
Kimono Sleeve
Empire Mode
Hobble Skirt
Motorcar Dress
Bobbed Hair
Picture Hats
Permanent Wave

Gibson Girl

156

Stockings with Bathing Suits

Men

Change

1920 to 1930

Synthetic Fabrics

Women

in Silhouette

Raccoon Coats

The Flapper

1920 to 1930

Knitted One-piece Suit

Cloche

Oxford Bags

Plus Fours

The Ensemble

Slouch Hat

Form

Boyish

Hairdo

Cosmetics

Suntan

Nail

Polish

Men
line

Underwear

Women

Lastex

ness

1940

Shirts

Women
houette

to

1940

1950

Hats and

to

for

Halter

Every Event

Neck

Shirt

Heel

Steel Spike

Mae

Bare

Square Shoulders

Swim Suit
World War II
Homburg
Flat Cap

Fabrics

1950

Christian

No

Gaucho Sport

Mascu-

West's Curves

Midriff

Doll Hats

Nylons

Cotton

Hatless-

Fake Jewelry

One-piece

Scarves

Swim Trunks

Shocking Pink
Hairdo
Footwear

in Silhouette

Costume

Fastener

Slide

Play Clothes

Men

Footwear

1930 to 1940

Dirndl Skirt

Change

1930 to 1940

Hats

xiii

Topcoats

Loafer Shoes

New Look

Dior
Femininity Again
Footwear Bikini

Scarcities

1947

Cocktail

Sports

Polo Boot

Change
Dress

in

Sil-

Little

CONTENTS
Men

Gray and Black Period

1950 to i960

League

Ivy

Topcoats

Continental

Raincoats

Women
Sack

or

Furs
6

The

Golf and Tennis

Male

Hatless

PLATESpages

and Slacks

Blue

Chemise
Frankly Fake

Dirndl Skirt
Norell

and
Reshaped

Hairdo and Color

Shorts

Hats

to Shorts

Norman

Change in Silhouette
Wash-and-Wear

New

Shirtdress

Chanel Suit
Culottes of
Hats Mainbocher's Sweaters

Fabrics

College Fashions

From Housedress

1950 to i960

Jeans or Levis

Synthetic

Evening Wear

Outer Shirts
Scarfs and Footwear

Slacks

New

Cosmetics

177-182

CHAPTER TEN

CHILDREN 16TH TO 20TH CENTURIES


16TH

AND

183

17TH CENTURIES
Linen Chemise The Gertrude Dress-up
Pinafore
Doublet and Stomacher Boys in Dresses
Hanging Sleeves Scarlet, the Favored Color

Children of the Renaissance


Clothes

Coif

Swaddling Bands

18TH CENTURY
English Children First into Comfortable Dress
son

Jean

Clothes

Jacques Rousseau

Christening Dress

Little

Girls'

Age

Writers of the

Muslin Frock

of Rea-

Swaddling

Yellow, the Traditional Christening Color

19TH CENTURY
Empire Fashion
Kate Greenaway
Playclothes Boys in Pantaloons
Hair Cropped End of Child's Corset
False Pantalets
Drawers for
Girls and Women by 1830's Pantalets Below Skirt to 1858
Caps and
Hats Cloaks
The 1820's Fussiness in Dress to 1910 Boys "Breeched"
at Four
Sailor Suit
Caps, Hats, and the Topper Older Boys in Trousers Vogue of Historical Dress in the 1830's Scottish Kilt and Marine
Suit in America
Trousers, Pantaloons, and Pantalets Aprons
Wire

Hoops
Busde in the i86o's
Frilled Drawers
Stockings
Footwear

Hairdo Basque Bodice Footwear


Small Boy Sometimes in Skirts
to Six Baby's Trousseau The "Biggin" Christening Robe Little
Lord Fauntleroy
Kate Greenaway Fashions
Sailor Suit for Boys and

Girls
Pinafore
Stages of a Girl's Growing-up

20TH CENTURY
1900 to 1920

Bloomers

do

Change in
Long Stockings

The Dutch Cut

folk Suit

Baby's Dress

Footwear

Boys' Sailor Suit

Trousers for Teenage Boys


xiv

Rompers

Child Fashions

Grown-ups'
Buster Brown Tunic

Hats

like

Hair-

Nor-

CONTENTS
Aftermath of War Knitting, Sweaters and Caps
Shorter
Short Hair
Beret, Cloche and Tarn
Socks and
and Trousers

1920 to 1930
Skirts

"Bobby-soxers"

Simple Tailored Clothes

1930 to 1940

Eton Suit

School and Sports Clothes

Tweeds

movable Linings
Girls

Suit

Norfolk

Play and Sports Clothes

1940 to i960
nel Suit

The Chanel

for

Casual Clothes

The Cha-

All-around Coats, Water Repellent

Fur-like Collars and Linings

The Muu-Muu

PLATESpages

Boys

The American Indian Cradleboard Revived

193-199

xv

Re-

Blue Jeans for Boys and

THE EARLIEST SETTLERS

AMERICA

IN

CHAPTER ONE

THE

WHITE MEN

FIRST

Norsemen

or

Northmen who

to reach

the

American continent were the

called themselves Vikings, piratical sea-rovers

from the Scandinavian Lands. From the eighth

the eleventh centuries

to

they ranged over the northern ocean reaching America by

way

of Iceland

and Greenland. Bold, courageous and capable shipbuilders, but terrifying


warriors, they

went

discoveries included Labrador,

not know.

New World

Newfoundland, Cape Breton and Nova

or Vinland where attempts were

we do

and plunder. Their

in quest of fertile lands

made

The Scandinavian

Scotia

and then abandoned, why,

to colonize

adventures were not collected and

re-

corded in writing until the thirteenth century.

They found

the continent peopled with a swarthy race, ugly

and ferocious

looking. "Weaklings" the invaders called them. Bartering took place but there

was

also quarreling

which was no doubt the reason

further attempt at settlements.


is

moot question but

it is

Whence

Strait.

any

came or how they came

conceded that they reached our shores

fairly well

by way of Siberia and Bering

the aborigines

for relinquishing

By

the time the European explorers ar-

rived the settlements of these Asiatics or Mongolians

were

to be

found on

both continents reaching from the Arctic coast to Tierra del Fuego, having

fanned southward adapting themselves to climate and

Those

who

settled in the Arctic region

meaning "those who


or "the people."

eat

raw

Knowledge

terrain.

became known

flesh" but their

name

as

Eskimos, a term

for themselves

of their early history

is

was "Innuit"

vague but the speech

is

akin to the primitive American Indian dialects and their customs and legends
resemble those of the Indians.

The Eskimos

round, broad faces, narrow eyes and coarse,


Dress for both

men and women

are a short, stocky people with


jet

black hair.

has always been of skins furnished by


1

seal,

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


reindeer, bear,

dog or

fox.

The

intense cold necessitates a fitted, tailored outfit

for both sexes with fur breeches tucked into fur boots, a

hooded tunic or

parkeh, the hood of the woman's garment being large enough in which to
carry a baby. Wolverine, to

which

frost does

not adhere, edges the hood.

Two

parkehs are worn in the winter, one with the fur outside and the other with
the fur next to the body.

Formerly the

were beautifully sewn

well-fitted suits

with sinew thread and bone needle. Basically, costume has not changed but

modern Eskimo

dress

more

is

elaborate in cut and colorfully

ornamented with

beaded and cut-out motifs.

The

Indians of the North Pacific coast were the creators of art works

now

considered to be the highest form of North American Indian art in their

markable totem

poles,

re-

costumes and masks for the dance, the working of

native copper and silver

and beautiful weaving of basketry. Because of the

mild climate they went barefoot the year round, in the rainy season taking
to a raincoat in the

form of

poncho

Though some

of cedar bark.

old

men

went about naked, young men always wore the breechclout held up by a

The woman's apron

string belt.
belt.

of cedar bark

was

also secured

by a string

Unusual for Indians was the frequent wearing of the moustache among

these tribes.

The most important


bodies of men,

women and

a mixture of cedar bark,

was the blanket which wrapped

part of dress
children.

It

was

a beautiful piece of

mountain goat wool and dog's

hair.

weaving

Some

from Lower California

to

was found along the

in

blankets

were fur-trimmed and an occasional, luxurious robe was fashioned of


otter skins. Sea-otter, almost extinct today,

the

sea-

Pacific coast

Alaska and in the eighteenth century was especially

sought and prized by the Russians and the Chinese.

An

inland group of Canadian Indians

given that

name by white men

is

the Caribou Eskimo,

because from the caribou reindeer

skins they wear, the sinews for thread, strings for snowshoes

meat they

eat,

and the bones and

antlers

which make

was hunted with bow and arrow but today hunting

much

of their food

who were

and

their tools.
is

comes from the trader including

come

the

nets, the

The animal

done with gun and


tea

which

is

brewed

strong and black, a very popular drink.

In 1492 and 1493

Columbus came upon

the scene, his

missioned by Ferdinand and Isabella with the


the Castilian crown.

When

he landed
2

in the

new

two voyages com-

lands becoming realms of

Bahamas he thought he had

THE EARLIEST SETTLERS IN AMERICA


reached India, thus the names of Indians and West Indians. "Redskins," the

newcomers

called the aborigines, a

ranged from brown

their flesh

misnomer because the natural coloring

to a lighter

of

shade but the Indians painted

themselves with a red pigment of vegetable and mineral extraction. So "Indians" and "Redskins" they became forever after.

When

news

the

of

Columbus' find reached England, she in 1497 and 1499

despatched expeditions under the

command

of the Venetian,

(anglicized to John Cabot) to take possession of

kingdom. In touching

upon

Newfoundland
on

Norman and

the mainland.

unknown

Labrador, he became the

at

Giovanni Gabotte

first

lands for that

white

man

to step

Breton fishermen are thought to have visited

as early as 1500. In 1500, the

Commander

Portuguese

from the Cape Verde

a voyage to India with thirteen caravals

Cabral,
Islands,

landed in Brazil and took possession of Brazil claiming the discovery of the
country. Americus Vespucci was an Italian navigator, cartographer and writer

who

took part in several trips to the

New

He

World.

wrote his memoirs,

published in 1507, stressing his belief that the discovery was of a

and

proposed America

his geographer-publisher

continent.

name

as the

new

world,

for the southern

Over the years the use of the name spread, by the end of 1600

designating the northern continent as well.

Long

before the white man's coming, there evolved

own dialect as unrelated


The many cultures ranged from

each with

stocks,

each other.

its

as

many

different Indian

European languages are

the most primitive to a truly

complex organization. In southern pre-Columbian America the advanced


of culture suggests a time of

There existed three great

many milleniums

civilizations,

to

to

have accomplished the

that of the

Maya

in

state
rise.

Yucatan and

Guatemala, the Incas in ancient Peru and the military empire of the Aztecs
in Mexico.

ready

With

centuries

when

set in

upon

centuries behind them, a decadence

had

al-

the Spanish conquistadors came, a fact which contributed

to the success of the conquest.

The

first

sight of the Spaniards

Indians, possibly leading

was

a god.

Forever

drawing and

The Maya
culture

A.D.

which

Its

them

after, the

on

their horses

to think that the

must have astounded the

man on

his

handsome

steed

horse became a favored motif in weaving and

all their artifacts.

civilization consisted of a

group of races possessing an ancient

existed before the Christian Era.

people were advanced in

It

rose to

art, architecture,

its

height about 1000

engineering, astronomy,

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


mathematics and a complex hieroglyphic form of writing but history,
tions

and

The

religious prophecies

minor

Aztecs, originally a

thirteenth century but

were passed on
tribe,

from then on

in

dominant race

engineering,

art,

architecture,

orally.

reached their height of culture in the

a decline

impregnable capital City of Mexico in 1325.


the Aztecs were the

tradi-

is

to be noted.

When

in Mexico.

They founded

Cortez arrived on the scene

They had reached

and mathematics.

astronomy

the

high point

Drawing

evolved into a pictographic writing. Their empire was destroyed by Cortez

and annexed

The

to

Spain in 1521.

Inca civilization flourished during the early centuries of the Christian

Era acquiring

its

had no writing

greatest expansion
as

from the fourteenth century

had the Maya and the Aztecs but

ceramics, mathematics, astronomy and gold

work

on.

The

Incas

in art, architecture,

they were skilled to a high

degree. Archaeological discoveries of our period have brought to light that


the Incas were only a final phase in a long history of Peruvian cultures.

farmer developed and furnished

to the

world more than a dozen

The

staple food-

plants of our daily diet.

The working
was a

of copper, silver

fine art. Basket weaving,

and gold by the Indians of

these countries

and the spinning and weaving

of cotton

and

the soft fleece of the llamas, were of such perfection both technically

and

artistically

handwork done on simple


ian

many forms

before the arrival of the invaders that

women wore

stick

looms remain unsurpassed today. The Peruv-

beautiful fabrics of yarns finer than

modern machinery. The Spaniards mistook


of the Indians' dress for silk.

Garments, the same

as those

of the exquisite

The

being produced by

the fine cotton

use of sheep's

worn hundreds

is

and woolen cloth

wool came with the Spanish.

of years ago, are

still

worn

in the

villages.

Because the weaving was done by hand on the narrow loom, costume
design was of necessity straight and narrow. There were tunics long and short,
fringed robes, crushed girdles, serapes or shawls and scarfs,
colorful motifs, fine straw

and a

sleeveless tunic

weaving and beautiful feather work.

was the feminine everyday

sisted of breechclout, hipcloth or

tume distinguished

all

woven with

dress; that of the

short skirt

man

wide sash and mantle. Elaborateness of

concos-

the wearer, priests and officials being clothed in the most

gorgeous robes enhanced further with ornaments of pure gold. Headdresses

were wonderful creations invariably finished with the long quetzal plumes of
4

THE EARLIEST SETTLERS IN AMERICA


Footwear was of skins

brilliant color.

tanned and beautifully dyed in

softly

and white. The explorer, De

yellow, black

mentioned the vermilion leather

as

account expressly

Soto, in his

resembling broadcloth and the black

as a

"brilliant black."

The

They hunted
got

The

quered.

down

and

the chinchilla for food

name from an

its

and fur which they

Incas used cotton,

its

called wool, in their weaving.

The

luxurious coat.

earlier civilized tribe, the

whom

Chincas

small rodent

the Incas con-

were made into mantles and there was a marvelous

skins

cloth of sheared "wool" of the

little

animal.

The

chinchilla

thistle-

was sheared

periodically as sheep are shorn.

To

the state belonged the great herds of llama

clothing, flesh for food

carried

women

on by the

large quantities of

the llama was

and a form of tax payment.


upper

of the

woolen garments

worn by

common

the

class

which supplied wool

constant spinning was

and the royal storehouses held

for the army's use.

The

coarser

The king was always

anew

for the nobles.

occasion, his

wardrobe including a lavish mantle fashioned of

an

art

wool of

people while the finer wool of the vicuna

was reserved

feathers,

for

which these Indians

clothed

for any state

brilliant birds'

perfected.

Quilted cotton was used by the Aztecs, in an overall garment resembling


the

modern union

suit

but very thick.

Its

thickness of three quarters to an

inch proved such a real protection against javelins and arrows that the Spaniards adopted the armor.

The Aztecs

were impenetrable except

at close range.

also carried small

round

shields

which

Interwoven cane and cotton covered

with painted boards was reinforced with feather work producing a shield

which

successfully

warded

off

blows of the jagged blades of obsidian, a

flint-

like stone.

To

the land of the North

in 1562 settling in Florida

American Indians came

on Port Royal Sound and

group of Huguenots

in 1564

on

St.

John's

River where Fort Caroline was established. 1607 saw the founding of James-

town Colony by the English

in Virginia while 1620

Pilgrim Fathers on Cape Cod. 1626

Amsterdam by

the

from the Indians

became known
in 1683.

And

New Sweden

as the

there

sum
in

arrival of the

the date of the settlement of

Dutch and Peter Minuit's purchase

for the goodly

Finns proclaimed a

is

marks the

of

Manhattan Island

of twenty-four dollars.

Delaware

in 1638

New

The Swedes and

and the Germans who

"Pennsylvania Dutch" settled in that part of the country

we have

the beginning of the world's great melting pot.

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


The term North American Indian
more
fifty

were the

diverse

covers

many

linguistic unlikenesses of

different stocks

and even

which some two hundred and

languages and dialects are spoken today. They had a crude form of sign-

writing but developed no real writing and therefore, no alphabet. All can be
said to be of Asiatic stock with

dark complexion, dark eyes and

Hair on face and body was sparse and plucked

head was unknown. As

if

some have the aquiline nose while others have

faces,

And some

are

war

dress.

tall,

black hair.

present but baldness of the

some have long

to the features,

jet

faces,

some have round

a broader, flatter nose.

was part

others short. Face painting with red pigment

of

feminine note was the line of vermilion in the center parting

of the hair, a brilliant touch that could be copied by any black-eyed beauty
today.

Unlike the Indians of South America and Mexico and those along the Gulf

North American Indians wore few

of Mexico, the

clothes of cloth.

ing was worn was usually of softly tanned animal skins.

What

cover-

general piece of

male dress was the breechclout which consisted of two small leather aprons

hanging from a narrow

Women

wore

one piece in front and one over the buttocks.

a fringed skin tied

round the waist in apron fashion, and young

when

took to wearing a modesty piece

girls

indoors, neither
that matter

who

belt,

man

when

converted

nor

woman wore

When

about thirteen years old.

any covering above the waist, nor for

outdoors in mild weather. Eventually the crusading priests

many

of the Indians to the Christian faith, succeeded in getting

the males into short breeches.

Indian boys in the East,


did have

up the

arm muffs

sides

of fur

who wore no

shirt

even in the coldest weather,

which reached from wrist

to shoulder,

and secured by thongs around the neck.

thrown over the

left

were laced

beaver robe

soft

shoulder and belted at the waist protected the bare body

against the rigors of winter.

Tattooing was a favorite form of ornamentation on body and


chiefs elaborately tattooed

more

from head

delicate design, usually

the practice

waned

tribes.

He

arms and

when George

his body.

Women

were tattooed

legs in bracelet fashion.

in the east as the Indian

man's dress which covered


in the 1830's

to toe.

still

too,

but in

Over the

became accustomed

Tattooing was

some

face,

years

to the white

practiced in the west

Catlin, the artist-author, painted

among

the western

noted that both the masculine and feminine bodies were so decor-

ated, the design applied

by pricking vermilion and gunpowder into the


6

skin.

THE EARLIEST SETTLERS IN AMERICA


The outdoor garment was

hemp

the robe or blanket of grass or

for cool

weather and the animal skin which wrapped round and over the head for

The

winter use.

pelts of all available

animals were put to use, moose, deer,

beaver, otter, opossum, raccoon, wolf, badger, fox, squirrel

and

bison which was wrongly called buffalo by the Europeans.

with the

and paws attached was

tail

a treasure.

wear were usually finished without the


to

be

worn

hair.

in the west,

deerskin robe

Robes intended for summer

The winter

robe was

left

furred

fur inside and also to serve as a sleeping cover.

The European found

had perfected

that the Indian

his

method

of tanning

using the brains of the animal to oil-tan deer and buckskin to the texture of
the finest chamois, a secret they passed

note states that moose skins were


status of the

mink

on

to the colonist.

made "wondrous

white."

coat in today's feminine wardrobe

On

and

so well

a par

with the

was the mantle of wild

turkey feathers, the brilliant, iridescent plumes applied to a


grass twine

contemporary

woven

cloth of

done that the foundation was completely concealed

by the feathers.

According

and drawings of the explorers

to letters

it

would seem

that the

Indians from Virginia and along the Pacific coast from Mexico to Alaska
generally went barefoot. Grass or fiber sandals covered the feet of the Mexican

and South America while the northerners

natives, the southwest desert country

of the upper Mississippi


gings.

The man's

and

New

England

locales

wore moccasins and

leg-

leggings reached to the thigh, secured by being tied to the

The woman's

belt of the breechclout.

leggings reached only to the knees, held

by a string garter.

The moccasin resembled

the primitive

European

shoe, the carbatine, being

fashioned of a single piece of leather for the foot but differing in a flap round
the ankle.

The Indian

wore a

of the forest

brother fortifying the sole with heavier leather.

soft-soled shoe, his

The

plainsman

footwear and the

flaps of

seams of robes and pouches were finished with embroidery of tiny beads made

from

shells,

cut-up quills of birds and porcupine, moose bristles, pearls and

sometimes copper. Later, the Indian


dress

made

hair off the face.

Of

the

common form

new

ideas in

of headdress, principally to keep the

skin dyed black, or red bietta cloth

procured by barter with the whites,

row

always eager for

use of European beads.

The headband was

who was

of upstanding quill feathers.

it

which the wearer

was decorated with beadwork and held

The
7

eagle and turkey feathers of the forest

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


Indians stood upright, the feathers of the plains Indians drooping backward.

Every

smart

bit as

as the

modish pillbox

Canadian border,

in the north along the

trimmed with

called a "capote,"

of the

modern

a real pillbox shape

tiny shells, beads

worn

lady was a cap

which the French

and perhaps

few

feathers

spreading from the center of the crown.

groomed

Indians

and

to tribe

location.

their heads, there being a variance of style according

As

a rule the Indians of the east

Champlain shaved and cropped the head leaving


top to the nape. This was the roach or crest and

New

York and
bristles, a

England often fashioned an

more luxurious ornament than

long hair dressed

hair to a topknot.

grew very long

with

it

Some

hair,

especially effective

oil

and

we

Lake

New

find the Indians of

artificial

The

to

from center

a ridge of hair

roach of deer's

the natural one.

bear's grease.

Those

tail

grew

that

Florida Indians rolled the

of the Plains chiefs in the nineteenth century often

long enough

when

from Georgia

touch the ground.

to

Worn

flowing,

it

was

riding horseback. Indians of the Great Lakes and

the upper Mississippi region braided their long hair.

The
Indians

early

war bonnet was

when

off to

war

by the eastern Indians

the headdress of the western and Canadian

but, since the nineteenth century,

who wear

it

upon

festive occasions.

was

also adopted

Each feather

resented a special deed or "coup" performed, and had to be plucked

golden eagle by the chief himself.


it

unharmed

of birds.

In the

also

had

was revered

from the

and release

to capture the bird

after taking the quills because the eagle

Some modern western

more

He

rep-

as the

king

tribes raise semi-trained eagles for the feathers.

two or three

usual headdress of one,

quills,

the

plumes were

notched to record each "coup."

Women

prided themselves on the beauty of their hair, wearing

it

flowing,

braided or clubbed with the front cut in a fringe. Most unusual and handsome
is

the contemporary headdress of the Seminole

nineteenth centurv and the

pompadour

long hair over her head tying


like a

is

of the Gibson Girl Era. She

at the forehead,

poke-bonnet brim and tucking

place and the result

page

it

a flattering

matron dating from the

it

then spreading

underneath.

it

late

combs her

over a frame

net holds the hair in

hairdo and hat combination as shown on

27.

The costume

of the Florida Seminoles, a tribe

American Revolution,

is

which developed

unique. These Indians were a

after the

split-off of the

Creek

THE EARLIEST SETTLERS IN AMERICA


Nation which originally occupied Georgia, Alabama and northern Florida.

During the

1830's, in resistance to

being removed to a reservation in Oklahoma,

they hid out in the Everglades of Florida where the United States troops were
unsuccessful in following the

same

the

many

thing. Here,

At

joined them.

"Runaways" or Seminoles, both words meaning

escaped African slaves from Georgia and

the negroes were slaves to the Indians but eventually

first

many

intermarriage took place so that today,

The contemporary feminine costume


graceful dress of European influence.
flaring ruffle falling

from

most any figure since the


in a
is

swampland! With

the fabric

every

made

Alabama

Seminoles are of mixed blood.

of these Indians

long, full skirt

is

is

a colorful

topped by a deep,

a yoke to the hips creating a beautiful line for alskirt covers the feet.

worn

it is

Not

gown one would

the combination hat-headdress.

expect

Remarkable
which

possible by the invention of the sewing machine, of

woman owns

and

a portable

hand-turning model. Narrow rows and rows

of brightly colored cotton cloth are machine-stitched together horizontally

forming

a kaleidoscopic pattern for a skirt yards around,

and

for the deep

bertha. In men's dress, formerly the breechclout or a pair of skin breeches

but today,

sufficed,

he

may

and

not attired in the "long shirt" of the same gay material,

if

be seen in factory-made cotton shirt and slacks. Dresses for

girls are also

ularly bracelets, necklaces

and

earrings.

round the outer edge of the

The
ear.

the chiefs, liked breast plates of silver, shell


especially eager to

considered

it

own

a signal

silver gorgets

honor

silver, partic-

earrings were suspended

from

Indians of standing, principally

and other materials. They were

such as the European

to receive

The pouch was an important


from the

boys

fashioned of the decorative cottons.

Jewelry has always been part of Indian dress in copper and

holes pierced

little

one from

officers

wore and

white man.

accessory in Indian dress and usually

string belt holding his fire-making tools, his pipe

swung

and tobacco. The

eastern Indian copied the white man's bandolier with pockets, such appur-

tenances

made showy with

The Indian woman had


which

is

just

quill

and beadwork.

a carry-all, a

wonderful convenience, the value of

being recognized by some modern young mothers.

frame, centuries old: a clever, practical piece

on one's back,
it

on a

nail.

set

And

it

down on

making

it

It is

the baby

easy to carry the baby

bench, or the back seat of the car, or even hang

so simple: three pieces

compose the contraption: the board,

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


the foot board

page

and the bow or arch over which the headcloth drapes. See
#

27.

Slowly, over the centuries the Indian has taken on those parts of the white

man's dress that

much

fit

into his

of living. Factory-made clothes are replacing

of the picturesque costume. But

centuries of contact with


self,

way

European

an individual and the

first

on the whole,

after

stock, the Indian

American.

10

some four and

half

remains distinctly him-

Horsemen
9+b^d lO+ftCerrlu

helmet, sword

fln

a>e

-wooden
^er^d with
reinforced
ror)-belt ar\l
i

of bidecorselet'

gartered
eqglngsrbaf ineS'

woolen
ir/antle

helmet, javelin
d sword of

qr,

iron-jazeran
(scaled corselet)
of lnen or hide
with metal scalesbelt; straps ^d
Carbatine^shoes),
of hide-crossg d rte re d fr ou se rsi

woolen mantle
sheath q\ded

enavaved

r~
n d a xe oX rorr
woolen -funic with

helme-fjSvvord

~*^

embroidery-belt,
sandals
straps a
of hide -crossgartered "frouser5flir mantis

qenh<? It-woi
ron- javelin

axe of iron"
hield covered

de

reinforced

on-- -jazerein
of

hide with

scales -bal't

traps of hide'
ro S-s^artere^

froasersca rbatlnes of

bide

r?T~w

"Ssi? IT)OS

porkeh of seal

or
.
,
retndeer skin with fur inside-

bearskin -trousers-

parkeh at
if sea

mukleks of unb aired

-Fur side in-fringed with

5eal or^walruswolverine collar

doq -Furmukleks of
walrus bide

w'fh bead
-fringe-

painted

Qlaskan
LsK'mo

leather trim

woman

Canadian
Caribou

Gskimo

Sealskin parkeh wth

Snserrible of caribou skin-

painted leather trim^

p^rkeb^rousers, boohs dn d

sealsk"" mukleks

tunfc

(hfp boohs)- fur

red leather'

Ollaskan
s>kiroo

glove-5"-

wf-rb

eatber -frinqe-

side inwolverine hood-

edged

Cctnadian
Caribou
6sk*roo

A.

JSTLwJ

parkeh of brown 0r>d white


Cdr'bou skin-vs/hite
leather ^r'lnqe-^

hood

^'VA/iy

of wolverine

or bear fur-'
sealskin bandskippered boofs'
pouch be|-rW
f nm of colored

Eskimos-modem
calico dress ov&r
fur parkeb'foxor
wolverine hood'

deerskin boots
oversealskin
Socks and
woolen

leather-

sfockinc}5-

Canadian

far-kned

C5m bou

m it-fen s-

.skmo

Ljouincf

OskTmo g'n

prirvred cot+oh dress over fur parkeh-fur-ITned hood TorcarryiVig ba bu;'


I

"-Hie fa-fin

calico over fur parkeb-

fur hood- deerskin


fur s'lde irv

breeches'

blue co^on dress


over fur parkeh-bjue
undevslip- deerskin or
wolver'ne hood'

navy

Qlaskan

z'ppered

C^kiVloS-

leather boots
gray ^cfwbil

Bering

Beach

c/laskan

Eskimo

j=?

-r\y


if

formed of long
scarf embroidered
skir+

Qt1

no

embroidered robe ah>dS<3

auan

fJed

d ]ade-Tr'riged

hcur bound

COn + ras-Knoj Color'

5w'

rl

of

own

i+h

I'P

Ceremonial

chleff"aTn's

daughter

%8K

mofherin
wrapped sKIrfbaby in'Yebozo"handloomed
i

Silky- looking

priest dressed

coHon

or

woolen

bcarh"in jaguar
wnefarmer's
sk'n - gold

ornarnenfs,
jade a nd
fa rqoi sequel* d
I

plumage

j^-rvV

ribbon

sman go*r>q

h.a*r-

beadb andornaments
feta-fhers-

knotted scarf Jf

headdress 01
gold^ewels q nj
-hny feathers-

clo-th

anzie.r)t
a
"d modern

ec

'

oung

WSSf

gir! in

Crfnqect

embroidered
tunic 3*4 trapped,
scarf 5WTrt-

fan z'qn'ii'es
o diplomat"
rolorful

ficd

headband

embroidered
rcbe~ gold

jade jewelry
headdress or
qc\d ornaments
a *d
jlcim

quetza'

age

young^a in
-funic

in

embroidered

0r>d

appl'que'ct-

rapped, fringed

scarf
-rie?d

skfr-f'

headband

warn or on way
fo ceremonial-

qu'lted +umc
wM"n pa
-Tabs -

mted

jew&led

legbandsti'ed

headband

w^ffi

panache

csf

-feathers,

gold.-h-o-tfiJaise

an d
P?

-J\.

iade

Pooo2

^r
Jncasof Peru

aovernmeritoi fidd
sniped co+fon

'n

robe'fcll harwffri
Q id

armer we an ra
scan

long lofn

embrofdery.gold

wf-m ernbro'dered

jewels

mo+'i'^S-pd'h+'ed
"eei-fber Kelrnef'

qomrd

-for

carry ing

dress ofco++'on

in

tmllfein+'deep colorcot-ron mo-t'i-fs

embroidered
Con1"rrtsT'r>^

+01163

ari

wcuer

whrfe co-Hon frocks


multicolored
embroidero\ch'ldre

v\M-t"ri

Cin

off'cia

Jncas of

i OCA

ay

reminiscent" of Clndalusian

dress^red velvet bodice


with lace -frill
n
d embroidery;-

green velvet" skfr-f'daTk gray


felt chola thatV
Si'lk sto c Kin^s
with sandals

bngbt red

woo Icn
poricho-stripe

black a *d
wVifte-'blflck

knee breeches
monte^a of bla<?k
-felt with white
cord trim--ftfrmer

^|l clofh costanie -hai


J
shoulder niqnfle " n 4 jacket
In red -purple skirts -green

apron-'f'ri
1

n red g re D,
(

black ""4 white-

woman's tnontera
(hay edged
w'+b notched
reen cloth'
sandals 4 nd
silk

woolen pon cho,


red,qra^ a "db\ack
black woolen
trousers~chullo, a
stock in g^Re cap
ted with white-

Resign 'commonly

worn under
tbemont-era
(See

'

above)

vs/

-JL

ftockings

Jndians of Florida
16+h Century

witch doc\orcropped to a

hair

roach 'bluebird
aiteiched -ani ma
I

skin apron

blad d&r pouch


with leather

chief'
-ha

Woo

lea+he
ornan")

copper
dressed up
,*_ r
ar
>d

in

/^---W3 -i.-i
-

raccoon

'

-/

Vki-

.<

-Carl

Vi'rqiniq cnief'

tnnged deerskin

uoung woman
wearing a scarf
of p a

l=?-rV>y

qpTOn with -fa


hfl'r cropped
to roocht'ed knotip
back' srr, 3i
feathers

\/

Jnd'ions of Florida
16-th

your<g vJoman
w*r"h hinq&d

Century

deerskin apron
-fron+ dn d backcopper or bone

beods- flower

headband

-ta"ffbofc?d

wan-ior

deerskin gjrdle
qR d pouch -fringe
ofta'ils-hair
rolled " nd dressed
-ib

a -topknot'

ringtail or
+Ci'il

raccoon

-copper

OTnarnen-f 5

4
man

wear

ng\

d roan-tle^of rqbb" +

body-slashed

skin5-bar crapped
to a broach frorn
center front -to oape'
over
f" a ra aha pe

10

mantle of fur
wifh fur side
-ro

wi+cb doctor

older

hide fn'nge
hair cropped fo
a roach wffh
ban at nape

forehedd

Jndlans of -the 17th Can-fury

1
of

RKod
breec

clofh

fur marine

headban
bel-f'St'K/e

ch a Tr. "tf
-Turaaose
dgerskfn
I63T

eastern 3ndian
w'+b wild turkey
frilled

white

European

li'nan

shirt-

deersk.fr> le-ggings-j|pn

-fringed side seams


ar>d

red trfrofastened to

headed
sk'ri

belt-

pouches

in belt-

-Feathers

fastened fo
r-oacln

Dew Sweden cll^onau'tfn chief, Kng rhi|i p- c. lb75"on -the Delaware -uropecr> white linen, collared shirtrno-ther 0h d daughter- beaded pillbox ha-tj
evidence of *5wedisr) necklace- ^"d
influence In silver belt- powder
ornamen+S aiM vjoveo hom -cloth
eces -cloth man-He

Jinduans of

deerskfn
bo of 5

'

Jco^uois dress- Colonial


in

dyed deerskin

porcupine

changed

/i?

8 th

..Iroquois dress --Colonial Period

Century

indued deerskin with


porcupine gulll embroidery later changed to Mropean

qu'll ernbro/'derL)^/'-

later-bo

fcuropean fabrics in
broadcloth, cot+ons
4n d

Jndians-

Period.,

wi-Hi white,

fabrics

"*

beads- never

style orcolor>
belt,5qsb a nd crossed

style or color-

overdress

ban ds, red wftb white

blue

red leggings wftb


a id

k'lt

"n

with
d white

broidery- white

whire,

otton-frTlls-darh

tied at knees--

green

broadcloth

ever changed

chan^&d

blue

in

ttons a "d beads ;

blue skirt

with

with white

w bi'le- tur ban

embrn/dera
pantalets

red green 4n d
wbi'f-e With
eagle feathers^

fled at hnees'
red vvfth

silver disk
on cha'n

blue a "d while


epibroidercj-

woolen
mantle*

moccasins

Red 3ocket-i7J8?->S30'Seneca chief Set oratorred jacket presumably tha-b presented to him

one

erf trie

chiefs

who

visited Condon-'

therefdre, buckled shoes with

by a British officer-

"red beels^signi'&jmg royal birth'

bead frfruje
trim- red silk sasb-

velvet coat-satin
breechessilk
stockings- velvet
cap -beaded beltWoolen mantle-

brafd

<,ln

t<

white linen shirt


"hd cravat- silver

me^al

gift

cjf

WashingtondeersUin
leggings

moccasins
pur cap

based

or?

portrait"

R.W.VW

vn:

1710

red Woolen mantle with


ue border an d scalp locks'
deerskin .skirt

Century

8 th

with scalp locks'

beaded bert with

9 6^\

small

dead

__

deerskin leggings
a,1
d moccasms'
toque of birds
breasts

"n

fiea-rhers 't\vo

eagle plamess'lver medal'


>5sn eca.

JroqUola warnorfur,

chief'

tail-edged

blanket-headdress

of wkeatsp'kes'earrlngs

of polished stones-red
leaf

ornament-green

deerskin leggi'ngs
leather bootsj na+ura

color -pouch-pipe

tomahawk-simple
tomahawk- war club'
\f80's

VV.
colcived

wcclen

rocmtle-- whi'te linen

shirt--

silver armlets-chain w'th locke-t- beaded


cord holding Smoking
pipe ^d tobacco

pouch- leather
baldric-black
leather legg'ngs-

deeTskm nioc c asms'


rffleIf

IDohawk

8o5TVi

chief'

Creek 3ndfan who visited London-

padded

silk

mantk

with r'bboh bandswhrte Then shirt"I

silver arroletesilver gorget-

jeweled necklacea feathery nosegay


headdress'tat^oo
on forehead

Mack

lea

leggings-

deersk'n
moccasins
IffeOs

^V-

750 5

ar

>d

I83C

porcupine quill wwfe


Trfnge of thinner
SCdlp locks

ptpe of
-.'fj''?
'.'"
2 :

.;..' -

:-:':
:

- :

;..~

"

:'
Sr

'if

bJack

ron-rbrsO'H

iCastnsleggings- red
-'
:

-: -

->

IS

"

apiO'-

back'bui'--

Collar?'^
: :

.-

bead

bow

rieCA

<"

-JS'erj

t
-"'-""'','1-11

d ress of

mountain goalsk'o'

wHb porcupine embroidery


fringe of scalp iocks-

boy

in

dyed deerskfn

leggings "d moccasins


a>

JV

>d

apron

Crow jb^ians Tamed for long haTr


somef'mes reack'nij fo+he

19+h

Centur

c^Tound'pdinfed

mantle of
buffalo sk'n

keaddress
eagle

gu'lta,

small

feathers"^
Colored
stone-s-

peck ace ""d


I

earnnqs
of samedtJersk'n

mocra sm5
IS

Jo's

Ortoe Jnd'ar> "n


oat of qrhzlt^ bea
pelf and claws"
deerskin leggings
:

"d

moccas'ns-

Dead embroidery
n d ribbon -fringe-

headdress of
eagle quins mju nfe<j
an red cap With
q
shelly silver bqnd "d
ornaments- silver
medal' pipe wffb
scalp locks r
I830 's

Osage brave

wrfli ruff o-ffea^ers'irC^OCf'^w Ondiqii n


deerskin apronjeqq'nqs Qn dj balNplaumg dress
moccasms wifb bead body faftooeci
n
d wampum embroidery- painfed-bree

b/ue s'lkbreecb cloth' olofh^dbec


rose silk garters be If'- mane of
w'-fk scalp locks- korseha'r roun
s'tlver bracelets

bow and arrows8

30

'5

neck-f^n

nf

or dyeci
horjekafr

M,

^unls-l83c>s

^f?~T

J n d 'a n s
9+h CenfurLj

FDondari ckfeT' funic of

mountam

embfo'deru-scaln
locks co skirf-

wdr eagle

^ .^

mountain aoat skin-

horns

feather.*-

,V

ch'efof 5acs ^d fbxes


a,
id leggings of
sh'rf

bonnet "id fr'm of


t<sif Is,

y /,-*%.

ermine ah d
errnine

sheep-skin-^uill

headdress, red

51*7

plu

j/j

dears kin leggings


witk, self fringe

mag a *A eaqle

a,uill-rnultfcolored,

,/?

Si|

sash-red

at s'de seamS'//://

breech clotn-

Where ^/(tjM

red flaps at
knees a "d

scalp

l c

ks//|0j

I830's

moccasinsred wcolen

blanket
border-

blue

buffalo claw
Yiecklaces'lver armlefs-

-tomahaw keafher shield


with -faiklance

\n/tfh

feafhersI830's

-raven -he wire 01 + he above chief 0+


-rhe 5acs and Foxes- cos+um<2
<jf"<j"vfifzed

stuff s"

in

mal-ri%pasfe|.

colors- bodice, pantalets


fl(
>d band on skirt, red

shawl over 5nc


covered with pin
silver broc>che<
1X30 s

quill embroidery -</4


fringed with
scalp locks-- /,

headdress

o\

f.

