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CHAPTER 4 MATTER AND SUBSTANCE

1.1 Analysing changes in the states of matter


1.2 Understanding the structure of an atom
1.3 Applying the idea of proton number and nucleon number in atoms of
elements
1.4 Understanding the classification of elements in the Periodic Table
1.5 Understanding the properties of substances based on the particles
present in them
1.6 Understanding the properties and uses of metals and non-metals
1.7 Analysing methods of purifying substances
1.8 Appreciating the existence and uses of various substances of
different characteristics

4.1 Analysing Changes in the States of Matter


Kinetic Theory of Matter
1.

Matter is anything that ________________________________________________

2.

The kinetic theory of matter states that...


a) matter is made up of _______________________________________________

b) the particles are constantly


___________________________________________________
c) there are _________________________________________________________________
d) particles have _____________________________________________________________
e) as the temperature increases _________________________________________________
The Characteristics of Matter in the Solid, Liquid and Gas States
Characteristics
Solid
Liquid

Arrangement of the
particles

Movement of the particles


Forces of attraction
between the particles
Kinetic energy of the
particles

Density

Shape

Volume

Examples

Gas

Changes in the State of Matter

4.2 Understanding the structure of an atom


Atomic Structure
We know that matter consists of ____________________________________. The particles are
known as ___________ An atom is made up of ______________________________________
__________________________________
Development of the Atomic Model
1808, John Dalton - Dalton's atomic theory
1897, Joseph John Thomson - Discovered electrons
1911, Rutherford - Discovered the nucleus
1932, Sir James Chadwick - Discovered neutrons
Subatomic Particles- Proton, Neutrons and Electrons

1. There are three types of subatomic particles in an atom, i.e. protons, neutrons and
electrons.

2. __________________________ make up the _____________________ in the centre.


3. ___________ circle around the nucleus at a _________________________called
___________

4. The properties of subatomic particles are compared in the table below.


Properties

Electrons

Protons

Location
The Movement
Charge
Relative mass

Neutrons

The actual mass


Symbol

4.3 Applying the idea of proton number and nucleon number in atoms of
elements
Proton Number and Nucleon Number in Atoms
Proton Number

Nucleon Number

1. The atomic mass _________________________________________________________ in the


atomic nucleus as _____________________________________________________________
2. For an element, X, the proton number and nucleon number can be represented.

The table below shows a few examples of elements with their proton numbers and nucleon
numbers.

Element

Nuclide

Nucleon

Proton

notation

number ( A)

number (Z)

Hydroge
n

1
1

Number of

Number of

electrons

neutrons

(=Z)

(A - Z = N)

Helium

4
2

Lithium

7
3

Chlorine

35
17

He
Li
Cl

Isotope

1. Isotopes are
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________

2. Isotopes of the same element have _______________________________________________


_____________________

3. Oxygen has three isotopes, __________________________________. The proton number is


____but the three isotopes _____________________________________

4. The diagram below shows the isotopes of hydrogen.

Exercises 4.3

1.

4.4 Understanding the classification of elements in the Periodic Table


All the elements must be classified and arranged in a proper way. Scientists have arranged these
elements based on their physical properties and chemical properties. Dmitri Mendeleev
(father of the periodic table") had classified the elements according to ascending order of
atomic mass.
The Groups and Periods in the Periodic Table

1. The periodic table has ____________ All the elements in each group have the _____________
___________they have
_________________________________________________________
2. The ________________ in the periodic table are known as ________. There are ___________
in the periodic table and the element of each period is arranged in _______________________
_______________________________________
3. All elements that are in the ____________________ have the __________________________
_______________________________________

The Importance of the Periodic Table


The ________ in the_____________ can be divided into ________________________ namely
_______________________________________

When ________________________________, the elements vary.

1. ________________________

the

elements

change

from

__________________________

2. _____________condition

the

elements

change

from

the

___________________________

3. Elements

also

change

from

____________________________________________

4. _______________________________
Exercises 4.4
Structured Question
1. Diagram 6 shows an incomplete periodic table.

