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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

ESA 421

PREPARED BY
KUGAN MADIWANA
(Matric ID: 115899)

UNDER SUPERVISION OF
DR. ABDUL HALIM KADARMAN

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL OF FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT IN


BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
AEROSPACE ENGINEERING
DECEMBER 2015

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

CONTENTS
1

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATION ................................................................................................... 1

WING STRUCTURE ................................................................................................................... 2

2.1

WING CONSTRUCTION ...................................................................................................... 4

2.2

WING LOADING, SHEAR FORCE & BENDING MOMENT ............................................ 4

V-N DIAGRAM ............................................................................................................................ 5


MANEUVER ENVELOPE & V-n DIAGRAM ..................................................................... 5

3.1
4

STRESS ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 6


4.1

LIFT DISTRIBUTION ........................................................................................................... 6

4.2

WING WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION ........................................................................................ 8

4.3

FUEL LOAD .......................................................................................................................... 8

4.4

NET WING LOADING .......................................................................................................... 9

4.5

SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAM................................................................................................ 10

4.6

BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM ...................................................................................... 11

4.7

TORSIONAL MOMENT ..................................................................................................... 12

4.7.1

CENTER OF PRESSURE ............................................................................................ 13

4.7.2

CENTER OF GRAVITY .............................................................................................. 13

4.7.3

TORSIONAL MOMENT DIAGRAM ......................................................................... 13

4.8

IDEALIZATION OF WING CROSS SECTION .............................................................. 14

4.9

NORMAL STRESS .............................................................................................................. 15

4.9.1

TENSILE ZONE FAILURE ULTIMATE STRENGTH ........................................... 15

4.9.2

COMPRESSIVE ZONE FAILURE BUCKLING ..................................................... 16

4.10

SHEAR STRESS .................................................................................................................. 17

4.10.1

TENSILE ZONE FAILURE ULTIMATE STRENGTH ........................................... 17

4.10.2

COMPRESSIVE ZONE FAILURE BUCKLING ..................................................... 18

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 20
APPENDICES ..................................................................................................................................... 21
APPENDIX A EXCEL DATA ...................................................................................................... 21
APPENDIX A.1 LIFT DISTRIBUTION....................................................................................... 21
APPENDIX A.2 WING WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION ................................................................... 22
APPENDIX A.3 FUEL WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION .................................................................... 23
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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE
APPENDIX A.4 NET WING LOADING ..................................................................................... 24
APPENDIX A.5 SHEAR FORCE ................................................................................................. 25
APPENDIX A.6 BENDING MOMENT ....................................................................................... 26
APPENDIX A.7 TORSIONAL MOMENT................................................................................... 27
APPENDIX A.8 BENDING MOMENT ....................................................................................... 28
APPENDIX A.8 BENDING MOMENT ....................................................................................... 29
APPENDIX A.9 SHEAR STRESS................................................................................................ 30

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATION
SPECIFICATIONS

1959 MODEL CESSNA 150

WING SPAN

10 m

HEIGHT (Tip of rudder)

2.59 m

WING AREA

15 m2

LENGTH

7.29 m

DESIGN GROSS WEIGHT (LSA limit)

509 kg

USEFUL LOAD (LSA)


WING LOADING (LSA)

5292.86 Nm-2

DESIGN LOAD FACTOR (ultimate)

3.7

FUEL CAPACITY (std., dual wing tanks)

83.25 L

PERFORMANCE
TAKE OFF ROLL

422 m

LANDING ROLL

328 m

MAX. CRUISE, SEA LEVEL

202 kmh-1

STALL, FLAPS DOWN

78 kmh-1

RATE OF CLIMB

3.4 ms-1

SERVICE CEILING

4300 m

RANGE (std. no reserve)