Quiver of
.A,
buffalo Vi'de*
ance wfth eagle

Vjj>

kr

-v

auills q d

scalp
locks- l83o's

m inole "Jndians
"dZO-th Centuries
Qri
d wn'+e
design on .blue ground --fan

tunic of silk wi-th rose

co^on

Se
of

tringed skirt

w'-Tb

Os

green

a "d

yellow border'
yellow Deftba with

fur

rose a "d red -frTnr

wfth ostrich plumesbead belt w'H> silver


j;5Ks a id scalp locks-

beads

beads q *V<

ver

headdress -

Jl

"d s fiver

stl

ornaments- ribbon
18-30 5

gorgets-silver
bracelets w't+i
5calp locks-red bcckskfn

blue iops

"h

d scaip

locks -yellow

moccasins ""d
above knees
rifle

powder horn

"d sheepskin

poucKiS30's

contemporary OemTnole dr^ss-varlegated. colored confemaorara Semmale dress- the long shirt -also
sNi'ps of cof"-fon clofh 5ewn together-made coas'bh worn w^h slack's ^made bu the worvienoT varfeqated
by the sewing macOi'ne Colored str'otfs
ha'r dressed overvcame-' of cotton clc*"h
nfJuence of pompadour sewn together
fashion IS^0'5-h*r on a. portable

worn

-fbwirig bj

yoijng

sew/ing

women machineturban band


of same
/'Hy<

mmmi

?*s
.ttw;

Zurw woman

of Pueblo

handWoven, black

(Are.

which has hot changed


since pre

Columbian

daus-beaded
belisHver^d
turquoise
jewelry

new m

white
deerf km
legging 5
*d

boois

OMafema/^n headdress
tzute -Jiond woven
cloth'30 by tO inches
used as basket

folded

pad as protection

against

sun

or

as a cqrry-q

Pueblo ^nd\ar) clancer^bluick dress-

beaded red beltred, blacked


white shaw
white deerajcm
'squash blossom

legg'ngs_ ah d

coi'W"3

moccasins

traditional headdress for

young

J+op"

silver

women'

]ewe|ry

18^3

Oe m

\o_ o 00 oi

n o le

coiffure

<">dV^_

one-fashioned oftL wearer's


Jiafr-drawn up from the neck to +he
forehead-tied a d spread over a
cardboard frame on
ha+" in

top 'then

drawn

under^d

tucked,
in-secured by
a net"

an ingenious
turban-a length
chief's

of

Crown

eagle featloers

^>d

ermine tculs-

Dew ongland
Jnd ian17+bC,

of red felt about

two inches wide

Wound round cy
wadded roll df1d
tw'sted info shaped"
on floe head-

Contemporary

Suatemalan

"eoc
i=?

-rs^y)

MILITARY

TO

1492

CHAPTER
TRAINED ARMIES OF SOLDIERS

1700

TWO
back

date

ancient

to

The

times.

Egyptians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks and

Romans each

in turn

Then came

the so-called

"Dark

had powerful warrior troops


Ages" when wars continued

in uniform.

to be fought but the fighters carried

on

their

warfare in motley or everyday clothes.

The modern uniform

armed bodies

of

Medieval Period when the retainers

who

men had

of

lived

its

beginning in the

late

and worked on the lands of the

feudal lords followed their masters into battle. These retainers wore the colors

and insignia of
tries

who were

their knight, but there

were

also mercenaries of other coun-

They wore

hired and paid to fight.

own

clothing of their

choice in fabric and color and according to their means. Gradually ensigns,
flags
a

and standards came

mark

of

home

to designate the

opposing sides of battle and became

base to the fighter.

In the fourteenth century, the Swiss soldiers,

who were

the

first to

adopt

an insignia, wore badges, sprigs of oak or pine, straw, corn, a colored feather
in the helmet, or a cross of white linen

sewn

to the tunic. In another instance

of the Swiss distinguishing marks, a black bear

armor. This eventually led to

was painted on the iron-plate

silk scarfs of a certain color

the waist or neck and, in turn, to enforcement of

some

being

wound round

rules pertaining to the

soldiers' dress.

At the time

of the discoveries in the

European nations were


prince or sovereign
various

countries,

still

Portugal,

Sweden and Germany. The

World, the

soldiers of the

clothed in the armorial colors furnished by the

who employed

Spain,

New

them.

To America came

France,

the

Low

soldiers

Countries,

from

England,

favorite color for "liveries," as such clothing

termed, was red, the retainer receiving two

28

suits a

year

from

his

was

commander.

MILITARY 1492 TO

1700

This was the period of armor which was worn over regular dress or a
fitted suit of thick cloth or leather

much

modern union

like the

Armor

suit.

was not new, having been worn by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. The
beautiful Gothic

and edges
tion

and

came
its

armor

of the fifteenth century

sword and

to deflect the thrust of

its

most

was

lance.

built

Armor

reached

perfec-

its

the turn of the sixteenth century but

artistic stage at

be-

it

too heavy and, at the

same time, the improvement of firearms lessened

Foot

were not provided with armor, wearing either a

usefulness.

padded jacket or

owing

soldiers

This century marked the decline of armor,

a chain hauberk.

made

to the progress

in artillery.

Crossbow and arrow disappeared

alrymen.

The gunners no
and shoulder

breastplate

pieces.

wore

Armor

felt

a casque-shaped

as part of British

The

seventeenth century.
liked by painter

Light horse cavalry wore almost complete


cuirass but a doublet of buffskin

and

Army
an

And

foot

flaps.

dress disappeared in the last decade of the

breastplate,

sitter as

When no

hat decorated with a panache.

helmet with neck cover and ear

cuirass survived for a while in a

shoulders.

cav-

hat with turned-up brim and boots. Officers discarded the helmet,

wearing instead the slouch


soldiers

horsemen and

longer wore armplates while the lancers wore only

armor while German cavalrymen wore no


felt

and new

after the Battle of Paris in 1525

bodies of troops were formed of gunners, pikemen, light

and a

with fluted surfaces

worn but

occasionally,

was

especially

artistic piece of still life in a portrait.

shaped yoke of

longer a protection,

steel to protect

The

neck and

became the ornamental gorget,

it

small crescent of steel or silver plate suspended from a chain round the neck
as insignia of

an

officer's

rank

in full dress. British officers stationed in the

American Colonies sometimes bestowed the gorget upon an Indian

chief in

recognition of service, a reward that was highly appreciated by the recipient.

Though
lians
first

and

in

many

rustics

countries, large units of fighting

still

wore

in France that the

rule. Occasionally, a

their ordinary

working

men composed

clothes in service,

wearing of uniform dress began

wealthy colonel put his

men

of civi-

into

to be

was

governed by

at his

own

ex-

colonel

was

re-

uniform

pense, the uniform, however, remaining his property.

it

sponsible to his commander-in-chief for the welfare of his regiment, in charge

not only of

its

clothing but responsible also for the condition of the armament.

Cavalry and infantry too, came under this arrangement in which the colonel
of the regiment chose the color, cloth

and

29

style of the

uniforms.

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


Spain, the leading military
influence in western fashions

Army

century.
as

dress

now

did the rest of Europe.

power

and

became

of the sixteenth century,

a strong

etiquette, a lead she held into the seventeeth

followed the elegant Spanish bombasted silhouette

The

peasecod-bellied doublet with short skirt and


life.

The

long, silk, knitted hose were protected by a shorter pair called boot hose.

The

puffed trunk hose became high fashion both in civilian and military

and gorget survived the century

lobster-tailed steel helmet, cuirass

armor declined, the leather jerkin or buffcoat took

use of heavy

The

doublet, or padded, fitted

wear
to

but, as the

as the corset for

underbody

women and

men,

place.

its

called a waistcoat, took to civilian

worn

children, to be

for centuries

come.

fantastic military dress

cenaries of the fifteenth

was

that of the Lansquenets,

and sixteenth

centuries.

They were

foot soldiers carry-

who

delighted in fancy

ing crossbow, lance and the heavy, two-handed sword,

and embroideries or whatever was

dress of velvet, satin, brocades

The Germans
the

Duke

of

German-Swiss mer-

copied the Swiss soldiers who,

Burgundy, mended

when

they

won

ragged clothes with

their

the battle against

strips of tents,

were ornamented with

hats

From

ban-

High-crowned

ners and furnishings left behind by the fleeing Burgundians.


felt

available.

and sweeping plumes.

scarfs

1618 to 1648 the greater part of the European continent was engaged

in the Thirty Years

Military dress,

what

War
there

in

which men were almost constantly

was of

it,

followed the

mode

at battle.

of the day in civilian

clothes, the only difference

being in heavier cloth for body protection. So long

a siege of military activity

was bound

to bring about a change,

one

in

which

the mercenary troops were retained and converted into standing armies, each

power now giving consideration

to the establishment of a

permanent

force.

In 1635 the French cavalry squadrons were organized into regiments.

The

seventeenth century saw the decline of the Spanish corseted

the Paris of Louis XIII (1601-1643) taking over as arbiter of


dress.

mode and

European court

This was the chevalier or cavalier fashion which brings to mind the

aristocratic portraits of the great

Flemish painter,

(1599-1641), an age often noted as the


the age of

"The Three Musketeers,"

Van Dyck

Sir

Anthony Van Dyck

Period.

It is

also

known

as

that ever-thrilling tale written by Alexan-

der Dumas. Soldiers wearing these costumes came to our shores. Out of this
fashion,

which

really originated in the

Low

Countries, evolved the soldier's

buffcoat of buffalo hide, a very comfortable and important garment.

30

The

MILITARY^1492 TO
chamoised

buflfcoat of

leather, a costly piece of apparel,

under or over the

either

1700

cuirass,

but by mid-century

was worn

at

wore

officers

first

with

it

longer and flaring skirt edged with fur, the skirt slashed into four panels, the
better for horseback.

From

The Georges

mercenaries in service with them in the American Colonies.


of

England were kings of Great Britain and Hanover. Thus

Hanoverian regiments,
stadt,

German

here on our interest centers on the British soldiers and the

especially those

were frequently brigaded with

the colonies.

Many

it

was

that

from Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darm-

British troops

on the continent and

of these Hessians remained after the

war

in

make America

to

home.

their

The
ment

British

of an

in 1645

were the

army uniform. The

first

when Parliament under

permanent

army

As time wore on

European powers in the actual develop-

standing army in England was established

Oliver Cromwell raised

service. France, despite

get into line in

soldier,

earliest of the

its

own army

her reputation in the military

field,

for

did not

dress until later in the century.

the coat of scarlet cloth

became the mark

of the British

by the end of the century differing only in the color of the regimental

facings of the various units. Breeches were gray, white, blue, yellow or any
color the wearer desired, in fact the scarlet coat

the dress. Occasionally, a

family put his

was

at

men

into

the funeral of

commander when

in

mourning

mourning with black

Cromwell

was the only uniform part of

facings

in 1658 that the

member

for a

on the

of his

scarlet coat. It

London Foot

Soldiers

were

furnished with such coats by the Lord Protector's son. Another like instance

was

that of

Lord Chesterfield whose men were

attired in red coats lined

with

black and carried black flags with red crosses.

long waistcoat of buff leather worn under the

scarlet coat

was the dress

of the light horse troops in 1661 and eventually, the uniform of all British

cavalry regiments and finally, of almost

Europe up

to the advent of the

all

the line infantry everywhere in

shako and coatee of the eighteenth century.

The complete costume comprised

coat, waistcoat, breeches, black stockings

reaching above the knees and gaiters over shoes or boots. Officers' dress was
of the

same pattern

as that of the

mented with gold and

men

silver braid

but in fabric of superior quality orna-

and embroidery.

An

officer also

wore a

luxurious silk sash in the national colors and sword and gorget.
In headgear the

morion and the

lobster-tailed helmets lasted into the

31

mid-

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME

century.

broad-brimmed hat

gray,

which the English

of beaver felt

called

the "slouch," enhanced with braid and plumage, often accompanied the uni-

form even when in

The

neath.

The
up

not in use was carried in the saddle bows.

named

cock,

When

the brim was looped

first

was cocked front and back

it

Khevenhuller, Androsmane or Swiss

II.

At

making

side for convenience, then looped to the other side

three-cornered hat. Next,

mouth

an iron skullcap was worn under-

case

floppy hat evolved into the cocked hat.

one

to

when

"scull"

which

action, in

Duke

after the

Monmouth

companies of Grenadiers were added

part of 1600, the

substituted.

into the so-called

(1649-1685), son of Charles


to the infantry in the latter

wide-brimmed hat was found inconvenient

grenades so that in the British

Named

Army

Another military hat was the Mon-

style.

of

it

throwing hand

in

bag was

a fur-banded cap with tasseled

the grenadier cap, the frontal rose high like a shield, in

metal or embroidered cloth, the


finally into the tall fur

tail

grew small and disappeared, shaping

cap of the grenadiers and

eighteenth

fusiliers of the

century.

The wearing
tion in 1660

of wigs did not

when

Charles

II

become general

in

England

the Restora-

till

returned from his exile spent at the court of

Louis XIV, wearing a black, full-bottomed wig. Periwig,

it

became

word assuming such

a contraction of the French perruque, the

in English,

contortions as

peruyke, perewyke, periwig, winding up finally as just plain "wig." Soldier,

sportsman and traveler adopted the

short,

bob wig and the short campaign

wig, this latter dressed in two curls which

hung down

shoulder. Soldiers also plaited their natural hair

in

back over each

and tucked

up

it

in back

under the cap. Occasionally, when long hair was required in military
flowing horsehair
Officers,

hung

in

back attached

however, wore the

to the

dress,

edge of the cap.

large, heavy, curled, greased

and powdered wig

with large cocked and plumed hat, truly an absurd getup

when

in action.

In the ranks, about 1684, the hair was bobbed or else tied back for convenience

and then, the

silk

bag appeared some time before

1700,

worn

the army. This style, considered neglige and disrespectful, soon

proval of the
collar

elite in civil life for

the very special reason that

and coat from a layer of powder. Powder applied over

grease or

pomade was

at first

won
it

first

by

the ap-

protected

a base of candle

used in grayish white, light brown or tan, pure

white not appearing until 1703.

This was the period of the boot, of velvets and fine


32

soft leather in civil life

MILITARY1492 TO

1700

made

but soldiers and real horsemen wore the heavy jack boot which was
bulkier-looking by spurs and broad spur leathers.

but more popular was the

waxed

name

"jack boot" because

leather coated with tar or pitch, the

same

huge jug or tankard which held

blackjack, a

came

shoes and boots

was

It

in about 1600, a feature

called the kettle boot

made

employed

as that

flattered

masculine vanity

in adding height to one's stature. Eagerly adopted by both sexes,


heels ever since. Also to be noted

were the leggings and

for the

Heels attached to

ale or beer.

which

of jack leather, a

we have had

gaiters

worn from

the end of the century on.

The

use of jack leather brings us to seamen's garb of short, full breeches,

a tunic, a short jacket and a bonnet. Jacked leather originated in England,

appearing
the sailor

in the fourteenth century,

first
is

known

in the English-speaking

tarred leather jacket

has been

whence the colloquialism by which

and bonnet. The

world

as "Jack-tar"

because of his

practical outfit spread over

worn with some

variations

by Dutchmen, Germans,

some four

centuries.

The

Frenchmen

for

original design

was

Europe and
Italians

and

that of the

Basque seaman of the Mediterranean Sea, the loose breeches and tunic permitting acrobatic

movement aboard

was the truncated hat of fur or

The uniform

of the

the sailing ship.

Of

leather.

marine or sea soldier

finally settled into a bloused shirt

of canvas or coarse linen with open, lay-down collar over


or waistcoat of
short, heavy,

The

full

homespun buttoned down

in

The

grew

roamed

cities in this

of

New Amsterdam

became one

of the

hemisphere. Settled in 1626 by the Dutch West

was granted

it

monopoly

of trade in Africa

into a base for the trading of furs

no stigma attached
sailors

called a pea jacket.

favorite.

America the Dutch port

Indian Company,
city

over that the

loosely knotted neckerchief also served as headkerchief

woolen cap was a

most cosmopolitan

The

is

And

a doublet

breeches were secured by a sturdy leather belt which also held pouch,

a knitted

Here

which went

center front.

padded cloth or leather jacket which today

knife and pistol.

and

the sixteenth century

and

and America.

slaves as well, there

being

to the latter enterprise in those days. Visiting soldiers

the streets of the busy Atlantic seaport with sailing ships

world ports docked

at its

wharves.

33

and

from

Spanish
I

bib Century

peasecod be\\ed
boa bl ef w 'to ttu o k
boge q,1 d caniovis-'
sflk paried <ah d
sla&rieo>l(3wr)
|

olla
;uf-fe

wi'+h

ace-bdlaV'c
of gold cria/'ns

clocked

s'lk

"

stockings 'earher skoes-\.


Ik tocju<=

with J

jeweled btfn<4
od feathers
fl

mi

li'fdry

coTimander15-64-

engrj
sreel
Cuiras
|i

men

shi rf

w'th lacepane-d trunk

hoscwnnWed
^affe^a canions
knit"

woolen

stock ings'\eair>e
boots- morion
w'th ear -flops'

dagger- polea.rm
|5bH-

'

I'M 51
ck armor with
easecod wh're ffia/ta cross
"combed moriontrjnk hose' green sash -green

'Ik "toque

velvet Tuli slops'

whi'te stockings
S-rnusket y ellow shoes'

rS-necK

re&r, sword

d powder
m'l"fory

lflnderIS8I

-r-rv/

rnil'tyru

comma der'
rv

I5"70's

-h/pical sqiIot's

garb-' middle ti

eT-i<3cked leoHnev
Vene-Kansdoublet
parviLjIoohs
^o' V
at
"Trim^ldwn
braid
heavy,
collared cuffs-si

-h-inic

sdsh'fekhatvv-th
jewel ar)4 feo-thers-Kni t
s-tockmgs - leather shoes pole<arm

"^sworq '
1

cap-fa ih of

honor qUdrd
15"'

English
16-rh

Century

ifi'cer jn

peasecod
bellied

Cuirass

with gilded
e,r\qrav'\nq-b\ue
a

sash frfnged

edged

cke+ over linen


shorf Trunk
_hirt-coa+ blue

-lOse-Kfif-fied

red or red
srocknqs_,low trinr
|eotherSriO?5-

w'l-fb

fffngs-cross o.
sword.Seorqe-pcing'd
leves^dcan'ons'

Cap UJudlly red


tailored c|o+n

tocKings -slashed
lea-f her sboes--

maske-h-powder

flask-sword'
Henrtj

gm so ktierj

S^'lors garb of russet a coarse, redd'sh


or gray clo+h

worn

by +he corarnonets+jrifc of clo+h or jacked,

lea-rber-neck rufrur bo^neh of

goat lamb or
dotf sk'n-

leafber shoes
stockings

clo-t'h

brown

w+ hgold-

\r
\6-fhCenfrur

foot soldi'er--paned

jfe?|^

Q id

slashed coslyme

of c|oth

1d silk-

hose
wfh codpieceeather shoesfdi'lored cloth

felt

|f^j

pansd ""d

ha-f-VN

plumes-

Sashed

Swiss a d

C0stum<? af clo-

Sernian

"id sflk-gnrdle
of slk puT-fs-

^lercenanes-

XansqjenefsIst

ruffs at

half of

necked.

wnsfs-feU- hat
with eludes

century

stock "ngs-le^+ber
Shoes- rlem'sh-

I
~"V

Winged
doublets" Ik scarf'

braided cloth

shirf wHh rosettes'


"Spanish Slops
f-h

panes

wth
ar|

i
-

garters-codpiece
fastened w+b
rose ttes'felt kat
w'tk plumesleather shoes'
oth hosepole-arrrj,

dagger
a

cosfb nie of slashed


clo+h -Venetians 0n d
doubletover linen
shrrt-sil k

sash

bonnet"
of jacked leothe
with sl IK band tasseled powder
flask 0n d musket'
fosse led sabretache
*.n

*t ho5e--

Dutch-!S8o's

wy

"d

sword'
Swiss-

ce.

^r-

3" icer
clotb doublet ever
Co lid red shirt"bra'tded pantaloons'

rrcr, n

6-fin

bonnet

ot

cuirass

CentumYJ4

"n

d gorget wild

ruff-

embossed cha'n decordt'ionpaned trunk hose a n<J


codp'ece -sword an d
dagger belt's passed
cinder ribbon paneskn, + fight's Or hose
leather shoes -

Tacked

leather, ribbon band.


a
"M pompon- lea tine-

'

sboes-+wO handed

CJusfrJan

dagger- }
Dufch-

/5"70

1581

lansquenet w'fh two-canoed s*oYd-8tolO .ee+


1
long-cufrass^d c^sses-cabasse wi'+h plumes- 5u "+ of rie a v u c
slashed Venetian*' brafd trtrT)^5^^! x'W
"

leather DOCK'S'

breasf

pdn-tflloor-

neck a "d wr
ruffs- lea

shoes-bo
jacked le
-Tobacco

on cord-'
Dut'C-n|5T0I

v^

pi

/""

buffco^f winged "d


braided WOfi over
uniform jdcke+'wh't
I'nen falling band'

IT+bCeiHur

breeches with gold,,


braided garners
l^n't hose'
leather shoesri

bbon garters'

beaver hat
with braid
Ari

d plumes-fj

Dutch
Soldfe*'

I60ff

buffcodt
worn over winged

sleeveless

uniform jacket"emtroldered I'nCh


b\\'mg bonded
cuffs'Kni-f hose-

eatber hoofs
wifh spurs
beaver ha-f wHn
plumes-bandoleer
with powder flasks'
musket-forked rest'
5VV<>rd-Cngl ish

muskefeer1620
J

blue cassock
|1nn sh rT
i

w i+h
w Hh

gold braid
-railing

band

*d bu-froW
q nd
puffed

sleeves-bd Idr-'c
ered and
?d -red
garters

stockings'

beaver
white
fri

ng e

wh'+e
plumes"d

>;+; S b
off'cer-

mus

teteer

m madder red

unrform-edssock

with shoulder knots-leather bdldric id


a
'linen shirt-lace nd ribbon
cravat -breeches with
ribbon "cannon skni-f"

hose-leather

shoes 'beaver hat


with rosette- fabric

bandoleer-

French
1667

Wof dim a fepresumably canvas-all O^atf With

On'csJrs uniform

for

grenadier-red uniform 1'ned w'th>

17^ Century

red r'bbonj-wbrhi
Ifnfcr

wf+b fur band-red

shirf-lace

""d ribbon

-FriVqed
errv

yellow -yellow bra'd with Hilled ends


o'lt bu-ffons -redcap

jaDcf-

^M

bro'dered

baldr'c- black
shoes with gra^

*V^4i

stockings -black
leainer shoes-uelloiv
gor+ers-yeMovv woolen

scarf leather

behr ""M

ta Id rc-- pouch

-for

des-dagger

bow ^nofscane

hatcbefBrTfrsh
Ib80

'rvfanfrq

-\f

unlform-

ark i)lue ca ssock-cufts


wais-fcToa+breechifSj
s-fockings a,1 d bcldrTc

red cassock-gray

breeches-gray

or^ngeyellow

sfock "rigs -woolen


scarf- black
her shoesbearskin cap with

in

bra'd -edged front


leather belts "M

shoes-fabric
bandoleer-sword'

black beaver

Cocked h.d+'
black leather

mu s kef-

grenade poach
powder riommusket- sword

Da tcb-

daqqey
&nglih-

=y

TvV.

MILITARY

THE I8TH CENTURY


CHAPTER THREE

FROM

1700

ON,

the

modern

military uniform began to develop in the large

European standing armies whereby each country's

regiments became distinguishable one from the other.


civilian
as,

mode

and each army's

soldiers

The

of the day with the color of the coat the

style

followed the

predominant feature

for instance, the redcoat of the Britishers. Certain colors used in facings,

collar

and waistcoat became regimental

in gold

and

silver,

embroidered motifs

distinctions while

the gorget, sword and sash indicated officers' rank.

Of

French origin were the epaulettes introduced in 1759, an ornamental insignia


of officers'

rank copied by other armies. Epaulettes

also

proved a source of

protection against sword cuts and held shoulder belts in place.

The French regiments were


with

brilliant colors

dressed in various shades of

which designated the

different

brown accented

regiments and added

greatly to the military display. Officers continued to take the liberty of wear-

An

ing mourning, a privilege accorded the French Guard.

officer

seen leading his troops, he in all-black except for the gorget


neck.

When

might be

hung round

his

the soldier early in the period buttoned back the skirts of his

coat to permit

freedom of

fashion which

would

action,

he

little

knew he was

survive to this day in civilian

life

creating a men's
in the full dress

tail coat.

All military units in the European armies were affected by the successes
of the Prussians in the Silesian Wars, 1740 to 1744,

1756 to 1763.

War

in America.

cavalry dress

the

The

was the European phase

The uniforms

when

Hungarian

style

latter

and the Seven Years' War,


of the

French and Indian

of the Hussars, originally Turkish, influenced

Frederick the Great employed a regiment of auxiliaries,

light horse troops.

Their uniform was a handsome, storybook

which ignored comfort completely.


41

It

was

a tight tunic or jacket with

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


horizontal rows of braid

from neck

and

cuffs, tight breeches, high, fitted boots

der.

The dashing costume appeared

original right

up

into units to

tury

much

which the provincial

laxity existed in

shoul-

characteristic variations of the

worn even

in our

own

Civil

War.

of mercenaries were eventually converted


militia

was added.

Till the eighteenth cen-

uniforms with the exception of those of the Prus-

with the Prussian

soldiers' dress
tactics.

visitor to Prussia

tom which has never been


Unity reigns in

In England

it

came here

becoming the model

drill

practiced by any troops; to refurnish

all details

army even

in the

was every man's duty

to protect

and

fight

regiments of soldiers, each

for training

and

writing in 1729 says, "The Prussians have a cus-

of maintaining a soldier in service

cities

dolman hanging from one

many

in

collar, fur

England, France, Germany and Austria adopted a more practical

sians.

year.

to the nineteenth century,

The European standing armies

high stock

to waist in front,

city

had

be.

its

to the shoe buckles."

arms or

and with such

need

if

to bear

anew each

bear the expense

else

background the

colonists

Although the Colonies did not have

provincial militia while a

few larger

were equipped with independent companies. With the exception of the

Quakers and the Dutch of Manhattan there were always militiamen ready
for an emergency.

War when

it

Men and money

broke in 1754 and

it

were needed for the French and Indian

was up

to the Colonies to furnish

them.

This war proved to be the training ground for the American leaders in the

War

for Independence.

Most

of the militia troops consisted of farmers

American uniform, except

and woodsmen and the

real

was

that

in the case of the independent companies,

of the hunter and the frontiersman.

It

was upon Washington's own recom-

mendation that hunting dress was adopted in the campaign against the
dians in Virginia and again at the start of the Revolution.
consisted of breeches, tunic or shirt, shoes

buckskin,

all

brown

in color.

Brown

and

gaiters

The

and

In-

soldier's outfit

a hat of cloth or

evolved as the military color of the

Colonies as ordered by the Continental Congress because the dye was to be

had on every farm and therefore was

easily obtained

by the cloth manufac-

turers in the cities.

The hunting
It

was

front,

shirt,

really a tunic

commonly known

as the

wamus, was pure Americana.

which slipped on over the head

or, if

open down the

had no buttons but was thong-laced or held closed by the

42

leather belt.

MILITARY THE 18TH CENTURY


warm and

Light,

wind-resistant, the

beautifully tanned buckskin.


skin," elkskin

Other

Much

which was tanned

summer

and milky white.

to a soft, clothlike texture

called

self-fringe but the

were dyed blue and trimmed with a yellow-dyed fringe sewn

the garment.

The

that

woolen

overalls for winter

and linen

it,

worn by

stuffed with

the frontiersman

who

moss or buffalo hair was the footpiece

His headgear comprised the slouch

sported an animal's

some time but

colonial "hunter"

The

tail

it

hat, a

brimmed

hanging

was noted

in back.

The

rifle

felt,

and for cold

that the deadly

was disconcerting indeed

The cap

had been

aim

invariably

in use in

Europe

of the unmilitary-looking

to the well-drilled foreign soldier.

brown and white and

to assess the

men

for the cost, as

England, by keeping back a piece of their pay. But

that

in the virgin

Continental Congress in 1775 decided definitely upon the uniform

colors of

cloth.

life

spent the greater part of his

weather, the fur cap of coonskin, bear, fox or squirrel.

for

we

was the favored work dress of both army and navy.

The Indian moccasin

forest.

for

be substituted for buckskin breeches. This was an order to most men's

liking because by 1780, one reads that overalls of "ticken" or ticking, as


call

to

outer seams of breeches were also fringed.

was directed

it

of

were made of "white deer-

dressier shirts

were ornamented with cut

linsey-woolsey. All skin tunics

In 1779

made

generally

were of coarse homespun linen or a wool-linen mixture

shirts

fabric shirts

wamus was most

it

was

was done

difficult to

in

procure

Eventually companies were clothed in whatever color was available and

meant mixed

colors in the

same company. Sometimes the

patriots

upon enemy uniforms which they appropriated and dyed brown

came

or blue.

But sometimes there was no time for recoloring the garments and serious
errors occurred

between friend and foe on the

What uniforms

existed

were those worn by

companies, of varied color and British in

which did not materialize

battlefield.
state militias

style.

final

choice of color,

until the war's end, resolved into blue coat

red facings and buckskin breeches.

The ribbon

rosette

ning of the century and usually black, became


military world. After 1775

The

and independent

it

was shaped

worn from

officer's

into a small cockade of pleated

cockade was changed

signifying the expected union of the

the begin-

general insignia in the

mark

of a

with white

relief

ribbon and leather and was added as a permanent identifying


regiment. In 1780 the

to black

American and French Armies.

43

with

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


Washington upon taking command ordered
selves

with cockades in their hats

that officers furnish them-

The

to indicate rank.

colors

were

to

be as

follows: red or pink for field officers: yellow or buff for captains: green for

on the

subalterns: an epaulette or strip of red cloth

the sergeant: the

same mark

right shoulder to denote

in green for the corporal. Further, a light blue

ribbon across the breast between coat and waistcoat to denote the commander-

same manner

in-chief; in the

same

the

a pink ribbon for

for an aide-de-camp. After the order

major and brigadier general;

was

issued,

Washington changed

the major general's ribbon to purple.

However, the Continental

money and no

Army had no

credit and, even

uniforms, Congress having

funds were available, clothing and arms

if

could not be imported, the ports of the country being closed.

not only clothes but arms, ammunition, tents and food.

The French

1778 were a period of real suffering.


Lafayette furnished a French army,

fleet

The army

The

due

to hitches

Paris, the

Alliance and the Marquis de

and arms.

number, were

fact the greater

a realized fact

sadly-mended

in

outfits

veritable rags. In 1783 in the absence of red cloth for trimming, orders

issued that the blue coats be faced


gilt

late as

1783

when

the cloth

were

had not

hilt.

yet arrived

from Europe, Wash-

ington ordered the soldiers "to turn and repair their coats". Apropos of
operation, one
that all

must keep

in

mind

that the

sewing machine did not

wearing apparel was handmade and therefore not too

take apart, wash, repair and put together again.

As

was the procedure followed

garment

of

in cleaning an outer

French cleaning establishments

Our

treaty with

England

late in the

after the

war

among

in the last years of the century so that


in 1796, the black

and

and lined with white and that white or

be used for epaulette, buttons and sword

As

suits

officers'

uniforms being a copy of the French military. But

and drawbacks the uniforms did not become

and many men, in

lacked

years 1777 to

Cloth for uniforms was ordered from France and some

were made in

little

and white cockade

exist

this

and

difficult

to

a matter of fact, that

until the arrival

nineteenth century.

created difficulties with France


various changes of the uniforms

significant of

French and American

friendship was replaced by an eagle. Also in 1796 the infantry finally received
their red facings

When

and the

officers their

black top boots instead of cloth gaiters.

sea fighting with the French, our

44

former

allies,

took place in the

MILITARY THE 18TH CENTURY


last

men

decade of the century, Congress raised an army of ten thousand

and Washington was again made commander of the army. Though the
French attacked our merchantmen, the American

officers

French uniform of blue with buff trimmings, cocked

favored the

still

with

hats, boots lined

red morocco, tight pantaloons, red sashes and black silk or velvet stocks.

wore

troops

The

stocks of black leather.

In general, the cocked hat

was the masculine headdress

century and the hat of the military world. In civilian

of the eighteenth

became

life it

mark

of gentility, a sign of professional and social rank as contrasted with the

lower

who wore

classes

gentleman and the army

from

was ornamented with gold and


and plumes. Gold and

on one

Although

new

had

passed,

of the century, both military

Swiss soldier's hat, a large comfortable piece that


really

spout-like

Androsmane;

to

the

simplified spelling,
hiiller.

An

became

now

confined

civilian,

was the

use

its

crease

center

in

To

front.

after the

English note of 1753

the

army

into the early nineteenth century.

with

flaps

higher than the crown.

it

famed Austrian
hat

calls the

Then

The

down on

flap,

English and the Americans

named

and

well

set

was a bicorne with high front and back

being the

cost

livery.

The most popular hat

It

its

disappeared

galloon was invented with the metal worked

side only, the fad for such decoration

uniforms and

of the

silver galloon,

silver

when

civilian dress in the first quarter of the century

prohibitive.

to

officer

lace, ostrich, fringe

ribbon cockades,

The headpiece

their slouched hat uncocked.

the highest point

French

it

was the

was Kevenhuller

of

marshal, Kheven-

field

demode but

there

the head.

it

lasted in the

was the "Ramillies cock"

sharply turned-up back flap

was

higher than the front flap which was scalloped out in the center creating
a tricorne.

The

bicorne, supplanting the tricorne of the 1790's,

phase of the cocked hat.

under arm
literally, a

to

It

folded

flat

so that in civilian life

save disarranging the wig,

hat to carry under the arm.

It

thus

its

ended up

it

was another

could be carried

name "chapeau
as the

bras,"

ceremonial dress

hat of ranking officers of the American, British and French navies, remaining
so to the twentieth century.

distinctive piece of

the 1760's. This

headgear was adopted by the British Dragoons in

was the "jockey

leather with a roach of

stiff

cap," a small helmet of black japanned boiled

horsehair

mounted on

45

the

crown from back

to

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


front. It
1780's.

is

to

new American Army from

be seen in some pictures of the

many

Constantly changing were the

The

military bonnets of this period.

designs and colors of the

was

iron-skull

worn under

still

the

many

the felt

hat in battle. In 1730, the Prussian Grenadier found the large cocked hat a

when throwing hand grenades with

great inconvenience

The

in back.

hat with

its

his

long

rifle

hung

protruding corners was easily knocked off the head

by the musket. This prompted the Prussian emperor

to substitute the

Hun-

garian shako, a sugar-loaf hat with high, pointed metal plate, the design so

American Revolution."

familiar to us in our andirons of the "Hessians of the

To

more martial

give the hat a

The

king had

air the

a covering of bearskin added.

Army where

hat was popular in the French

was introduced by the

it

German

mercenaries and worn by the horse grenadiers.

wore

miter-shaped cap but of cloth or velvet with the arms and supporters

this

on the frontal embroidered in gold,


it

The

British also

and colors and very handsome

silver

was.

The

bagwig of black

soldier's

which was concealed under


world the black
bow. This

style

taffeta

was drawn

same

a rosette of the

tight

by

a string

fabric. In the fashionable

ends were brought round to the front and tied into a

tie

was named

silk tie in civilian life.

two, spirally

gummed

The

wound with

or sailor was often false,

and was the forerunner of the black

"solitaire"

"pigtail"

was

black ribbon.

made

a tightly braided queue,

The

whip

pigtail or

sometimes

of the soldier

of black leather or chamois with a tuft or

"paintbrush" at the end and was cleaned and polished along with his boots.

Late in the century

The end

military.

The

it

its

in

civilian

life

of the pigtail in the United States

but retained by the

Army came

Ramillies wig, also a favorite in the army, got

Battle of Ramillies in

French.

was discarded

An

name

Belgium

in 1706, fought

English victory under the

to the fashions of

Duke

its

in 1808.

name from

the

between the British and the

of Marlborough, the battle gave

both sexes. In the Ramillies the pigtail was tied

top and bottom with black ribbon and sometimes the braid was looped under

and

tied.

Pure white powder appeared in 1703 and consisted of pulverized

starch or flour. Curled


stores of tallow

and

and powdered hair

flour, a

pound

in the

American Army required

of flour being each man's ration per week.

Veterans continued to powder long after the fashion had passed.


ing of his wig was most important in a soldier's

46

life

The

dress-

and often when there

MILITARY THE 18TH CENTURY


were too few barbers,

whole regiment of

men would

tie

each other's wigs.

Natural hair had begun to appear in the mid-century, dressed in the

young men dispensing with the bag

black silk bag with ribbon bowknot,


as

soon

grew

as they

ribbon-tied queue during the

growing

stage

and

the

if

two back waist buttons

The English

sailor

as the point at

wore

which

and looking

flat

appeared the shape

required extra

known

like

its

whip.

cocked hat which was


crown, the

sides tacked to the

an apple-pasty." In the

'seventies first

round hat with high crown

as the sailor, a hard,

and narrow brim and made of varnished or japanned


it

tail

to terminate the

a jaunty version of the

described in a note of 1762 as "a hat with

century,

wore the

officers also

was added. French and German regulations designated the

length, false hair

whole pressed

Army

a sufficient length of hair.

Late in the

leather.

became summer regulation for the crew. The English

hat the "boater" and to counteract the softening effects of the


phere, the sailor took to varnishing the straw.

Of

damp

nautical origin

of "sennit straw" for the shellacked sailor deriving

from

called the

is

atmos-

the

name

seven-knit, a tech-

nique of rope-plaiting which the plaited straw resembled.

One

finds the sailor of the eighteenth century

wearing loose trousers or

with the short, boxy jacket over a

shorter, petticoat breeches

full shirt

sometimes, the large cocked hat atop his tied handkerchief. In

he presents the familiar and picturesque costume of the


Distinction by uniform

was not

and

this getup,

pirate.

officially established

between army and

navy among European powers until 1748 when a marine dress originated
in

England

setting the pattern henceforth for other naval powers.

were prescribed

as blue

and white,

and embroidery in gold and

thus, the

The

colors

term "navy blue" with braids

silver for top officers.

White

linen

became the

uniform for tropical wear.


In 1775, eight months before the Declaration of Independence,
it

that the British

West

Indies

were massing

stores of

when

its

was

settled

marine corps

in the
to take

about a uniform until 1798

navy department was organized and the Marine Corps

a separate

placed under
the

ammunition and powder

upon which news the Americans created

care of such matters. But nothing

rumor had

command. Green, oddly enough, was

Army and Navy and

accordingly the Continental Marines'

consisted of a grass green coat with red facings


waistcoat, breeches

the uniform color of

and knitted hose. This dress


47

and white

lasted to 1804.

first

costume

lining,

white

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


After the close of the
the century
to

it

War

became apparent

for

Independence and in the

last

decade of

that our country also needed a fighting unit

guard the Indian frontiers and while the hunter's garb could not be

bettered for such service, the uniform of basic blue


for dress

and parade.