(a) Among the elements represented by the letters U, V, W, X, Y and Z, state one element which

being

(i) is a metal: __________________________________________________________________[1 mark]


(ii) a non-metal: ________________________________________________________________[1 mark]
(iii) a transition element:__________________________________________________________[1 mark]
(b) State one similarity between elements Y and Z.
____________________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(c) Which element has a proton number of 32?
____________________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(d) The atom of element Y has 20 neutrons in its nucleus. What is its nucleon number?
____________________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

2. Diagram 7 shows several examples of metals from a group in the Periodic Table.

Explain how you would develop a concept based on the information given in the diagram. Your
explanation should be based on the following criteria:
(a) Identify two common characteristics.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(b) Develop an initial concept.
___________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(c) Give other examples of elements in the same group. Give examples of elements with similar
properties but belong to a different group.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(d) Explain the actual concept.
___________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

4.5 Understanding the properties of substances based on the particles


present in them
Matter consists of particles known as atoms. Elements are substances that consist of atoms of
one type only. Metals are substances made up of atoms held in place by strong forces of
attraction called metallic bonds. Most non-metals form molecules; a molecule consists of two
or more atoms of the same type or of different types which are chemically combined together.
Some metals combine with non-metals by transfer of electrons to form ionic compounds.

Atom

1. An atom is the smallest particle of an element.


2. Most metals are made up of atoms of one type only and can exist on
their own.

3. Atoms in metals are held by very stronq forces of attraction called


metallic bonds.
Molecules

1. A molecule is a particle that is made up of two or more atoms that are combined
chemically.
2. There are two types of molecules:
a) molecules that have two or more atoms of the same type.
Examples: nitrogen molecules and oxygen molecules

b) molecules that consist of two or more types of atoms.


Example: ammonia molecules and water molecules

3. There are weak forces of attraction between the molecules which are known as Van der
Waals forces.
4. There is a group of solids known as covalent macromolecules which are held by very
strong covalent bonds. Diamond and graphite are the best examples of covalent
macromolecules which are strong solids.
ions
1. Atoms that lose electrons will become positively charged ions, while atoms that accept
electrons will become negatively charged ions.
2. When sodium (a metal) reacts with chlorine (a non-metal) to form compound, the sodium atoms
lose electrons to become positively charged ions, Na+. and chlorine atoms accept
electrons to become negative ions. CI3. The ions are very stable and have strong electrostatic forces of attraction and have high
melting and boiling points.
Physical Properties

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Exercises 4.5
Essay Question
The electrical conductivity of substances made of atoms, substances made of
molecules and substances made of ions are different.

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You are given lead, sulphur and lead(II) bromide (all in powdered form).
(a) Suggest a hypothesis to investigate the above statement.
___________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(b) Describe an experiment to test your hypothesis based on the following criteria.
(i) Aim of the experiment
[1 mark]
(ii) Identification of variables
[2 marks]
(iii) List of apparatus and materials
[1 mark]
(iv) Procedure or method
[4 marks]
(v) Tabulation of data
[1 mark]
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4.6 Understanding the properties and uses of metals and non-metals


There are many objects that are made of metals. What are these objects? Examples are screws,
wrenches, keys, nails, and many more. What about non-metallic objects? Examples of non-metals
are paper, books, wooden desks, plastic cups and others.
The Properties and Uses of Metals and Non-metals

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Uses of Metal

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Uses of Non-metal
Non Metal
Carbon

Physical property and use


Carbon exists in two forms of solid: diamond and graphite
(a) Diamond
(i) Natural carbon is very hard. The carbon atoms in diamonds are bonded
together using strong covalent bonds in a giant structure as shown in the
figure below.
(ii) Uses:
acts as a drilling bit for cutting stones and glass
serves as expensive and beautiful jewellery

(b) Graphite
(i) Graphite consists of layers of carbon atoms strongly bonded in the form of
hexagonal rings.
(ii) The layers of carbon are, however, weakly bonded to each other. As a result,
they can move easily over one another.
(iii) Graphite can conduct electricity.
(iv) Uses:
serves as a lubricant in machines
for making pencil lead
acts as a carbon electrode in a dry cell
Clorine

(a) Chlorine is a poisonous gas which is yellowish green in colour.


(b) It dissolves easily in water to form hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid.
(c) Uses:
(i) serves as a bleaching agent in detergents and in the paper industry
(ii) for making organic solvents like chloroform and tetrachloromethane
(iii) kills germs and cleans water in swimming pools and water purification

Sulphur
(a) Sulphur is yellow in colour and burns easily.
(b) Uses:
(i) for making sulphuric acid, paints and detergents
(ii) for making anti-fungal drugs, synthetic fibres and matches
(iii) added to natural rubber to produce vulcanised rubber
(iv) for making solvents like carbon disulphide

Noble gas

(a) Uses:

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(i) Argon for filling light bulbs


(ii) Neon for filling advertising lamps and electronic appliances
(iii) Helium for filling balloons
(iv) Krypton - to give out light of high intensity in light bulbs
(v) Xenon for making anaesthetic drugs