778

Table 1 STOL CESSNA 150 Aircraft Specifications

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

WING STRUCTURE

Figure 1 Wing Structure Assembly

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Figure 2 Wing Skin Assembly

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

2.1 WING CONSTRUCTION


The wing structure consists of two long I beam web with six ribs and it is strengthen
with upper and lower spar caps. Spar web doublers are used at the root of the wing to increase
the connection strength between the wing and the fuselage. The function of spar is to transmit
bending and torsional load. The spar has to be strong enough in order to work as it functions;
as a result, thicker material is used on spar. The wing is reinforced with skin to support shear
stress and axial bending load. The ribs consist of nose ribs and rear ribs and it acts to maintain
the airfoil shape of the wing. It also increases the skin buckling strength by reducing the load
to smaller sections. Other than that, the ribs carry the bending moment of the spar in spanwise
direction. The direction of load will go from wing skin to wing rib and finally spar.
CESSNA 150 is a small aircraft that only carry two passengers, so the structure of the
aircraft is also not as strong as the big aircraft. For example, the big commercial airliner will
have stronger and more complex structure. It will have stringers to strengthen the structure of
the wings. CESSNA 150 does not have any stringers and its support structure is only depends
on the spar and ribs. The strength also the depends on the wing and the rivets that connect the
skin to the skeleton. The rivets even though small is very crucial to spread n reduce and transfer
the shear stress to the wing skeleton.

2.2 WING LOADING, SHEAR FORCE & BENDING MOMENT


A wing produces lift because of unequal pressures on its top and bottom surfaces. This
creates a shear force and a bending moment, both of which are at their highest values at the
point where the wing meets the fuselage. The structure at this point needs to be very strong, to
resist the loads and moments, but also quite stiff, and to reduce wing bending. The wing will
be quite thick at this point, to give the maximum stiffness with minimum weight. An advantage
of wing-mounted engines is that their weight is close to the area in which the lift is produced.
This reduces the total fuselage weight, reducing the shear force and bending moment at the
wing root. A correct position of the fuel-load also results in a smaller moment at the wing root.
Fuel load close to the tips reduces this moment. Therefore, the order in which the tanks
are emptied is from the root to the tip. The tailplane, rudder and ailerons also create lift, causing
a torsion in the fuselage. Since the fuselage is cylindrical, it can withstand torsion very
effectively. In addition, the landing gear can generate side loads causing torsion of the fuselage.
However, the main force caused by the landing gear is an upward shock during landing. For
this, shock absorbers are present, absorbing the landing energy and thus reducing the force
done on the structure. The extra work generated during a hard landing results in a very large
increase in the force on the structure. This is why the absorbers are designed with a safety
margin by taking into account a vertical speed 1.5 times higher than the maximum vertical
speed during landing.

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

V-N DIAGRAM

V-n diagram represent the flight envelope of a certain aircraft. It is used to refer to the
boundaries of the aircraft loading and flight conditions within which operation of the aircraft
is satisfactory, and beyond which some aspect becomes unacceptable. The load factor is
defined as the ratio between the total external normal forces on the aircraft and its weight. It is
an important parameter in determining the flight envelope of the aircraft. Based on the
specification of CESSNA 150:

Diving Speed, VD = 303 km/h


Cruise Speed, VC = 202 km/h
Ultimate Load Factor = 3.7 g
Clmax = +1.2311/0.8938
m = 509 kg
S = 15 m2
b = 10 m

3.1 MANEUVER ENVELOPE & V-n DIAGRAM


The cruise speed of the aircraft:
VC = 202 km/h = 56.11 m/s
The dive speed of the aircraft:
VD = 1.5VC = 303

km
= 84.17 m/s
h

The stall speed at n = +1/1:


Vstall =

2mg
SClmax

when n = +1
Vstall = 24.00 m/s
And when n = 1

(Same because of symmetrical airfoil)


Vstall = 24.00 m/s

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

V-n Diagram
4.00
3.50
3.00
L
o
a
d

2.50
2.00
1.50

F 1.00
a
0.50
c
t 0.00
o
0.00
-0.50
r

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

60.00

70.00

80.00

90.00

-1.00
-1.50
-2.00

Velocity, m/s
Figure 3 V-n Diagram

STRESS ANALYSIS

4.1 LIFT DISTRIBUTION


The Schrenks method relies on the fact that the distribution of lift across the span of an
unswept wing does not differ much from elliptic, even for a highly non-elliptic planform. The
process required is therefore to create an elliptic planform over a wingspan, and then modify it
by considering the wing chord variation along the wing. The method states that the resultant
load distribution is arithmetic mean of:
A load distribution representing the actual planform shape
An elliptical distribution of the same span and area
The semi-span wing area = area of quadrant = S/2
Area of ellipse:
a=