48

was the one

settled

upon

kiussjr uniform copied


from -the Hungarian regi'mantes
striped s'lk 505nchausses drawn over
wb'+c breeches a
leather boors

Fre nch
8-fh

Cenfur^

Sabretache- furred

cap qhd ani'mal


peb'sse'

5ki"n

earned rnusk^,

two
a

"d

p'stbls

sobre-

I72I

soldier

uniform

brown

"d

ir

gray

n d facings

lining

of

brl 1*0 nt1

col or

distinguish
regiments- leather
belt-s-sdbrefacherhvju'ssesover breebes
-to

;
!

fcorne
-)usket"

w^tfi

cockade

"d sword'

_
c;ra.na'er-

w'th red brai

buttons-red
coattafls t

cotton spa
\e.ai her be
grenade po
krute-

muskeifur cap

wfth

^R

bvass

jp;

sold'e-r^blue

uniform

a
1d
-frim-blue breeches
light colored vest'
Cotf-Hai!s -jl/rned Up'
eatber belts ""d pouctv
cot-ton spatterdashes'
musket a "4 sabre
black -rnCorne
with sflveredge

with red fac"na5

cockade-

IT66

""d
pompoi>'^4\

^T^

Br'+ish
8+h Cenfury

-t'sh -tar

id

asriore-l7H-4

-'

white ensemble
flatcocked hat
ed
oes-

te

ir braided
d iW turned

ha

under
cap

rnaiine.-

led co^t-blue-'

collar-green
cuffs -white belt'
blue a id white
sfri

E
spatterdashes'
block leather shoes
a id pouches-green
clofn cap with

embroldery-

mu5ke+-

Hessian
'grenadier-qreen
coo+, cuffs "'W
ining-white mctd
red cloth c

"db

buttons-cod fta* Is
turned up- buff
colored waistcoat
an d breeches-white

coattalls turned

aaltets^blackshoes-

af
>d

ve<st

il

aid-blue
cuffs

up- leather beltabuttored

brown

fur

cap

with metal Ronfal


braided hair tacked

SBotterddsbes^
black hat,poJch
d shoes-sword,

under cap

"n

in

back'

native of Hesse, Seimatv}

miiiket "Id

**4 subject of the

ba^onet'--

- Is

.V

British

gorges

LonTinenfal Utmu
\7J5-l800
rif

Idm^in

in

elk skin
hun+ ng costume
be o ws^ black -felt
^at-black sft>ck

'fd r

elkski'n

overalls'

ledHer
shoes-'

iT77

skirt or

warnuS

fcreekeso*

uckskin-shir-r

dyed brown
sei t fringe

sh?rf held closed

by belt-block felt
-tricorn* -pKj-fa"

ue-ueWeotJier

bus kins-knit
hose-mnSketiMuone+'knlfe
powder horhcar+ridge

bo*'
1775

emdn In buckskin
wa rnois a d overalls'

if

selff ringed -fu o'c

heed of neck

w*-th

round neck raccoon cap with

-tied

-fa'l^moccas'hSle-powde r honr

r'-f

caAr'td^e box

career,

d axe

ritlemanh^in-t-rn^

ou+-f f+ of ^

ranger-

Tin

jse

by -the whole

army-buckskin
dmed nomespjo

or

gamers a M
moeeasfns'
whr-he 5h'rt with

black stock'
Title

-powder horn

CXx^w'dqe bo<

canreer>-axe

VV

I,

CorvKnen'-tal Ovcny
1775^ igoo

iDTnute ^ar,
ty p'cal Civi

ih

lictn

hamespun outfit,
usually brownwhf+e shirt of flaxwith falling bandbuc U ski'n
wafatcoaf- Knit
hose-leu+her

shoes-black
fricoTne

gun
*n d

swordIJ7T

urntorrn oT to

commands! ir
blue cout w
yellow epauUftesbuff wdi'sfcout,
breecbes .facings,
l"nin<j'b

a,,
ct

but+ons-

wh>'te lingerie
stock, ""d jabotMack tnCsmfi

Hck

cockade
button'
black leather
boots with spurs
h

silk

sfl v<3r

sr

CUvfllrumdn

jl

Suard -whife co
with sky blue
facing seining
waistcoat- w hi
be Its- white bu

officer ?n
blue coatw'fk.
white facing'
white buttonswhite waistcoat"
with frin^ *><

-}urned-up cou

sash'

buckskin bree

yoryct- black
stock with burnej

Seneral U)<35f>*ng

Souvaroif boo
japanned 'ea
jockey Cop- red
band "nd bu

s'lver

down bandblack Wcorne


black cockade-buckskin breech
e_itkor buskins

fa'l-black
Istock-iubot
^T

TVv/j 177 s

"

->r

foe Re*
.

t*

Coh+men-Tal Cirmy-i77a "'800


-1

Uniforn wK'chwersnoi'rsoirzed until


i-fh

ockdde ot blcc
silked white

leather- cjenotmg
French tllliunce

i7<35''Wu<J

white-

facings

nd buttons whi-'h

fl

waned according to
xeq rn ent- Dew To rk
ar

D?w7eTsey faced

nfleman-b ue or
with buff-black bljck Coat-red
><t

TrTcorne-piqtail

cjueue - cross
belts-black

leather halt
gq iters "''dsrioe.sgray knithose
rifle

-bayonet'

f</icing.s

q id

cu^S-.

L/ellow bu+tons
""d bu+tonko)eS"
bitfc

v>

wa'stcojt

breeches, hose
-l^d beH"-plack

buskins-

cartridge box'
canteen Vuf fled shirt
black stock-

bbek

japanned
leather btlinl&"

with ostrich

plumes 'Crossed
Swords'5 ^ quos
Qn d X'berty* on
"Frontal 'rifle-

bauonefCarTridge box

antee n^
178O

rifleman "n^reen dyed


buckskin or homespun
ba ndc*4 with f u r'
e shirt wi th
btack stock'

tber shoes

'

rtriJ_|eboK'

der horn'
fe

-canteen'

I7?6

trooper
Cciv/alryman

brown
coat with
life

facing

waistcoat
breaches^

button* 0r>d
belt-'eathei
guard boots
flr
>d spurscoatt^'ls

turned up'
iapanned
leather -jockey

Cap with
silver band
4h d buck's
tail -rifle

cartridge
box- sword

Iff*

.*>

(\v'\f

Contmenf <9l Urmu

Co^wQ nder
of Rogers-'
red coa^w-rh
buff facings
0ri

d walstco^f'

coaftdWs infantry
famed] up-blacW offi'cer
stock 'white carrying
skirt collar-

espontoon

beaded leather blue coat'


el+wT+h falls' whi+e faci
eatherajoves-' waistcoat,

panned leather
ie+ w'-th feather
beaded band'
buckskin bree^he5
a nu

^
J

breeches a

sword be If'
whffe buff on
Wi+h blue
loops'

fringed. Jndlan

wh

laqqin^s-moccdSinS' ^hirt^ w'


stock- bio
5 word-kn?fe'fnna,i;d
carfr'dqe pouch' kevenhuller

powder horn' baf'bkck

'**rrv

DU5kfriS'le

iffO'S

skoes^
lT8o's

qunner with n/ef swajb forclecinrnggut


after each fire -blue or black coat-

red factngS'tjelloW
^

buttons q "d laops'


white stock, sbTrt

^ waistcoaT-bU
fnped white ticken
overalls^black

fricOrne'bluck
lea-rher shoes'
a
brown bell "d
rope +0 move
gun- white
cross

be"lts

Coa ffai
filmed Up'
I

T79

Xufa^effe:
corps of
.fight Jnfanfuj

blue coat'
hi'te ftfcma.5
breeche?,crcss
q *d button

belts

coaftails turned
up * f<3panned
l

e aj-her

jockey

Cap w'th

boTjchjir

roach ""d fur

bund-black
Spafrei .((ifbee or
full

<Jai1f rb

h'fle-

IT8

2.

~>'J
Cirmy
Con-Kneniol
17^5^1800

tficer.'gree

black feci ngS'

-fumed -up
black-Ljellow

waistcoat

y-ff

oons-bUck
tock-whi+ehirt-whi'te

belt-black
ned leather

mef-green

ume

-black
horsehair

+a|-guard
boots"

-5a ber'79*3

uniform-

national

infantrtj captain-coat" q a

blue

pan+a|oons-red
a

facings "d -fringed


sa%b-whfte lA/alstcoat
a
"d belt- black stock-,
red Austrian knoteSj

5eams

01

pantaloons

black leather boots(Ku6sar,5ou\/avofr or

Hessian)-lined with
red in orocco showing
at taps- black felt

b'come-red plumeblack cockade-

Vn^
foot'^uard

in

bearskin bonnetmetal -frontal -red


leather pompon-hair
dressed In pigtail ;|ueue
J
"d powdered-l115"--il85-

private

in

regular uniform-!

blue coat
flri

pantaloons

red -Tac'ngs
4

"d leg stripes-

white waistcoat,
lining ""d belUjoc keg cap with

bearskin roach,
wbf-reband n d pluroe

cockadebogonef belt-

blue

'oTfiCerS

black felr

cocked hat'
edge J wltn w hife-

cockaae-W^k
pompon -powdered

rlbbon

hair Jressed ;ncluD-

1780's

general -black felt


cocked hat- trend
tovsjrd blcorner'bbon cockade -

owdered bqlr-ljSOS

Con-Knenfal Oavq
776-1800

dress unitormof
Jokn Pa a JoneS
Commodore of
United States Oavyblje coa t
faced a "d lined
I

with white SdtiO'


enameled buttons'
gold epaulettes'

blockcocked hot with


gold edge-MocK
cockade-wh'te silk
hose 'black shoes'
gilt buckles

sword'

sailor or Umericcin
blue clo+h or block
tarred leather
jacket *d hat
pantaloons of

comrhon seairn^nblue ] jckeb of


heavy cloth or jap^rined
leather' loose open
pan \a loons of

Coarse homespun

homespun or

or ffcken-

tfc

kn'f+ed sir' pea


sbfrf' black

wai'st'coaf over white

neckerchiefleather
b^lr-

sa brtf '
17^8

ken-k^fed

shir-h-

black stock

of leather or cloth

black fe|t

ru-r

w+h plume'ha'r
in pi'gfa'l queueleather bullet
pouch a "d boohp'sbol, Knife
"(

1116

sabre-

~A

MILITARY

THE I9TH CENTURY


CHAPTER FOUR
THE NEW CENTURY
the

army uniform

witnessed the final display of sartorial splendor in

of the Napoleonic

idea of warfare because heretofore

Wars. Change was

when

to affect the

whole

the warrior attacked with knife,

lance or sword, his conspicuous costume mattered

little

since actual

combat

occurred at close range. But as firearms gained power in striking distance,


it

was found

that less brilliant dress in neutral colors could be a safeguard

against the enemy's marksmanship.

In 1801 the hair was ordered cut short and whiskers, which had appeared,

were not

to be

below the ear

chapeau bras or bicorne for

The cocked

lobe.

hat had given

way

to the

the troops wearing the small helmet of

officers,

japanned, boiled leather with a roach of

stiff

horsehair, copied

from the

"jockey cap" of the British.

The Marine uniform


claw-hammer
adopted by the

coatee

of 1804

changed

to a

more

which was copied from the

Army and

the Navy.

distinctive dress in the

basic

French model

The wearers became known

necks" because they wore a black leather stock while the

as

as "Leather-

officers

wore one

of black silk.

In the
units took

War

of 1812, our second

on the

war with Great

short-tailed coat or coatee

Britain, the

newer army

and the shako, while the veterans

Revolution retained the long-tailed coat and chapeau bras as was

of the

their prerogative. Soldiers' dress of the period

coincided with that of the

fashionable world in coatee, skintight trousers and high-waist shaping the

form

as

much

as possible.

Even the

tall

shako was not unlike that of the

lady of the Empire mode. There was also an undress coat and a full dress
jacket in the Hussar style.
for

As

knee breeches fastened with

of 1813, the order for social occasions called


gilt

buckles instead of strings.

57

Woolen

cloth

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


was used for winter and nankeen for summer and
the color gray

men

color, the

in this period that

appeared in the coats and trousers of the riflemen. In 1816

first

Academy

the United States

was

it

at

West

uniform

Point, too, adopted gray as the

having worn the blue coat prescribed in 1814.

In seamen's dress the sailor collar and the black neckerchief were practical
variations

on the gentlemen's neck mode of wide

The wider

black silk cravat.

powdered hair and


band when

tarred leather queue, the neckerchief also serving as sweat

days had time on their hands which

many

making gadgets and even sewing. Since


not become

dark blue jacket from the

collar protected the

round the head in true fisherman fashion.

tied

and muffled

collar points

official until 1866,

Sailors in olden

with handwork, carving,

filled

regulation stripes and insignia did

the stars and eagles that appeared before that

date were embroidered by the wearer.

The campaign uniform

that

marched

War

to the

with Mexico (1846

1848), a blue coatee with blue or gray trousers,

was

comfort and adaptability to climate and

Thought was being given

freedom of movement and the

terrain.

a definite stride

appearance must have been an easier headcovering to wear in active


in 1847 for all

military dress took

on

new

pompon

worn

also

or plume,

to

cap while not of special martial

soft forage

Chevrons appeared

toward

non-commissioned

officers.

service.

After the war

look in the low, tapered shako topped by a

by the British

Army and

called

by them, the

"Albert Shako."

general order in 1852 changed the trousers from Saxony blue to sky

blue because quantities of pale blue cloth were available to the


at

an

attractively

At

epaulettes.

the

cocked on one

low

ostrich

plumage.

of the

new

little

scales

were substituted for

attention

was of dark blue


rifles

had been given

itself

Although every

were not uniformed

in black felt

tunic or coat, really a frock coat

for horseback but the pleats

North found

Secession.

was worn by the mounted

good pattern

As very

shoulder

fastened with an eagle and decorated with gold cord

of French origin in the 1850's,


full skirt. It

Brass

same time appeared the jaunty slouch hat

side,

and small black

price.

Government

in

1861

village,

in prescribed

and known

army

ill-prepared

town and

army

color

gray blue trousers and a dark blue kepi.


58

as the "chasseur."

were eliminated
to

The

city

body with

cloth, a fitted

in 1858.

Army
War of

dress, the Federal

for battle

had

its

which meant
Confederates,

in

the

militia,

the units

a dark blue coat,

who

also lacked

MILITARY THE 19TH CENTURY


uniforms, decided upon gray as their color in trousers, double-breasted tunic

and gray

hat with a broad brim. European models were copied by both

felt

North and the South and thus

the

it

happened

was chosen and worn by many volunteers on both

dress

sides.

The

picturesque

popularized by the French successes in Italy comprised a short, dark

outfit

blue jacket,

baggy breeches and

full,

Even the

sash.

Zouave

that the colorful

Italian Bersaglieri

as well as the belted, red

wide sky-blue or red crushed

either a

had an influence upon the American uniform

smock worn by

the Great Liberator Guiseppe

Garibaldi.

amount

certain

of laxity in dress

was permitted among the volunteer

western units where the preference for headgear was for the

soldiers of the

slouch hat instead of the forage cap.

It is

well-known masculine

hat and in the volunteer units, those

men

trait to

be

fond of an old

felt

that peculiarity

were permitted to wear what they pleased which usually

meant the slouch

hat.

possessed of

Another idea which originated among the Northerners

and quickly spread, was the small patch of color or insignia device which

men

fastened to their hats or caps. Also to be seen were hats of

and shapes including summer


fatigue or field dress,

blue flannel,

In the
use

worn

straws.

among them

belted in

smock

Such pieces of

a good-looking tunic or jacket of dark

fashion.

many new and important mechanical

shoes in America, England, France and

made

for soldiers' shoes.

called the

McKay

shoes,

Germany.

there were

The army brogans

and "crooked

so popular that they

still

War

and the tremendous

or "fadeaways" as the troops

shoes," first

worn by

were eagerly adopted by

campaign along modern


to

neither

the fighting

civilians.

in 1851

was

a primitive piece of

but a wizard in accomplishment as compared with hand sewing.

machine

is

But

only two widths to be had.

The sewing machine patented

tising

into

A severe test of the machine-

proved amazingly durable. "Straights," that

rights nor lefts, disappeared

men, became

came

inventions for the manufacture of

shoe occurred with the outbreak of the Civil

demand

came under

attire

half of the century in this age of machinery there

first

colors

all

women

lines

was necessary

to

mechanism

No

adver-

introduce the

new

throughout the land. With the need of thousands and

thousands of uniforms the Government purchased the hand-cranked machines

and loaned them

free to

sewing

the outfits as a patriotic duty.

circles

and anyone willing

The manufacturers with


59

their

to put together

newly acquired

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


knowledge of

and measurements prepared

sizes

returning soldier. Having

worn

vast stocks of clothes for the

machine-made uniform he knew the

the

advantage of machine-sewing over hand-stitched clothes and not having to

made

wait weeks for a suit to be

up. But he did insist that the creases be

would not

pressed out so that the suit

reveal

its

ready-made

After the war, epaulettes, sashes and the dressy, black

wear and shoulder knots

for general officers'

period was the white cork helmet

wood

tree

and

worn by

first

made from

the British

Army

were issued

to

the

dressy,

Very

in India.
it

in this

light in weight,

proved an insulation

summer wear with white

armies, United States included, took to copying the


cially

New

the pith of the Indian sponge-

French defeat

troops. After the

all

hat returned

felt

for other grades.

covered with white cotton and faced with green,


against the hot sun. In 1879, uniforms for

origin.

spiked helmet which hailed

at

trousers

Sedan, the western

German

originally

uniform, espe-

from Denmark

in 1850.

An

innovation in army dress of adjusting to climate was inaugurated by

the British in the Great Indian

Mutiny of 1857-8 when they clothed the

native troops in khaki, an Indian-made cloth of cotton, wool, worsted or

linen or combinations of these fibers.


field service

uniform though

Khaki was not

available

it is

when

and the regular army went

The term khaki

Hindu word

which was worn by

commanded by

became known

as

trousers

felt hat, called

campaign

all

to the point

a unit of expert

Colonel

"Rough Riders"

and leggings,
the

in their sports shirt with

of cotton,

Hindu word meaning


strip

wound

turned-down

and the broad-brimmed khaki

War

in

which the

British

wore

suit the climate

as well as clothe the wearer.

the last years of the century.

woolen

horsemen and marksmen

world that the uniform must

Puttees, also a first of this era,

was the cavalry canvas

hat.

to the military

and must camouflage

broke out in 1898

Theodore Roosevelt. These men

In the following year, the South African

khaki proved

War

into the hot climate in the heavy, dark blue

organized and

collar,

to describe

signifying the color, dusty.

the Spanish-American

uniform suffering great discomfort. More


stable dress

come

has

They

were worn

Anglo-Indian

are of East Indian origin, the

a strip of cloth.

spirally

in the

from ankle

60

It

was

to knee.

Army

name

in

"patti,"

a legging consisting of a

r>/^-

United States Qrmcf


nineteenth Century

infanirymanblue coat a "d


breeches- red
facings an d
leg stripes-

yellow
buftons-

white lining,
cross bdts ^ n d
waistcoat-black
leather cap-

un'form of the

commander in
gold epau

cbief-

ler-t-es

with three starsblue Coat with

bearskin roach'
whi+e plurne black medallion
With eagle-

yellow buttons^
buff facings, collar,
cuff's Qh d breechev

guard

croppecf

boot's lined

natural hair-

red morocco, showing

brown g^iters-

at tops- Kev/enhu||er
cacked black hat'

knqpsack
b/anketcan+een-riflerolled

whifa plume-powdered
Wr- black baa -white
glomes- sword-

I8o2.l8i0

infantrymen -blue coateered collar


wh'te
b Li-ftons

an

cuffs-

'

belts-wr
black cf
beaverwhite pc

medal IT
natural

brown
gaiters
black

shoes'
knapsac
canteen
rffle-

18)0-181

off fee r'

blue coatee
with wings 'blind

buttonholes ^erring
bone design ^blue
I'ning-blach leafbeT

5ward belt worn over


red silk fringed,
sash-white bt-eeche:
black leather shako
with geld bra'd
a
"d eaq[& -white
plurne tipped redblack quard bootsSpurs a"d Sabre-'
1813 -1821

e,a DfoWes Urmy


nineteenth Gen-fury

>e gray
uniform 01

private-'
blue coatee

West

single-breasted

silver buttons
blind buttonhole S'llp-I

heavy
fatigue

bro/vn linen

Coafee-yellow
gilt bullet

buttons-

blacK. moroctisn

belt- black, silk

pantaloons

fep

d oaiters-

trie

Point Cadet-

ea\Uer stako^

cord Austrian knots-

4rouser5
side

with Turn. up tlapmetal Trontalleathe t braid,

*/.tn

seams

oratded

"d

under. strapsJefferson shoeSjanklehigh, three eyelets near

CV>rd **d rassel-

fnc -jps round black

buekstail pompon

haf, civilian stuje-

olack shoesknapsack- pouch-

cockade vsi'n
eayle-whife
qlOV^s- SWOrC^Si'lk

gilt

es nteen-rifle
"*d bayonef-

|8|6

8IH-

(l)es+ foint Cadet-'

gray cloth coatee


bkack braid

off ice*- blue

"d

u n 'tor m -gilt

buttons -gray
kerseymere panfoo^sj
gtH"

balle+pattons
embro'efered black

for winter- wbi-re linen

blind buttonholes

summer-red silk
fringed sash-black
Ujrher shako-l'r incl

tor

n lierr"np"bon
style -gilt

grau glovesJefferson shoes


bee description

above ,r""<jht-captain's chevronssabi-e'cut^d thrust


I8*.0

flr,

d
belt-over red silK
-fringed sashchapeau- bras-'
black cockade

epaulettes

plume-gilt trim-

with

gilt

white

eagle-

collar

tabs-

wh'te gbvesauard bootsSword 1820 s

"Lin '-fed Sttf+es Gvrruj


i n e-tec nth Ce ntu r 4

xp-

n
Ortille-ry

off 'carblue cloth

coatee

witriblacN\

im-gi|t butfons-;
gr<ag

kerseymere

trousersSword belt over

wrtilleru,

Coptain-

blue cloth coatee s'lver butlcns,


wings a,1 d chevrons-

red Silk sashblack stock-"Whte


collar labs-block

pleated, tails-

shako with gMt


trim q "d gellow

qraq trouserssilver belt over


red silk sash

pornpon-cjierskir
gauntlet's- singlegreatcoat-gil*

ffed oft right 5ide'


black shako'

buttons- tirstarrny

Silver trim ^nd.

breasted griy cloth

uellow pompon--

Overco<3-M8Z.8

gr^y

gloves-

MXo's
quartermaster generalblue uniform-gilt
-trim-

buff

Shjrt

lining-white collar
fabs'tfiauillertes-

black ^dgilf beltOver red silk fringed


sash -black. bicome
(chapeau bvas)^
l(jbr blue coa feathers

-black
coc-kadewhfte gloves-

"d ribbon

swordI

8 32.

if

U n.'ted

Sfotes Q-rn^
H n e +e e nth C n +U

dress

dreSS'

of a 'West Po'ntergray c'ofh coatee

n UJar-

fatigue

a "q

an d trousers'
gilt buffons
black blind
buttonholes
stripeS'black

in

trooper
short blu e

jacket- light
blue trousers'

yellow stripes n d

leafier belt a "d

cne vrons-wbite
belt-blue cap

pouch -red silk


sasb knot -white

wi+h block visor-

blanket rollknapsack'

onef belt-'
blackcap of

btfy

r'fle-bayonet-

tarn- o-sha nfer


influence -IS 30 's

)8fus

campaign dress-mapr general


blue unifcrm-S*l\/eT
buttons- frock coat-^
black velvet collar
ar,
d frouser
;uffs
seam welts'Shoulder

straps -+wo silver


stars- black leatKer
Sword, belt over

buffcolored sash-^
blue cloth forage

eap-blacK
Sword-

-"S^r-

18+o's

dragoon'
foot' or mounted'
short blue jaeketv
Ifaht b'ue trousers
with yellow stripesvNhffe belts- forage

cap

wi'th

bano|

'

yellow

privileges

of the dragoon-long
hair mus^achios,
e a r rnrujS, neck ere

Wf

pistol* ""d

5,<ibre\

'-?

TV^

corbme-

i8tO's

United 5+ates Grmy


nineteenth Century

dragoon'
field officer

heuJ sloucn

black felt' CO
infantryman'
right sideorderly-sergeant'
by gflfeaglecoat
blue frock
with

Saxony

blue-

gilt

cord arou

crowri'three
trim d epaulettes'
ostrich plum
black leather sword
leff slde-bl
b<?|t averred
an

fringed sash' da rh

blue cross belts'


light blue trousers

jacket wftb
trTm- black
belts- light

trousers
w'th green welts'
black shako- Sa*ony
blue band d

850

-co.

pompon-gilt eq <3' e '

sword

'

|8f0

infantry
f'rstse'geai
blue-

cloth

chasseur coat'

summer

full

with

full shir

adjufan-t-

ilHnm-

Cadet-Unlt

'ae chevrons

IDilffary

Academy-

gray cloth coatee


with blaek- fjrald
6)ye.tran knots'

light

\i trousers-

black, leather
belt over re

gilt

buttons-black
chevrons
red fringed sash'
white sword belt'

black leathe

qh d yellow

boy'Cartr'dg
box In back'

whTte turn-iver collarblack shako With


coq ftfafhers- white

poiinpon'rifle
a

linen
15

hroasers-

JO's

shaKo'gilt eag
blue stripe a *

bayonet

swordS50'3

f^-rw

United States C^rrou


O'neteerith Centura

Qr+il'eTijmci

dark

blue

\ackzA

cl

stripe

edged wtn
gilt epaule
a
"d bu-H-ons

black lea+Her
w'tVi g'lt

bu

ghf blue tv OU5


eated in cb

with red sfr


pompo^'gill'

saber

vu'tri

leather srra
IS50'5

nto

r\fru

capfain-blci&

uhitorrr:

tr*m-uDstar>d.'ng
white collaf-ltght

v/v'+K g'lt

blue ground m
shoulder str-aps
""d trouser
welts 'bloc K
leather belt w'th
sv*

ord cham

0\er red frtoged

sasb^gilf
eagle buckle'
black felt

hat
cocked wifh

corporal'

3 Trt

blue cljtn

sack coat or
t6mc-+'urried"dowr)
Collar-

l860's

li'ghi"

blue frou

ers-

dark blue welt


blue Tor age ca
black learher
wai'sf" be

Cross

lb

belr-o-H)'

canvas- pojch

knapsack
blanker
a

roll

^d Canteen"

nfU

e-a^Je-

c>strfch
piurnes-

a "d

bo-i/one-)^

l8bo's

f=?

^v

ConfederafeXStates Qrt
1861-1865"

x/olonteer
amy cloth
frock coat-bla
bra\d blind

buttonholes
collar of vaujfn

lieutenary

color-

colonel-gray
buff color collar

li'cjht

Elu

clorb trouse

clo + b -frock coat-

wero aver

a h^

leather boots-

Cuffs-gilt bartons^
I'aM blue trousers-

earher

le aJ-her strap belt


an d boots-buckskin
gauntlets-olacK ^M^ra^

belt'

kepi-

kepUblae'Qrotj
overcoatSapre

eohnel a *a leader
of a band of
independent
ro'ders-' simple
dress ofgray cloth'

short jacket^
w'tb gf a y brcu'd!
CJustrfan Knot's'

leather boots
under frouserS'
felt bat wftb
ostrich piurme
rff

id silk

brigadier

commandetgraq cloth
coat-

frock
gilt

buttohS'oJIV

braid iQustrian

knots 'black
leatner belf'
light blue clotk
trousers o^er
leather boofS'grqy
3

"d

black kepi-

[bucksk'n gauntlets-

Sabre

)J|5^

^r*

band

m
Confederate

'bt cites Orrr\u

1861-1865

member of
Independent

companuara u uniiox
red tr'm
qn d shapes - whf fe
vs'-t-h

Canvas

belts'

red Kep'rifle

q,

>d

Sabre

farmer
volunteer'

gray uniformleather belts felt slouch

hat with
featbeTkriap-sacks-

canteenbuntinq knifenfle

Confedereife officer
pre'Civ/H War
uoiforrrr dark
blue frock coat
ari d tYousers'
black co||ar,cuff
"in

stripes a "d

shoulder straps-^,
blue kepi^
black leathe
be It Over red
tasseled

sash'
revolv^rsabre-

knapsack'
canteen

Zouave
fcrnr
brown
jacket with

kjni

red tr'm-

red

sh'rt'

red kepi w'


blue tassel'
blue a,1 d wh
striped rick!

pantaloonsblack leath
belt over

wrapped re
cloth sash
leather gal

blanket

roll

knapsack'
Canteerv
r.'fk.

hunting kni

Un'^ed States Qrmu,


nineteenth Century

major geneva
blue uniform'

uniform
blue "id

black velvet
a
collar d cuffs
white stand -up

b|ue bolero
iacke-t v^itVi
i*
red ttpplique"*

brown
|||;
Russian leather (==

collar-

blue girdle "id

sash end edged


iTghf

bloe-black

fe*
le other straps-rea
(chechloj-blue fass
red

buttons-

^Ilt

red-

&

belt,

svv'ord:

f^

steel scabbard-

an
d
straps-

boots

black fait
slouch bat with

bloomers-

white gaiters-

a'l-t

leather pouch

cord-

SbO's

""d knapsack'

cava
cavalry o^'ce-r
cam pa'gn dress

ip

the Plains-buck ski


-run'i-, self

-fringed

buckskin

gciun-tle

light"

blue breeche

black

-Felt

slouch

hat- black leathe


boots h d beltneckerchief -for
heavjj
use >n heavy
dust' rifle
^"d Car
beltlS TO' 5

y|

Iry

mtfn-

blue tunic

wth

yellow tr'no-l'ght
blue- trousers with
yellow stri'pes-sp'ked
b|ack,yel|ow- plumed,
black helmet of
Danish origin (.185-q)g'lt ornamentation
dfid

long gilt

cords aftached k
a
5lde ^cf ending
in

medallions

q nJ, -kassels In

neckblack leather
belfs'COrbfnesabre -

front at

870

Un'ied Spates Qrtr\y


nineteenth Cen^ory

oadet-adjuha nt-

otmted States
iTirlr+arijflcrt
-full

demj-

dress

uniform- grqu do+hb^Horisturned-dcwn li'nen


gilt

collar- black

braid
knots

6?i(stir"ar>

d trouser

shoes'- black

Rams
campaign
dress 'blue

blouse

or

Sack

coat-a*lt buttons
fght blue breeches

flr,

uellow chevronsFringed red sasholacK shako with coq


leathers built up oT
tnre plumes- SwOrd
wi-th steel

scabba.rc|-

l88o's

with red

st"pe5-

black -felt slouch


hat- black leather
"
belt h d boots
leather gauntlets'
si*

-shot revolver,

sat)T2

carbne

"d
[r\gt

shown

ISTCs

full

dress pljs

unnorm-D ack
vskef collar ""

Summer

tat.gue

dress- fnfarrtrUj

quartermaster
sergeant-blue
blouse or sack coatITghfer blue

+ rousers --white
trouser stripes
a

"d chevronswhito belmetlgao'5

cuffs -white Ifnen


u' .-button
- D'^ck
nod gold striped

paulettes

+ wOrn jvr gold

sash fesseJcd 4n d
ried lettsiae
giltdiguTlettes
ed ""d looped as
rescribed-Sword i\oc\< chapeau bras'
ostrich a nd ribbon

tnpe -cockade of
a
gilt "d pleofed
black ribbon1880 'S,

I,

2-,

3 grecrfcoatS'dark blue Helton

clo+h Ailack silk


Gusrrfan knot's-

United States (Army

Dfnefeen+h Cen + ury

J a *d 3,lersgH,

be+ween
kne&^ n d snkle3, betted back'
H^enl'sfea man
in French
blue -cape
kolfvv/cuj

Ifnmg
orange'
length
+0 boo

top-

Sword
Sl"rap

enters

back
ven-f-

Rough

Hrde-T

^avalrcjrncin in

Uh^Kr carw/as
Stable dressf'rst uniform
of +he Tatrioas

regi'menf- carried

carbine ""4
sfv

shoo-i'eir-

898
-\r

miarnrofman'
Spanish dmeucan

War-dark blue
clo+h hin'c-breeches
French blue-khaki
-pelt slouch hot'
khaki,

canvas

Odl-ters-leather

bel-ts-cortndcjZ
\>e\t-rf\e-ba<jOnet-

knapsack

qfl d

blanket roll'

French

bN

ov/ercoa+'cape
'ned red flannel'
c?g<3

/S
Oll'oer wearin g

jkfi

new cap -dark blue


q *d gilf

-WTm-

dflrk blue
w'tti gl H"

-frock

coaf

braTd

Gustr\ar\ kno+%
q "d

shoulder

k no/l's ' +ro u 3 ef5


Frenck bluefrouSer crease worn
ffvs+

Dlj

"TW

a'mij

fn the
n'neKes-le other
belt-sabre 18^8

officers

United S+ates Oa\/u,


nineteenth Century
1-180?)

officer'

dress
un'tonr Witt>
k bicorneblue cloth

designs in lapels
navy blue a "d gilt

coatee wWh<juf'ack learner


'

t-blacksllk

black silk stocks-'


white lingerie s+ock'

stock -white sh'rtwhite waistcoat"'

wh'te skirt tabs'

watcb fob-ivo'te

cen-ter,pearl stickpin'

cloth pantaloons-

'.commodore

black leather

aj'eufenant-

hussar boo's-

3 'lieu tenant''

5 ibre

I8U

mormenavy owe pea ;jacket"wrute c/t1I pantaloonswh'te cvershir-k


wf+h black - sh>pe<4
collar- black si'lK
scarf- block leather

belt- hat 0? black


japanned shuw
ct leather
block sKcesT*f |e-bauonet'
I8IZ

jr

hoi-

iv^j + ner dre

w n?fe

cotton

un'faxm- blae
collar (A/'+h white

bra'd-black
necKerchi'ef'
black

japanned

straw hat- black


leather belt'
r rfk
1812.

r?

'

v^.'

United S
In

Centuv-y

collars a i\4 lapels-'

coromodoreblue coat w'-th


gilt-white collar
tabs -wril+e lawn

nav/L/

a ni/

black s/K cravat--

ribbon
jewel

wtt">

order

drawn through
bolf-fonhole'

8IZ

mcin ne

in

nflvtj blue

Commodore'

lacks

navy blue coa.f

w'th

with

-facings -while
shitt wa'sh'coat

gilt'

coat" fnu'slMy

hooked down
center front- /

cockade
with order
iewel18IZ

-I"

sccarle-t

d -trousers'

bu+tonS'
black leather hat
g?|+

with blacK ribbonneckerchief'


black leather
a
belt *d sbo<?sptf ir of revolvers
in leather holster

black,

U8I3

navy

Ca pfd incoaf
t'whlte

blcie

w'th gi
lawn collar ar>d
vest folds 'black
|

silk

s-fbekffl3

capta> n

Summer

in

dress'

blue cloth coatee

with gilt-whi'te
trousers-Vvhte
wa'stcoatlinger'e }cibotbl<xck silk stock-

black leather

commedorenavo) blue coaf


with gilt'
whTte lawn

belt With sqbre-

Collar-

Chapeaa brqs^
watch fob-

\j&<of

black shoes'
IfflH-

*d

tabs-

ribbon wf-fb
order ?ewe

drawn
through
bound slitS/f-

Un'+eel States Dctytj


Hi ne-teenth Ce nturo.

blue jacket

in

summer ou tfl

f-

netvy blue'

doable breasted

when
officerr\avu.

blue

bouble brec
trock coat

with

gilt'

white wflist

KqKtblue
trousers-dor
blue forage
cap- black
shoesIS30

's

so'Iots dre^s

becoming more
uolforn)-

otnamentdl
touches of vtars.
"d anchors added
by wearer-Some men

fl

sewed

well- blue

locket an d
trojsers' whife
Shfri w'+K light
blue collar q "d

uesfee-blacksilk
neckerch'efblack straw
hat n.th
black ribbon
l83o's

batrorxJd-

white shirt wi+h


bra'ded irooX ap4
Collar(notrnsignia)-

black silk

neckerch'et-wide
bottom trousers'
str ci w haf with
blue ribbon
edcje an d

band

I830's

Unlfed S-lafes Davy


Dine fee nth Century

marine-navu,
blue coateeg'ltepaulettes'
red ah d gflt

ConirOodore>v ^ blue
r

uni'torm"
double-breasted
pvock coaf
wf+K gfltblock leather
be.|| -gil+

buckle-

forage

blue

capsvjord-

l84D's

coIUt a d

in

cuf-fs-

red closure edge

wh'+e canvas
buckle5'ridvy D|ue||
striped, I'gbt
blue

h-ou5ar&-

black shako-g'lf
eaq\e Qn d jfbbon
band-reel

pompon-black
shoes-trfle ISH-O'S

^r

acting
rrud

ship man
blue

'.7

umtoYin^ajlT'
rrvfilsbipman^
navq blue co^^e-

buttons^
anchor rnotnS on
collafwh'te
shfrt- black
g

ri-!"

s'l

ci-cu/ah-

whfte

bu-t'r-ons-bl^ck
s'lk cravaf-

whfte shiYt
collar -tabs-

blue borage cap'


black |ea+ber

punips-

clr

bowsers - straw

'/

8 s-o

hdt w'-tb blue

ribbo^ ba r\dblack shoes(8H-

r-T vV

United Stages T)a^


Dineteen+h Century

admiral'

navy Blue
uni-Form

with ^i Ifdouble -breasted


frock eoatwhite collar

tabs-black
cr^vatblue kepi

s IK

with gil+block leather


belt-sabre" officerI860's navy blue
ur> for re-

double -breasted
-Frock Coat
iA/ith g T -+"
I

white collarblack leather


bell- blue cap
with g"|+>
i860 -s

foil

front-

3buttor>52 pockets
in belt

sailor's wiofei*
dress- unfform
'"d p'e cap in
nav/ii blue cleth-

wh'te braid

or>

marine
icerb'ue

collar- b'ack silk

o-f-f

neckerchieFtyousers laced

navu

in

back-Mck

leather sword
an d cartridge

frock coaidouble-brejs
gilt burtor.5-

bov-'e volver-

blue velvet"
collar- d|u

1860

white epaulette
white canvas

belT

's

belt-leather
Cartridge boxblack snako
w.'th gilt "id
red pompom Sword a,>d sabre
_iJ

Confederate States DaviJ


IS6i*i865

lis

>

pictures at '
Con federate
sa'lors are
rare-4he wfnter
(

uniform was

Ibp'ranking
cap fain-'

gray

ot

gray flanrie
wth black

black
neckerchfef q id

p'le-hat,

tip'form-

frock COato^&r shoes'


summer dress
short jacket'
whfte
gray forage CQp'
piacK trim tlrick shoes

JL
r

5ti

to

lor With sponger


swab +he gun
I

after each
grOLj clo+h
breecnes--

_J

~^r

-fi've-

shnrt probably

black a r>J qray


black cap,
nee kerch'ef
shoesbelt q

ba.u of\et~

capfqin Jn
ppet of a
*
*
*
rata* nq cruiser
nondescript
unfform0ray -frock coat
i

*>d

troU5irs-

wh'-re srifrt'

black scart
a id shoes'

gray forage
cap

-Wj

Ginned States Davy


nineteenth Cenrunj

captain

in

pew

5kjle
unfforrn- sack
cOdt qr>d trousers
ofriavy blue

cloth-Collar
a nrf

edqe ofcodf

of flat t>l<ack

uniform of
navy blue cloth
with gilt"
black beaver
chapeau \>msblack cockade
aidgilt-aik-

mohafr braidailtslee ve
stripes-wni-re
cap w'th black

band

>d

vi'sor--

1890's

belt 'Vvhifi?
q/'oves--swoi'd'
6 90 s
1

sailor's

regulation

Wi.1

warm

weaHie''

are^s-w^ite
bleached drill'
ricivaj

6a

OverShirt,

black s'lk
ncckerch'ei-vvh
Cord Un'fe
Iqnijard'wniVa
bra.'d on coiljr

J,>

ricj

Opjmsn
American LtJjrnjvy bldd with

whUeblack J
ple cap -black s^[k
neckerchief -kn'fe
lanyard -rifle qn d
cjrh-ijje belt'

cup-

block ribbon baod-

black sho^sl890's

lor in

of the

cuffs-be ll-sbjpeJ
nuvjl trouserstvhite pic

riling

r?^V/

CO ffon Jjihjrs'
black shoes '
189?.