Exercises 4.6

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4.7 Analysing methods of purifying substances


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Pure Substances
1. Pure substances contain atoms or molecules of only one type.
2. Pure substances have fixed melting and boiling points.
3. The presence of impurities will lower the melting point but increase the boiling point of a
substance.
4. The melting point of ice is 0C. The presence of impurities (e.g. salt) will lower the melting
point by a few degrees depending on the quantity of salt added (possibly -2C or -3C).
5. Purified distilled water boils at 100C The presence of impurities (e.g. salt) will increase the
boiling point (probably 102C or 103C).
Methods of Purification
1. Impurities can be separated physically by the process of filtration, distillation and
crystallization.
2. How do you separate a mixture of sugar and sand?
The mixture of sugar and sand is added with water so that all the sugar dissolves. Then
the mixture is filtered. The insoluble sand will be left on the filter paper, and the filtrate
(sugar solution) is collected. This process is called filtration. The sugar solution is then
heated until it is saturated. Then the solution is left to cool and sugar crystals are
formed. This process is called crystallization.
3. How do you get pure water from sea water?
Sea water is heated to boiling at 100C, the water vapour condenses in the Liebig
condenser and is collected. The water that condenses is known as the distillate (purified
distilled water). This process is called distillation.
4. When we want to separate a mixture of two liquids such as water and alcohol or petroleum
components, fractional distillation can be carried out.

Application of the Method of Purification

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Water is a necessity of life in this world. Three quarters of our world is covered with water. The
problem the world is facing now is environmental pollution that has affected the supply of clean
water for our daily use. Research has been carried out on various methods to get clean water.
Applications of Purification
The Process of Obtaining Purified Distilled Water
1. Several countries in the Middle East have been distilling sea water to get drinking water.
2. Tap water is distilled extensively to get purified distilled water (pure water).
3. Purified distilled water is used in the preparation of chemical solutions and medicines in
hospitals.
4. The water in the batteries of vehicles can also be replaced with distilled water.
The Process of Obtaining Pure Clean Alcohol
In the manufacture of alcohol, distillation is carried out to purify and increase the concentration of
the alcohol.
Fractional Distillation to Obtain Petroleum Components

The Production of Salt Crystals - Crystallization


1. Evaporation of sea water produces salt crystals.
2. Sea water is passed into a large storage and left to evaporate in the Sun.
3. After evaporation, the salt solution will be saturated, forming salt crystals

Exercises 4.5

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Essay Question
The boiling point of water increases when some salt is added into the water.

You are given distilled water and common salt.


(a) Suggest a hypothesis to investigate the above statement.
___________________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(b) Describe an experiment to test your hypothesis based on the following criteria.
(i) Aim of the experiment
[1 mark]
(ii) Identification of variables
[2 marks]
(iii) List of apparatus and materials
[1 mark]
(iv) Procedure or method
[4 marks]
(v) Tabulation of data
[1 mark]
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4.8 Appreciating the existence and uses of various substances of


different characteristics
Understanding the characteristics and different conditions of different types of substances allows
us to use the substances for different purposes. Imagine our lives without electricity, vehicles or
anything which will make our lives easier.
Appreciating the Existence of Substances
Water
1. Life on Earth will not exist without water.
2. Water can exist in three states, i.e. the solid (ice), liquid (water) and gas (water vapour).
3. Water is used for cooking, drinking, washing, and as a solvent.
4. Water that flows in dams can generate hydro-electric power.
Metal - /Aluminium
1. Without aluminium aircraft may still be made of wood or other materials.
2. The strength of the aluminium alloy duralumin, which is light in nature is suitable for use in the
manufacture of aircraft.
3. Aluminium is used also in the manufacture of cooking utensils such as pots and pans because
aluminium is a good conductor of heat.
4. Aluminium is a good conductor of electricity and is very suitable for use as cables for the
transmission of electricity from the power plants to our homes.
Examples of cooking utensils made from aluminium
Metal - Iron
1. Iron metal is very strong and suitable for making steel used in the construction of bridges and
buildings.
2. Iron will rust. Therefore, when using iron to make car bodies or gates, iron must be painted to
prevent rusting.
Non-Metals
1. Oxygen is essential for living things to survive.

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2. Oxygen is required for combustion.


3. Petroleum is widely used as a fuel in the transportation industry and machinery in factories.
Imagine how our lives will be without petroleum today?
4. Many objects that we use today are synthetic materials made from petroleum.

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