4S
b

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Equation of ellipse:
cy 2
y2
+
=1
(b/2)2 (a)2

cy =

4S
2y
1 ( )2
b
b

The elliptical lift distribution for wing can be representing by this equation:
=

( )

The taper lift distribution for trapezoidal/ taper wing can be representing by this equation:
Taper ratio = = ct /cr
Area = S/2 = [(cr + ct )/2] (b/2) = b (1 + ) cr /4
Hence,
cr = 2S/[(1 + )b]
cy = cr [1 + (

2y
)[( 1)]
b

Therefore,
=

[ + ( ) ( )]
( + )

Wing Lift Distribution


Wy, Elliptical

7000.000

Wy, Trapezoidal

Shrenk's Approximation

6000.000
Lift Distribution (N/m)

5000.000

4000.000
3000.000
2000.000
1000.000
5

4.75

4.5

4.25

3.75

3.5

3.25

2.75

2.5

2.25

1.75

1.5

1.25

0.75

0.5

0.25

0.000
Half Span Position,y (m)
Figure 4 Lift distribution across the half span

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

4.2 WING WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION


Wing load is mostly carried by the weight of the wing itself that made up of the wing
structure and load due to fuel. The weight of the wing is calculated by using the assumption
used in Aircraft Performance and Design book by John D. Anderson, which stated that the
weight of the wing is equal to the product of wing planform area (in ft 2 ) with constant of 2.5
= .

Wing Loading Approximation


Structure

2000.000
1800.000

Distributed Load, N/m

1600.000
1400.000
1200.000
1000.000
800.000
600.000
400.000
200.000
0.000
0 0.250.50.75 1 1.251.51.75 2 2.252.52.75 3 3.253.53.75 4 4.254.54.75 5 5.25
Half Span Location,m
Figure 5 Wing weight distribution across half span

4.3 FUEL LOAD


Fuel tank capacity for the aircraft is 83.25 L which located at both side of the wing with
each wing carry 41.625 L of the fuel. The type of fuel used is Aviation Gasoline (AvGas) as it
is a common aviation used to powet spark-ignite piston engine aircraft. AvGas 100LL is chose
as it has low lead.

Density of AvGas 100LL = 721 kg/m3


Weight of fuel = 721 0.041526 9.81 = 294.41 N

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Wing Loading Approximation


Fuel

2000.000

Distributed Load, N/m

1800.000
1600.000
1400.000
1200.000
1000.000
800.000
600.000
400.000
200.000
0.000
0 0.250.50.75 1 1.251.51.75 2 2.252.52.75 3 3.253.53.75 4 4.254.54.75 5 5.25
Half Span Location,m
Figure 6 Fuel weight distribution across the half span.

4.4 NET WING LOADING


Net wing loading is calculated by summing up the loads that acts on the wing which are;

Lift load (Schrenks Approximation)


Wing Weight
Fuel Weight
= + . + .

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Overall Wing Loading


Net Loading
6000.000

Wing Structure

Fuel

Shrenk Approximation

Distributed Load, N/m

5000.000
4000.000
3000.000
2000.000
1000.000
0.000
0

Half Span Location,m

Figure 7 Net wing loading across half span.

4.5 SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAM

The shear force is calculated by the integration of overall lift along the spanwise of the
wing. The sectional shear force can be calculated by using trapezoidal rule. This rule is used to
integrate the non-uniform distribution of overall lift.

1
Shear Force, N = (Overall Lift n + Overall Lift n1 )(yn yn1 )
2

Overall shear is obtained by doing summation of shear at each point on the wing:

= +

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Shear Force

Half Wing's Weight

0
0

Shear Force of Wing, N

-2000
-4000
-6000
-8000
-10000
-12000
-14000

Half Span Location,m

Figure 8 Shear force diagram across half span.