MILITARY

THE 20TH CENTURY


CHAPTER
THE UNITED STATES ARMY
in all

dress regulations, for the

uniform of khaki in

1902, included the

men

field

service

branches. According to the climate,

its

cotton, the color nearer green than

pattern followed the British


all

FIVE

that

model used

known

it

as

wear

was

first

time in

for officers

to be of

and

wool or

khaki. In design, the

in the South African

campaign with

overcoats and accessories matching in color. Buttons and designations of

and metal ornaments were

units

denoting

The

officers'

rank was

soft, civilian

World War

to be

to

be of bronze-colored metal.

worn on

and the smart black

was the handsome, wide leather


over the right shoulder.

insignia

the shoulder straps.

War

by the British

collar devised

The

Office just prior to

were noteworthy improvements

tie

by a narrow strap passing

belt supported

Sam Browne

This was the

as

belt,

sword

belt

designed in 1888 by the British General, Sir Samuel Browne (1824-1901).


Breeches came to below the knee with leather puttees for
gaiters for privates, or puttees of

such as were

worn

khaki cloth

in the Anglo-Indian

strips

officers

and canvas

bound round the

leg

Army.

For winter wear there was a double-breasted greatcoat of heavy woolen


cloth

and a new shorter coat of waterproofed canvas lined and collared with

sheep's wool.

khaki

felt.

cap which

The

Later, in the war, this hat

we

to the Scotch

pocket.

named

hat was that of the Spanish

War, the campaign hat

was replaced by the European

in

style

called the "overseas cap," a snappier-looking headpiece akin

bonnet or Glengarry.

It

Modern warfare brought back

could be folded and carried in the


the need of an "iron hat," this time

the "tin hat," a shallow helmet of steel with a padded lining.

World War
to enable

it

to

II

carried the

army deeply

into

all

kinds of

produce the proper kind of clothing


79

to

tests

and research

combat not only men

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN

COSTUME

and machines but climate and the elements. Cold, is a much greater problem

Army workshop

than heat and in the

in Alaska,

rigid

were given

trials

equipment, parkas, even the horses' snowshoes. Ski troops were uniformed
in all-white

and raincoats were worn

in artificial, wind-driven storms to be

proved water-repellent.

The
brown

army uniform was

color of the

Army

leather accessories as

russet color.

feminine

skirt

worn with

the garrison cap.

new

self-belt.

Museum

the

clothes,

It

a fellow officer,

had the

civilian

of the Military

General has since presented the

Academy

approved the blouse and probably for the very


life

famed "Eisenhower

deeply notched lapels and two large patch pockets. In a

wardrobe of other military


jacket to the

now became

overseas cap

was designed by

It

is

and the

the darker tunic,

military style was set by the

reaching to and fastening at the waist by a


collar,

lighter shade called drab

The

the darker jacket.

jacket" or, as the British say, blouse.

lay-down

worn with

used as contrast in the masculine trousers

and the

established as "olive-drab"

borrowed an American idea for


Officially, as of 1960, the

West

at

first

The

Point.

British

time in their military

soldiering.

Eisenhower jacket has been eliminated by a new

uniform in greenish-gray cloth with longer and more shapely tunic and

and

instead of tan shoes, socks

a very smart dress.

belt, these accessories are

news item

further that the United States


"fore

and

fashion.

aft" first

permanent trouser

Army

is

appeared in the 1890's

To match

the outfit,

become regulation United


men. Originally the

following

when

what was the

States

Army

British cap,

we

call

it

suit.

making

crease

The

and

said

trouser crease

British officers introduced the

officer's

"Class

black,

Belgium and some other

of 1961 stated that

European armies are making use of

now

cap in the

A" uniform

last

cap for

all

war has
enlisted

the Service cap, a good-looking

headpiece with braid band, brass-buttoned strap and leather

visor.

gilt disc

with spread eagle ornaments the center front.

Many

lives

have been saved by proper camouflage. Both khaki and

olive-

drab are excellent neutral colors for the purpose but each one valuable in a
different landscape.
suit,

one

side olive

So the

Army

concocted a chameleonic one-piece jungle

and the other drab,

Boots were another problem, as

it

to be used either side.

was found

that the Alpine boot of

heavy leather impregnated with grease was not satisfactory in Alaska. The
age-old

Eskimo boot

of tanned, dried leather with canvas top proved quite

80

MILITARY THE 20TH CENTURY


warm

perfect for the need because several pairs of

worn

socks could be

But the supply of caribou and moose of which the "mukluk"


far

from

sufficient to furnish

had

substitute

to

be found. Arctic

Another helpful

which

secret of

being copied

is

is

Army

the

felt

is

inside.

made was

with the necessary leather and a

worn by

boots are

Eskimo and Indian dressing

the stationary troops.

warm and

keep

to

the "layering of clothing," using several light pieces

The United

of underclothing instead of one heavy undergarment.

and

States

Canadian Armies work together on many problems, solving them in

joint

research.

For the
wardrobe

man who

to be

had

intends to

make

in formal, service

the

Army

and

field

his career there

uniforms but

if

is

he

a sizable
is

in the

Reserve or National Guard and enlists just for the duration of war he can
eliminate

all

Department he was permitted

Navy up

In the

to

to

use.

The

wear

and during the

of three classes, dress, undress

summer

War

During World

dress uniforms.

and

war, the

service

officers'

dress

is

The same uniform

is

for particular

epaulettes

formal

as

dress.

uniforms consisted

and white uniforms

for

blue frock coat with epaulettes and plain belt called for

blue trousers, sword and the cocked hat. This

worn

War

by order of the

uniform

his service

last

II

calls.

the dress uniform to be


for

undress except that

and sword were eliminated and instead of the cocked

cap was worn. This latter


martial proceeding.

At

vided, service dress

is

all

is

on duty or for

for reporting

hat, the blue

service at a court

other times for which special uniform

correct.

Whenever

ordered, mess dress

is

not pro-

to be

is

worn

at dinner.

Today, in the United States Uniform Regulations dated 1959,

and khaki,

that service dress uniforms, blue, white


for United States

Naval

or appropriate except

uniform
state,

is

officers

when

dress,

uniforms to be worn

at official

Aviation green
at

is

worn when engaged

Khaki

to

be

worn

when weather

at sea, at

prescribed

worn upon

occasions of

at

which

Evening

civilians

would

tie.

advanced bases when prescribed. Blue

within station limits

is

officers in their official capacity.

evening functions

normally wear dinner dress or black

stated

evening dress, tropical or working

indicated. Full dress uniforms shall be

ceremonies and solemnities by

is

are the basic uniforms

and the wearing of a uniform

full

it

in

to

work

at

aviation activities or

be worn on board vessels and

conditions warrant and

when

anchorage in isolated anchorages,


81

prescribed.

when engaged

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


in

work

when

or aviation activities or

only in hot weather

And

authority.

when

considered suitable and appropriate by prescribing

when engaged

dungarees,

nature would unduly

worn

prescribed. Tropical uniforms are

in

work which by reason

of

its

other uniforms.

soil

In the above regulations of 1959, the dress cocked hat has passed into
oblivion.

Noted

are the

cap,

visor

working cap but no chapeau bras

garrison cap, tropical helmet and the

after a century

new item formerly

Epaulettes too, have been supplanted by a

reminiscent of armor and

now

and a half of good standing.


called scales,

marks" which

just plain "shoulder

is

self-

explanatory.

Rumor

has had

commonly among

it

now and

the enlisted

then that the century-old

men

Only two changes have taken place


trousers the legs are

now

straight

is

pretty

broad-fall trousers.

poll taken

sixteenth

new

was

suit,"

to be re-designed.

since the last war, instead of bell-bottom

the same, even to the thirteen button,

among

the

Navy men

of the Atlantic

and

1956 brought out the fact that though some "city types"

Pacific fleets in

wished

"monkey

known

and the jumper has been shortened. Other-

much

uniform

wise, the

as

sailor's rig,

uniform, the majority preferred the British cut

set

in the

men

and which the American Navy borrowed. Most

century

thought the side pockets looked tacky and unmilitary, and considered the
broad

fall

front a better

fit

and more

traditionally "navy."

Navy spokesman

vote against a change, a

said

atomic-powered submarines and the supersonic

that

jet

those

Apropos of the

who man

the

fighters are surprisingly

conservative.

Interesting indeed

points or "aiguilletes."

though

it

was "points"

is

the heavy rope cord usually

We

gilt,

employ the French word

still

in old English. All

ending in two

for the decoration

through the Medieval Period the

fashion was to "tie with points" the various pieces of costume, male or
female, to fasten the waistcoat, hip-length stockings to the doublet, sleeves
to the bodice
it

was adopted

and
in

finally, tying

on

As

France during the reign of Louis XIII

1610 to 1643. Today, in our country


President at the

pieces of armor.

White House,

it is

a distinctive

a military insignia

who was king from

mark

of the aide to the

the aide to top-ranking state officials and the

aide to foreign high representatives visiting the United States.

It

is

portant insignia and the various rules to be observed in the wearing of

82

an imit

and

MILITARY THE 20TH CENTURY


the fourragere or both, are several pages long in the official

Army and Navy

Manuals on uniforms.
In the First
citation

World War

and was presented

the fourragere

became

a significant

and units which displayed

collectively to regiments

The

distinguished service or conspicuous valor in action.

round the

left

armscye by

is

worn

so honored.

have made a permanent place for themselves

Though

they have not taken part in active combat,

Army and Navy and

they have established their value as workers to

found too helpful

braided cord

women

In this day and age


in the military forces.

members

all

French military

Of

to pass by.

course, the

most

have been

and important

vital

service

has been in the nursing profession where they have been accepted for over a

many heavy

tasks.

For instance, in

handled not only the

office

work but

century but they have also proved adept in

women

a transportation set-up,

hauled and drove both cars and trucks.

found

women

better than

work

fore considered to be the


in 1942 but in 1943 the

men

word

The Army and Navy have


some

in the execution of

of

jobs that

at

over-

times

were hereto-

men. The Women's Auxiliary was organized

was honorably

auxiliary

deleted, the

women from

then on being created full-fledged army personnel.

There were

women

in

uniform in World

Red

departments, Nursing,

Cross,

other non-combat work. But in


status,

War

Motor Corps, Signal Corps,

World War

dozen

in about half

Clerical

and

they acquired real military

II

nurses going directly from civilian to commissioned officer rating with

wardrobe of uniforms conforming


Until the

changed

last

to those of the

men.

war army nurses have always worn navy blue but they
Most

to olive-drab.

skirts of the First

too,

World War uniforms were

ankle-length, an incongruous length for military

work whether

fashionable

or not! Shoes were high and laced, serviceable no doubt, but ugly.

By

war

skirts

serviceable

but

much

them

had climbed

to the knees,

smarter looking.

The

suits

Oxfords were low and

and caps had a dash and an

that a top-ranking designer such as our

bocher furnished to the American


Forces in

World War

was during those

II

were

woman

much

years that the

still

the last

air

about

Paris-New York couturier Main-

in service.

Women

in the

Armed

envied by the feminine civilian world.

American nylon stocking was perfected

but,

women

by government decree, the glamorous hosiery could only be had by

It

in

uniform.
In general,

all

uniforms and accessories authorized for enlisted


83

women

are

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


same

the

worn by women

as those

women below

enlisted

when

from those

chief petty officers differ

and white, are the

Service dress uniforms, blue

women

In a few instances, uniforms for

officers.

in the United States Navy.

These

the wearing of the uniform

is

basic uniforms for enlisted

be worn on

latter shall

dress light blue


service white

uniform

is

for

warm

occasions

all

when

prescribed or appropriate except

dinner dress, working or a sports uniform

full dress,

of the officers.

weather.

is

The

not practical, and

is

service

generally substituted for

It is

during working hours when white

indicated.

may

be

designated as the uniform of the day.


Full dress uniforms shall be

men. Dinner

worn on ceremonial

dress uniforms are for occasions

occasions as

when women

is

officers

noted for

wear

ning or dinner dress uniforms. Gray working uniforms are worn in

when white

weather

of the day.

Dungarees

to

prescribed by the

the sports uniform or exercise suit, the use


sport for

which the

dress

And now we come


dress

to the

on which chemists and

successful tests in the

was

would be

is

warm

be designated as the uniform

worn when engaged

be

They may be

regular uniforms.

may

not practical and

is

eve-

in

work which would

commanding

officer.

soil

As

to

optional while engaged in any

appropriate.

many, many new inventions

scientists

in soldiers' service

have been working, some having passed

Korean War, 1950

to 1955. In 1950 a "wet-cold" outfit

issued to the G.I's fighting in sub-zero weather.

The undergarments were

covered by a water-repellent and wind-resistant field jacket with hood and

The high

trousers.
soles.

The

soldier

boots

worn over two

pairs of

was kept warm by making

woolen socks had thick inner

full use of the

body warmth and

controlling perspiration.

"vapor barrier" uniform which appeared in 1951, fashioned from pliable,

molded

plastic sponge, rubber-like

and about an inch

of underwear, provides an inner circulation of drying

thick, acting as a piece

and warming

air.

Be-

cause of the microscopic cells in the plastic, a soldier thrown into the water

with his pack becomes an unsinkable body. The idea behind the
the soldier

is

suit

is

that

if

doused, he can without changing his clothes, dry out quite

comfortably.

Armor
G.I.'s, in

returned to use in the Korean

War

being worn by Marines and

an armored jacket made of nylon and fibrous

the waistcoat prove that the Medical Corps


bat troops.

It

glass.

recommended

matches the combat uniform, dark green in


84

its

So successful did
use for

color,

is

all

flexible

comand

MILITARY THE 20TH CENTURY


Of overlapping, contoured

does not impede movement.


glass covered

with a special

fabric, the vest

made

equipment. Another vest was


All proved real

vas.

of

plastic plates of fibrous

became standard Marine Corps

aluminum and nylon encased

in can-

from

savers in stopping bullets at close range, slugs

life

machine guns and small fragments from bursting grenades which

is

it

said,

cause most casualties.

When

way

the Air Force got under

in 1907,

had

it

a long

name

as the

One

officer

"Aeronautical Division of the Signal Corps, United States Army."

and two

own

enlisted

men compromised

plane took place one year

to Aviation Service

but only thirty-five were

flyers.

it

By

its

World War

the

In

later.

and by then

the division and

had

fifty-five

of the Air Force, first called

its

name was changed

Harbor

in 1941, the Air

peak in World

WAC's and

its

planes and sixty-five officers

the time of Pearl

Force had grown tremendously, reaching

women

I,

mission in

first

later,

WAF's,

War

II.

in 1948

The

became

a part of the United States Air Force, the legislature integrating the corps

into the Air Force Structure.

While

this

book was being written in the Astronaut Year

American Astronaut made the

trip into

the most fabulous uniform of

all

of 1961, the first

Outer Space, there and back

He wore

time, silver blue in color, a full-pressure suit

custom-fitted to the individual astronaut. Built into the dress

ment whereby oxygen was pumped

into the

was an arrange-

garment circulating about the

body, maintaining an even temperature of seventy degrees.

Oxygen was

fed into

the helmet, the exhaled breath passing out through a vent in the helmet.
suit

was

also

The

equipped with a communication system.

This was followed by a

new

fabric for Space travel, a textile surfaced with

twenty-four carat gold to protect travelers into the

Unknown from

the fiery

temperatures to be encountered.

As

of 1962 the

all flights

list

of brave

men who

being successful; scores of

have orbited the earth has grown,

satellites

have been placed into an orbit of

the earth and capsules have been rocketed to the


are

now

moon and

beyond. Scientists

thinking of "Space colonies" and planning well-equipped observatories,

even way-stations for the travelers, and they say that such plans will
hard-shell suit of coat-of-mail to protect the
vehicle or

working outside on

opment programs cover

spaceman when riding

a platform or a station.

wide range of technology which

ing the frontiers of science and knowledge. In


are

becoming

Thus

reality.

85

fact,

call for a

inside his

research and devel-

is

constantly enlarg-

the most fantastic dreams

Twentieth Century
(JJorld (Oar I

United States

U.S.
qeneralp

uniform

.P

Ol

olfve-cirab clo+hSar Browne ben,

boots, belts

"M

cap v'sor ot

brown lea-Cher'
bronze buttons
a,

"nsiqn'a-'

dress sword

West Point
CadeT pr ivate"
unifbrrnray cloth'

Field
,3

gray uncocked
campaign hat'
black scarf
campaign belt
of canvas russet leather
shoes 'blanket
TOl"-rifle
1911

l.

Twen+'eH'h Century
UOorld UJaxI

"^

Utn'-ted Sta-f-es

Cdncidiao
aviator

in

khakf
MnifoTlT)-

brow

ieofher

belr.glo^e s>
ar
shoes>d

SpiVal parteeS

kUkr

*><J

whiYe
cap--sw'd<?4 er
sffck

_J
jecorated U.5,(3riij

ace

<aviator--

ol'vedrab

un'^OrnT cap

viso^Sam Browne
3

bdt, glomes ^d
ffeld boofs
i-usset' colore

leather^
wii n
Topcoat"
C
'P.

aid

U.S.

Mnn^

oft'oei S
5 hcrf over coa f'
olf\/edrab cloth

Ifned q *"i collared

w'th moutooU a iT>b)welted pocketsbelf of self-fa br'c-

russef learner
put-fees Qh d

shoes

'

bronze

bur fons-oliVe-dra b
campaign hat xirh
nbbon ""M cord

igW

wenKet

n Centura
OJorld a'arl
United States

U.S.
Sfll'lor in

U.S.
Infantryman'

'blues'"
wh'te washable
CaD' whi'tebrJid on

olve '>clrab
uniform ^sprd
pu-Hees 'brown
,

collar-

black

leather belts

silk

"d

shoeS'Ccinvas

necKerchi<?T'

blqck

leather

cartridge belt
case holding

iJ

^s mask-stee

sho^ a

helmeNrifle

U.S. Marine

M.S.

in

olTve'dVab
jni'form

datj blues

"

navy blue

jchi'nfi 3l

funic

u cap-

Frencii blue

fro users

.impawn
canvas be

with

red stripe

black sboes-

"d gaifers.c irtn'dge beif'

canvas b^l f
bayonet'

t>rown woolen
glco/es-vus-sef

with

riFle

lea+ber shoes'
boi/onet

vV

Twen-f i&fh Century


OJoyIc) O)or I
UnHecl Srafes

Umericen

U. O-CUornen's

Red Cross-

Ot?|f-defense

Oxford gray
uniform-

ed marks

army

feugueTrdned-

knaki uniforming

on

campaign ha

Colldr-whRe
blouse- Y&d
scarf-wlafre
coflon gloves

\-

Wr>aW blouse '

black scarf-'
ca

Oxford 5 r ay
overseas copblack, laced
shoes

m/as aa\ ters brown shoes

\T)aroe-tte of the '(J5 ofgv-ial Co rpsU.S.fttanne Corps' ["Yenclvspeak


a/I

khaki'

operators

over se asIncluding navu blue


uniform

blouse ^id u Diforrnscurf --brown sf'raw or felt


qloves an d hat "n season
shoes gray glove-sblack,lac.ed

shoesbrassard
on arm

-w^

Twen+'eft Ceofaru
COcrld CU^t J
Ginned Stores

Our-se

tJfrriLj

Corps-

form ot
navy biue-

Lin"

full

lenqth

COatover d
mannish

suii-

whrTe, collared
blouse- blue
straw sailor
|

oLSolDavLj

Purse Corps
overseas
nsvij blue
uniTorrnn at, blue
-felt
in

or straw

season-

Ko+- blue
yTbbon baridCjray glomes-

blue rfbbon band


whfte blouse-

Iace4, black

gr<2<^

Shoes

blue scarfgloVes-khaWi,
bu-rtooed garters
blac k sboes

_7

U.S.

MeomaneTte"qin oT fHe

WAVE'navL)
blue unnorm
U.S.

"nalud'ng

Li)o man's

cap,b!ouse
q
scarfgray glovesblack
shoes

ID otor Corps
kKak! cimform
"inc|ad*ng
ah d
ca p, blouse

scarf -cap
v'so^belfs,
gloves ^n^
puftees,njsset

eathev-dark brown

shoes
'vr_

.V

TwenKe-fh Centura
United States

a. 5.
ta nk driver
all

overalls of

5.

LI.

ski" UruTorrn

of the enlTsfecf

ma n- whTI'e
For

Hiakf-

camouflage,

warmth"^ wafer
repellency-edged

th wolverine,
the only fur
thaf does not
frost- brown

zfppered funic
a *d trousers'
worn ever
u n^formheadqear, Ln'ng,
crash helrriet
d qoqqlesUrmy russet

shoes- pouchknapsack-rifle

Woolen miftenslaced white

browo

gai'fers-

rubber boot's

7
1

^r~
LI.

5.

n'qrvarf"+ude

bomber brown godtskin


suit

q>1

d Vielmet

lined ""d

edged

wfth alpaca
p'le.

-mouton

collar-zippeted
Jacket, inner
s'des oT legs
""d double
boot's- boot's ot

flesh, s'de-OLit"

leather-

lf"r\ed

qoatskm
gauntlefsgoqgles or.
helm et

a. 5.

bomberzfppe^ed
overalls of
oli've'drab

Jnsulafed

do

new pockets
upper v*th s
openings- low
ones on fraus

hooded

rnfft

of pile fabric

Wtfrmth-wm fa
a>jiat'oi\

333 let

boofs

postwar* designed
ur\^ortn for

combat

infanfryol'vedrab
eiol-b overa ilscreamcolored
shirt
z:

TwervKetn Century
CDorld COcrtl
United Sfabes

'

q id scarf-

ipper instead

of

buttons-

fl*"

my

russet shoes-steel helmet'


cartrfdge oelf
rifle q "d

bayonef19+9

field Un d service

uniform
olive -drub

cloth --famed

cJsenhower*

SHAEF

Combat jacket'
russet
shoes q *d beltgarrison cap
drab shivtb)ack scarf
lrrou

cold

weather

battle dress In

paratrooper style
worn over woolen
5k' rt Oidfrousers'

officer's re-gu

darkgreeo

service uniform^
+umc Olive -drab-

iosfa'e

buftoostrousers ot drab,
(light shade)drab shirtblack -scarfQrrnu russet
gilt

cap

Sam
belt

druwstrmg

Instead of beK'l

atqe

pocket

on each leg
lined sateen cap'
Combat boots,
flesh-side.out leathe

vfsor,
a

w^ter->

repellent" cotton

"id leahercuffs

Browne?
d shoes
_SL

^J

weirhetn Cenfury
UJorld G0ar#
CI. S.IDa v-foe Corps

Paratrooper
carrying

V)is

parachute pack
dress

erf

"JLeatbemec

green

-fabrfc, wi'id

To (,in*ToriD

for sh'pboa.rc|
duty -''Undress
Blues"' navy
blue funic*
French blue
irousers-'

water- repellentcrash helrnet'


tar- I'ned
rubber boots
nofe b'noeular

case

blue

a *d

wh'fe capblack
Shoes

V^

DLinne wearing gas m^sk


Tor cKarging through
a smoke screen
khak" cotton
combat dressi9ro

nOarina uniform
of olfvedrabbelf of self'fobri'c

Ifghtdrab sh'rt-

tlack scarf
""d shoes-

garrison Cap

ry~rvs^

'

Twen+iefF) Century
U.S. Oavy

bi'dqe coat'

navy

blrje

clo+K-g.'H-

bat-ton s-

welted

Coos) Suard
officer m
service bluewhile sWfrfblack scarf'
blue cap w'tb
black braid'
black shoes
gflf button

jackets- blue

cap wftb
bla c k bandblack vTsor-

wK'te

sk'rt"-

black scarfbid c k

sHoer

sleeve marks'
llavy-star'

Coatf Suard-sbTeld

5-

I'-fc-

officer
preserver

qreotcoaf-oavy
blue water. proof
*
cotton da bard ne,

officer
naval av"o+on
ork'nq, un'forrn
foresfVu green

1 rrfe

keep
wearer afloat

for 72 fours'
blue firoarers *
blue cap w'-tb

ffon orelasfiaue

cap
match
itcn'nq

cov/er to
'
,

rl'riedA) one

bat-tons -to

sh'rf of

black
black

lighter

fab n'c -black


scarf- black
sleeve stripes

brown shoes

r?-7
~~C\*\'

bqnd '
shoes

"Twenfief h Centura

Q.W2

LUovId
United States
1

u.s,
Servic ordreSS

wh'te ufiiiorm-'
Cotton twi or
tropical fabric
gilt buttons1

U.S.,

cavjhy

wh'^ cap-blacW

officer's

band

un'form'
tunfc ^d cap

QK1 d

v'sor-

white shoes
with plain roe

of forestry greenbronz.e buttonsdrab Qfgrrt) breeches


**d shirt- black
scarf- cap visor

5am Browne

belt

Sr|

d semT-dress
boots of )rmy
russet leather

aflat of

officer

's

Tropica

uniform -khaki
a
Cotton shfrt id

Snorts-long V^ni+ted
Cotton socks-'
black scarf

rucked between
first ah d

secon

buttons-tan, p'f n
helmet lined w'tk
green-shoes of
Qrrt\\

T"^

Undersea*

U.S.

flmy

i^/

russet

ServTce
(submarine)

Cflpjumper

hd

trousers of white
cotton twi
navy blue welt
"rij dolphins
on right- sleeve
black sflk_

neckerchief
3& inches
square.blaak shoes

leather

ifvvj

Twe rrf

"

"tnC'en-furu

World W<ar^J

u.s.
r\a v/al

officer

?n

United Stafes

-transport" Coaf-

bTOwn goa-takm
I'ned w'th

alpaca
edi^ecl

pile -

and

wfth
stitching-

-r'ni'sVied

rnoufon collar

z'ppered
closure on
right s'dC''
z.ppered
dispatcb
poc ke-t on
chests
self- bell"

S C/lrrriLj
Corporal-'
Cl.

overcoat
-trousers "^A

qo r son
cap or
r

a I've- drab
cloth-grit

buttonsli'ghf drab
sVi'rt- black
5carf--fztn

canvas gaffersQrmj ru ssef


shoes 'woo
gloves

J
U-5. Army

the popular Urmy

m an

offi'cer's

poncho

of nylon i/vhfch
served as tent,
raincoat,
fox hole cover,

ground sheet
or bee)

roll'

boots of fleshSide our


leather with
leather cuns

Trench

roof- adopted
from rhe Sr iti
wtfter-repellen
a nd windproofof tan twill
Or qa\^a vdme'

removable
wool I'nfng-'

Self-fabn"

belt'
leqther

buckla-

bone
buttons '
gunflan
right side
o^

chest

rr-

./;

rwercfte+n Centura;
Lrjorld

OJarjr

United SfafeS

(Jrmy Corps

Corps
nurse-

wa shable
un'tcurm ^d

olve-drab"

blue woolen
cloth cape-

Orpnu ru S set

shoes

clor"h-fasfened
<sf neck by hooks
Qf

M eyes-ches+ by
black frogs -wriffe.
shoes ^"d

sfockmgs

ir

VM

AF5-

Ciux.f

-steel

he m e t

lA/i^n

m<3rcori

uniform

cargo pockerskkak' get' tei-s-

cap-dark

\\ned

nurse
field

Kary

Ferrying

Squadronbrov^n god-tskin
hood
Suit q
lined q "d

edged with
alpaca pilemoufon collarz.ippered jaaKet,

COomen Myers

inner sides OT
legs Qh ct boot'slower legs of
flesh- side-out
lesther-mdfch'n^

of Orner'caoveralls of
olfvedYqb ciofn
or coffon-'Cred

gauntlets q,W
boots- goggle 5
on hood

russet shoes

hood-

CiTmiy

CI.

5.

Twen+ie-t'h L'en+mru

drmy

Hjr5e Corps YeguUffon officer

(JOorld U0ar&
Cnted S-tafeS

overcoat'- o|fve-

drab clorhover ane-p'ece

whife unrform'

qatri5on Cap^
wh'te shoes
"^d stockings"
brown woolen (*$
gloves

5. UrTK-j

lOurse"
ol iv s d ra ta

unfform
rep 'd ced

tan snorf

^d

scarf-

brown learner
bag an d sKoesfghr brown
1

nylon sTock'n^s
new a ^d avafltfble
onlcj fo

women

Hie
(Jtm&d harces
fn

U. 5. Havy
Purse Corps-

navy

blue

Red Cross
Fi'eld

COcrker-

Un'form a
pie cap
black r'bbon

keadbandgTJ-r

LOelfare Service
-for

sold'evs here

a "d

abroad
brown clo-t'k

-*

buffons^d

sleeve sK'pe*wh'-fe shirr-

bl^ck scarf
^d shoes

unfform ""M
cap"
brown shoes
"d baj

cjarv lion
fl

"

v^/.

Twen "Tie+b

Ceoturu

UOorld UOartf61 of -ted Sfaies

Groencdn

Women's
Voluntary
Services-

mccoR--

dark blue
uniform-all^
buttons'blue hat

Reserve'

w'+b sTmula+ed

form of
oli've green

.white bowknof'-

clot-h-green

wWte sh'r+'blue

urn

3carf-br jwn

Cop with

cord a **d
sTK/er insignia'

5noes purse bel+

reel

Orrnt^ vussef

cotton gloves'
brown moccqs'n
s-fcj|ed shoes'

bag a id shoes'<gbt

""dstrap-whHe

brown

nylon s-Hockfo^s

-fan

nujo^i

stock/ngs

J.
U)omen's utrm
duxrl'a rq

Corps"
cap qn d tun'
of olTve -dra

woolen cloth
skfrfot dra
shiVf <*M
5carF Of
befge cofton
glove's

Shoes

id

flrmy russe
leafber

U)0VSUlomen
Qopo'rited Tor
Uolur,teer

Omerjencu
oerv'ce--

Summer

uniiorrn

wh'rg With
navu blue

accinfs'wlnter
Uniform a|l navy
blue w'th vvh,*te
laccen+'s-gnt
bu-rtona'whfte
shTrr-blue 5carr
wh'te gloves for

both t nicirrYi6'blac.k
Shoes for blue dr^ss
i

R>-t\.~y

:-t-h Cenfotru
w^nffe-t'h
Cc nQ cIim n

960%

Cjnadfan

Rj^al

dJrisS'

bfown

.dark

khak?

clot"h-

\c\fab shfrt''

bTOwn

SCJrf-

skfn belf
H/f+h jiH'-

djrk

bl>JS

cap-brown

leather
_

e 5 ""^d

wren
officer dF fhe

OS 'Women's
^cujl Canadian
Oaval Serv'ceJh
a
LU!d U)arJl

(jORt

preserrt'lu-' -'3Vy

black 500 rr,

black s'lk
sfockfrujs

"
r 'the

-\Oyal

(Slack LOa+ch)
k.lt-cj.HMac^buH-uns
n d shoulder cinains^
O.jc * r'bDJri */ftri

j-jse-f+es

on

ki

If-'

Ahfte belrs-

porran en white
qoatsk'n
S

wi'-Hi

gil+top

"id

buck

tj

=els-

3 a. moral cr
3; ^.'

oonnai

W.'-T.

red

+u ft- blue *wj


re4 hose wfth
rea rtpbo"

^arfer e nds>'
gaffers
b.ack shoes

v\rw"'e

rti

..--'

and

i^ea,

me n

or of the
f-^oyo

Canadian Havy-

njtj blue woolen


uniform-'
black silk
neekerchfer'
knffe Ijnc^ard3 undershirt

ejiej

wff h blue'

wh'te cap w'Yh


black rtbDJnrjlock shoes

Iwentfe+h Century

Canadian
of the Cameron
Rfohl a riders of
Or-t avja-

Roqol Canadian
flr~F"orce

of-ficei"
u mforni or
slate blue clothself bd+-

one-p'ece
bat^eckesS'
slate blue clo-th
canvas belt'

gilt

blue 6almora

bu+toio='
Saddle- bag
>d

cap-red
pompon'ulack
leathei shoev
cloth

buckle

qr

^"d bellows
pocke-te^

puttees

whi'te Srifrt-

black scarfblue capblack shoe-s-

I9>r0

A
a

uniform tJI" the


Royal Canadian
mounted. Police-'
scarlet tunic with

w re>n"of the
*

/unacban
Somen's Roual Oc
5erv/"ce-UJRCr)S-

navy blue uniform'


'
vv hite blouse
black scarf-

s'lveT button5black breeches

with brilliant

blue Balmoral'

yellow stripes-'
a,,
black coUar 4
shoulder marks

black ehoes-

he'je felt hat


with brown
rfbbon bandbrjwn leather

bltfck silk
stock" n a, s
i960

belf ) ca*+r"dg
c,,1
Cd5e
d
ffeld

boots-

D'ack. leather
fiolster-whfte

holster cord

V_

_-/L

TwenKe+h

Ce-n+uru.

(JnHed Spates
\c)6 0'<d

Qrmy
Green

Qnnu
tin

uniform for
winter seas
wool serge

\an

norm

or

To

Summer season'
0"f

sh'rf of 61 r

Trop'cai

shade ton,

worsted with
block accessories

broadcloth
sewtce
cap-blacK

cap- black
I'nect

witli

green

cotton,

poplfn or

-tan service

visor

wool

gabardine

tan

accessories

leather

military

oaKceUrmij

jreen

or

Ovrncj Kkaki'

uniform^
service cap
w"|h white

Clrmy Khaki
U niTorrn

cover 'whffe
cotron glovesblack scar-pblack leather

-TO r

summer season
Cof too unfform
-twll-g,omsor>

q
bel-t"d
shoulder straps
F'rsrafd black

cap to marcnri'bbecl.OriTicj

kViakr cotton

socKs-block
leather belt
"*d shoes.

leather pouchk leather


pol'ct? clublaniard- p'sbo
Qf
shellsblack combat
serv'ce hoofs

\>\ac

vy

sntTeth Century
United States
Space Su fts

early
pressure
pressure
envelopes r'ne
bjjj in an
arKffcia'

sui+ of
alarruni

__

z&d
nylon *d
rubber^
a

environm&nt

1^4-8

for h'gh a.'rrtude


195-5-

full-

ressure

suit

insulated
to

temper^f JT

keep

ionfrol,

the

an d
a pressure

oxygen

Gstronaut
at 70

degrees' vtjJ

System
are furnished
by a pack

en back-

i960

THE COLONISTS
I6TH AND I7TH CENTURIES
CHAPTER

AND NOW TO THE SETTLERS


the vision of a

of the

new homeland where

SIX

New

as they chose, build a future

From

Europe they came.

had

to

parts of

work but

Much

and perhaps even

a fortune!

they had to learn and hard they

tree trunks. It

duced by the Swedes

what

tools they

who

settlers

is

settled in

brought some

The men

the family wore.

cloth

some

became

their

sort of log cabin

treasures, their clothes and, of course,

men were

occupied in carpentry, hunt-

women

carried

Along with cooking and cleaning they were

manufacture soap, candles,

cotton,

It

Delaware.

could carry. While the

chores and more.

As

all.

supposed that the log cabin was intro-

ing and fishing for the family's daily living, the

shoes.

it

virgin continent, they were forced to live in wretched huts

from roughly hewn

doubt the

with

and enjoy

of tree bark and earth until each family could build

No

who came
roots

the result justified the endurance of

Promised Land.

down

they could put

freedom, worship
all

World, they

spin,

weave and sew, producing

in domestic

called

all

upon

to

the clothing

learned to dress skins for outdoor clothing and

the colonies progressed they learned to cultivate

and wool from

on

Scottish sheep. Especially

from the

flax,

hemp,

latter, a

silk,

durable

was woven.

In those days, simple well-made clothes of handwoven fabrics lasted a long

time due to good-wearing quality and

from season
and many

to season as they

a fine

heirloom in a
to church.

we

At

because fashions did not change

style

sometimes lasted the century

garment, hat, fur or beautiful lace was bequeathed

were worn on

Everyday dress of the

an

worn and

those are the clothes

solid citizen did follow the basic

of the period but in a simpler version.

104

as

special occasions and, of course,

other times, plain clothes were

shall illustrate.

mode

do today.

will. Best clothes


all

also,

The

Puritan went to the far

THE COLONISTS 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES


extreme in eliminating

ornamentation such

all

as

lace,

ribbon bowknots,

buckles on his shoes, plumes on his hat, whereby, knowingly or not, he

achieved a smart and distinctive

The

first

Europeans

who

Spaniards

style.

colonize

to

in

Americas were the imperious

the

and California,

established themselves in Mexico, Florida

tak-

ing over vast realms by conquest. By 1600 the conquistadors had gained im-

measurable lands for the Castilian Crown, added glory to the Church and
fulfilled their love of adventure.

Gold and

silver

revenues went to the

Crown

while the development of agriculture, grazing and commerce produced


private wealth.
tion

A New

World

civilization

was the outcome

much

of the combina-

and the ages-old culture of certain South American

of Christianity

Indians.

The

Spaniards, influenced by centuries of contact with the Moors, were

individual in living, art and dress. Their style


dress of the

was elegant and dominated the

European courts for nearly a century. Theirs was the grand man-

ner and they gave to Europe the ruche, the

bombast

ruff, the corset, the

padded doublet, trunk hose and,

style of the

trunks or full breeches.

The

later,

the

hoop, the

unpadded

knitted silk stocking was a Spanish creation, also

the use of rich black as a costume color.

However, over the

years, the

heavy migration

to the

New World

depleted

the population of the mother country and eventually led to the ruin of their

industry and

commerce

creators of culture.

at

home and

consequently to the

loss of position as

Spanish costume though courtly was not suited to the

rigors of everyday life in the

new

that the Spanish ladies did not

land and was no doubt part of the reason

accompany

men

their

to the

New

Spain in

the early years of settling.


It

seems

as if the

cape has always been the most important garment in

Spanish dress whether the capa or cloak of the

woman. The masculine cape was draped with


shawl and the mantilla lent an
the short cape the gentleman

he wore the broadbrimmed


as in the

woolen

The

And

or the shawl of the

swagger while the feminine

beauty and mystery to the wearer.

With

wore the Spanish toque and with the long cloak


felt hat.

The cape was worn

winter according to the ancient rhyme,

thy cloak on."


to

air of

man

in

summer

"However hot

as well

the sun,

according to season, the fabric changed from

Keep

silk cloth

serge.

so-called "Spanish

body" required a firm foundation and for


105

this

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


men and women wore

reason

a leather corset.

The

board-like silhouette

was

furnished by a shaped underbodice of hard leather, "cuir bouilli" or boiled


leather. It

was

a fashion that

shape, every bit as

The

as

is

to acquire the

practiced today.

Portuguese, busy with their Oriental interests,

beginning
it

much

had European gentle folk dieting

made

in the

little effort

South American territory claimed by them, leaving

to colonize the

to private enterprise to establish trading posts. Colonization eventually fol-

lowed with the introduction of European

cattle,

grains

and

fruits

and the

beginning of the sugar industry.