4.6 BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM


From the calculation of shear force, we can determine the bending moment act on the
wing by integrating the shear force curve. Similar to the method used to find integration of
lift, we used trapezoidal rule to determine bending moment for each point on the wing.
1
Bending Moment, Nm = (Shear forcen + Shear Forcen1 )(yn yn1 )
2

Overall bending moment is obtained by doing summation of moment at each point on the
wing:
= +

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Bending Moment Diagram

Half Wing's Weight

35000

Moment, Nm

30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0

2 Half Span 3Location,m 4

Figure 9 Bending moment diagram across half span.

4.7 TORSIONAL MOMENT


Torsional moment is acting across the cross-section of the wing. It is depend on the
location of the center of gravity, pressure center and the shear center. The cross section of the
wing is as follow:

AIRFOIL 0018
0.1

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

-0.1

Figure 10 NACA 0018

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

4.7.1 CENTER OF PRESSURE


Location of center of pressure (C.P) with respect to wing chord:
=

The aerodynamic properties of the airfoil are as follow:

Lift coefficient = 0.41


Moment coefficient = 0.062

4.7.2 CENTER OF GRAVITY


The location of center of gravity:
For rectangular wing,
xcg = (0.42 0.45)c
Therefore, estimate:
= .
4.7.3 TORSIONAL MOMENT DIAGRAM
Twisting moment is act upon shear center. Since it is difficult to be determine, it can be find
by:
Shear center = 0.5 chord length
Torsional moment can be calculate by using this formula:
Mn = Lfn C1 Wn C2
Mn1 = Lfn1 C1 Wn1 C2
= +
Where:
c1 = Distance from center of pressure to shear center
c2 = Distance from center of gravity to shear center

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Torsional Moment Diagram


30000

Torsional Moment (N m)

25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0

Half-Wing Span (m)

Figure 11 Wing torsional moment diagram across half span

4.8 IDEALIZATION OF WING CROSS SECTION


The cross section of the wing is made up of skin, spar web and spar cap. The skin helps to
transmit aerodynamic forces to the longitudinal and transverse members. It also act together
with longitudinal members to resists axial loads and applied bending. The spar web develops
shear stress to react the applied torsional moments. The spar cap on the other hand, help to
resist bending and axial. Structural idealization must take into account certain consideration:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

The longitudinal stiffeners and spar flanges carry only axial stresses
The web, skin and spars webs carry only shear stresses
The axial stress is constant over the cross section of each longitudinal stiffener
The shearing stress is uniform through the thickness of the webs
Transverse frames and ribs are rigid within their own planes and have no rigidity normal
to their plane.

As the NACA 0018 wing is an symmetrical wing, few skin booms are calculated to idealize
the structure. For analysis purpose, the front and middle section of the wing is used. The control
surface can be neglect, as it will not contribute to the structure integrity of the wing. Therefore,
the idealization only considers this section of wing. Wing root cross section is analyzed, as it
will experience the most moment and shear force.

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

NACA 0018
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

-0.05
-0.1

Figure 12 Spar cap and spar web location

Area of spar cap = 350 m2


Skin thickness = 0.002 m
Spar web thickness = 0.003 m
Wing area idealizes formula:
t

Af =
h
2

h
2

ht
2

a
h
2

h
2

Af =

Figure 13 Actual wall. For both = .

ht
2

Figure 14 Idealized wall

4.9 NORMAL STRESS


4.9.1 TENSILE ZONE FAILURE ULTIMATE STRENGTH
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
-0.02 0
-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
-0.1

1
12 0.1

6
Y

0.2

11

0.3

10

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 15 Location of booms

Centroid location at y and z direction:


y =

Ai yi
Ai

z =

Ai zi
Ai

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

y =

2432336.367
7679.143014

z =

= 316.75 mm

0
7679.143014

= 0 mm

Normal stress on each boom


=

( + ) + ( + )

[
]