The

Portuguese, a monarchy of power and wealth in this period, was a

mixture of several

races, the Latins,

dress displayed the

France.

due

It

to the

characteristics

Israelites.

In general their

did the costume of Spain and

as

has been said that their wearing of so

much

brown was

black and

simple fact that their sheep were either black or brown.

The cape and


was the

same

Arabs and

like

cloak held the same importance as in Spanish dress and there

predominance of black throughout in both masculine and fem-

inine clothes. Usually, their style was

much

less

formal. Portuguese

women

of

the middle class often wore their shawls over the head with the felt hat placed

on

top, tipping to the front in the very

the Peruvian Indians.


bolstered out by

The

many

centuries in South

same manner

separate bodice

and short

petticoats of

many

American Indian

dress.

The French, who

settled

to

be seen today

full skirts of

colors have also

among

heavy cloth

come down

the

Acadia and Quebec, Louisiana and Mississippi,

with their innate love of clothes and their talent for sewing, followed the

European mode

in

its

essentials in the occasional

new

day wear the more colorful and regional dress of

what they wore.


There

is

We

are told that

was

so in

costume. But for every-

their native provinces

was

Acadia and in the deep south.

the story of the "Casket Maids" of Louisiana, a group of carefully

picked young

women,

"virtuous and modest," whose emigration was arranged

and each supplied with

The Dutch colony

Company

in 1626

and commerce

trunk of clothing, a trousseau in other words.

of

New Amsterdam

became even

as well as a

in those early days a

cosmopolitan settlement.

nations were always to be seen in port,

and many

founded by the Dutch West India

different languages

were

many

to be

world center for trade

The

ships of

nationalities

roamed

foreign

the streets

heard in conversation. By 1660 there

were about a thousand inhabitants including many English.


106

many

Many

of the

THE COLONISTS 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES


who came

colonists

over with Peter Minuit, the

dam, were Walloons. During the Inquisition

New

governor of

first

Amster-

Walloons or

in Europe, the

Belgian French had been driven from Flanders and Belgium and had settled
in Holland.

America

as

This group proved


it

had been

in

as valuable

Amsterdam. In 1664

by the British and granted by Charles

named

II to his

Dutch

in his honor. Retaken by the

following year to the British

The

thrifty

who

and industrious

vast privileges as patroons

and industrious

held

brother, the
in 1673,

When

it

Duke

in

was seized
and

of York,

was transferred the

until after the Revolution in 1783.

it

qualities of the

augmented the

Dutch combined with

desire for fine clothes

wealthy burghers and their wives followed the


Paris.

community

New Amsterdam

homes. The Dutch were possessed of an individual

and

style of their

their

and rich

own

but the

Amsterdam

latest fashions of

dressed for church or occasions, clothes were rich indeed,

having come from the homeland or made of imported fabrics by the Dutch
tailors or seamstresses here.

accessories

up

They indulged

and owned many handsome

their taste rather extravagantly in

petticoats, the outer skirt often

looped

to display the beautiful petite cotte.

Aprons were decorations and made not only


and wool. The apron had always served a

of linen or

lawn but

practical purpose but in the six-

teenth and seventeenth centuries and well into the nineteenth century

came an

exquisite piece of ornamentation. Ladies

wore an apron

The
in

elaborate puffed

many

sets.

and

little girls

One

handmade

had

sleeves, usually false,

The upkeep was

jeweled could cost

so exorbitant that

and quite

were owned

thirty-seven pairs of sleeves, a real ex-

travagance, and as for caps and ruffs, they cost a pretty

when embroidered and

be-

lace.

and lace-trimmed

certain lady

it

of all ages

of fine linen or lawn, fabrics as costly as silk or velvet

often enhanced with beautiful

of silk

many

as

high

penny

as ten

up

ladies did

too.

Stomachers

thousand pounds.

their

own

ruffs,

no

small task to take apart, launder, starch and then repleat.

Men

followed the European

mode handsomely

in

baggy breeches, coat and

doublet or waistcoat. Leather shoes were for dress but

wooden

shoes were not

unusual for weekdays.

American beaver was the rage and


America continent and

later,

demand

for all

was the

heart's desire of all

manner

to the

a lure to the exploration of the

North

opening of the West. Beaver was in

of costume use but principally for the beaver hat

men and women who


107

which

could afford the headpiece.

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


The

beaver furnished food and clothing to the Indian but the white

man

in

greedy hunt for the fashionable fur so depleted the supply that the animal

his

became alarmingly

scarce.

Fifteen hundred beaver and five hundred otter skins were shipped to

Holland in the very

and trappers in trading

tricked the Indian hunters

small glittering articles and intoxicating liquor.

up farming

Dutch

season of the settlement. Dishonest

first

their precious cargoes for

And

so

many

Hudson River Valley was

white

by the

for the wealth to be gained in fur traffic that

decimation of beaver in the

citizens

men

gave

1660's the

already apparent.

Eventually the Indian fur trade was attracted by the French to Canada so

American Revolution fur-trading

that by the time of the


tically ceased.

was

Up

Albany had prac-

in

to this period the business of supplying peltries to the whites

wars against other Indian

really the cause of the Iroquois

tribes in their

endeavor to monopolize the fur trade.

The English

in Virginia,

Delaware and the Carolinas wore the contem-

porary European fashion, practically

from London

up

right

planters.

The

graceful

mode

ladies

to

dress

all

and home finery being ordered

the Revolution, especially

of silks, velvets, brocades

were long

the Virginia

and gentlemen of the South adopted the Cavalier


and the large beaver

wore handsome leather boots with red heels and


too,

among

curls,

hat.

style, a

The men

falling tops. In the picture,

wigs and hair powder along with

lace,

ribbons and

shoe-roses.

The

cultivation of tobacco introduced in

economic and
accounts in

Every family of importance kept charge

social life of the South.

London and

1612 was a vital part of the

the purchases

made

against the foreign accounts were

based upon the anticipated crops of the coming season.

produced

flax,

Virginians also

cotton and wool but most quickly acquired wealth with their

vast plantations of tobacco

Slaves

The

grown with

the labor of thousands of negro slaves.

were not new, having been introduced by the Spaniards

Domingo,

the

first seat

of the Spanish

After the Edict of Nantes in 1685


Protestants or

Huguenots came

to

government

many

of the thousands of exiled

America. They

their skills to the build-up of the

day working dress of these

men

settled

new

French

in Pennsylvania,
life

anew,

at the

The

every-

continent.

consisted of short, loose breeches

108

San

in the Americas.

Massachusetts, the Carolinas and Virginia where they started

same time adding

in 1501 in

and jerkin

THE COLONISTS16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES


of fustian, frieze or canvas over a shirt of linen or cotton

and an apron

of

dressed leather.

The English

chusetts, Connecticut,

Fathers

two

who

landed

separatists to

New

of

settlers

Rhode

England founded the colonies

Plymouth

at

make

New

Island,

the

Hampshire and Maine. The Pilgrim

in 1620

were a group of one hundred and

New

settlement in

first

England. The Puritans,

another group of separatists, settled in Salem some years


the period was the

handsome Cavalier

made

land on what to wear. This

later.

The mode

of

but the Cromwellian Puritans

style

many sumptuary

were the ruling power and passed

of Massa-

laws while

Eng-

in

still

Puritan dress the plainest and simplest

version of the current fashion.

was decreed that "Sadd-colours" be worn, grayed tones of any

It

lace,

the

no

frills,

no shoe buckles or

name "Roundhead." The


The

shoulder.

jewels.

The man's

color,

no

hair to be cut round, thus

Cavalier wore his graceful, curling locks to the

Puritans believed in well-made, sturdy clothes of good material

but "playne!" All sorts of fines were recorded for the wearing of ribbons,

wide-brimmed hats and what not Dressier


!

folks

wore various

laces,

styles of capes,

particularly in scarlet or with scarlet lining, this color a favorite for

two

centuries.

The Quakers, known

who went

as the Society of Friends,

to Pennsylvania

were

company

of people

with William Penn in 1682. Of a religious

sect

founded in 1650, they were mockingly called "quakers" because they trembled

when

Though

religiously aroused.

followed the fashion of the day in


hue, especially red, as
"cardinal."

Men wore

much
the

as

staid

and

neat, their

all its color.

any

costume before 1700

Quakers wore cloaks of bright

colonist, calling the favored scarlet cape a

wide-brimmed hat of Cavalier shape but

never raised in salute to rank or lady, according to the rhyme


loves

an ample brim,

with

all

hat that

bows

to

ing which has

come down

The feminine

ornament marked

it

as

the

headcover-

Quaker bonnet was the height

fashion in that day and hailed from Paris but the fact that
of

Quaker

wear wig and powder, even

a supply of wigs.

to us as the

was

no salaam." The group dispensed

fripperies of dress yet occasionally did

William Penn himself who had

"The

it

it

of

was worn bare

Quaker bonnet. There were no sumptuary

laws on record but the seal of approval was for muted color and design of
utter simplicity. All

garments were beautifully made of the

109

richest silks, finest

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


broadcloth and the sheerest of lawns, and expensive clothes they were!

was the green lawn apron and because

particular accessory

much

in the early period

The Swedish

settled

regarded as insignia of the Quakeress.

to be

Both old

way

Scotch-Irish entered by

settlers

colonists, so

many

of

and newcomers, German, Swiss and

was

from 1715

a port

to

into the valleys, especially the Shenandoah.

whom

were peasants, became an important and

valuable background with the pioneering

restless society of

Germantown

the founding of

of Philadelphia which

They then trekked southward

These

so

Fort Christina, Wilmington today, on the Delaware in

in Pennsylvania in 1683.

all

came

German immigration began with

1638 and the

1750.

it

was worn

it

workers, inventors, artisans right

down

spirit.

They were

the line to butcher, baker and

candlestick maker.

These people,

followed the European fashion but in a manner which

too,

The German

revealed the nationality of the wearer.

an exaggerated

style

version of the

with great elaboration. In men's dress the

was decidedly square with slashing covering every

bit of space.

mode was

over-all effect

Women's

dress

consisted of short, tightly fitted bodice with deep yoke, full sleeves divided
into

many

Among

puffs, long, full skirts

the

German

and nearly always the apron.

colonists there

Europe who

were many

sects

from towns on the

Lower Rhine

in

bers of their

countrymen followed. Their costume changed

centuries

and consisted

homespun tow

chiefly of tunic or shirt

cloth, the cloth

hemp. The women's everyday


full skirt

The

and

settled principally in

woven from

dress

was

origin of the

or linen, plainly

was

and coat made of

yarn of home-grown

flax or

dark colored, a short,

modern

blouse

is

in the tunic of the Ancients

made

in the sixteenth century

costume of both

sexes.

Of

which
was

fine

es-

lawn

or laced, the garment showed at neck and as under-

Housewife and peasant maid generally wore a long apron


a fashion that pleased all,

The making

over the

little

a tight bodice laced in front over the lingerie shift.

pecially featured as a decorative part of

It

trousers

in peasant style,

became the chemise of the Europeans and

sleeves.

and

num-

Pennsylvania where

of the chemise

meant

male and female,


fine stitchery,

an

aristocrat

art practiced

to

match.

and peasant.
by lady and

farmer's daughter.

Founded upon

this,

regional dress developed in Europe during the six-

teenth century, each province or city creating

did not change with the mode.

The women,
110

its

own

individual dress

in particular,

which

brought and wore

THE COLONISTS 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES


the costume of their

Common

homeland

to the

new

country, even to the

men and women meant

footwear for

wooden

wooden

the boot,

shoes.

shoes, or

barefoot since the leather shoe such as the low, buckled shoe was only for
dress-up occasions.

The
ing

colonial frontiersman liked his winter cap of raccoon with a

one

at

side.

Raccoon was in great demand abroad but

teenth century with the necessity of

home manufacture

tail

hang-

late in the seven-

in

mind, laws were

passed prohibiting the export of the pelts.

The

a popular

by

muff while not an accessory

fur

enough piece

judges.

of costume to be mentioned.

by gentlemen

ladies but

What were

some

as well, including

at first

roomy

common man was

in everyday dress of

Not only was

staid dignitaries

it

carried

and court

fur cuffs attached to sleeves turned into

small separate muffs of worsted or velvet with fur lining, or a pair of "muffe-

The

tees."

single large

muff was an "indispensable" and

fined just to the

young blood but supposedly

man

An

of position.

lent

its

use was not con-

added dignity

to the older

English writer of the time complained of the "strange

effeminate age" in which

among

by "gentlemen and others of

various other accessories, muffs were used

and

inferior quality"

also carried

by the

soldiers

of the king's guard.

Men and women wore

cloaks, greatcoats

of brilliant colors as well as black.

The

short circular cape

and capes varying

Mention has been made

was the "roquet"

as

mousquetaire. "Rocket" was what they called


teenth century, a longer version was

name and

of the "cardinal."

was the short jacket of the


in the Colonies. In the seven-

the "roquelaure" after the

Antoine-Gaston Roquelaure of France (1686-1738) whether due

shall

similarity of

When

names or perhaps because he wore

its

his cloak

the cloak acquired several shoulder capes,

the Colonists.
of

named

it

as to

The hooded cape

that

it

with a great

Marto

flare.

became the "rocolo"

women wore was

to

the capuchon because

resemblance to the mantle of the Capucin monks.

In France and England and in the same decade between 1660 and 1670
a great
vest

and

lasting

change occurred in men's

and the jerkin changed

of the falling band.

dress.

to jacket or cassock.

The fancy

The

doublet became the

cravat

was worn

in place

breeches changed to full knickerbockers bloused

over the knees and fastened with ribbon loops.

By 1670

the cassock or coat

lengthened to the knee, the vest reaching there about 1680. In the 1690's came
plain, close-fitting, knee-length breeches concealed

111

by the

coat, fastened at the

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


sides

by buttons or buckles. The breeches when not of the fabric of the coat

were black, which became standard.


suit of

modern

And

times.

112

there

we have

the man's habit or

Spanish
.Sixteenth Centurq

Colonists
q\r\

'always

in all-black'

when on

uoorig

tbe street- tac<2


hidden fVom view-

peasant of
Srqnada-

un jccomp<anied-

fnen smockCapa orcloak


1

whfte I'ngerfe
ruff a *d
sleeve fr||s-

of blacK wool
blacK felt
sombrero-

prayer book

long

5bc

rasjryeovel jping

brown
rs.

ngs-

sandals or"
alparg^tjf
of tspa<to

capa shaw
,

or cloak-of

rusk a

fine block
wool

canvas

Spam'sh lady

Jn

Spanish fasbfons,
ruff, wasp waraf
Corset, Tart'hrr.^ale
or

Viaop-gown

or velvet or

cloth over
5qtfn- banging
sleeves topped
w~h"te lawn

undersleeveslace. zdaeA
band Kercb'ei

in

COitura
velve

s!l k,

or

woolen

cloth- pa

trunk bo
sloshed
eather shoes
I

cloak

of

5i'lk

Serge-s'lk sfockinos

5pani5h

toc|i.

wtb jeweled
band- lawn
ruff J hd

sleeve
frills

~V^y

Spanish coshunie
of" woolen clo-Hr

Spanish. ar>d Portuguese


,5ix+een+h Century
Co\on'i5+s

slashed colored
brafd' whfte
lawn ruffleather beli"'
velvet

bands

on panlaloonbblack felt
.

rbb n Dflnd
^d jewelblack woole
cape banaed
"id collated
velvet-

leather

5 pani'
spinmng yarn-

srioes-

sword

cloth frock over


IfngerTe bloase-

sleeves t'ed
to

armscqes

*
"LI "
poi-a
nts with

brafdtri'rnmed

neck^felt
bonnet' wPb
appers^
I

g frale carrfes

small knTfe-

lea+her

shoes
a-H-ached
woocfen
pattens

-ho

Portuguese ladu

black

dress w'tn muTt"*colored

hand embroidery
lingerie

neck dn d

-fy'lls

vvyi

at

Portuguese

'

sto-

black cloth
red cashmere
cape w'th
shawl -black block velvet
-Fel-fha-h-

-trim-collar

gloves -So ft"


in Innpi'pe
black Itjq-Hne
style-black
.shoes

-felt

aornbrero-

ITnger'e fr'IU

at neck *"d

wrTsts -black

shock
shoes

"rvjs

^d

wrn

latcKe+s-

swovof

_A

^-r v^

Sixteenth Ceht"urcj
FVe ncln
Colonists

lady

fur-

In

fr'mmed
gown- or

clofln

mrtat'on fur
of woolen cloth ^

widow

hood

of dull black
51

l*n

witn w
wKfte
gorge!
I

carpenter

in

working dres

Smock

OT

coarse

I'neri

or

coarse wool

cloth- tied

cord belf-cut ^d sewn

stockings

01

6erge or
rersey clo+bleather shoes

ave

lady in Proc c\de


gown-whlte lawn
neck ar>d wrist
frills, yoke %!
underbodice-"

jeweled
girdle -white
linen apron
indoors, s'lk

moire ou

1"

e.scoffi'a

s.'lkbo

sheer

la

handker

farmer -

smock-

like

aarment of
coarse iTnen
Or

Woden

c|ofh-

knltted.strfped

shlrf-do+h
Stock'ngsleather shoesfel+

ha^

^sT

</

Sixteenth Century

woman

country

mqYkeKng-

prencK
Colon IsfS

laced bodice
skfrt of

woolen

cloth-lfnen

blouse wrrin
neck fr
whjte men
aprorv+asseled
I

cords-sc'ssors
case a "d

sewing baqa
chqtelafne
called

bavolefte
headdress,
fold

erf

s'lk^

attached,'

Cap

to a

p*

Wine hawker
wooler>

cassockcloth stock fn

leather
5hoes-felf

haf

L
pejsant" carrying
r- simple
dress of woolen

wate

clo+k or Ifnen-cap,

apron, collar
q
"d Cu fts of
whTte linen-

hoop

to hold

paTIs

in

position-

rosary
a-k

COontriJ mar.
n,ai k+'r\g-Costume

clothed velvetpaneJtvunk hose

of

nd

wirtq^- linen

skirt' ta^seled cord


belt-cloth sfocktnjssi k ^jrters'lent-rnjr
I

Stlo^s- beuver hjf

w'th

rolled
S^lk b->nd

be^

i5even+een f b Century

Fren cVi
Colon's+S
peasant

liv'ng

neat

Pa r is- nar>4 so me
dress ot VleT own

haodi wot k"


lace an d

embro'de^cloth skfrtvvb'te lawr>

anderbodiCelawn hood.
over capZ nd ha R jf

Century

costume
clofn

of

^>*lk or

velvet"" rfbbon

apron-r'bboo
loops(_canons)on

breeches-lawn
shirt- fa H'ng

band-fasseled.
cord ties'

beaver hatwith
n bbon a *<i ostrich
plume' leaf her
shoes w'fb windini
ties q "d red
heels-natqra
hai'r or wig"

i6ro

peasant 'n clo+h


costume -cas sock
codt- petticoat
breeches ^white

style

peasanfs

I'nen shiVt-

near Pan's were


often asrnod'sh
fn dress as the

cravdt of lawn,

liVing

lace q "cl tuf-feta

Coarf-c.05tu.me

hat with
ri bboN loops"
leather ^>hoes
wfth r* bbon

of c/otb,lace
ar
r."bbcn-

fel-T

>d

Tontange
headdress-'

ti'es-

late in the

2nd half

Centura

of

Centura

_,

Oevenfeenth Cen+ut-y
Gng|i

Co

5'

onist"S

ycjni? woman
5pm n'nq^ woolen
cloth bodice,

peplu
\-

a "d

muslfn

blouse q *d

apron-s
lawn Du
co'f-

chafelafn
bold "nj

sewinj
"n

apfon"

fools

clotb CQ5fume
fn grac^

brown

or black-fallrng
q
cuffs

band ">d
or lawn wfi'o

lace po'nts-

dou

ble+ of

muted

colors-

long

k lapels

sil

felt hat wffb

r'pbon band'
knitted bos

leather snoes
wth

Sboe roses
lfe +

-~\

clofb cassock
n
d cape '
v6|ve+
ri

bbed

or clotb

silk'

lacTncjs over
sfj ma ch
wb+e lawn

underbod'
q hd w/hfsK

(coliar)-

black Koo

ind
of

half

over

pockets, buttons
a hd but-fenholeswh'te linen
fallfna, band-

beaver haf"
with r'bbon
band'leather
sboes' r *bbon
bow knofs2nd half
ot century

[=?

T V-N

.J

Seventeenth Centura
<ngl s'n

Colo nfsfs

velvet or silk
gown over gunked

undevskirk-

adder of
bowknofs-'
'

ingerie undersleeve

whjte Ifned,
block hood vvo-'nyg
over a sheer
/M
lawn cap-

padded
shawl mask -for
outdoors
nqainsf
cold or

suri'

C0nsenj<-fi\2

late in

version oT+be

cen turq

Cavalier

5aKn

or

velvet

cassock' soKn or
velvet vest-full

breeches- lawn
cravat of lawn

lacS'beaver

shirrq,1 d

haf"

w*+b ostrich -naKfral


colored periwig- s!|k

Stoekmgs- learner
shoes -ribbon
bow knots
*nd century

Pu r tan ' wool e n


i

doth

of black,

brown a,>d
deep,muted hues
of mosf colors-whisk afM
apron of
Holland linenfelt hat worn
Over Dutch
Cap' woolen
<jratj

s+ock'ngseat her
sHoes

_J
Pur'tan *n da'k-sCo^ored
cloth-comrnonlu;
graij brown or

hlack'grau or
qreen knftted
woolen hose'
whisk aiM
,

CClffs of Holland

o w/ri' bl<3 ck
leather shoes
wi+h spur
e#t hersfelt Hot
wth ribbon
/

band

Seventeenth Centuru;
Highland
folded

Sco-tch
Colonist's

plaid
oe.'+ed

^d

baggy breez
r
3
-

"

clothleggings ott"arfansafnron, yellow/


,_

fnen sn'rf-

doublet w'fh

wings-

S'nfrred

CiTCulqr

bonnet"'
lea-her
strap a d

purse

S'r'p ed plaid larqe


enouqh to Cover
a,,

-F'aure
d headbe 'ed at waist'

leather belt with


silver- scarlet

bodice-bloe
skirt- head
banded with

snood
s'lver

brcocobare feet
were usua

whe+ w r
rfch

or"

poor

-fwo shdiw I5 'or>e plafd


+he other solfd colorover-the saffron
When blouse'
-

woolen

cloth

sk fit-jeweled
brooch

carlu be
plat^T -pleat
sFdes
back-plo.m

ends
in

overlapped

ironf-

presumably held
+0 chest ba

bidden

belt'

saffron Ljellow
leather
purse-dirk, u
.Me*edtjed
d i> g,g ^r-cj a tj more,

ancient Celrfc,
two-edqed sv
w'rh rwo

slanting

guards

Seventeen +h Cenfurcj

Dufch
Colonist's
browri cloth skirt

with bra'd -trimblack silk


bod'ce- pleated
lingerie co
"^d cuffssheer lawn

cap wi'th
Wired edge
""a" jeweled
st'ckpfir

pouch "^d
scissors
case on
cords,

"housewi
Se+or
chS-hela

Dutch
vers fori

oT

the

Cavol'ey mode

doth capevelvet

or cloth

jerkin q ^d
bre

eches-

nbbon
4"all

"nq

loops-

Ddnd

Wlth po'rvt lace-

beaver hat
o5h"th-

wft-h
|e

other boohs

i/Vi'hh

rnuslTn boot"

hose fa protect
S*l

stbck'ng/s

one notes of the Caval'<e<^


mode,bowknots w*th
points an d safT"
j}drfers--clo+h

clo+h or silU
doubled vvWb costume-bodice
casfella-red
w'th peplum

vv'oqs

hd

flaps-slashed
sle^ve^'Velvel

""d castellated

WirtgS'bowknots

on at'ornacherbreeches
lawn run
falling band
'

wTtb cords'

beaver cap-mu5 L'n


eves
hat-silk sle

stockings

v/

Oeverrteen-rh L-entur-q

lingerie underbodice'bra'd wedged

Co

r
cn
on 51

?e

cloth costume'slashed
sleeves showfng

'

peplum--lawn
ruff with
tJes^tur bonnet
of fox^
=

cnafelcurie
or 'housewife"
Carrying

sewing
tools

cloth cape
vv'th bra" d -velvet

doublet^silk

breeches w?tb
befld "Fringe

three-tiered lawn
-ru-ff-s'ik garters
^h

d 5^ioe-rosessi|k stock fngs

leather shoesleather sword


belt-felr

haf

(betrothed peasant
in party dress^<green
jerkin wihh blqck
brqid trm- red
CoWa-r^d CO

ooned

wi ntj!
yellow breeC
K ge
nd shoe-lie
blocU leathe
qreer\

si

Shoes-green
felt hat

with

entwined
n bbon
rTn^s

betrothed peasant
in party dress

costume

'"

n d reci--gree

jacket,uppJC*
lowest flou
red collar.c
a *d lower f
I

double

(aw-

ry ff- h a

iV

with ri boon
beaded ifara
green shoe
-ties^d stoc
Uaek lea+he

shoes

wj

sSev&n+e^n-t'h Cen-tury
S\A/3S

Cavalfer mode-green
da u bl ef with slashed

Colonisfs

sflk

sleeves over white

peasant

mqsl'n sVurhbrown cloth

in

dak

blue cloth ccs+Mtne

with bolero-wh'he
muslm blouse

breeches- rose
sflk garters,

a>id

shock ,'ngs arM


shoe-roses--

vnu

apron-"
Iff colored

embroidered

lawv> rolff-

panel- lawn

tan gqunflefstqn leather


shoes -black
cape- black

neck xixW"
smal| berefhafr hanging
Tn lona braid-

beaver

black leather

hat

shoes wfth
rfbbon ties

J
dam green sllkqownbraid -trim m ed- slash ed

sleeves-self

wtngs-

oger'ie <jnde,|r bodi'c2-

awn ruffHace

widow

m naurning

dress-'ull black

at except lace yoke


a
^d wfmple.'
gauntlets' headdress.c^tts,
f"r* rn

Qh>d
fur cap- yoke
black leather sleeve bands*
sboeS'pomqoder of Crepe^

suspended Cindergo^n
from waist oT brocade-

mantle
a
"d qawn
f rfm of

duU

silk--

WrAple of

sheer lawn
or

W2^k

Ifnen

huk e-'-ITloorisb

origin

dates from Hrb C-'


worn by European

Seventeen flo Centura


Flemfsb
Colonist's

women

black a *d

wbHe

especially, oi
the -Cow Countries-

costume^ cloth

populdr

orsflk wfth

a 'id

|6 Hi

If+V,

black cloth

of

lawn or -fn
rnUsIln 'Clpron

C--

edged w'tb
CTOthef lace
Wired Wi ngs

lerigth-affacVied

full

to +"'rHf

t"oc)ue

pompon^

gold a,"r^le

palatine cona
of lawn"^
lace
silU

wf-fb'

"bousew'fe

-gown of
brocade

case

yV
1

neqlTgee hoo<ze cos-Kirn

jacket (5 am are) of
blue velvet edged wffk
whf+e fur-sa+111
(.mdersleeves " n d

cuffs-clofln or
s'lk sk'rt
wT-fb velvet"

-fr'rn-bocded

palafme

of

black clofn-

r'bboh
b owk nofs

laced
hand kercoTer
__

cloth

costjme'

braided berderpalatine collar

lace

co
fl

edged-

liar, cuffs

M apron
lawn

of

or

men

sfraw hat
over a
lingerie

cap

A r?

"""

5eventeentn Century

5cand 'ncivfnn
Colonists
weal-rHcj

farmer-

Oorweg'fl 11 '
French blue clotb
skirt-bodice of

Tur-trfrvimed

loak wfth
double sleeves-

antique Ljellow
rose brocaded

belted +une with


bra'd tvim-full

breecbes-

silk

palaKne,

Fur,=

edged -

tied silk

black

o^qrVerS-

borderjcollar
a
"d cuffs -

hfl+of
felt

^d

fur

silk

orge gold

brooch-wh
wi'red Ifnge

Cdp-mu^Tin
apron-gold
Kousewi-re

set- shoes
of flesh-

5de out
leather-

's-

white* SwedTs bover


Cornb"na- ion-+bre c buf-^coat
doublet
1
ned
a
p
sk irts - underskc r

Damsh-bl^ck

l'

a na

+wo

pledtedrlbbon sash'

sbowinjj

contrast'rvj
loi ngruff- Colored
-full breecbespeacock blue
frfn^ed Bi k.
s'lk bonnet
over black cjarfers-ta
lawn cap- fs t bat wltb
plu^nagei
gratj lea+ber b'rd

palatine

fl

"d

shoe 5

leather sword
be!4- shoes
of

3ht

ir

tan

eather

JL5L

_>

CIVIL DRESS

THE I8TH CENTURY


CHAPTER SEVEN
LIFE IN

THE AMERICAN COLONIES by

the eighteenth century

was one

of prosperity and comfort in

which fashion became an important

general living. Luxuries of

kinds reached our shores, not just from Europe

all

factor in

but from China and the Indies. Exquisite fabrics, beautiful china, handsome
tapestries,

sedan chairs and furniture were a part of the merchandise unloaded

from our merchant

ships.

"Fashion Babies," dolls about a foot high dressed meticulously in the


latest styles,

were sent

whims

ner the newest

to

London from

of the

up

to the Civil

among

created

War and
the

mode were

The

fashion journals delivered.

Paris once a

little

month and

illustrated, just as

we

in this

man-

today have our

envoys came on to America from 1750

one can well imagine the excitement

their arrival

women.

In the early part of the century, the American preference was for English
fashions, then

from 1760

to 1780 both English

and French were followed.

After that with the exception of the period of the French Revolution, the

French mode became the thing in the feminine world, Paris holding the
scepter ever since.

During the French Revolution, London took over

as arbiter

of men's dress, a position she holds to our day.

Except for court

affairs,

English

women

gave

much

less

thought to dressing

than did American women. Letters of foreigners of the times, especially after
the

American Revolution, comment upon the neatness

women

New

but criticize the fact that the wives of bankers and merchants of the

Republic were always dressed in the

French fashion
lovely

of the attire of our

is

latest

and

costly

French

considered to have reached perfection in this period.

Watteau gown or sacque named

126

for

style.

The

Antoine Watteau (1684-1721),

DRESS THE 18TH CENTURY

CIVIL
who

created the robe with wide back pleat flowing

from neck

hem,

to

an

is

example of the early part of the century. The hoop or "panier" was the frame-

work worn under


also

worn

made

or embroidered petticoats were

gown. The

to bolster out the floating

tinued to be long and slim,


in back.

wadded

the dress. Quilted,

stays or "pair of bodies" con-

of heavy linen, canvas or brocade

The garment was shaped with long

stays of

whalebone

bosom pushed up high. Attached

the required look with the

below the waistline were small

and laced

to

produce

to the corset

which the underskirt was

tabs with eyelets to

laced.

The hairdo which accompanied


and

ing, simple
frilled
last as

close to the

both coiffure and cap took

ruffle.

in

But

costume was charm-

this lovely fashion

flight in the

There was the elaborately dressed wig

ladies in the colonies

style of

head and usually covered by a dainty lawn cap

round the face by a lace-edged

which could be sent out

Watteau

the

to be

to the barber to

was not

to

second half of the century.

put on over one's

own

hair and

be dressed. This was a convenience to

who were without hairdressers,

a very

few

of

which

existed

New York and Philadelphia. A woman, with her head dressed for a ball, done

the night before, often

would be compelled

too, a beautifully dressed

head would remain so for

But any such arrangement of

pomatum and powder was worn


in the

life

full dress.

in

what

A real

more than

discovery was the effectiveness of

when powdering

sifted over the face

in an order for
velvet

not

in everyday

half a century.

It

complexion, added brilliancy to the eyes and was always used for

Masks were worn

and

very often

and feathers plus

only upon gala occasions


a fashion for

And

a couple of weeks.

false hair, flowers, lace

home. Hair powder was

flattered the

to sleep sitting up.

powder

as a face beautifier

the hair.

in the colonies as a bill of sale of Washington's testifies

masks from abroad

for his wife

and "Miss

Custis." Black silk

were worn in winter while the green mask supposedly protected

one from sunburn.


Varied indeed were the

many

"mob," a cap with deep hanging

At

first it

was

called the

of

sitting for a portrait.

frill,

originally

From England came

worn by

the market

"Ranelagh mob," then mobcap and

mob. Bonnets were worn upon

coming were most

caps and bonnets.

them

all

the

women.

finally just plain

occasions other than full dress and so be-

that ladies chose to be painted in a cap

The skimmer,

when

broad-brimmed, low-crowned shape of

127

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


was

beaver, felt or straw,

a favorite

and often put pn over a

"milkmaid fashions" which originated

or

American Colonies,

The
The

was

calash

in

Such country

cap.

England were popular

in the

especially those of straw.

first

made

of green silk, later of different fabrics

and

colors.

material shirred over whalebone or reed hoops could be lowered or raised

by a string attached

like a carriage top

to the front

and held

in the hand. This

bonnet, the very height of the mode, was adopted by the Quakeress in black

and called the "wagon bonnet."

silk

Bridal

gowns and bonnets

of costly fabrics such as brocade, velvet and

plush were of delicate hue, rarely white.

from the end

really dates

machine
shawls.

American bride

first

general use of the bridal veil

of the century with the invention in

manufacture of net and

for the

The

The

lace

wear a

to

veil,

England

wide enough for


so they say,

veils

of a

and

was the adopted

daughter of Washington, Nellie Custis. Her wedding was held on the President's last birthday in 1799,

which she wore pinned


All classes of
its

warm

men

and her

fine

wedding

in favor of a cap.

wore half-worn and secondhand wigs,

made up

tent with his

own

who wore

had

means wore

a cap of wool.

also less expensive ones of

their

a less pretentious one

wig

noons carrying wigs from house


appear in the mid-century

a cap of

Negro

slaves

white horse-

bob wig. Small

wig was not

and often was con-

fashion.

wigs especially dressed for Saturday night

and Sunday wear and the barbers' boys were

tied

of

in the preceding chapter the

hair dressed in

Fastidious persons

and many poor people,

in the simpler styles such as the

wore wigs. As noted

spurned by the Quaker

to

Men

Holland linen while the commonalty wore

boys, too,

a beautiful scarf

wore the wig although in the South with

in the Colonies

climate, great distances between plantations,

hair or goat's hair

was

gift,

to her coiffure.

wig was often discarded

the

veil,

to

to be seen late Saturday after-

shop and back again. Natural hair began

when young men adopted

with a bowknot of ribbon, discarding the bag

as

the black silk bag

soon as they grew a

length of hair.

The cocked

hat or tricorne was the masculine hat of the eighteenth century.

Generally carried under the arm, "le chapeau bras" became a sign of professional
class.

and

social

Meanwhile,

rank

as contrasted

with the uncocked hat of the working

in civilian dress in the

128

1780's

appeared an entirely

new

DRESS THE 18TH CENTURY

CIVIL
shape, the

round hat of

tall

with rolling brim, a

felt

napped with beaver,

felt

the top hat or "stovepipe" of the next century.

Hatmaking was one

New

York,

New

of the

first

of

American

men

industries with the

of

and Pennsylvania wearing domestic hats though im-

Jersey

porting most of their other apparel. By 1740, exportation of American hats to

London feltmakers

Spain and Portugal reached such figures that the


to

Parliament against the "outrage"

with,

many

as

detrimental to

home

protested

industry. Forth-

were placed upon the colonial hatmakers.

restrictions

common name
man, woman and

In this century, the "banyan" of East Indian origin was the

gown.

for a dressing

was the comfortable negligee of

It

child in the

American Colonies and

the heat of

summer,

of bright colored calico,

was worn during


and when

especially in the South, to the counting house

overseeing the plantation.

As

ever,

women

slight a change,

delighted in

became

man

whereas the

The masculine winter

some new

features of costume, be

it

in general followed the English pattern.

cloak was the greatcoat or perhaps a cape, but as cloth

scarce during the Revolution,

Dutch woolen blankets

American

officers

introduced the use of

for such garments. In the feminine

wardrobe there

were short capes for summer and long, padded ones for winter. The

was

a fur-lined

ever so

and fur-edged

like that of the opposite sex,

cloak, often with a deep collar.

was an enveloping wrap with

The

pelisse

roquelaure,

a cape-like collar.

Late in the century, ladies appropriated the smart, male redingote fashion for

wear over sheer cotton

frocks.

In footwear, clogs and pattens were not only necessary bad weather protection but
fragile,

made

it

possible for

women

thin-soled slippers. Pattens

leather straps

and

certainly

to traverse the cobbled

pavements in

were fashioned of oak or poplar with

must have been noisy because

church entrances requested their removal before entering.

notices posted in

Women

wore the

black leather shoe for everyday dress but slippers with the Louis heel were to

be had of colored kid, thin morocco and

and damask,

striped, flowered

The masculine shoe


of today in the

fastened by

brown and

in

many

and embroidered.

cowhide and buckskin took on the low broad heel

American Colonies of the

means

fabrics, velvet, satin, brocade,

of latchets

black, mostly black.

1770's.

and buckles and

By mid-century

settled

down

For dress wear there were

129

the shoe

to the colors

heelless

pumps

of

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


and usually black. Boots worn by

soft leather

to favor for general

heavy

dress in

wear in the

'seventies.

and sportsmen returned

soldier

Gentlemen wore

ready changed to white from pale colors in the

made

shoes of the farmer's family in the

Women

men

binding the edges. The

maple.

The

American Colonies were

still

soles

shoes were interchangeable, not shaped right and

and

is

being

hand

in

were attached by small wooden pegs of


left.

bench then used in the farmer's kitchen has today become

tor's piece

al-

cutting the heavy leather and attaching the soles, and the

women

cobbler's

had

1720's.

in his kitchen over the winter months. All the family took a

the work, the

became

preferably in gray. After 1736, white

silk stockings,

general in silk or cotton but in knitted wool for everyday.

The

light colors for

serving proudly in a

modern

living

room

as

Many

a collec-

an accessory

table.

Some

enterprising farmers set

near the house. Such

and finished

on

small, ten-foot shops

workshops, each with three or four

shoes, the parts of

And

cobbler.

little

up

which had already been

these tiny wayside shops

the very beginnings of the great

their property
assistants, soled

stitched

by the

village

which produced "bespoke orders" were

American shoe

industry.

Popular indeed was the woodman's shoe called the "shoepak," the name a
derivative of the

Lenape Indian word "shipak."

moccasin without separate


white.

sole,

was made

It

ankle-high and of oil-tanned leather, usually

heavy boot worn by loggers today in winter was

and known

as a

The working

like the Indian

manufactured

also

shoepak or "pac."
clothes

of

the laborer consisted

of

heavy linen

shirt,

breeches of striped ticking and a heavy coat of duroy, a coarse woolen cloth.

leather belt held

up the breeches which men and boys wore with

apron protecting the front. The breeches were made very

opening

flaps so that

when

signs of

wear defaced the

seat,

full

the

a leather

and without

garment could

be turned completely around.

The

Revolution, naturally, had a quieting effect in the matter of dress. All

costume ornamentation was omitted and


in favor of

mourning

homemade

articles of foreign

goods. Jewelry was eliminated and the wearing of

set aside for the duration,

black cloth having always

England. Instead, a band of black crepe was worn


hat.

The

make were banned

as

come from

an arm band or on the

Colonists took to wearing camlet lined with green baize for cloaks

130

CIVIL

DRESS THE 18TH CENTURY

instead of the fine cloths formerly imported.


cloth. In

1789

upon

the inauguration of

The men wore garments

Washington

as

York, he was dressed in fine dark brown broadcloth, the

United
silver

States, in

Worcester, Massachusetts.

He

also

president in

made

first

wore white

tow

of

New

in the

silk stockings,

buckled shoes and a dress sword.

complete reversal of

style

had begun

to take place in the years

preceding

the French Revolution, thus meeting a desire for simpler design, less splendor

and

less class distinction.

With

the upheaval, magnificence in costume, feathers,

hoops, the corset, high heels, paint, powder, beauty patches and
ties

became demode.

Paris,

discarding these reminders of the aristocracy,

adopted the silhouette of the ancient


l'anglaise, the

English frock of

with their love of country

from

life

their everyday living

all like frivoli-

Roman

soft cotton,

Republic and the chemise a

chintz and light

silk.

The English

had already eliminated formality and

and

theirs

131

was the

stiffness

dress adopted as the

mode.

_&gJ">+een+h

Century

Ke Qmer'can Colonies

double
breasted
greatcoat
<

T*d" ng coa
serge cr
kersecjrr

triple

u Ft

eaped-

hooded

*g ht

fur. ("rimmed

\Md^coaf-

cape--

stock with
lace cravat"-

Vnanon iescauf
in French'

DfthsdaV

black leot
top boots -

in Cnglish-

ofren

Imed^
ribbon

f"ur

bowk-rio^s

felt ha-thtftural n
/n

Tie-

ir.d half
of cent jrcj

collared,
circular

copenow

caileci

roquelaure
or' roquelo

"n all bright

Colors-

scoria

the

favorite
q "d colled a
Cardi rial -

of cloth, silk
or

velvet-

cocked fdt
hat- powdered
natural hair or
wiq- tight breeches
sifk stockingsbuckled leather

shaes?arlt( in

the

single -breasfe

riding Co
cap

^rr^'i

V deep

leather b
tight velv

breecheele a'nfr
spoffirdasnes

;t-

cenTory

ind half
o-f

Centura

OKjh+eeof h Cenfurq
The Omer' can Colonies
/I

the nglfsk smock


on a Vn-gmi'an

farm -heavy
wh'te Ifnen
over sh'rt "h^
waistcoatcolored
neekercbfefbrown or black

breecheskneervgh
leather

spatterdashes
over leather

huh+ing

shoes-

cJeerskm

straw

cassock'

h ? t-

U|l'
I4UJ

mid.
brown century
-ther bel+s
"d powch-

gh leather

fterdashes-

Fureap w'th
-turned ' up
p- natural
har
1733

Car\ad\ar\

or>

anowsVioes'
belhed. deersk
co,

asock--f'

bat- wools

French Canadian
costumewoolen sash
w'th poaches-'
tfohf breeches-

leggmgs
presumablq
J

rnuffler-\e

knapsackj

belts, bead-

od
p
"d ankle b

knee socks
"d shorter

sock

rolled

Woo)e

rnf+tens--

oT

I.

-tr"mrried

fureking -f
ned or
wadded w'th
1

in

fur

cotfon-rTed
of kneesle atber

5W5

perhaps so|ea!
iv'rb
.ii

wood

with iron-

778

or

J
i

ha"r-

o^o a "d
axertsrfl

vyj

TKe American ColonTeS


ma" a '
1

do+K

sk"r '--.:

s^r'ped cotton

sacq^e^lawn
mobcap flr>d
ifiu-musMn negn^ee
apron Wi+h
b?b --cotton hoo:
s+ock'rijs "

''

o"

iA/irn

pa-f+ens w"+rt

wooden Soles'
m*d =ce-

r'bb J

sK'rt

panniers^
sflk

rvjs^g

"rf sflk

sl'ppers

'II

iilkmoia

'

i^uakeress^

days
~-~

Cro-

"

rev

'

cot-fon or ciorb

ck '
Iflwr

-Fto

rion-rur'tans'
:'" or &ilk
wf-j-h pa^iicrf'
bi(

to'rh

-;-

a 5;'X\r\e-

back'^reen

lawn

:k s^k,

awo

-ffeWu kr:
tr,

'

aproir'

3rd quavr^r
3

sd

sl'ppers

ee-'^rn

E'ohieenfh Century

'heOim&rlcan Colonfes

wo r k rn a n
"in

cassock

sh/le-af
cloth orvelver-

somertmes
'nedwig or
nahjr<al hairCocksd hatcJr

woolen

slk or

In clorln

Cosfamebrowri or

green Cootnechral coloi

wa *st" coed""
black breec
Srr'ped knH<
sfotK'rijs--

muslm

creu

mu-Ff ler^-full
shfrf sleeves-

h a fr

md century

stwwor

m
re

haf - mfd- century

J!

coaf-

clo-ln
v

c ve+
!

b ree ches'
collar,

Ifning

ih

wofsf-coa^
mat'chfhgn gene.
li

snTrT

cravat-Vv'tf

of

black nafr
-fed

new) look

*n

men

dre55--l"fSo's'

double- breasfed

coa+ qh d

breeches
of dar k
colored cloth-"

new shaped
hot w'th band

^d

buckle-

back

powdered

W+h block
rbbor>tnercViQnT

-fob- top

v_

hafr-wa-rcb

boots

The Qmerican Colonists


dress ofapricot
negligee dress"
(j)a\teaa
Qr>d

colored

sacque

sTlK'

Iflwn fichu

peitlcoat"
undersleeves-

saim sirlyed

musl

with
self ruchio^'
worn over a

fciFfeta

apron

quilted

hoop --lace
eeve ruff |esl<3wn

in

with bib
covering
pettfcodf '
straw

cap

milkmaid

wth velvet

hat"

ribbons^

over

frilled

loger'e cap-

slfppers
2nd qu carter
of" century

velvet

nbbons-

^ 2nd

<juarrer

of century

tdflvia mantel"^
sel-fi

rue Wed --

crossed
G

in

tron-f

'M tied "n bick

forerunner
of a new

skirt over

stmoueffc

hoop -5*i Ik

pel'sse of
cloth or velvet;

beadkerchie
w'~th

lace
175-5

fur o me A o>
W add ed With
I

co-ffon-ted
"*d

at^eck

bosom--ftir

muff'

s.|U

bonnet
wfth
ovb.cr. q

r'bbonIY9?

CIVIL DRESS

THE I9TH CENTURY


CHAPTER EIGHT
IN

THE HALF CENTURY

following the

westward over the country from coast

was amazing. In 1848 the

New

Texas,

treaty

War

for Independence, the trek

with the resulting settlements

to coast

we

with Mexico took place whereby

Mexico and California

acquired

in return for fifteen million dollars

and

American claims against Mexico. In the same year the

the assumption of the

discovery of gold was the beginning of the great gold rush. Meanwhile,

Yankee

clippers

and whalers were touching

at all

important world ports and

building a tremendous mercantile empire.

The

nineteenth century was

new

in

its

many

far-reaching phases such as

and

the elimination of class distinction, religious freedom, self-government

complete break-off from the old idea in


In France, after her revolution, a

many

ways.

new government immediately

to

remodel the outer face of society by adopting a pseudo-Roman

at

which men balked

women

flatly.

It

was an

preferred the English version

artistic

got to

tights

work

style of dress

silhouette but the

American

which was simple and modest

pared with almost naked look of the Parisiennes. While the French
felt that

as

com-

woman

she had achieved the classic look in transparent muslin over pink silk

and

flat-soled

sandals, our

American women appeared charming

in

high-waisted muslin frocks over opaque petticoats, as did the English ladies.

became

Petticoats

a feature of the

and mull, short of waist and


edged with

frills

Occasional pictures

of 1807 such

long

showing below the

or satin was sometimes

lingerie pantalets

slim,

worn over
in

the

new costume
skirt,

shirt.

in lawn, muslin, batiste

with perhaps several petticoats

In a variation, a tunic of velvet

the sheath in the winter.

fashion

showing below the

journals

skirts.

of

And we

1805

displayed

frilled,

find according to a note

garments were then being worn, but very often what appeared
137

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


were

to be a dainty pair of pantalets

Women's body

tied at the knees.

coats

and the idea

"false drawers," a pair of separate tubes

linen

had ever consisted

of pantalets or drawers

of chemise

was shocking indeed

and

petti-

only dancers

had ever worn that garment! Drawers did not become established

in feminine

dress until the 1830's.

form

Stays returned about 1811 in the

normal figure and only

slightly

of a long corset waist fitted to the

boned, while a bandeau worn over the

chemise held the bosom firm.

The

heelless slippers called

low with ribbons laced

Of

this

"Roman

across the instep

and

period was the spencer, a smart

and having long tight

sleeves. It

canezou except that

it

tied

little

Along

the

round the ankle.

jacket or bolero,

was most often

times edged with fur or swansdown.


vest" or

sandals" were of kid or fabric, cut very

of velvet in

in front

dark color some-

same idea was the

went on over the head. There was

for cotton frocks, especially in white

open

little

"hussar

vogue

a great

which were worn the year around and

under long coats in winter. Cloaks were of such colors

as

Egyptian earth, pea

green and tobacco brown.

The feminine

redingote topped by several short capes was typical of the

period and so was the witschoura which appeared about 1808. Because the
latter

was

fur-lined

it

took the Russian name, fur coats having been

in Russia. Fur-lined coats

the

became

worn

first

a masculine fashion too, thereby edging out

muff which by 1830 was carried only by women.

An

accessory of real luxury

period to be

worn

for

was the shawl which became the rage

more than

a century.

in this

Shawls though not unknown

Europe and America had never been the mode

in

from

before, the fashion dating

the return of Napoleon's armies in Egypt. Shawls were large and small, hand-

woven and embroidered,

of silk, wool, cotton, lace or chiffon.

on hand-looms in the Orient, beautiful ones were now made


Paisley, Scotland,

Although made
in France.

came shawls woven on power looms, following

East Indian patterns in which "Paisleys" achieved a high,

From

the intricate

artistic value.

The

design layout required four months of preparation while the actual weaving

on the

British

power looms was accomplished

The feminine

corset in 1819 acquired a steel

then on, the waistline decreased in girth.


a bell shape, clearing the

edge of the

skirt

was

The

in a

busk front fastening and from


slim,

ground and revealing the

stiffened

week.

Empire

skirt

changed

tiny, heelless slippers.

to

The

with buckram and often ornamented with rows


138

DRESS THE 19TH CENTURY

CIVIL

of trimming. Shoulders were broadened with

little

shoulder capes, sleeves were

and wired, shaping into the leg-of-mutton

stuffed

which made

sleeve

its

ap-

pearance in 1820. Ornamentation was rampant in broad ribbon sashes, large

muffs and shawls, shawls in

tulle, lace, silk,

cashmere, and the ever-beautiful

Paisley.

The feminine head was


most favored
and up,

coiffure

was of

modish when cropped and scraggly but the

classic

arrangement.

with curled puffs

off the ears

tightly braided

still

and looped, and

to the

The

hair

was dressed high

at the temple. Sections of the hair

evening headdress were added

flowers, strings of beads, fans of lace, velvet ribbon,

gauze or

silk

were

artificial

and jeweled

bibelots.

The Napoleonic-Egyptian campaign was

also responsible for the fad of

luxurious turbans of brocade, satin, striped gauze and velvet to which were

added feathers and

aigrettes.

the poke bonnet or cabriolet

they were

made

Bonnets were fashioned in

all

hood dominating. Invariably

of fur, plush, velvet or satin for winter

shapes and

sizes,

under the chin,

tied

and of straw or gauze

summer.

for

While French refugee dressmakers had gradually returned


slowly regained their hold on feminine fashions, English

society

in

holds today.

it

beau and intimate of the Prince Regent,

1800 to 1812.

It is

and daily clean

Bathing was something


ladies

later

George IV, from about

conceded that he raised good dressing to cleanliness, con-

servatism, a daily bath

that

having seized

was the English Beau Brummell (1778-1840) who reached the height of

It

their

France and

had made London the hub

the ascendency in masculine taste and design,

gentlemen's clothes, a position which

tailors,

to

and gentlemen

underwear once

in

linen.

new and important

Europe began

a day.

It is

their

in 1800.

One

reads that

some

day with a bath and changed

recorded that Napoleon and Josephine did

and that the French people thought they bathed too much. To use per-

fume and

toilet

as well, "that

water was one thing but to wash with water was, to Americans

quaint custom of bathing." And, apropos of a supposedly old

American custom, we can find nothing on the Saturday night bath

until late

in the nineteenth century.

In men's dress, the English riding coat or redingote of the eighteenth century developed into the frock coat or cutaway of the nineteenth century.

Though today
generally

worn

a purely formal piece of dress, in the last century


coat.

it

Pantaloons over soft black boots were also general.


139

was

With

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


the wearing of sombre hues, the cut of a

A marked change was to fabric in


And from

this

garment became

a special feature.

dark browns, blue and green woolen

cloths.

period on, the well-dressed man's clothes including hats, boots,

even to shoe polish, simply had to be of English manufacture.

An
affair

outstanding feature of the early years was the muffling cravat, a bulky

and very often two

one of fine white muslin under one of black

cravats,

down

Eventually, the standing collar points in the 1840's began to turn

silk.

Then

over the muffler.

bow

tie,

the muffler

smaller, turning into scarf or

by detachable

invention early in 1800 was the detachable collar followed

cuffs

and

or embroidered.

man and

The

fine white shirt held

could be purchased and completed by the


the wealthy

who had

or shirtmaker, shirts were usually

many

made

its

own

as the

spite of today's

About 1850 appeared the ready-made

among

shirt

home

frills

of the gentle-

vogue for colored day


shirts

which

seamstress.

made by

their shirts
at

mark

and partly made

home by

the

hours stitching the handmade garment.

linen cambric

latter

were made with an inserted bosom, tucked, pleated

remains so in dress clothes in

Except

Following up the

a false shirt front or "dickey."

idea in the 'forties shirts

spent

narrow

leaving the collar quite exposed by the mid-century.

An American

shirts.

grew

the "chemisier"

good housewife who

The

edges of the sheer,

used on the bosom were rolled and stitched into the nar-

rowest of hems and the unending task inspired the writing of that famous

poem, "The Song

by Thomas

of the Shirt"

Hood

(1778-1845) in which he

lamented:

"O men,

O men

Women

in Massachusetts,

dear!

with mothers and wives!

not the linen you're wearing out,

But

human

in the

creatures' lives."

home

evolved the commercial pattern of Ameri-

were forever sewing

when one husband,

shirts

had the inspiration of easing the

pattern for his wife to follow.

was

sisters

It is

From shirtmaking
can fame.

with

of the Garibaldi shirt

One

worn by

of his

task by cutting a paper

patterns to create a

first

a tailor

demand

the great liberator (1807-1882). Exiled

for political reasons, Garibaldi sought refuge in


for uniforms for his Italian Legion, he

made

Uruguay. In desperate need

use of a discarded supply of

red linen found in a warehouse and which the wives


shirts.

140

made up

into men's

DRESS THE 19TH CENTURY

CIVIL

That was in 1862 and almost immediately Ebenezer Butterick found himorders for friends and neighbors for patterns of shirts, underwear

self filling

and women's and children's


he went

so rapidly that

to

His

clothes.

New York

in 1865,

by mail, supposedly the

sold patterns

sale of tissue

of

first

paper patterns increased

bought

from England's Queen

Howe

Elias

and

commercial patterns either

all

here or abroad. Orders came in from far and wide,


sional order

a fashion journal

among them an

occa-

Victoria.

of Spencer, Massachusetts, patented his sewing

machine with

grooved and eye-pointed needle in 1848, and in 1851 Isaac M. Singer patented

model equipped with

his

a foot treadle.

Followed by the power-run machine

in 1865, later a cutting machine, button-sewing

and
a

man's

produce the entire

shirt, to

Ironically, the

really

made

the other

made

for

tically all

The
and the

in building

became

pieces

as

for instance in

to lighten the worker's

where the machines were

installed.

of mechanically manufactured merchandise

available in the

for greater

'fifties,

numbers of people.

while in the

prac-

'sixties

items of dress were to be had ready-made and in the stores.


corseted look

and

'forties,

was the fashion

to accomplish

were no

in men's dress there

worn today

dates

vital

from

it

for both sexes in the 'thirties

both sexes wore the

changes.

The standard

to accentuate the shapely silhouette.

corset.

Jeweled buttons and buckles fastened

were collared by

shirts

cravats, neckcloths

color but black satin appears to have been

was worn under the

of breeches

Waist and hips were padded

waistcoats of rich colored velvet with multi-colored embroidery.

white

Otherwise,

simplicity of their

The changeover

this period.

to trousers caused stockings to shorten into socks.

sitely fine

burden

up mass production, longer hours

a prisoner in the factory

hand the growth

fitted,

clothes as

him

possible,

article in a factory.

more and cheaper wearing apparel

Semi-made

it

machine invented primarily

a slave of

and keeping him

On

made

other mechanical appliances

still

and button-hole machines

trousers, a boot cut

The

exqui-

and mufflers

in

most worn. The Wellington boot

high of

soft,

black leather.

Topcoats grew shorter and acquired braid trimming and brandenburg


fastenings.

An

entirely

new

style

appeared in the eighteen-thirties, a box

coat of fawn-colored cloth with a shawl collar.

hat was the favorite, top hats of

remained in
for

all classes

style.

of

To

men

be noted

is

silk

Although the new black

or beaver in gray,

that the top hat

in that era.

141

silk

fawn and white

was ordinary day

dress

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


For the northern gentleman and the southern planter who occasionally
ordered domestic clothes, there was the custom tailor proud of his work.

An

apprentice and then a journeyman from

opened

his

own

shop to ply

who needed

sailors

his trade.

And

and often could not wait

for

frequently a southern planter wished a shipment

of cheap clothes for his slaves

As

town, he had eventually

to

But there were pioneers, miners and

coarse, durable clothing

an ordered garment.

of the ready-made.

town

and from

need evolved the manufacture

this

term manufacture meant

of the eighteen-thirties the

made by hand.

New

York and Boston, because

and prepared and then portioned out


be finished.

to

to the

factories

to farmers' wives

The sewing machine made

and daughters

possible to supply uniforms

it

army, to be followed by the enormous demand from the demobilized

troops, all this resulting in ever-increasing production, lowered prices

growth of

the

who

and

became the headquarters where such garments were

sources of cheap labor,

cut

wool and cotton

close to

and

tremendous industry. There were those fastidious persons

objected to machine-made clothes and for

them garments were

partially

machine-stitched but fitted and finished by hand.

now

In the feminine silhouette by 1830, the leg-o'-mutton sleeve had

reached

its

largest size,

over a tight cuff.

and

frills

By

The dropped

the

'thirties

Of merino

lingerie collar

underdrawers had become an

and

frill.

feminine

essential part of

wonder why the garment had not been adopted

for winter

summer, were

to fall softly

shoulder line was accented by berthas, fichus

and the high necks were finished with

dress causing one to

for

from then on gradually diminishing

before.

wear and lace-edged white dimity or colored

pantalets or drawers.

The new garment was

calico

still

quite

often false in pairs of ruffles tied at the knees. Pantalets of another style gained
a

round of notoriety in 1851 when Mrs. Amelia

New

J.

Bloomer

of Seneca Falls,

York, attempted a reform in women's dress by appearing in

trousers topped by a tunic or smock.

with a

bit of success

but

little

She

visited

full

London where

Oriental
she

met

in her native country except that full-styled

drawers have ever since been honored with her name, "bloomers."
Five or six petticoats
of the crinoline

worn under

which made

its

the full

debut in the

skirt

1840's.

presaged the coming

At

first

only a band of

braid or horsehair (crin in French), the crinoline evolved into a petticoat,

142

DRESS THE 19TH CENTURY

CIVIL

corded and lined with horsehair, and reinforced with a wide band of straw.

The procedure

was

of dressing

as follows: if in winter,

petticoat, next the crinoline, next a

wheel of horsehair and

petticoat.

The

the

finally,

starched,

white,

over that a pleated

embroidered muslin

acquired some ten yards in circumference by 1860 and the

when

corset persisted

which the hoops could be

in

the contraption wearable with shorter street dresses. This

lowed by

a crinoline

with

The

bustle

round the back from


because

petticoats

was

bustle

'sixties

bustle replaced

really a crinoline but the half

hoops ran only

women

However,

side to side.

the

fol-

and by 1869 the

the short skirt brought in taffeta petticoats


the crinoline.

raised,

was

hoops from the knees down. In the

steel

The

the decline of the crinoline began.

Americans devised the "cage americaine"

making

skirt,

a flannel

first

firm foundation!

full skirt

tight steel

corded calico

then

returned to

stiffly

was created by the

silhouette

starched

bunched-up

polonaise.

Bonnets and caps were replaced in 1860 by hats that were fastened to the
hair by long hatpins. Caps after a reign of a century retired to the boudoir

eventually were

The
chignon

was

hair

was dressed

at the

a classic

worn only by
in

elderly

Madonna

women.
style

drawn

into a large

cadogan or

back of the neck and often held in place by a coarse

and beautiful

lace, flowers, ribbon,

coiffure

net. It

and in the evening was ornamented with

gold and silver nets.

Mantles, shawls, scarfs and fur tippets were


the flaring silhouette

and

was the

still

the

mode

but newer in

full-length greatcoat with leg-o'-mutton sleeves,

broad collar and tiny waist.

glamorous note in footwear was black net stockings worn over

color. In the 'sixties

appeared high shoes or boots of very

soft

flesh

black leather,

black patent leather, kid, satin or a combination of kid and satin. Colored silk
petticoats

and colored stockings made an appearance in the

stockings with stripes running round the leg,

with petticoats to match in each


cotton and worsted for
the

common

wardrobe of the wealthy,

case.

'seventies,

some bright red and some purple

lady's best stockings

were

lisle,

use right to the end of the century.

silk

some

was uncommon,

with

Even

fine lisle thread the

in

smart

thing.

The mode

of the bustle literally

had

143

its

ups and downs, declining in the

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


up again

'seventies,

new

style

in the 'eighties

was the

fitted,

and worn over

the skirt

and

finally disappearing in the 'nineties.

boned basque bodice always made separate from

a tightly-laced corset.

Deep mourning was observed

women's

in

dress throughout the Victorian

Period, an influence of the death of the British Consort and the queen's long

retirement from society.

It

was not unusual for the whole costume of

coat,

hat and dress to be trimmed with heavy crepe and the face covered with a
black chiffon veil during rigidly

set

Aprons were ever present

home

"tea aprons"

lovely lace

became

and

at

periods of mourning.

but in the second half of the century

particularly dainty accessories of sheer white

lawn with

delicate embroidery.

In the 1840's the masculine silhouette took on an almost feminine


trousers very tight

and the elaborate embroidered waistcoat.

ing more and more to black cloth and the frock coat.

abroad and in America

as the

"Prince Albert," being

It

Men

air

with

were turn-

was known both

worn by

the Prince

Consort of Queen Victoria. During what was termed the "Industrial Revolution," the

power and wealth

of the middle classes increased greatly

frock coat, originally the dress of the upper

class,

and the

was wholeheartedly taken

up by "those other people" and quite generally worn. Frock coat and top hat

went

to church,

weddings, funerals and important

political gatherings too,

eventually becoming everyday dress.

The
style

cut of the coat changed

from decade

to decade.

appeared in the 1850's in the short lounge jacket or sack

garment unshaped by any waist seam. Though


it

Another important

became by 1870

a very

at first

popular informal coat and

is

coat, a straight

considered eccentric,

now more

than a cen-

tury old. Another sack version appeared in England in the 1880's, a short coat

without

tails

Americans

it

intended for dinner wear and dances in country homes.

became known

Park and for some time

The

enjoyed

"Tuxedo," because
its

first

worn

at

was always

It

by a walking

stick.

Tuxedo

greatest popularity in America.

short box coat so popular here in the 'nineties dates back in

to the 1830's.

also a

it

as the

To

of fawn-colored cloth

Europe

and always accompanied

In the mid-century and in masculine costume there

was

vogue for shawls. They were worn especially when traveling, long,

broad, wide, woolen scarfs in dark colors or plaids folded across the shoulders

and over the top

coat.

Our

President Lincoln wore such a shawl along with

his top hat.

144

DRESS THE 19TH CENTURY

CIVIL
The

top hat was surprisingly

or beaver

which appeared about

an improved model of polished

tall in

1823, but

its

popularity dated from the 1840's.

Gray, fawn and white beaver remained in fashion with the black

common

monalty. Hats worn with sports clothes were of

or straw with

felt

top hat

silk

being relegated to dress wear by gentlemen and for

and wide, rolling brim,

silk

use by the

com-

low crown

ribbon round the crown with the ends hanging to

the neck in back.

newcomer was

the melon-shaped, hard felt hat called in

England the

bowler and by us the derby, having been designed by the British hatter, William Bowler in 1850.
that the Earl of
races.

The American name

Derby popularized the

style

had

of derby

its

origin in the fact

by wearing the hat

to the

English

His model was gray banded with a black ribbon. The hat was quite

generally adopted by the 'seventies. In the 'eighties the hard straw hat or

"boater"

met with approval while the


wear and without regard

for ordinary

The steam locomotive made


places

and mountain

light colors in thin silks

topper surprisingly held

it

although not so called,

of today's "fun clothes."

only thought of for men.

and inland watering

appeared in the

first

Heavy tweed

suits

And

were

to

too, sports clothes

It

was introduced

of Norfolk, meeting with approval

Americans of both

be had, a popular and

sexes

as a

hunting

among Americans

as

taking up bicycling, this

cowboy. The

The

latter calling for

settling of the

men who

of the Spanish

which

is

staging

and Indians with


and

by the Duke

did with Europeans.

lawn

women

tennis, golf

and

feminine bloomers and masculine

American West produced the wild-riding

ride the range profited

dress evolved for comfort

it

outfit

became very sports-minded with the

to the fore as never before, playing croquet,

knickerbockers.

were

kind of sports sack coat with a belt was worn with knee

breeches or knickerbockers.

coming

'fifties,

but, of course, lacking

long-lasting style being the Norfolk suit of the 1880's, a suit


a revival today.

own

was thought, and thus came about "coun-

and washable linen and cotton

and freedom

its

to class distinction.

travel easier to seaside

resorts, or so

try clothes." Sports clothes

the comfort

silk

horses, cattle

by the centuries of experience

and the

practicability, a dress

durable and picturesque in the extreme.

And

too,

which
it

traditional

at the

same time

prairies.
is

displays a definite spark

of Americana.

Here

in America, in 1829, one reads of

"mixed bathing"

only because the rough surf was too dangerous for


145

women

at

Long Branch

to venture out

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


alone, but the writer noted that the bathers

were 1'completely dressed."

How-

by mid-century the pleasure of sea bathing was an accepted, healthful

ever,

men, women and children. As

sport for

late as the 'sixties three to five

minutes

spent in the water was considered by physicians a long enough time from

which

two decades of the century

to derive benefit. In the last

was accepted not

as a health

measure but

and

as a recreation

sea bathing

so thought

was

given to an appropriate costume.

From

comprising

cloth,

mind

brings to

called the
his

and

last

Her

the

This historical costume event

girl" in

her smart get-up, the charm-

was the handsome, square-jawed male

to the

immaculate, starched white linen

were known in song and story

hers, the types

entire

garment heavily boned with

steel

gown

brought in the princess

even for

street

wear.

silk ruffle called a

frou

hem

The

"dust

and whalebone. Humorists dubbed

of glove-like

fit,

gored from neck

either just clearing the

ground or

to

hem.

in short trains

underside of the skirt was finished with a narrow

ruffle."

or accordion-pleated

when

effect, the

bend or walk." This corseted figure

the resulting silhouette the "kangaroo

ruffles

produced a waspwaist

straight-front corset in the 'nineties

Skirts flared at the

shirts,

as the shirtwaist girl

and the shirtwaist man.

The

tailored suit of

decade of Charles Dana Gibson, the Ameri-

cavalier

"Gibson man." Due

women's "mannish"

shirtwaist.

"Gibson

a picture of the

(1867-1944).

artist

and

skirt, jacket

ing creation in the century's

can

came

Paris in the 1880's

frills

Taffeta petticoats were beflounced with deep

which swished and made

Women

the lady walked.

wore

quantities of

a delightful frou-

underwear

in fine

muslin and nainsook, handmade, lace-trimmed and threaded with "baby

bon" of

delicate color.

seamstress

The

who came

Most

of

it

was made by the

periodically to the

home

to

ladies themselves or

rib-

by the

"dressmake."

swan-like neck was collared almost to the ears, the collar boned and

usually topped with a ruche. In the last years of the century, the

became the hairdo. To

New

York from

creation of a Parisian coiffeur

Paris

came

pompadour

the "marcel wave," the

named Marcel who with

his curling irons ar-

ranged even waves round the head. The use of cosmetics was confined to a
dash of
the

rice

powder, maybe a touch of rouge, but never applied in public. In

summer, even on

city streets in

parasol to protect her complexion

The

New

York,

from the

woman

carried a pretty

sun.

practice of personal hygiene increased constantly in the second half

146

DRESS THE 19TH CENTURY

CIVIL
many

of the century,
daily.

fastidious people of refinement

changing

their linen

But one gathers by reading contemporary beauty hints that those same

people actually bathed but once or twice a year. In a manual of etiquette


published for ladies of gentility in the 1870's the writer advises that a complete bath once each

in his opinion

day upon rising was

was not

sufficient,

and plain water was preferable but not more

than a quart. Reading further, one finds that by the 1880's


a

bathing the eyes"

essential. "Just

many were

taking

weekly bath, the "Saturday night bath."

As
living

the century

and was

especially

drew

to a close the

installed in

among

bathroom became necessary

more and more homes

the fashionably elegant.

We

use the

because one bathroom to a house was luxurious.

which opened
elite,

in 1886 as a

in

to gracious

Europe and America,

word

in the singular

The famous Tuxedo

most exclusive and sumptuous

Club,

retreat for social

contained one hundred bedrooms but only one private bath.

The

century closed on an important note in men's dress

creases in

trousers,

an idea which had been brewing for nearly half a century suddenly took hold
in civilian attire.

The

Prince of Wales

trousers pressed four ways,


nineties creases fore

and

on the

aft as

first

his visit here in 1860

sides, front

worn by

well-dressed civilians. Trouser cuffs,

upon

British

new

his

and back. In the eighteen-

Army

officers

were adopted by

about the same time, again were

seen on British Military and again copied in civilian

147

wore

life.

nineteenth Centura

gown

of clotfi,

velvet or sflk-rlbbon borderru cWe at neck

""d wrfstsSCarf Q nd
tarr>.Q'shante
are forerunner
of coming

vogue

of

thfngs

CeiKcosti-Tch

WalkiVy

tfps-

costume-cost

I8U

of

reseda

cjreen

cloth wrth
black velvet

border ~be\<$e
frock-beige
sflk 'cottage*

on net wi'-m
black velvet
brfm-beig-e
a
o5"fri'ch
t'es
b

-ffps-lfhoerfe

ruff caned
"Bafsfe 'black 'Rornflh.

a.

sandals"
1812

mai'd 5

costume^

5trped cotton dress


chec k ed
q'nq ham

apron'
muslin Cap
wfth t'p pet
"VI

attached

Collar

buttoned
*n

fronts

black
sITppersI80O

wK're frock
cf JodCdo
tw'll muoUn-

Sqqe green
velvet Spencer

white

5" Ik

collar an d

Iape|s'tucke4
wti're sflk
borinet'block
sl'ppers^
I80O

v-*/,

Hlne'teenf

Century

V-i

coat of
gyau blue- clothbuft waistcoat
q
breeches\a'\

beige cashmere
-frock

Second
Waistcoat

taffeta

w'+h

ruchma-

brown velvet

ot

jacket w'-th
brown -taffeta

strfped slk

ruchmg -

whltebut-fu co loved

fringed be'ge

vidiig coat-'

should er
shawl - wbi-fe
neck fril
brown vel vef
bonnet w'+h
rose s|k

black silk
top hafblack boots
w'tri b-row/n

leather

fops-

-b-'ro-

1819

housewife schoolmtf'a rr r
<3over r>e?5-brown .blu<2
>

or black woof,
c ofton or silk -

ducked yoke
with frl II
scarf'
white mu si n
a "d

apron182 5"

d jr

green
claw-hammer
-ta'l

coat-black

velvet collar-

pea green
waist coaf-

fawn colored
Trousers-black

top hatnge re stock


jab of d
fl,1

collar tabsflat black

pumps

With

tfaiters1809
V.

hne+e en-fh Century

iQisley

sbav^l

Qua We ye -is

ot

PVi'\ade\p\r\'a 'n
*

l
young to
meeting
dress-all whff-

it

own
or

'

small black,

pleated
taTteta pen net-.
yellow roses /V^//,

or sflk-

f,ne

cotton

(like mull)--?

in

reds arM
Chfnese blueblack cpoundbeifle dress
wTfh plea-fed
ruffles-

rfn^ed

<?hd

woolen shawl'

buds-

black

s'lk bonnet,
white sl'ppers-I8IX.

Quakeress

in

tkfn QToy silk

manHe over
iMhrhs dress

bUcW-faffe
bon nel
black

'

Slfpper.5r
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"old

fashfon

dress-Wore
tight breeches
l840s-drab
j
cassimere coat

black velvet

wa'stcoaTnanke en breeches
formfdtfble*
black beaver htwhite "sh'T^sfo^k
af
>d cravat- wb'te

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black shoessTIvef

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l830's

froCK COCtoi

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broadcloth
wi'fb black

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colored
vvaistcocrt

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black boots-

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jm

of

colored
taffeta
pi

>

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top haf

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collar "*d
CU-ff 5

1830

1831

flsj cost J "ne- tor


COllfna ''"d wa'k'nj-

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velvet co aftaffefa bowkno+S'

embroidered
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kfd giovesboots of gray

clothed
block

patenf
leather
1835"

redfnaote of
hot-He green

cloth-black
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gray

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sk frt wi+k

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sl'ppers1851

brown

cloth.
j

one "bur" ton


sock coat-gra^
cloth -trousers
wth brown Ifne
pi a Td

down

turned
collar-

black sflk
cravat- black
hard felt derby
red velvet

Wafshcoafb lack shoes1861


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ored

suik-

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je

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black

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bustle sk'rt df

black taffetaa>
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borseman^-clotb hcsbitblock jacket" wf-bh
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h
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brown woolen
jac ke+'-whff-e
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70

's

black cloth
wa;s + coat"'
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a-rher

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denim pants

ve'bt^ brovJn

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legs

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c:>fton

neckerchief
fan or

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brown

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hat-quirf
In

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1

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name

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cloth vest'

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Century

blue,b*owr> or

black velveKne-Fff-ked

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golf a

suit of

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a

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0^3

RtW

CIVIL DRESS

THE 20TH CENTURY


CHAPTER NINE
THE AMERICAN WAY OF
form

we

of living based

really

had

little,

on

LIFE

work and

culture,

has imposed

clothes

play. Class distinction, of

more or

less

power and

World War

class distinction as

and the wealthy people. But today in our land every


dressed

if

he wishes since mode and

piece as in the

handmade garment,

price. All individuals,

boats, tennis, golf

and

tinguish the farmer

worn by

man

II.

Fashionable

the upper class

can be fashionably

can be had in the machine-made

taste

the difference being in the quality and

on occasions, wear blue

and most families enjoy

law,

the disappearance of a servant

uniformity since

were a definite feature of

which

minimum wage

has been eliminated. Education, the

the possible rise to a high earning


class

has developed into a true democratic

jeans, sweaters

and sneakers

cars, refrigerators, air-conditioners, radios, television,

travel.

No

from the

longer can

city

man

it

be said that one can easily

by their

clothes,

dis-

speaking not of work

clothes but of everyday dress.

The family

living far

from the

city

is

able to shop out of well-illustrated

catalogues which act as salesmen of large mail order houses, a great


institution.

Not only

clothes but everything for

American

home, farm or wardrobe can

be purchased in this manner, a highly successful feature of American living.

MEN1900 TO
Masculine

from season

1910

attire

was now of

to season

fairly

standardized design varying slightly

with London the approved arbiter

slim trousers of the 'nineties acquired fullness,

gerated version called "peg-top" trousers.


156

in such matters.

The

young men wearing an exag-

wonderful new coat which be-

WOMEN1900
came

a classic

was the polo

in the British "wait coat"

The

sports

TO

1910
which originated

coat of natural color camel's hair

thrown over the shoulders between periods of

costume consisted of the Norfolk

and heavy

jacket, knickerbockers

woolen knitted hose with deep turned-down

With

cuffs.

play.

went the

this

flat

cap of ample beret crown and wide visor. This cap with goggles and the linen

made up

duster

the motoring outfit.

shoulders changed to a

Around 1910

padded

the very broad

more natural form without padding which has been

the sign of conservative dressing since.

The

sports shirt got

its start

after

World War

at the resorts

on the

Bermuda, Florida and California, when fashion-wise men on the

Riviera,

alert for

comfortable lounge clothes discovered the lightweight, cotton knit shirt of the

Basque fisherman of Spain.

It

became the polo

which by the nineteen-

shirt

twenties appeared without collar for beach wear, bicycle, tennis and golf.

big change occurred in men's underwear.

the long union suit of

lisle

or cotton

To

was the thing

the turn of the century,


for

summer, changing

one of wool for winter. The great vogue for sports introduced a

founded upon the

became

athlete's

running pants and skeleton

sleeveless lisle shirts

highly colored

and shorts of

stripes, plaids

often knee-length, were

and

prints.

shirt.

fine cotton, first

Union

new

to

fashion

Undergarments

white and

later in

suits of lisle, silk or

wool,

worn by horsemen.

Until the twentieth century, the only clothes especially designed for sports

had been

among

for hunting

college

and

riding.

As the popularity

men, appropriate

football, baseball, bicycling, golf

dress

of sports grew, particularly

was given thought

and tennis based upon

for such
slacks,

games

shirts

as

and

knitted shirts.

WOMEN- 1900 TO

1910

In feminine dress of the

first

decade was the high, straight-front corset

with long hips, tightly laced in back making the waist as small
tortuous framework.

The

as possible, a

curve lessened in 1907, the waist was permitted to

spread a bit and the top was cut lower.

The new model was equipped with

pendant garters replacing the round garter worn for centuries.


In silhouette the skirt continued to be fitted in molded form over the hips

and back,

flaring out over beflounced petticoats.

157

Dust

ruffles

faced the under

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


hem which was

side of the

hygienic fashion.

model

short

day

grew

will happen, the skirt

in shoe-top length, a "habit-back" of

and was only proper when worn on

skirt"

The

As

long enough to sweep the ground, a most unshorter

and an

especially

tweed was called a "rainy

a rainy day.

rage for the Gibson Girl continued unabated through this decade with

pompadour and her low

her royal carriage, her tiny waist, her beautiful


letage. "Fluffy Ruffles,"

decol-

another dashing beauty, appeared on the scene in

1906 and became a tremendous vogue. She was the creation of the American
artist,

Wallace Morgan (1873-1948),

New York

for the

who made

Herald. She appealed to most young

American type and became the model


hoped

came

as the ideal

and manners that

the dropped shoulder line, forerunner of the

War

an influence of the Russo-Japanese

The

silhouette

sion of the First

many

in dress

men

women

all

to effect.

In 1905

day.

the attractive serial drawings

instances

side to

The

and

a sleeve style that

narrowed and straightened into

measured a yard around, necessitating

held the hair in place. By 1908, a

many women

New

in

combs

York

London

well-known fashionable

enough

Bobbed hair made

at the

of

amber or

pad

tortoise shell

salon offered permanent waves

The

in 1906, the brain child of Charles

In the

coiffeur.

its

to afford the fee of

year only eighteen

first

one thousand

War

I.