Bending moment is important in determining normal stress. Maximum bending moment is


taken at wing root, as it will experience the most bending moment. There is no moment act at
z-axis.
My = 28981.95953 Nm
Mz = 0 Nm
Since there is no external, force that act normal to the cross section. Therefore, no external
stress contributes to the normal stress.
P=0N
Therefore, maximum stress is at boom 4 & 9, which is
z = 7.3081 x 104 Pa
4.9.2 COMPRESSIVE ZONE FAILURE BUCKLING
To calculate the compressive zone failure due to buckling where,
cr = k

2 EI
t 2
(
)
12(1 v 2 ) b

The material selected is Aluminium 7075 where it has modulus of elasticity, E of 7.17
1010 Pa and poisson ratio of 0.33

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Figure 16 Buckling coefficients for flat plates in compression

Therefore,
cr = 1.96 x 105 Pa
Hence, by comparison,
max < cr
# The design will not fail.

4.10 SHEAR STRESS


4.10.1 TENSILE ZONE FAILURE ULTIMATE STRENGTH
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
-0.02 0
-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
-0.1

1
12 0.1

6
Y

0.2

11

0.3

10

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 17 Shear flow diagram

From previous calculation:


Iz = 3.575 x 109 mm4
Iy = 2.953 x 107 mm4
Iyz = 0 mm4
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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

From shear diagram, maximum shear force act at root:


Vy = 13041 N
Vz = 0 N
( ) + ( )
= [
]


Simplify the equation:
(Vz Iyz )Qz + (Vz Iz )Qy
q = [
]
2
IY Iz Iyz
Compatibility equation:
= =

1 = 0
Therefore,
q1 = 1.75 102
q 2 = 2.449 102
= 0.000106748
Shear stress: 0.000106748
=

q
t

Therefore, maximum stress is at boom 3, which is


= 1.398 102 Pa
4.10.2 COMPRESSIVE ZONE FAILURE BUCKLING
To calculate the compressive zone failure due to buckling where,
cr = k s

2 EI
t 2
(
)
12(1 v 2 ) b

The material selected is Aluminium 7075 where it has modulus of elasticity, E of 7.17
1010 Pa and poisson ratio of 0.33

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Figure 18 Shear buckling coefficient for flat plates.

Therefore,
= 5.32 107 Pa
x 1.5 = Pa
Hence, by comparison,
max (1.5) < ultimate
# The design will not fail.

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REFERENCES
[1] Alumium 7075-T6. (n.d.). Retrieved from ASM Aerospace Specification Metals Inc.:
http://asm.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=MA7075T6
[2] John D. Anderson, J. (1999). Aircraft Performance and Design. McGraw-Hill.
[3] Megson, T. (2007). Thin Plates. In T. Megson, Aircraft Structures for Engineering
Students (4th ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier.
[4] Sadraey, M. (2009). V-n Diagram. In D. Muller, Aircraft Performance Analysis.

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APPENDICES
APPENDIX A EXCEL DATA
APPENDIX A.1 LIFT DISTRIBUTION
Half Span
Position,x
(m)

Wy, Elliptical
(N/m)

Wy, Trapezoidal
(N/m)

Shrenk's
Approximation
(N/m)

5721.889

4493.961

5107.925

0.25

5714.732

4493.961

5104.347

0.5

5693.208

4493.961

5093.584

0.75

5657.151

4493.961

5075.556

5606.283

4493.961

5050.122

1.25

5540.195

4493.961

5017.078

1.5

5458.334

4493.961

4976.148

1.75

5359.978

4493.961

4926.969

5244.198

4493.961

4869.079

2.25

5109.810

4493.961

4801.886

2.5

4955.301

4493.961

4724.631

2.75

4778.719

4493.961

4636.340

4577.511

4493.961

4535.736

3.25

4348.259

4493.961

4421.110

3.5

4086.246

4493.961

4290.103

3.75

3784.674

4493.961

4139.317

3433.133

4493.961

3963.547

4.25

3014.192

4493.961

3754.076

4.5

2494.114

4493.961

3494.037

4.75

1786.659

4493.961

3140.310

0.000

4493.961

2246.981

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APPENDIX A.2 WING WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION

Half Span Position,x


(m)

Wing area / Segment


(m2)

Distributed load, q-L


(N/m)

0.375

1797.584

0.25

0.375

1797.584

0.5

0.375

1797.584

0.75

0.375

1797.584

0.375

1797.584

1.25

0.375

1797.584

1.5

0.375

1797.584

1.75

0.375

1797.584

0.375

1797.584

2.25

0.375

1797.584

2.5

0.375

1797.584

2.75

0.375

1797.584

0.375

1797.584

3.25

0.375

1797.584

3.5

0.375

1797.584

3.75

0.375

1797.584

0.375

1797.584

4.25

0.375

1797.584

4.5

0.375

1797.584

4.75

0.375

1797.584

0.000

1797.584

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APPENDIX A.3 FUEL WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION

Half Span Position,x


(m)

Fuel Tank Chord Length


(m)

Distributed Load,
(N/m)

0.555

196.276

0.25

0.555

196.276

0.5

0.555

196.276

0.75

0.555

196.276

0.555

196.276

1.25

0.555

196.276

1.5

1.75

2.25

2.5

2.75

3.25

3.5

3.75

4.25

4.5

4.75

23

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DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

APPENDIX A.4 NET WING LOADING

Half Span Position,x


(m)

Net Loading / Span


(N/m)

3114.065

0.25

3110.486083

0.5

3099.723837

0.75

3081.695767

3056.261686

1.25

3023.217604

1.5

3178.563144

1.75

3129.384935

3071.494981

2.25

3004.301169

2.5

2927.046654

2.75

2838.755765

2738.151643

3.25

2623.525638

3.5

2492.519088

3.75

2341.732968

2165.962757

4.25

1956.492095

4.5

1696.452865

4.75

1342.725712

449.396
24

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

APPENDIX A.5 SHEAR FORCE

Half Span Position,x


(m)

Shear force, V
(N)

-13165.05617

0.25

-12386.98735

0.5

-11610.71111

0.75

-10838.03366

-10070.78898

1.25

-9310.854067

1.5

-8535.631473

1.75

-7747.137963

-6972.027974

2.25

-6212.553455

2.5

-5471.134977

2.75

-4750.409675

-4053.296249

3.25

-3383.086589

3.5

-2743.580998

3.75

-2139.299491

-1575.837525

4.25

-1060.530669

4.5

-603.9125485

4.75

-224.0152264

25

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

APPENDIX A.6 BENDING MOMENT

Half Span Position,x


(m)

Bending Moment, My
(Nm)

29068.08952

0.25

25874.08407

0.5

22874.37177

0.75

20068.27867

17454.67584

1.25

15031.97046

1.5

12801.15977

1.75

10765.81359

8925.917847

2.25

7277.845168

2.5

5817.384114

2.75

4539.691033

3439.227793

3.25

2509.679938

3.5

1743.84649

3.75

1133.486429

669.0943015

4.25

339.5482773

4.5

131.4928752

4.75

28.00190331

26

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

APPENDIX A.7 TORSIONAL MOMENT

Half Span
Position,x
(m)
0

Wing Chord
Length
(m)
1.5

Xcg
(m)

Xcp
(m)

Xf
(m)

mz (N)

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3075.663786

0.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3074.321879

768.7482082

14833.3493

0.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3070.286037

768.0759896

15601.42529

0.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3063.525511

766.7264435

16368.15173

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3053.98773

764.6891552

17132.84089

1.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3041.5962

761.9479913

17894.78888

1.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3026.247267

758.4804334

18653.26931

1.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3007.805439

754.2565882

19407.5259

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2986.096706

749.237768

20156.76367

2.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2960.899026

743.3744665

20900.13813

2.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2931.928583

736.6034512

21636.74158

2.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2898.8195

728.8435104

22365.58509

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2861.092954

719.9890568

23085.57415

3.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2818.108202

709.9001445

23795.4743

3.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2768.980746

698.3861185

24493.86041

3.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2712.435951

685.1770871

25179.0375

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2646.522122

669.8697591

25848.90726

4.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2567.970624

651.8115932

26500.71885

4.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2470.455912

629.803317

27130.52217

4.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2337.80823

601.0330178

27731.55519

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

843.3676875

397.6469897

28129.20218

delta mz (N)