This was followed in 1913 by the bob

of lovely Irene Castle, the photogenic and therefore

much photographed

room dancer who performed with her husband, Vernon


Hats were large and perched on top of

crown adding

still

more

height.

trimmed with

pompadour,

There was

ball-

Castle.

bandeau under the

a revival of the large black velvet

ostrich, a hat that the eighteenth century portrait

painter Gainsborough put on the heads of


first

dollars.

appearance on the heads of the Isadora Duncan

Dancers shortly before World

Also of the

slit

in

brave enough to endure the eight to twelve hours necessary for

the operation or rich

picture hat

knee-high

risked the operation until the second decade.

momentous invention occurred

women were

to-

which

skirt"

was the pompadour drawn up high over

or roll of false hair called a "rat." Ornamental

Nestle, a

with us

possible for the wearer.

coiffure of the period

but not too

is

sleeve,

a nineteenth century ver-

Empire mode. Thus developed the "hobble

make walking

kimono

many

of his aristocratic

decade was a popular and smart large, black straw


158

sitters.

sailor or

WOMEN1900 TO
skimmer with low crown known

as the

operetta by the Viennese composer,

1910

Merry

Widow

after the delightful

Franz Lehar.

Motorcar owners were increasing and the open touring car of the day was
having an

effect

garments such

upon costume. The unpaved dusty roads made enveloping

as the linen duster,

necessity, in fact people soon learned to

an absolute

when motoring

out of the

The high buttoned and


decade, being

this

Day

worn

It

their oldest clothes

laced shoe of the past half century lasted through

for winter,

and Oxfords and

brown with

less of a rarity.

slippers in the

stockings to

match

New, and an American

feminine adoption of the man's evening


ribbon bow.

wear

veils

city.

shoes were either black or

now becoming

silk

automobile bonnets and long chiffon

pump

with the

in

or

lisle

fashion,

flat,

summer.
silk,

was the

black grosgrain

appeared about 1904 and was considered startlingly low cut and

deshabille for day or street wear. But

it

became and

still

is,

the classic piece

of footwear after a half century.

By

era the United States

this

shoes in the world and at the

American shoes

had grown

same time the

into the largest producer of


largest

consumer of footwear.

are conceded a high position in the realm of fashion

a definite influence

on the European

and have

shoe.

Lingerie was embroidered, lace-trimmed and beribboned. Fine handkerchief linen,

and

sheer, soft batiste, all white,

was employed

and underpetticoat. The chemise was worn under the

went

set

were
sired

flat,

a full-skirted pair of underdrawers

rows of starched narrow

effect,

"falsies"

frills

and

on the

in chemise, drawers

corset

and over the

a corset cover. If the

corset cover

cor-

bosom

produced the de-

being unknown. The Victorian flannel petticoat

dis-

appeared but a heavily starched white muslin petticoat was topped by a colored
silk

one of changeable

The bathing

suit

taffeta.

which dates from the mid-nineteenth century was

a non-

revealing garment usually of dark blue or black flannel accompanied by

self-

bloomers and black stockings. The high collar was eliminated and the sleeves

were shortened

to the elbows.

159

MEN1910 to
The

1920

greater part of this decade

World War

end for the

to a successful

was given over

to soldiering

and bringing

Needless to say that any

Allies.

thought given to dress was concentrated upon the uniform. Military costume

was bound

to affect civilian clothes

which

it

did with an Italian

jacket changing to a slim fitted shape, high of waist

and a

the suit

flare,

single button

closure.

WOMEN1910 to 1920
Although we are concerned with American everyday

dress in this work,

from here on American manufacturers were beginning


Paris as the fountainhead of

new

really the instigators of this trend

couraged what has proven

The important

to

ideas.

be conscious of

to

Magazines and trade papers were

and of course, the mercantile trade en-

be big business.

events of this decade were the return to the natural figure,

the adoption of the simple

costume relieved by

unadorned frock for day wear and the

a piece of jewelry.

Paul Poiret was the

first

all-black

couturier

daring enough to place the belt directly under the bosom in true Empire

He made use of
sleeves. And his
evening

dress.

the

kimono

pattern to eliminate the high collar and set-in

was of

palette

startling

combinations in brilliant colors for

Other new notes were the slim

tunic, the

a draped skirt simulating a peg-top silhouette.


called a

harem

skirt,

met with no

ground, became a

classic

A
it

lamp-shade tunic and

divided or trouser

success. Lanvin's "robe

which was considered short because

full skirt,

style.

skirt,

de style" with a very

was eight inches

off the

surviving to date.

In 1918 and 1919 the chemise day frock rose to just below the knee, a scant
affair

with low round neck and

trailing,

panel

and we

all

train.

sleeveless.

For evening

have been living in

at the races.

they have

come

The new

was made with

tricot cloth ever since.

The

As

far

silk fabrics

earliest artificial fabrics left

much

and the new stance required very


160

little

back

as

1915

on her manne-

to be desired but

a long way, having developed wearing quality

figure

In 1918, Chanel introduced jersey cloth for the chemise

Chanel displayed costumes of American synthetic


quins

it

and

real beauty.

corseting.

soft

MEN1920
was designed of knitted

girdle

the hips.

TO

1930

elastic tricot, waistline

bandeau or camisole held the

breasts flat

high and

just

covering

and the abdomen was

form" or the "debutante slouch."

thrust forward producing the "boyish

Lingerie became very simple, of sheer batiste or handkerchief linen with


just a bit of lace until 1918

when

crepe de chine and silk jersey took over for

underwear. Silk became the thing in pink, pak blue and mauve.
vanished and a
required

it,

day frock.

silk

worn under

slim slip was

The

gown

the evening

if

petticoat

the

gown

otherwise a bandeau and a pair of silk knickers sufficed under the

And many women from

here on wore silk pajamas instead of

nightgowns.

The standard

brown stocking now changed

black or

to gray, taupe, Cor-

dovan and tan with gray the most popular. Tan stockings matched

spats

which

were worn with black pumps. White was the stocking color for summer wear.

Blond hosiery was an outcome of the dye shortage during the war. French

women

purchased white stockings and had them dyed beige or blond by a

small Paris shop,

all this

American women clung

women,

as

taking place in the second half of the decade.

to long black stockings

when bathing although French

our soldiers stationed overseas specifically noted, did not wear

stockings either with the conventional bathing dress or the one-piece knitted
maillot.

adding

But new fabrics such


interest to the

MEN1920 TO
The

as silk jersey

and awning-striped colors were

American bathing costume.

1930

slim, high-waisted silhouette of 1919

servative style with patch pockets

was modified

grew both

in

fours," as they

as

wide

as

called,

at

Cambridge and

twenty-four inches at the bottoms. Knickers

width and length with

were

more con-

and a two-button closure instead of one.

Trousers widened into "Oxford bags" which originated

which were sometimes

into a

deep

fall

over the golf socks. "Plus

was the term used by the

British

Army

because

breeches were measured as reaching to the knees plus four inches. Breeches
of white linen were popular for

Using synthetic yarns

made

the

summer

suit

summer

as the base,

use.

smart suitings of good woven texture

appropriate for city dress in the north as well as in the

south where cotton has always been

worn during
161

the heated term.

The dark

FIVE CESTURIES OF AMERICAS COSTUME


way

business suit gave

while sports

textiles

and mixtures

to lighter colors

were permitted wide

suits

An

was the huge,

in cold weather.

felt,

newcomer

packed in a

man had

in casual hats

called handkerchief

bear-like, longed-haired

attending outdoor

There were many other long-haired fur coats but

seems that everv college

outstanding American

when

raccoon coat, a favorite in the open touring car and

games

and woolen

liberty in color.

All the classic topcoats continued in fashion.


coat of the second and third decades

in all stvles

felt.

It

it

"coonskin coat."

to sport a

was the slouch hat of light-weight, paper-thin

was

firm enough to be rolled up and

soft yet

suitcase.

WOMEN1920 TO

1930

Bv 1921 the longer

skirt

was back having been eased

draping and panels but almost

at

once the

hem

up

crept

bv long, uneven

in

to the knees reach-

ing there in 1925. So revealing of feminine charms was the modish creature
that she

was

called a "Flapper"

no bosom, no waistline and


skull-shaped

felt

cloche hat.

and her period, the "'Flapper Age." There was

no crowning glorv under her

practically

Wearing her knee-length

in the thoilght that she looked like a bov.

the

hem was

again in action stopping

dav wear and bv 1930, touching the


rence,

we have had two

Within

at ten or

floor for

sheath, she

tight,

was happv

several vears the descent of

twelve inches off the floor for

evening

distinct hemlines, short for

dress. Since this occur-

dav and long for formal

wear.

The bovish form


normal by

1930.

prevailed through this period, the low waistline reaching

The

And

well, aided the desired uncorseted look.

garment was worn next

tory that

woman's underpinnings

to

New

lace

were used,

it

was

woven or

was of

time in corset

and

silk

panties, or

knitted

with

little

making

an
a

as

his-

A
all-

good

or no ornamenta-

either blond or ecru in color.

and French was the "ensemble"

tion outfit of dress

first

consisted of girdle, brassiere

substitute for the above three. Lingerie


if

for the

the skin, the chemise eliminated.

in-one foundation piece which was firmly

tion but

which was boneless

low-cut. knitted elastic girdle,

and long coat or

skirt

in soft,

style, a

combina-

and blouse or sweater. From here on

sports clothes lost their mannish, tailored look.

162

dressmaker

Of

the period

was the low-

MEN 1930 TO

1940

necked, sleeveless sports dress with a scarf or neckerchief tied loosely round

the neck.

gown

wardrobe of an ensemble,

day dress and an evening

needs of almost every occasion.

filled the

With

a basic black

the dressmaker type of bathing suit early in the 'thirties long stock-

ings were

be seen, eventually disappearing.

to

still

swim

the French type of knitted, one-piece

The

suit or a

dress

was replaced by

combination of knitted

maillot or jumper with flannel or knitted shorts of contrasting color.

radical

change in headgear in 1923 was the cloche or mushroom hat of

the French milliner, Reboux.


soft,

thin

simple round crown with tiny brim and of

usually black or beige,

felt,

it

was worn summer and winter and

enjoyed a long vogue. Relieved by a grosgrain band, or a single jewel, or no

trimming

at all,

it

the neck in back.

hugged
It

the head tightly

down

and

to

complimented the bobbed head which was becoming

general, to be followed by the shingle in 1922

shaggy bob. Though

to the eyes in front

many women

and

enough

retained

next, the wind-blown,

hair to dress up, the

small head was the smartest.

This decade marks the beginning of the present hey-dey for the manufacture of cosmetics.

Every woman, young or

to the use of "beautifiers" to

old, at leisure or in business, took

enhance her looks even

if

The

use of powder, lipstick, rouge, eyebrow pencil, eye

tion

cream became general. Repairs were

of

powder or

lipstick,

many

turned

mer sun

fair

shadow and founda-

made

in public, a bit

craze for sun bathing

complexions to a brown or "sun-tan" coloring in the sum-

or under a sun lamp. Colored nail polish on the fingers of ladies of

MEN1930 TO

the

calmly

without shocking the world.

the Anglo-Saxon world dates

By

now

naturally beautiful.

this

from

1926.

1940

time the manufacturers of men's wear were looking with envy

volume of

sales in

Elsa Schiaparelli

women's wear and

who was doing

at

finally consulted the very successful

big business in her

own American

depart-

ment. She answered that the secret was in seasonal promotion based upon

enough change each year


year's."

And

so,

to

make

last year's

purchases appear distinctly "last

taking the suggestion to heart, the makers of men's wearing

apparel have tried to do just that.


163

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


The end

of the 'twenties brought in "the English drape" in the masculine

one-button single-breasted coat actually

suit, a

baggy trousers had

fell

loosely over the chest.

pleats at the waist, altogether

The

dramatic change and

good-looking. By 1938 the style had been revised to the English paddock suit

with a high-front, two-buttoned closing.

popular shirt for casual wear was found in California, the "gaucho"

Made

having reached there from the Argentine.


veloped in
outside.

By

of flannel,

1935, a cotton version with side

slits

it

was debe

worn

was the most popular of

shirts

cotton and rayon, colors wild or neutral, with

silk,

for beach wear.

of the

first

tails to

For cold weather, the fisherman and hunter copied the

Canadian lumberjack

shirt

in rich, grayed colors.

Masculine underwear of today consists of skeleton

shirt

and trunks of

cotton cloth, cotton knit and synthetic fabrics. In these days of knitted fabrics

enabling one to step in or pull on, buttons have disappeared into limbo.

was

in a picture entitled "It

upon removing
most young

High

his outer shirt, revealed that

men

shoes

Happened One Night"

It

that the late Clark Gable,

he "went bare," and since then

have been minus an undershirt.

worn

in the early century disappeared.

metal or patent leather, they were worn

fall

Of

tan,

brown, gun-

and winter while low shoes or

Oxfords, laced or buttoned, were for summer.

The newer

sports

Oxford

ac-

quired a fringed leather tongue covering the lacing, originally intended as


protection

Up

to

when tramping
this

over the Scottish moors.

period American designers of ready-made clothes for

endeavored to create a real American

style

but with the exception of a few

so-called university fashions, the manufacturers concluded

rather follow the custom tailors deriving their ideas

Apropos of

resort bathing, the

sport by wearing just

attached,

wide

American male

wool or heavy

elastic belt.

When

silk

men

that they

would

from London.
finally

undressed for the

swim trunks held

secure by an

he wished, he covered himself with a beach

jacket or lounging robe.

164

WOMEN1930 TO

1940

In looking back over this decade one

struck by the wide range of

is

was now

fashions. So specialized did clothes

become

that there

costume for each and every occasion

town,

country, travel, cocktail parties,

the

little

home

a definite

dinner party, the formal evening, a design for every sport,

even to a sports spectator costume.

We

shall note the figure first because

both here and abroad the feminine

own Mae

West, she of the

sumptuous curves. Her great success was the portrayal of a

siren of the gay

silhouette

was influenced by the photoplay

'nineties in

boned

"Diamond

The

Lil."

corset rose higher

went back

to

normal and a

slightly

under the bosom. The bosom again became a feature

pushed up by a cup-like

of the feminine form, being

changed from a slouch

waistline

of our

to a firm position

on two

brassiere,

and the posture

with chest thrown out

feet

and shoulders back.


Propitious indeed were

was

wonderful a thing

as

wound

And

or covered with any textile yarn could be

in feel

and

fit

two items made the


for the

The round

woven

and manufactured

the slide fastener at last perfected

garment

of the 'thirties. Lastex

could happen to corsetry.

as

the closure problem. These


silk

two American inventions

first

into a knit fabric.


in all colors, solved

corset into a

time in

its life.

elastic core

The

most comfortable
zipper

won wide

approval as the closure for dress, handbags, household containers, in fact

wherever a trim fastening was required.

The

halter neck

evening wear.

It

was

which was designed


a bib-like bodice

round the neck leaving a back bare


suit usually of

black

drawn up on

to the belt.

and

a cord or ribbon

New

tied

and good was the dinner

black silk in jacket, skirt and blouse based upon the masculine

tie outfit.

In 1939, another beach idea was incorporated into evening

dress in the "bare midriff," an expanse of bare torso

bodice.

day and

for bathing dress entered

Modest females

filled in the

Cotton came back into

campaigns arranged in

its

New

own

between

belt

and bolero

space with flesh-colored chiffon.


in a big

way brought about by

publicity

York's Madison Avenue. Starting out with white

pique and organza with the aid of synthetics

fibers,

many new and

beautiful

weaves have been created which are especially right for summer evening wear.

charming, lasting and youthful fashion and

still

with us

dirndl skirt, full and short with tight belt, which got under
165

is

the Tyrolean

way when

New

"

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


York

brought several back from Europe to wear in Southamp-

Palm Beach. Of

ton and
skirt

woman

society

brilliant colors

many suburban

the perfect answer to

is

tive

garment.

the

way

It

no doubt

Schiaparelli

needs of such a casual and attrac-

re-established our shirtwaist dress

New Look

to Dior's

and often hand-worked, the peasant

"Shocking Pink" and

The

feminine silhouette.

to the

paved

of the 'thirties,

was fuchsia pink

first

The

Pink.

Schiaparelli

later,

also

in 1947.

was responsible for two striking fashions

most unflattering

and

one

called

other was the broad,

squared padded shoulders so disfiguring to the feminine form.

There was

about every

just

Eugenie hat and the most

style of hat

but outstanding examples were the

versatile doll hats, first

designed by Talbot for the

Duchess of Windsor. Veils were popular and so was every kind of cap or

From

net.

here on, hatlessness became more prevalent than being hatted. Every

was modish provided

coiffure or hairdo

the hair was cut shoulder length,

The
fashion

or a fad,

it

kept to the small head for which

making any headdress

men and women began

hatless era of
first

it

as early as the late 'twenties, a

Palm Beach.

seen at the resorts in Southern France and

grew

into a real

menace

possible.

to the hat trade

and which

has not yet been put down. There are several reasons for

we

age in which

live

the expensive hairdo which

disarrange, the closed

motor car and

it,

woman

lastly, air travel

with

A whim

in these 1960's

each one of the


doesn't wish to

its

restricted lug-

gage weight.

was

Slipper footwear
to

pump,

pump

the

of every conceivable design

predominating.

Louis heel by the high, slim

mer weather,

The
factory.

more

first

big change was the replacement of the

steel spike heel.

the blond stocking

still

non-silk stockings were

held

made

Except in hot, bare-legged sum-

its

of

own.

wood

Then came rayon which, combined with

successful in

fit.

War
war

wearing
II

lisle

and proved

or cotton,

fit

in

was a

American nylons came on the market

in 1939 but

bit

World

vital to the

and stockings furnished by the Government went only


its

unsatis-

and beauty but remark-

(1939-1945) curtailed the use of nylon yarn for needs

effort

women

quality.

fiber

Next, nylon, the finest of synthetic yarns, was woven

into gossamer sheer stockings possessing not only

able

and texture from sandal

to those

service.

"Fake jewelry" which had always been taboo

166

in

good dressing and by the

MEN1940 TO
was

real ladv,

and

lavish

first

worn without

artistic pieces to

1950

pretense in the

From

'thirties.

that time,

complement unadorned costumes have been

worn by

ously designed by jewelers and

well-dressed

women

seri-

with complete

aplomb.

summer

Play clothes were adopted by everyone in the


size or

shape at the

resorts, in

suburbia and city

regardless of age,

They included very

streets.

short dresses resembling children's rompers, slacks

and

shorts.

Underneath

might be worn a "pantie girdle" of knitted

The

tailored

costume of

elastic.

pants and jacket became standard for winter sports especially for skiing.

Navy

blue or black were the favorite colors in gabardine, whipcord or flannel. For

rink ice skating the tailored knee-length dress or shorter, with flaring, circular
cut

was the most popular costume.


For

resort bathing the

the Continent, a one-piece

wool, dark, light or

MEN 1940 TO

swim

all colors

made

II

adopted the maillot of

finally

suit of knitted or elastic fabric in silk or

of the

rainbow and unusual color combinations.

1950

The enforced curtailment


World

woman

American

and the rush

of civilian

to replenish

manufacturing during the years of

wardrobes upon the

soldiers' return

for the popularity of casual or semi-formal clothes.

battle dress

was evident
to

the suit which

was

shoulders.

drape was

bit of

still

war was

the matching vest due to limitations on

pockets, pocket flaps

War

and trouser turn-ups were

necessities created a dearth in

simply unattainable for the


shirt

came upon

present in

either a three-button, single-breasted or a three-button,

double-breasted with trousers laid in pressed pleats at the waist.


the

influence of

in the passing of the exaggerated square physique

more natural

which changed

The

home

man

at

also

It

was

banned.
shirts

which were

in this period that the

the scene, a sensation of the 1940's.

quick-drying, requiring no pressing or very

casualty of

wool yardage. Patch

white cotton civilian

home.

little,

Its

nylon

qualities of washability,

made

it

seem

a practical

wonder.

The

scarcity of cloth

and dyes put

men

into suits of lighter colors

and

combinations of colors. Slacks and tweed sports coats became the general tone

167

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME

of dress unless a man's pre-war wardrobe lasted out the period.

smart en-

semble for instance, was the jacket of camel's hair cloth with slacks of

solid

color.

The

topcoat of camel's hair held

And

whipcord.

position

its

for a price, a topcoat of vicuna or

and

so did the raglan of

guanaco could be had and

enjoyed by the older non-soldier since the ruling did not effect such luxuries.
In the post-war period the returning vets displayed high approval of the welltailored, lined raincoat.

and favored

coat.

Of

light-colored cravenetted cloth

Also to be noted

army

the

is

is

it

still

a smart

coat of water-repellent cotton

gabardine, sheepskin lined and collared for real knock-about service.

The

popularity of the varied sport model shirts finally suggested a shirt

white or colored that would serve as an all-purpose


collar that could be

Scarfs

went

worn open

pretty wild in the late 'forties,

fabrics.

for business
colors rich

and

a reaction against the

in brilliant, garish color in silk,

stripes

worn with

and

snap brim on the wide side

and muted. The Homburg


for dress.

in

to

wide

in

dark blue or black with turned-up

Sportsmen revived the wearing of the

cap.

Myriad have been the straws for summer, hats fashioned of every
South Sea or tropical grass woven in exotic meshes or plain,
watersilk palms, coconuts, bakus and

And

mostly

The
casual

all

bound with

so-called "loafer shoe"

Norwegian

slipper

many

others to

puggree band of

was eventually

was made

clothes.

to

accompany dinner

was based upon the boot

"chukkar" or

"flight boot."

168

class.

The

wear

comfortable,

since

most

men

black patent leather model

new

style in

an ankle-high

and army

officers

and

smart

of polo players

Panamas,

color.

tailored for city

laceless slip-on.

in

available

combat the hot weather.

climbed into the staple

found they liked the ease of the

cut

wool

in solid colors.

Ribbon bands ranged from narrow

semi-sports.

brim was the elegant shape


flat

some

hat was most generally

felt

no doubt

But there were also the club and regimental

others of small neat designs,

The

with a convertible

or closed and with or without scarf.

sombre uniform. Many patterns were

and synthetic

shirt

called the

WOMEN1940 TO

1950

Perhaps the biggest story pertaining to costume in the 1940's

For thousands of years the natural yarns of wool,

fabrics.

that of

is

linen, cotton

and

have been woven into cloth to clothe man. But with the invention of

silk

century, the spinning and weaving of the

rayon in the

last

filament has

come

By

far indeed.

man-made

textile

decade synthetic yarn production in the

this

United States exceeded that of the world with Japan following in second place.
Since the last war, out of the laboratories seem to flow an ever-increasing

number

The new

female.
cost,

of synthetic fibers

which go

test-tube yarns

into fabrics for garments for

have remarkable properties such

male and

as

lowered

can be submitted to washing and drycleaning, furnish insulation against

heat and cold and are light in weight. Furthermore miracles in fashion are

evolved by blending the

with natural ones, thereby utilizing

artificial fibers

the good qualities of both.

Perhaps even more remarkable

which

is

fashioned

children.

One

all

such

manner

is

the new, stretchable synthetic yarn of

of form-fitting

elastic piece will fit

eliminating the need of so

many

garments for men,

many

sizes in a

sizes

and

women and

different shapes thus

given model.

And

stretchables give

silk

continue to hold

the luxurious feel of fitting perfectly.

But wonderful
their

own

sessed of

as the

amazing

textile strength

'thirties

rounded bosom stood

stomach and

still

toward

a smaller waist,

diaphragm control and

during the war years until Paris again

hit

her stride

"New Look" in 1947. After nearly half a century


form Madame came forth equipped with bosom, hips,

derriere, all this

Needless to say

it

which

waist and covered about the


day's use of nylon, elastic
that she

is

womanly

allure the result of

new

corsetry.

delighted the picture makers of Hollywood. There appeared

effective little girdle

ment

no matter how sheer has surpassed and

and produced the

of the pencil-slim

an

and

silk.

trend of the

in fashion

fabrics are, wool, linen

except in women's stockings. In that category, nylon because pos-

supplanted natural

The

new

rose not

more than

same space below,

and power net gives

few inches above the

this the

woman

"waist cincher," Toa form-shaping gar-

more comfortable with than without.

In 1947 while fashion was

still

in the doldrums, a

new

Paris couturier,

Christian Dior (1905-1957), a former successful art dealer, turned his creative

169

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


talents to

women's

clothes

and presented the feminine world with a

silhouette

"New Look." It was an instant and tremendous


success because not only did women like it but it proved to be the way that
most men liked to see their women look. Rounded bosom, small waist and
full skirt, all making for flattery and charm. And of course, it was just what
that

came

to be

was needed

to

known

as the

prod the needlework

trades.

Full skirts called for petticoats, even crinolines and several underskirts

worn together

"petticoat

fever,"

was

it

called.

In colored taffeta heavily

flounced, and crinoline stiffened with horsehair and featherboning, organdie

and white cotton beruffled with narrow


a return

embroidery and

frills,

lace, all

made

appearance reviving the obsolete underskirt manufacture.

This very feminine fashion was the inspiration for an American idea of

mother and daughter

same

identically the

met with

dresses that

success in a

young mother and her

for the

costume design made


daughter.

little

White, pale pastels and "flesh rose" were the prevailing lingerie colors but

deep hues in
Especially

violet, rose

new and

gown, and usually

chic

and mimosa yellow

also built

was black

the black day dress and dinner

corset, bras

a following.

and panties matched.

pleasant post-war custom has been the cocktail hour, calling for a short

home

evening or dinner dress for

American couturier Valentina


length" as she termed

when

faille for

up quite

woman's

Fascinating
to large hats

little

early

the

fulfilling a

it,

escort

in

or restaurant

from

'forties

five o'clock on.

the

created

The

"ballerina

need for the dressy but not formal look

in his business suit.

is

hats ranging

from

were worn principally

pillboxes, turbans, berets

and bowknots

in the city streets while the hatless creature

continued on her merry way.

The

shoes of the peoples

down

the ages gave inspiration to

modern

foot-

wear, shoe designers creating such pieces as simple or extravagant as any

woman might

wish.

The

resulting styles ranged

to the slim, steel spike heel

The most
"bikini"

from moccasin and sandal

and baby French heeled pump.

abbreviated of bathing attire finally reached our shores in the

from the French

Riviera.

It

put in an appearance in 1947 and 1948

with a few inches added to the French original. As a


fact, the bikini, consisting of a

sleeves

it

was

fleeting, in

narrow bra and a narrow G-string, appears

have created a trend toward a more covered-up look.

oped with long tight

style

New

models were devel-

and low back. Many were made with


170

to

a built-in bra,

MEN1950 TO

1960

others with an all-in-one foundation especially in the knitted maillot model.

And many

were planned with a wrap-around

dining

skirt for

at the

beach

club or restaurant.

MEN1950 TO
The

1950's

I960

can really go

The gray

suit history.

the decade especially

down

flannel suit

among

as the

was

the Ivy

gray and black period in masculine

bloom

in charcoal

at the

beginning of

League university crowd. Then

it

was

reported that black sports clothes were sighted on the Riviera, next in California and the East, followed by a

news items

From

in

London and

or

"tawny black" with colored specks or

America

just

that did

it!

of 1952 that black

then on

cloth

all suit

stripes, all of

was being worn

seemed

to turn black

which

lasted here in

about a decade.

There has been enough

sartorial

change in men's wear in

period to

this

suggest that the manufacturers' campaign to get the male into something

each season or yearly has borne

away being replaced by


League look. Slim

fruit.

The draped

suit

with wide lapels passed

slimmer, natural silhouette, an influence of the Ivy

trousers, natural shoulders

and narrow

lapels

on

unshaped coat without padding have been the marks of the

League
It

a straight,

so-called

Ivy

based upon the traditional, conservative elegance of Bond Street.

suit

has been

new

worn throughout

the century by

some

Yale,

Harvard and Prince-

ton men.

The

Ivy stronghold

now

is

being besieged by the Continental look, an

American version of the above Edwardian

style.

two-button jacket

shorter than the Ivy with a slight waist suppression and a

away

front. Breast pockets

and

lapel buttonholes

is

slightly

more rounded

were eliminated in the

cutfirst

models but quickly replaced when the absence of these features was found
be a drawback to the future of the design.

The matching

vest

is

to

again being

supplied by manufacturers.

Color has again come into the picture with the increasing use of patterned
cloths in glen plaids, herringbone tweeds

of blues, the

new

and worsteds

golds and olives along with grape or

in heather mixtures

plum

hues.

In the past few years the men's wear market has been flooded with cloths

made

of synthetic fibers,

namely wool and cotton plus some linen and


171

silk.

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


The

first

objective of the

second consideration

makers

is

produce a wrinkle-proof cloth and the

to

in texture, others resemble linen or silk.

known names

Some

the washable, drip-dry advantage.

is

advertised,

tagged with a label listing

and under
its

There are

are wool-like

dozen well-

at least a half

law every garment must be

a recent

principal fibers. Traditional seersucker also be-

comes wash-and-wear with the blending of synthetic yarn.


In line with the general trend towards lighter-weight clothing one hears
less

and greatcoats than of

of overcoats

are shorter

and

sportier.

topcoats. Topcoats are not so formal,

Strong patterns appear in the cloth of the short

coat,

and rough textured tweeds. For

also camel's hair, fine gabardines, coverts

suburban wear and bad weather in town there are

pile fabrics of

man-made

or pure wool fibers, deep and rich, knitted and woven. Pile fabrics are also

made

into double-breasted ulsters, short "British

coats

with leather trimming. Colors run

The

well-styled

wash and drip-dry

raincoat

men and

is

and sweaters

also a great traveler.

have appealed

to

summer

for winter or

men. Very

one of the most successful

is

very often used the year round

is

and exceedingly smart but natural and beige


Jackets

finger-tip length

and black.

to nutria, beaver

newcomers. The conservative town version


by some business

Warms" and

White and black

are

newer

are the prevalent colors.

in white

light in weight, they are

and

in synthetic fabrics

no longer impracticable

because easy to clean by washing and are also spot-resistant.

Evening wear has reached an informal


the natural easy lines of the business

fibers

suit.

way

closed cars heavy fabrics have given

blended with wool and winter-weight

jacket with dull, black satin shawl collar

dinner jackets having usurped

stage,

Because of central heating and


tropical

to

silks.

was

formal wear after dark, good-looking jackets are


batik prints,

all in

Quite a few

toned-down

new

The

new
made

worsteds,

man-made

charcoal gray dinner

note in 1954. For

less

of multi-colored cotton

colors.

fashions have been set by the college

man, some

like the

raccoon of the earlier years were pure college fads. Some, like the Norwegian
loafer, spread

to

and

the outside world

campus came the smart combination

into the business office.

of sports jacket

and gray

From

the

slacks.

Shorts and slacks share honors for casual wear, golf, beach or whatever,

according to season. Bermuda shorts, those impeccably tailored breeches,

news on the

streets of

New

York City

172

in the

summer

of 1953.

And

made

quite a

MEN1950

TO

1960

few brave young men attended country club dances

in shorts

with dinner

jackets.

The white

shirt

is

the classic shirt but color was

still

decade so that even pink became permissible in the

on colored

in this

Probably the run

can be laid to the popularity of the gray and charcoal gray

shirts

Another

suit.

office.

rampant

which has appeared

shirt

in the office these several past hot

and open meshes. Of the

the short-sleeved shirt in cool weaves

summers

is

1960's are

combination sports

and shorts printed with dazzling, colorful

shirts

motifs from South America, the Far East and India.

The

hatless

male by 1950 had become

wear

their lot.

The

it.

and straws were given

straws were banded with


further dressed

was

flat-topped crowns.

silk,

in

as the

female

an attempt

to

much. In the next move,

More

casual felts

and fancy

cord or braid in deep, rich color and some

up with Tyrolean feather ornaments. The biggest change


as far as

looks go, was not a change for

the better. This being a study of everyday dress

Homburg and

derby, the

problem

did occasionally buy a hat but did not

success but not too

narrowed brim, which

in the

fedora was re-designed with narrow brim and a lowered tapered

crown which met with some


felts

men

Like women,

much

banded together

of the species to hatmakers so that they

improve

as

we

shall pass

by the elegant

the top hat.

Sports hats were re-styled in suede, velours, tweed and other rough mixtures.

By

1956, the

hatmaker displayed no qualms

southern and western ten-gallon hat and giving

in attacking the traditional


it

too a flat-top

crown and

narrowed brim. In 1958 one finds crushable summer straws available

panama,

tissue

Milan,

split

macora,

and with snap brim. The peaked


in

new

flat

with even the boater made softer

raffia,

cap

in

very

is

much

in style

and developed

shapes adding dash to men's dress in plaids, tweeds and colorful cloth

or cotton.

As

to

neckwear,

monotone

scarfs too

have narrowed and in pattern are

or brilliant as the wearer

The shoe

story of the

last

loafer

the former blacks

subdued,

might wish.

decade

fits

to stress the leather rising to the ankles

Norwegian

as

and chukkar models. As


and browns.

173

in here

with design continuing

and tapered

toe,

especially in the

to color, olive tones are replacing

WOMEN1950 TO
Up

into the twentieth century, everyday dress in an everyday family usually

meant

that last year's best

was acquired

piece

1960

became

"Sunday

for

For the

best."

new

everyday wear while a

year's

this

woman who

own

did her

housework, there has always been the simple, inexpensive cotton dress of
calico or

gingham.

was the

It

suburbs until the nineteen

And

sports.

"at

thirties

home costume" on

when

slacks

When, during

farm or

in the

became popular

shorts

for

and shorts took the

then, as the hired girl disappeared, slacks

place of the cotton frock.

the 'thirties college students of the

University of California began wearing blue

denim pants or

appeared on every campus in the country and

at

"levis," blue jeans

home.

Levi Strauss think that his well-made work pants would ever

Little did

grow

and

the

which had been the

into a country-wide fad but they did! Blue jeans

western cowboy's leg covering for nearly a century were adopted by the

feminine world

When

as well.

Levi Strauss went to California in 1850 as a

gold prospector he prudently decided to

denim

re-inforced with copper rivets at crucial points.

so desperately

needed that he made

panning for gold.


forth

make work

was

And

his fortune

pants of indigo blue

He

doing

supplied a garment

just that, instead of

he also became famous for his product which hence-

called "levis."

In golf and tennis the former suit and dress have been replaced by

and the newer above-knee-length termed Jamaica shorts which are

shorts

worn with

the

kilt.

Golf shorts

to season but the tennis outfit

is

may

be of woolen cloth

the shirtdress, has been

more

woman's wardrobe. Sheath, Empire


but the shirtdress
still fits

well into

is

or.

cotton according

invariably white and definitelv without

Ever since the turn of the century, the shirtwaist

name

Bermuda

ever with us.

or less a perennial

by

American

or dropped waistline

And

American everyday

dress, or

its

frills.

modern

style in a

may come and go

the peasant dirndl skirt, as a separate,

dress in cotton, silk or

wool and hem

line

high or low.

The
in

controversial chemise or "sack"

Vogue Magazine which

dress length.

Though

it

which appeared in 1954 originated

pictured a striped-round sports shirt knitted to

drew upon

itself

the most scathing criticism,

survived as a smart, comfortable and easily packed garment in

The

has

all fabrics.

tailored suit of the decade has been a youthful, straight

174

it

and short

WOMEN1950 TO
which was

jacket with simple skirt

1960

Chanel creation of the

a pet

'twenties.

After an absence of fifteen years she returned to the haute couture in 1954

bringing back her

little

brilliant silk print.

The

accented by matching blouse and lining of a

suit

revival proved a

huge

success!

sensation of the 1960's was the tailored

town

introduced by the

suit

American designer Norman Norell. Culottes which give the

worn with

flaring skirt are a skillfully-cut trouser skirt

The

jacket.

cleverly concealed division

is

climbing in and out of the present low

The knee-length

public.

effect of a slightly

pull-over or blouse and

when

a real solution for the wearer

cars, in fact

skirts necessitating

when

active

anywhere

in

such a solution came into vogue

in 1957.

"Frankly fake furs" became fashion news around 1950. Designed primarily
with the college

girl in

mind, the manufacturer has so improved his product

to the point that designers are successfully using the synthetic fur cloths in

makes the garment

The

saving.

of

as

cozy and protective

as the real pelt

krimmer and other

as small as

steadily of late,

insulated

and

at a

lining

tremendous

short-haired furs.

to hats they are fashioned in all shapes, fabrics, furs

crown and

many

one might

And though

desire.

hatless ones are

still

and straws, large

hat-wearing has risen

to be noted about

town.

novelty of the 1950's was the dress-up sweater created by the American-

who

French couturier Mainbocher

War

An

greatcoats.

imitations are available in Persian lamb, broadtail, moleskin,

beaver, sealskin,

As

and handsome

short jackets

sophisticated

II.

lined

He revamped

in

coiffure of the 1950's

slight wave.

shape.

paillettes,

women wore them

The

As

say once a
at the

to

New

beads, braid

Palm Beach, Long

York

little

World

after

jackets, chiffon

and ribbon embroidery.

Island

and European

resorts.

was predominately bouffant, cut short with but

Both chrysanthemum and artichoke are words descriptive of the

of 1961, the

head

'twenties, a rather trim cut

color any

home

knitted sweaters into fairy-like

and sparkling with

Society

returned

women may

is

have any color she wishes, she


is

may do

may

in,

even change

surprised or wonders. She can have


it

home

at

successfully.

brushed or washed

or lasting only to the next shampoo.

175

in,

it

There are many

coloring kits on the market under the headings of rinse,

which can be combed

of the

with hair curling over forehead and cheek. As to

month and no one

beauty parlor or

becoming more soigne and reminiscent

tint,

it,

done
safe

bleach or dye

the color being permanent,

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


An

important part of everyday dress

is

the useof

make-up which from the

commercial angle has become big business. Taboo a half century ago, every

woman

today from highschool girl to grandmother

of lipstick as essential to her dressing for the day.

at least applies a

Most women

coating

are artists in

achieving a natural effect with cosmetics, except for some lipsticks and nail

enamels which occasionally are arbitrary colors applied for accent. The use
of cosmetics

most

men

is

no longer

expect their

deep secret but simply a matter of grooming and

women

to the beauty salon at least

to avail themselves of

once a week

176

is

every

beauty

aids.

woman's custom

The

visit

in America.

Twen-fieYn Century
1900-1910

<goWn cf fucked
|fnen

a,1 <*

lace-velvet
r'bbon belt-Straw haf
vv'th

ro565'

l?00
:'

^i

sfn^le.- breasted

sack

Suit-'

gray cloth
With f'ne sWrpe'
pea A gray
-fedora-bow
-f-fe-black

shoesI^OS"

j
j^FUfy Ruffles;
short top coot
OT reddish

brown clo+bsTnped brown

<a

styli'sh

created by
LOaWoce THor^an' JT+*&%
dark blue ^
Sto&Ste
SSi^tfW
y

-frouaeri-brown dertujblack

-tailored suft'

shoes-

fluffy reathersblack [Dumps5*1 K


vvht+e
sfoc k frigs

1907

Qrnerrcan miss

wb"+e shfrtwabtha-f-

^L

wi'tK

r=?~r

\,

wenTieTh Century

ac k
whfks
5c of en
b

nd

rwead-wh'-l'e Ifnen
shi'Trw/aTst '
-

C7scot"-Ke'
^r'rvqed

yellow
Ctfshrnere
scarf- -han
leather

gaun+lefsblack silk
saflor bat-'

whife sf!k
sfockf ngs'
an 4 brown
t Jn

avi'aVion

cuff rr of
leatber-lined wf+h

camel's ha'r-

smock'
breechespdftees over

shoes'

cap-

1919

1910

black
golfer's suit"

offweedftill

sh'rred

back-Cap
of camel's

bair clofn-

*cj

wh'fe. -For
te nni's-

permissible

m ++io-rseason

aays

fhe repor+er
f dre^s-oe-vyg -

bvown shoes
l^lo

~J

'

Twe r>T

e fh Lentury
I920's
i

^olf

5CJt

of tweed
vuftb
"plus four

the.Title

breaches'

black dress--trepis de

SpOTtskut--

cV>i

-fburm-

pleate d Tloun

scarfs

Mack

panfl

Cl

felt

cloche wfth
gresgrai A
r'bbon baod-

bege suede
5ll

pc003

blond
stockingsblack

iaj

hand

ma

nd

h tte

buckskm
shoesWools n
hose-

pW

19 2-8

sandal519^6
the' ensemble
of -the pe-rfod-'

black cloth

"M skfrtbe'ae cis+rakan

coat
1

ri

rvj

be'ge crepede ckTne


blouse
lA/fth

6^5 co f +"'

-front

pleats in
skfrtblock
felt cloche

eatber
envelope
bag^

19^

the

MCCOOA
"

coonsK ,n

Of
d

coatbeloved

01 the
college man'
"0<ov-d bag"

trouserselouch hat or
'h^ndkerchfe?
felt-

19

3.

~^V

/=^~r

\^

wenfiein Oenturcj
193 O's

woman took
+0 slacks

count

wear -sn'rt

oi

shorta-

Wne Color
basket weave

o ccas?o nalUj

cot+oh-

complete
Su'f'dark
blue woolen

Slk rnutfler

cloth- blue
beret -whfte
at>
d
shfrt
Ci 5 eot ^ewb'te backsk'^

brriirarif

bewje flannel
slacks w'tlo
pleat's- at

Waist-- tan

suede
shoes

shoes

d'm^l

skirt'

har-dc

loomed

charcoal <3 mi^


Ifnen with
rnulti'- colored
borderwhO'ii
Cotton
sh'rtwcii'ot^
brfll'aot'

sflk

head kerchief

polo COClt'
r\cftuia\

color
cornel's ha!'

cloth-

hom

but+onsself belt

wfth leat-her
bucklebrown slouch
hat- brown
cal-r shoes

,f?-rV

Twen-Keth Cent arjj


19+ O's

D'or

Hew

's

JZook

of 19 4-7"- curves
Qr><X "f'ny wflist'--

blackcTofh **d
accordion
pleated d^rk
green {aNefaMack suede.
be.lt- green
velvef beretblacfc

pompon-

black suede

pumps

su bur ban
casual
dress--

natuval -fan
proesssed
coRon haf
^d iackersl'de ibsteriet'

Tan cordurou

slacks b'ue
whrfe checked

''"d

flannel shfrt-

red wool
scarf-brown

mocca sn
5hoes9*fo

wesieyn leisure
dress rounded
upon

-the

S p a n f5 W
cnav ro(.cowboy)
s-f^le-blue

denim lev^s
q id

jacket-

slfde fjsfener--

checked

shfrl--

abbrevr'ated

scarf-black
-pelt

sombrero

boors19^8

cos+n

me

for after skr

wear-

btack

v/elvefeen

slacks

w-|-h

velvet frTnges+eel studded

suede

belf

fucked whTfe
bloase -colored
ch'ffon gcarfsue* de
s Tp
I

pers-

9^7

P'x-T-x^J

/en-he'Th C&nJrUYtf

5(jut

of

raspberry
pfnk wool
-rhe

con+'roversio
5Wff ,cWemfse

sacque

blaek
or

ot sflk

bonn e-k-

or
syn+he+fc $abr"c

wool

v^WeV

tutulus

black suede

col'+ori

pump s--

bouffant

I95~b

co'ffure'
blor>d gloves
flr

>d

stockings-

black pumps-

the chcinfie 'n +he


masculfne silhouette
-frorr) I^ST) +0 \J<oQ-

narrow shoulders,
30c kef an <* +r-ousersreturn of trie vesl'
narrow

5 c<3 r

1-

t>i'mmed.>dowo slouch
hat-'

al*rrt

higrwfsfe

MZ

tapered
shoes

CHILDREN
I6TH-20TH CENTURIES
CHAPTER TEN

16TH
IN

AND

17TH CENTURIES

THE PORTRAITS OF CHILDREN

in their rich dress-up clothes look like


their elders

were trying

too. In the

homes

of

to

make

of earlier centuries the tiny figures

dwarf

European upper

classes, infants

and

that

was not unusual

understand as well

as to

From contemporary
and

speak several languages.

merchant

style

came about

in the Renaissance with the

families, especially in the cities.

a love of finery that in earlier times

since costly clothes

old.

to study

for a child of four or five to be able to read, write

Dressing children in adult


increase of wealthy

were often put

one learns that education was concentrated upon so early

letters
it

were what

adults

of them, not only in appearance but mentally

under tutors and governesses when about three years


diaries,

And

adults.

had been

Thus developed

And

accessible only to nobility.

have ever been the outward sign of affluence,

it

was im-

portant that the children be as richly dressed as their parents. However, in-

doors "en famille" the garb consisted of a coarse, unbleached linen chemise
or

smock which was the undergarment worn under

the

handsome

dress.

This undergarment whether of linen or woolen cloth was the sole piece
of

underwear worn by men,

women and
came

body garment for

babies,

it

the "gertrude," the

name

still

to be

children of both sexes.

known

the Great," an abbess of Nivelle in Brabant


for

in the thirteenth century as

new

in use today for the flannel petticoat of the

baby. Research reveals that a Saint Gertrude of

was famed

As the general

who

German
lived

183

was "Gertrude

from 1256

having received supernatural visions but

always have worn a woolen piece of underwear.

birth

to 1311.

certainly, too,

She

must

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


Dress-up clothes were for occasions of entertaining and visiting and like
those of the adults, were of satin, velvet, brocade and occasionally of white

worked with gold and

satin

silver thread.

buckram glued

inforced with

to

the under side,

consideration except as a protection for the

The

coif or

Since the heavy fabrics were re-

gown

underwear was of

little

in touching the body.

bonnet of linen was always worn during the Middle Ages

indoors and out because

was considered wise

it

to

keep the head of a child

worn

covered, a thought that applied to adults as well, the coif being

for

centuries.
Little boys

dressed in the

wore the incongruous busk-front doublet and

stomacher of the period. There were the same dark

stiff

principally green

and brown, and the same hard, board-like

colors,

corset underneath.

Corsets in those days were of heavy, boned canvas or of "cuir bouilli"

was boiled

lasted into the eighteenth century in

Colonies was that of dressing

both boy and

little tots,

"breeched."

It is

amazing

to find

of children that one cannot


elaborate frock as protection
front, often of sheer linen,

tell

when

same ankle-

when

they were

studying the contemporary portraits

boy from

was worn

Europe and the

girl in the

length dress. Boys wore the dress to five or seven years

girl

except by name. Over the

a "pinafore,"

an apron pinned

to the

embroidered and lace-trimmed.

Swaddling clothes or "bands" were what babies were bound up

the

in,

encased in a sort of pocket with board back, of quilted cotton cloth

ornamented with
feet

which

leather.

custom which

new baby

were

little girls

frills

and elaborately embroidered. The

were held in place and the

child's

head by

ears held close to the

hands and

its

cap.

The

contraption resembled the American Indian's packsack for carrying around


the papoose.

One

could carry the child on one's back, could place

back in the cradle or hang

fashion of the days

was "hanging
in

back

as a

child.

worn

in

sleeves."

on the

when

An

fashions lasted for a

hundred

extra pair of sleeves often slashed,

of the Renaissance,

Europe and

it

its

years or

more

hung unused

woman

or

carried over into the seventeenth century,

in the Colonies.

children's dress especially

on

wall.

purely ornamental feature of the rich costume of man,

mode

come upon

it

it

Hanging

sleeves

on the very young. After

it

were seen longer


passed, one

in

would

the expression in literature of the eighteenth century, "hanging

184

CHILDREN THE 18TH CENTURY


sleeves" being applied to

an infant or an elderly person signifying either

childhood or second childhood.


In Europe, England and America there developed a tendency to brighten
youngsters' clothes with touches of scarlet, a color

the subdued Quakers.

It

became

which took hold among

a favorite accent especially in linings that

revealed themselves as in capes and sleeves and in ribbon bowknots and

tassels.

CHILDREN THE 18TH CENTURY


was

It

England

in

in the first quarter of the century

when someone had

the inspiration that boys should wear sailors' trousers. English

seamen had

been dressing in pantaloons since the seventeenth century and English boys
adopted trousers a half century before their fathers did. English children were
the

be emancipated,

first to

1770's

little girls

changing

with France and the Colonies following next.

Some well-known

writers

had taken the age

confining infants' bodies in tight clothes,

philosopher (1632-1704),

He was
1775),

to soft, unlined frocks in the

who was

to task for

among them John

its

manner

of

Locke, the English

probably the big influence in the change.

followed by Jean Jacques Rousseau, the French philosopher (1712

who

on the crusade and was forced

carried

to flee Paris for

England

because of his revolutionary ideas.

Although the change over


breeches were

The

worn

still

writings of the

Age

to trousers occurred early in the period,

for dress as can be seen in

skirts

little

portraits.

of Reason were having an effect in putting children

into comfortable clothes, the trouser costume


dress being a short

contemporary

knee

known

as the

English

sailor's

jacket over an open-necked blouse, a waistcoat without

and the long breeches.

The

little

girl's

and short or long

frock was usually a sheath of muslin with round neck

sleeves.

From

the 'seventies on, the floor-length skirt slowly

shortened to the ankles revealing the soft

little

slippers of kid or fabric instead

of the earlier, heavy buckled shoes.


Infants'

baby

also

swaddling clothes lasted well into the eighteenth century. The

owned

a complete set of dress clothes

which were worn

for the

christening ceremony and any other public occasion. Such garments were

185

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


made and

exquisitely

beautifully embroidered.

good four

bodices were invariably a

The

feet in length.

skirts attached to the tiny

Yellow was the

traditional

color for the christening dress with embroidery in silk, or gold for an "upper
class

baby."

CHILDREN-THE 19TH CENTURY


The

two decades of

first

were the period in which the Empire

this era

fashion raised waistlines of mother, daughter and small boy

up under

arms. This basically classic style regardless of the age in which

always charming and

artistic.

It

the most appropriate of

is

costumes ever designed, especially for

little girls.

And

so

it

the

returns

is

children's

all

must have thought

Kate Greenaway (1846-1901) when she chose that particular period for her
lovely illustrations

which we

Playclothes were

made

shall note in the 1880's.

of muslin

and nankeen. With

their

long pantaloons,

boys wore short jackets, a soft blouse and a round-brimmed hat with a ribbon

band. During the wig period of the preceding century


dress a boy's hair like a

wig and dust

it

it

with powder.

was not unusual

Now

to

the hair was

cropped instead of the former tortuous curl-papers, curling iron and pomade.
Little girls

were freed of the boned,

corset body,

and

dress sash-bound in place of lined silks

muslin

soft

velvets.

was worn under the slim frock and

slip

wearing instead a

as the style shortened, frilled,

lace-trimmed tubes or "false pantalets" tied at the knees were designed as

modesty pieces
journals that

to conceal the legs. Occasionally

had come

legs featured in this

that females

do have

1858, that

is

into existence, such illustrations shocked

new

legs because
it

by the

1830's,

both young

girls

fashion

many

manner. Seemingly, folks grew accustomed

did wear drawers. But

custom in feminine

noted in the

to see

to the fact

and

women

required a quarter century for the garment to become

dress.

In America the fashion prevailed from 1818 to

the fashion of pantalets showing below the skirts.

From

a con-

temporary fashion note we learn that pantalets for day wear were of nankeen
or calico and that those

worn during

a period of

mourning were

of black

crepe.

Here

in

America during the

first

quarter of the century caps were

186

still

CHILDREN THE 19TH CENTURY


worn

in the house

and outdoors by children and women. Upon going

out, a

hat or bonnet of straw or beaver, according to the season, was put on over the

cap and tied under the chin, a very becoming fashion to

The

females.

cloak was called a "wrapping cloak" which had a cape collar.

trimmed or
intended

narrow

all

lined with fur

winter wrap,

as a

it
it

was

a pelisse. Usually of scarlet cloth

When
when

was wadded and lined and often edged with

were wrapped in long cloaks of merino, pains-

strip of fur. Infants

takingly and lovingly embroidered,

wadded and

and edged

lined with soft silk

with swansdown, a baby's garment for most of the century.


In the 'twenties the waistline went back to normal, skirts grew fuller and

puffed sleeves appeared in the leg-o'-mutton


simplicity of the earlier

and trimming
with

all

the

as the

mode

to as

way

here on into the

design in costumes was

doomed

Another garment was added

The

carry.

lawns, percales and gauzes gave

From

ruffling, ribbon, ruching,

embroidery

garment would hold. Hats and bonnets were decked

bowknots they could

deeper colors.

much

Fashion swung from the

style.

dainty white and tinted muslins,

to organdie,

and

in

fussiness.

to the small boy's

wardrobe

was the costume

tunic or smock, belted at the waist. This

taffeta

decade of the twentieth century

first

to clutter

gingham and

in a knee-length

in all-white linen or

merino that American boys were put into when "breeched," an event which
usually took place about the age of four. Boys' sleeves were as diversified in

shape as were their

sisters',

slim, full

and leg-o'-mutton. They wore caps and

hats like their fathers', even to the topper.


trousers, short jackets, waistcoat

known

to

Americans

as the

The

and white

boys comprising

suit of older

shirt

with lay-down collar was

"Eton" because worn in Eton College, England,

since that time.

During the Romantic Period

in the

1830's

there

was quite

dressing boys in historical costume, especially in Europe.


in doublets, hussar tunics, Spanish dress, the

The

Van Dyck

They were garbed

style

and Turkish

trend in America was for the Scottish kilt and the sailor

influence of

Queen

Victoria's love for

a flare for

suit,

too.

both an

Balmoral Castle and the baby Prince

of Wales.

All legs whether of boy or girl were covered to the ankles by trousers,

pantaloons which were those fulled or shirred

Another feature of the

1830's

was the apron

187

at the ankles,

for

little

girls.

and

One

pantalets.

reads that

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


those of fine white muslin, white cross-barred cambric and printed calico

were not
telles,

whole edged with

the

The

aprons of

as fashionable as

crinoline ranges

period for

silk,

made with

green in color and

bret-

self-ruching.

between 1840 and 1865 and was the silhouette of the

females large and small. Like that of the grown-ups, the crino-

all

was

line of the 'forties

a full petticoat corded

and

stiffened

The

was

also bolstered

French word for horsehair

braid.

crinoline

starched skirts over one of flannel. In the

hoops held together by


cage in Europe.

wearing of such

It

tapes,

was very

crin, the

by several

the petticoat of wire

an American invention called the American

weight and a wonderful

light in

muslin underskirts. By the

a clutter of

was being pushed toward the back


Regardless of full

came

'fifties

with

'sixties

relief after the

the skirt fullness

in the trend to the bustle of the 'seventies.

were

skirts, pantalets

in the picture but very often

still

they had turned into long frilled drawers. Stockings striped round the legs
in bright colors
flat-soled

sides

came

vogue for boys and

into

strap slipper, while for outdoors

with

ladies not blessed

curls,

kept the beautifully brushed hair in place.

woman's

desire yet

The Madonna

some

girls

center part

wore

an ankle-high shoe with

elastic

frame the Victorian

round combs and ribbon snoods

Long

their hair

came

into the

Victoria's headdress, a

bonnets continuing

faces.

grown-ups appeared

in girls' dress as well, a

crushed sash.

The

bustle effect.

The English name

ruffled skirts

wore

was every

cropped like their brothers'.

mode with

In the 'seventies and the early 'eighties, the

'seventies girls

hair in those days

was copied from Queen

fashion of several decades. Bangs

of

Shoes for both were the

was proper and popular.

For young

to

girls.

mode

of the Basque bodice

long waist encircled by a wide,

were bunched up
for the period

in

back giving a panier or

was "tied-back time." In the

either black or russet leather button shoes usually with

long white stockings. In the 'eighties the black or brown shoes were accompanied by stockings to match.

Small boys went from petticoats into "short pants" cut

off

above the knee

but sometimes wore kilt-pleated skirts until about six years old. While in
skirts, it

was not unusual

but the curls were cut


tears to the eyes of

for boys to

when

many

the boy

wear hanging

curls

and perhaps bangs

was breeched, an occasion which brought

a doting mother.

The young men wore

laced shoes but with black ribbed stockings.

188

black or rust

CHILDREN THE 19TH CENTURY


A

baby's trousseau or layette of the nineteenth century

a robe, muslin petticoat,

The English term

was composed of

woolen undershirt, underwaist and woolen body band.

for cap or bonnet

was "biggin," the name of the cap worn

by the nuns of the Dutch religious society of the Beguines which the modern

baby cap resembled. The cap was of cambric or wool. Cloak and dress

were

and covered with

easily four feet long, everything lace-edged

embroidery.

The

color of the christening robe

and pale pink for

skirts

fine

hand

was now pale blue for boys

girls.

In 1886 appeared the book "Little Lord Fauntleroy" written by the Eng-

lish-American novelist, Mrs. Frances

Hodgson Burnett (1849-1924). The

book was responsible for an enduring vogue of boy's clothes in the


the Cavalier or

Period

worn by

the

and many an American youngster

pelled to

wear the black

satin sash,

who

artist

secretly hated

him

velvet suit with deep lace collar

The

of the story.

illustrated the

for being

com-

and red or black

long hair and a picturesque plumed hat.

As mentioned

was

earlier, it

in the 1880's that

drawings of children met with tremendous


books and cards which were
style to

young hero

were the creation of Reginald Birch, the

pictures
story,

Van Dyck

style of

own

her

taste

first

producing

costumes were simple,

artistic

Kate Greenaway's charming

success.

In her

little

birthday

published in 1873 she adapted the Empire


little

figures that appealed to everyone.

designs that were

more

The

suitable to little tots

than the current over-decorated mode. She became famous in Europe and

America and her

little

boys and girls have

the small pages and flower bearers in

The
and

sailor suit

was

come down

to us in the dress of

wedding pageants.

a fashion of the

end of the century for both boys

Boys wore the tunic with long pantaloons while

girls.

tunic with the kilted skirt.

The

suits

girls

wore the

were made in blue or white serge for

winter and of French flannel, linen or duck for summer.

The apron
in school

and

or pinafore continued as part of girl's dress,


at play,

and

a very special one, sheer with lace

for dressy afternoon affairs. Girls

eighteen,

on

which meant

until that age.

turned up
just

at the

were not supposedly adult

worn

at

home,

and embroidery

until they reached

that the waist-cinching, back-laced corset

was not put

Hair was dressed hanging until seventeen or eighteen, then


nape or thereabout. Skirts were the

below knee-length

teen and full-length

real telltale of the age,

at twelve, calf-length at fourteen, to the

when

the hair

ankle at

was dressed high on the head.


189

six-

CHILDREN THE 20TH CENTURY


1900 to 1920.
layette of the

With

new

baby,

Quite a piece was cut

from neck
is

used

hem

to

it is

at least in

off the

as

of their lives, a fact that

now

hold to any one pattern. At


girl's dress

girls

wore

styles for

garments, the

new

length of twenty-seven inches

is

a family heirloom.

But babies are

would have made our forebears shudder.

began with play "rompers."

it all

wore

the length of dress, coat and petticoats.

they formerly were, sometimes living almost bare the

Children's dress was

six

century came a change in the trousseau or

because the christening robe

summer

And

new

seemingly short indeed. In some cases where a long robe

no longer swaddled
first

the

specifically designed for children

least clothes

were simple and

and did not

childlike.

small

covered her knees and her waistline was placed low. Tots under

baby

style, soft, full

shirtwaist

and

frocks shirred to a tiny yoke.

skirt there

and under, the

that age

Though

a lingerie blouse or "guimpe."

sailor

costume or "middy" blouse, the

and

worn over

Accordion pleating designated a party

about 1908 for everyday wear small

instead of drawers

school-

were three popular and almost uniform

Russian tunic with pleated skirt and the jumper dress of navy serge

From

The

petticoats.

The

legs of

girls for

dress.

play wore bloomers

American children were

still

encased in long stockings although socks were coming in and being covered

by leggings in winter. Cold weather always called for high, buttoned or laced
shoes and in

As

summer, Oxfords and

to hats, the older miss

strap shoes.

wore youthful versions

of

grown-up

fashions,

securing the hat to the hair by means of a long, vicious looking hatpin instead of the chin-elastic of childhood.
It

was in the hairdo that teen-agers went fancy

or side part most

young females wore long

or dressed the front hair into a

on the

subject of bowknots,

pompadour and

suit

either center

flowing hair or long braids

tied

it

with a bowknot. And,

this

just

one

was followed by the Dutch cut with

trimmed bangs.

Like their

With

wide ribbon was the thing and often not

bowknot but two big bows. All


straight,

curls,

free.

sisters

boys also dressed in sailor

suits

and the Russian

resembling the Russian blouse was the American Buster

with wide starched collar and black

silk scarf.

Buster

Brown

Brown was

tunic

a popular,

small hero of a Sunday newspaper serial which had quite a following


190

blouse.

among

CHILDREN THE 20TH CENTURY


the youngsters.

The

older boys wore knee pants with tunic or short jacket and

about 1910, one notes the Norfolk jacket with knickers and white

and

accompanied the Norfolk

tie

was custom

outfit. It

adopt trousers in their teens. During the


stockings were
season.

worn with

And on

The

American boys

for

decade long, ribbed, black

caps with peaks.

flat

knitting fever of the

war

years carried over into civilian

and

of the 'twenties but in soft yarns of lovely colors, in sweaters

life

Children's clothes were

to

high, laced, black shoes, or Oxfords according to

the head, sailor caps or

1920 to 1930.

first

Collar

shirt.

now

caps.

designed with knee length skirts and knee shorts,

both garments growing shorter and shorter. Boys took to wearing flannel,

tweed and serge

suits

by the beret and

with

also the

shirts

and

scarfs like those of their elders,

topped

were of gay

fabrics

peaked cloth cap.

Girls' dresses

with flowered, striped and spotted motif. Most

and boys had


soft tams.

their heads cropped.

And

all

whence the name

1930 to 1940.
tailored

and

wore

had adopted short

socks, including the

all

seemed quite perfect in the


were short and

so

ages wore the classic Chanel suit while boys had a choice

clined to be dressy, the English

and

clothes ranging

1940 to i960.

in

if

suit of short jacket, vest

you please! Under the smart

tiny tucks, smocking, piping

over-all simple effect.

more

a derby,

Eton

and

if

he were

(when
little

from

Youngsters

now had

and

coats girls

still

hand-

fine pleating yet retaining the

quite a wardrobe of play or sports

basic rompers, sun suits to

There are

in-

of self-

dresses of crepe georgette, voile or crepe de chine exquisitely

worked with

lots

'thirties,

were a young man's

of the older style business suit, the Norfolk with knickers

wore party

younger teen-agers,

of "bobby-soxers."

so simple in line. Dresses

fabric), trousers

their hair short

Small misses wore the beret, the cloche and

Little folks' clothes

breeches. Girls of

little girls

snow

suits.

dress-up clothes in the youthful wardrobe but

exciting are the school

and

sports outfits.

Young

people

now

live

an age calling for simple, casual tailored garments, smart-looking yet

thoroughly comfortable and really fun-clothes. Such dress has settled into a
pattern.

For both sexes there are principally sweaters, pull-ons,


about jackets, shorts, slacks and for

girls,

191

all

kinds of knock-

the attractive dirndl skirts, and

all

FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME


kinds of outer coats of varied length practical for sports and school wear.
In tailored suits
boys.

And

it

the Chanel

is

which

the raincoat

Extremely smart-looking,

it

is

model

is

and the rough tweed

for girls

no longer what

more

utilitarian

for

raincoat used to be.

than ever, serving as a

all-

around coat of water-repellent cotton or wool with removable linings that


button, snap or zip in or out according to the needs of the weather. Winter
coats are lined with thick, fuzzy synthetic pile that feels

And

there are blue jeans or levis for roughing

and

it

and looks

like fur.

accessories too

numer-

ous to itemize.

There

a current

is

1958, called a

vogue for a gay, youthful negligee, new in 1957 or

Muu-Muu.

It

who had

female student

cotton house wrapper

was

first

worn

in a mid-western college by a

been to Hawaii.

It

is

American women wore

a hot climate version of the

home

at

century. Missionaries carried these house robes of calico

Hawaii

to clothe the

cut neck

and cut

in the nineteenth

and gingham out

to

naked pagans who liked the bright-colored cottons but

off the sleeves for comfort.

Mother Hubbard of the westerners has come

From North

young

Bay, Ontario in the 1950's

And

so,

in that fashion the

full circle as the

came word

that

Muu-Muu.

young mothers

have discovered with surprise and great pleasure the wonderful convenience
of the cradleboard used by the Indian mothers for centuries.

campers are making use of the "tikanagum"

to

it

perfect for car use too, the

riding in a mobile cradle.


local Indian

women. No

leather thongs

piece of

The packsack

little
is

nails are used, all

in origin

and

age.

192

their backs.

when
They

passenger evidently enjoying

pure American, being

wooden

made by

parts tied together with

and the whole gadget ornamented with

Americana

seems that the

transport the baby

walking over the rough ground, wearing the contraption on


have found

It

lace

and beads,

a true

Sfxteen +

b,

Cent-dry
J

silklunic

dncjers/eev/es
a "d border
black silk"

wkffe (awn
puffs-red

embroider ed
Inert cof

figured,

M apron'

elo+h
stockings'
black

befoe "frocked sleeves

w'th
embroidered

shoes'
J-fq|dri'

m otT>

qreen an d

l5"-fh C.

crnktoide^
on sk'rt-

green doth
stoclMn^s-red alfppe-rs
J+al fanla te

5"+K

baby
in colored
annel di
over a l'n<

i\

ch(5>77isei<5+h

C.

Dutch

V+n -frlple
paff 5eanr'ngsI!t-irl&_3lrj in

re d -bodice

blue a,
red -sk'rt

n&ckjaceqlrd

a^tirs blae-'^oke^uTT
ar,
d apron of white lawn"hoase wffV on cbafn ir<ile5erman- lfc+K C

|e

wtn

pomander
Jfaliatv

R-rw'

\6+hC,

'

fSeTen-reen-fn

Cen^y
Colore

lace cap-bee-*
collar a "d C
apron -orange

o" sheer !7nen-

croche-f"or bra

bbor>

id

onsk'rt-'t'oCj

ornaments^
Spanish

"houseware*
b-iskef w'th
[black velvet

racketbreec
sWk'ngs, 3

rTbbori-

S<">d

frl

siDDeJ apron

f7fM

rosettes

bodlcernantsou
bacK-

gm

brown-whi

pu^s

sflk

embr-o'dered

lawn

collar

a,
>d

cuffsnglsh

boa-

ired

sleeves

of

froeUred

bra'd -white

>vj

puffs-collar,

undersleeve^.

aoren

a,,

a\

bodice

4
.

1
le

Vlot

dres? wi+n

draped
cversk'rT
fonfang/e

headdress
of lawn
n d lace--

whfre
apron"'rer,cn

6
rt<

J^j

"M

?T
V,
(r\,

princessatu re blue mofr-e gown-m-Mt^jJ


at
back- Vandujke lace -apron

c\

silk fi'ssue

-Cnglish

First Half

umpeT
5ui+ of

brawn
linen of

kerseymere
collar

frTlls-whfkz

cupwf+h

j^y

black visorblack pumpsvxh'j-a socks-

+een-a^e boy

dark blue
-frockcoat-Bt-andervbur^
ijst'entn^s-

-t>odsersor black

bbe

topper-

Sfik
iS

58

boy

navcj

blue +unicleyo-tDunor)^
s|e2ves--

pe^l
bu+tons-

brown

iroa^ers
black
shoes
lSH-0

,JrKbluCSU' +

J
C

wHh

vested

"Trousers^
stiff eolld'"'
blwe silk tie-

iS^-o

Scotch dress wtr>


b\uebonne+
lor smal> boy^
pleJ+e<A sk'ri--'

WAsN
sandals--'
irm-q's

O'nefeenfh Century
doub|ef-kfjf
&porr ai f

Bloomer
dress of
s'lk or

trousers-cloth capleafher v'sor-ISTf

bonnef

W irh
/

wffV>

woolen coa+'
border-

spv

wadded

of kea+her,

pleated bonnet
black shoes "^d

lSS*t

tassels-/
5"!

W^ 'A

Slenga

Cord
atrdle

tunfc-lin'je.r'e underblouse- striped ticking

badger

nen-

Russian
style'embrofdered

boy's dress-

biij s ff'gklaid'
dress- far tann-

Second Half

^i

wg

st-ookCngs-IST '^

f'%2

%i

f
^p}Y~f'

fe\-i

C\.

V4

black veU/ef with


needlepoint lace'
fringed red s'lk

sash- black lUte


stockings- black

pumps -silver b<J c kle%JL.'tflcJ lord

Lm

-frock of silk

Faunf-leroL/-l880s

mull a "d lace-

^m

rose slk sash-'


kate Greenawayl

gxVthddy
Book-ISSOS
t

r/~
f

bustle
silhouette

fr-ffed bodice-;

short cqpefel-r

SHV.

haf

wff-n
ostrich'

v^A

bljck

sfockinas1335"

"6ton~ suit

dark blue or

dress of
striped flannel^

sfrdwhdt
with ribbon
^nj flowersblack shoes
nd socks-

Jack velvefeen-

whrfe mus|1n
Jb-louse^d eyelet

embroidery Safin
tie-black shoes
und stockings'
IS^o's

Un d lace -c^'na s'lk


Ifn'oa -cof+ori
intefliiiln j -Inyo's
:

-fujenKe + h Cent-uvj Boys


blue serge 6ui+

\a6 -flamn*! +u"" c

.h?J-efUnriel

sun"

d'ckej-

silkscflr-f'blatj*.
poteol- leaHie

Bre+"o"

black
shoes a "d
Is)-

decadV>

6u<sfer

Dvowri

SuH

oT

striped

waole r

doth-

bloom?
stfffco
sflk SCO
bl^c-k

do

fop shoe
st deca

paf" -turned

wool^sluJe

sweater
With vvjoole^

brOwnorjreeo-195-o's

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Indians

New

The

World

Sixteenth

Edited

Drawings

Century

Contemporary

Writings and

New

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York,

1946

The George

Catlin Indian Gallery

Smithsonian

Institution,

Washing-

ton, D.C., 1887

Indian Biography

B.

B. Thatcher

North American Indians


land

George

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Catlin2 Vols.Edinburgh,
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Scot-

1926

The League
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Lewis

of the Iroquois

H. Morgan

Vols.

New York,

901

Lillian Davids FazziniWisconsin, 1935


The BooI{ of Indians Holling C. HollingNew York, 1935
Costume Throughout the AgesMary Evans, A. M.Philadelphia,

Indians of America

1938

Charles WisslerNew York, 1940


Feathers in a Dar^ Sky Ray WilcoxNew York, 1941
Aztecs of MexicoGeorge ValliantNew York, 1944
Nation's HeritageNew York, 1949
Red JacketLast of the SenecaArthur C. ParkerNew York, 1952
Indians of the AmericasNational Geographic Society, Washington,
Indian Costumes in the United States

D.C. 1955

American HeritageNew York, 1961


Concise Encyclopedia of Archaeology Leonard

Indians

The

Cottrell

New

York, i960

Military
Histoire

du Costume en Trance

Encyclopedia of Costume

Vie Militaire au

James

Moyen Age

Paris, 1875
Robinson Planche London, 1876
RenaissancePaul LacroixParis,

J.

Quicherat

et la

1877

Le Costume Chez

les

Fr.

Peuples Anciens et Modernes

Hottenroch

1884

M. A. Racinet6 Vols.Paris, 1888


Uniforms of the United States Army H. A. Ogden and Henry Loomis
NelsonWashington, D.C., 1890

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The Centennial
N.Y.

The

1802

of the

to 1902

Tar

British

United States Military Academy

London, 1909
Arms and ArmorMetropolitan
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West

Point,

Vols. pub. Washington, D.C., 1904

Fact and Fiction

in

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Commander

Charles N. Robin-

R.N.

New York, 191


The Boy's Boo\ of Famous RegimentsH. A. OgdenNew York, 1914
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Notes on Arms and ArmorMetropolitan Museum of ArtNew York,
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1916

Captain

The Kentucky

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John G.

W.

Dillon

Washington,

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1925

National Geographic Magazine

Uniforms

of

to 1960's

the American, British, French

Washington,

D.C.

and German Armies

New York, 1926


Histoire du CostumeJacques RuppertParis, 1930
A Short History of Costume and ArmorKelly and SchwabLondon,
Charles

M.

Lefferts

1931

Das Ehren\leid

Martin LeziusBerlin, 1936


185J to 1900John A. KouwenhovenNew

des Soldaten

Adventures of America
York, 1938

Uniforms of the

British

Army Cecil

C. P.

Lawson

2 Vols.London,

1940
Soldiers of the

Todd Chicago,

erick P.

Album

of

Army ijj$

American

to 1954

Fritz

Kredel and Fred-

1941

American History

James

Truslow Adams

Vols.

New

York, 1944

Hand Cannon

to

Herschel

C.

Logan

West Virginia,

James LaverLondon, 1948


ReviewMilitary Uniforms Gessler and Schneider Basle,

British Military

Ciba

Automatic

1944

Uniforms

Swit-

zerland, 1952

Picture History of the United States

Freeman

New York,

The American Heritage


ton

New York,

Navy

Theodore Roscoe and Fred

1956
Picture History of the Civil

WarBruce

i960

Lt. Col. Frank Wilson Canada, i960


Great American GunsWill BryantNew York, 1961
A History of Firearms Harold L. Peterson New York, 1961
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History

The

Sixteenth

New

World

Drawings

Edited

Century

Contemporary Writings and

and annotated by Stephen Lorant

New

York,

1946

The

Story of the Greatest Nations

Edward

S.

and Charles F.

Ellis

10 Vols.New York, 1901


Harmsworth History of the World 10 Vols. London, 1907
Encyclopedia Britannica nth Edition New York, 1910
National Geographic Magazine 1925 to 1960'sWashington, D.C.
Fun\ and Wagnails New Standard EncyclopediaNew York and LonHome,

M.S., Ph.D.

don, 1931

Album

of

American History

James

Truslow Adams

Vols.

New

York, 1944
/

Remember

New

Distinctly

Agnes

Rogers and Frederick Lewis Allen

M.

New

York, 1947

The Conquest

of Culture

D. C. Crawford

York, 1948

New York, 1949


Women Are Here to Stay Agnes Rogers New York, 1949
Life In AmericaMarshall B. Davidson2 Vols.New York, 1951
Divided We Fought 1861-1865 David McDonald New York, 1952
The New Dictionary of American History Michael Martin and Leonard GelberNew York, 1952
Year's Pictorial History of America California, 1954
The Loo\ of the Old WestFoster-HarrisNew York, 1955
American Military History i6oy to 1958 Headquarters, Department of
Pioneer America

the

Carl

W.

Army, Washington, D.C,

The American Heritage


ton

Drepperd

New York,

1959

Picture History of the Civil

War Bruce

Cat-

i960

The Concise Encyclopedia

of

Archaeology

Leonard

Cottrell

New

York, i960
Life Magazine

Civil

Great

Battles of the Civil

WarNew

York, 1961

Costume
Costumes

Cesare

et

Modernes

French Translation,

Paris, 1859

Anciens

F.

Vecellio

Vols.

1590

Revised 1916
Encyclopedia of CostumeJames Robinson PlancheLondon, 1876
XVII" SiecleInstitutions, Usages
CostumesPaul Lacroix Paris,
Costume

in

England

W.

London

Fairholt

1846

et

1891

The Eighteenth Century

France
205

Paul

ijoo-iy8g

Lacroix

Paris,

1876


FIVE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN COSTUME
Empire

Directoire, Consular et

Le Costume Chez

Paul

Peuples Anciens

les

Paris, 1884
Modernes Fr. Hottenroth

Lacroix
et

1884
Little

Lord Fauntleroy

Frances

Hodgson Burnett

New

York, 1886

London, 1886
Le Costume HistoriqueM. A. Racinet6 Vols. Paris, 1888
Customs and Fashions in Old New EnglandAlice Morse Earle New

Kate Greenaway Birthday Boo^

York, 1893

Two

Centuries of Costume in America

Alice Morse EarleNew York,

1894

Alice Morse EarleNew York, 1899


Home Life in Colonial DaysAlice Morse EarleNew York, 1899
Godey's Lady's Book^Magazine 1830 to 1898 Philadelphia
Peterson's Magazine 1840 to 1898 Philadelphia
Social New Yorf^ Under the Georges Esther Singleton New York,
Child Life in Colonial Days

1902

Albert

Die Trachten der Voider

Kretschmer

Munchner Bilderbogen, Zur Geschichte

Munich,
CostumeDion

Schneider
English

Leipzig,

1906

Braun

Kostums

des

und

century

late 19th

London,

Clayton Calthrop

1907

William Henry BakerNew York, 1908


Dutch New Yorf{ Esther Singleton New York, 1909
British Costume During XIX Centuries Mrs. Charles H. Ashdown
A

Dictionary of Men's

Wear

London, 1910

Le Costume

Civil en

France du

XIW

au

XIX

Camille Piton

Siecle

Paris, 1913

M.

History of Everyday Life in Britain 1066 to 7799

Quennell

Elliot

Life

London, 1918

Wor\

Life and

and C. H. B.

of the People of

London,

and Wor\

16th

Century

Hartley

and

iyth

Century

Hartley

and

England

1925

of the People of

London, 1928
CostumeKelly

England

Elliott

London, 1929
Early American Costume Warwick and PitzNew York, 1929
Mr. Currier and Mr. Ives Russel CrouseNew York, 1930
English Children's Costume
Brooke and James Laver London,

Historic

and Schwab

Iris

1930

English Costume

Laver

New

14th

through 19th Centuries

York, 1937

206

Iris

Brooke and James

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Mary Evans, A.M.Philadelphia, 1938


Historic Costume For the StageLucy Barton New York, 1938
The Language of Fashion Mary Brooks Picken New York, 1939
Accessories of DressLester and Oerke Peoria,
1940
Ciba Review Children's DressA. Varron April 1940 Basle, SwitzerCostume Throughout the Ages

Illinois,

land

History of American Costume

Elizabeth

McClellan

New

York, 1904

and 1942

Elizabeth Burris-MeyersNew York, 1943


Pacemakers of Progress Harold B. Quimby Chicago, 1946
Everyday Things in American LifeWilliam Chauncy Langdon
Vols.New York, 1946 and 1948
Dictionnaire du CostumeMaurice Leloir Paris, 1951
The Loo^ of the Old WestFoster-Harris New York, 1955
Ciba ReviewMen's DressH. Schramm January 1958Basle, SwitThis

Is

Fashion

zerland

Pageant of Hats, Ancient and Modern

New

Ruth

Edward Kilgour

York, 1958

The Importance

of

Lawrence

Wearing Clothes

Langer

New

York,

!959

Art Books

Myrtle D. McGrawNew York, 1941


Fol\ ArtAlice FordNew York, 1949
Children in Art Metropolitan Museum of ArtNew York, 1950
Children's PortraitsBettina Hurlimann New York, 1950
Child PortraitureF. M. GodfreyLondon, 1956
The Child

in Painting

Periodicals

Vogue
Harper's Bazaar

Fashion Digest
Fairchild Publications

Ciba Review, Switzerland

Gentleman's Quarterly

Time
Life

New
New

Yort^

Times

Yor\ Herald Tribune


207