Mz
(Nm)
14064.60109

27

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

APPENDIX A.8 BENDING MOMENT

Boom

Area
Idealized
(m2)

y'
(mm)

z'
(mm)

Ay'
(mm3)

Az'
(mm3)

y = y'-ybar
(mm)

z = z'-zbar
(mm)

Iz = Ay^2
(mm4)

522.4573404

24.472

32.367

12785.57603

16910.37674

-292.2738091

32.367

44630385.12

536.9283483

95.492

57.561

51272.36184

30906.13266

-221.2538091

57.561

26284386.61

817.4053975

206.107

72.143

168472.9743

58970.0776

-110.6388091

72.143

10005815.39

644.1347871

345.492

74.468

222543.4159

47967.42933

28.74619091

74.468

532276.5892

659.9675156

500

66.175

329983.7578

43673.35035

183.2541909

66.175

22163094.11

658.6781181

654.508

51.147

431110.0977

33689.40971

337.7621909

51.147

75144171.78

658.6781181

654.508

-51.147

431110.0977

-33689.40971

337.7621909

-51.147

75144171.78

659.9675156

500

-66.175

329983.7578

-43673.35035

183.2541909

-66.175

22163094.11

644.1347871

345.492

-74.468

222543.4159

-47967.42933

28.74619091

-74.468

532276.5892

10

817.4053975

206.107

-72.143

168472.9743

-58970.0776

-110.6388091

-72.143

10005815.39

11

536.9283483

95.492

-57.561

51272.36184

-30906.13266

-221.2538091

-57.561

26284386.61

12

522.4573404

24.472

-32.367

12785.57603

-16910.37674

-292.2738091

-32.367

44630385.12

SUM

7679.143014

2432336.367

357520259.2

28

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

APPENDIX A.8 BENDING MOMENT


Part 1
z

Part 2
z

z
(kg.mm-1.s-2)

z
(kg.m-1.s-2)
(Pa)

31.8589024

31.8589024

31858.9024

56.65740665

56.65740665

56657.40665

71.01049822

71.01049822

71010.49822

73.29900033

73.29900033

73299.00033

65.13618396

65.13618396

65136.18396

50.34409371

50.34409371

50344.09371

-50.34409371

-50.34409371

-50344.09371

-65.13618396

-65.13618396

-65136.18396

-73.29900033

-73.29900033

-73299.00033

-71.01049822

-71.01049822

-71010.49822

-56.65740665

-56.65740665

-56657.40665

-31.8589024

-31.8589024

-31858.9024

29

ESA 421 AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

APPENDIX A.9 SHEAR STRESS

Boom delta_s delta_s/Gt delta_qs'

qs'

c11

c12

c22

c11q's

c12q's c22q's

64.734

0.00080216

0.0000

0.0000

0.0008

0.0000

75.356

0.00140068

-7.5386

-7.5386

0.0014

-0.0106

111.572

0.00207383

-13.7778

-21.3163

0.0021

-0.0442

139.404

0.00259116

-26.2885

-47.6049

0.0026

-0.1234

154.730

0.00287603

-21.3836

-68.9885

0.0029

-0.1984

155.237

0.00288545

-19.4693

-88.4578

0.0029

-0.2552

102.294

0.00126758

-15.0185

103.4764

0.0013

-0.1312

155.237

0.00288545

15.0185

-88.4578

0.0029

-0.2552

154.730

0.00287603

19.4693

-68.9885

0.0029

-0.1984

10

139.404

0.00259116

21.3836

-47.6049

0.0026

-0.1234

11

111.572

0.00207383

26.2885

-21.3163

0.0021

-0.0442

12

75.356

0.00140068

13.7778

-7.5386

0.0014

-0.0106

144.286

0.00178793

0.0000

0.0000

0.0018 0.0018 0.0018

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

30