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ESA 421

PREPARED BY

KUGAN MADIWANA

(Matric ID: 115899)

UNDER SUPERVISION OF

DR. ABDUL HALIM KADARMAN

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

DECEMBER 2015

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

CONTENTS

1

2.1

2.2

MANEUVER ENVELOPE & V-n DIAGRAM ..................................................................... 5

3.1

4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.7.1

4.7.2

4.7.3

4.8

4.9

4.9.1

4.9.2

4.10

4.10.1

4.10.2

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 20

APPENDICES ..................................................................................................................................... 21

APPENDIX A EXCEL DATA ...................................................................................................... 21

APPENDIX A.1 LIFT DISTRIBUTION....................................................................................... 21

APPENDIX A.2 WING WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION ................................................................... 22

APPENDIX A.3 FUEL WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION .................................................................... 23

i

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

APPENDIX A.4 NET WING LOADING ..................................................................................... 24

APPENDIX A.5 SHEAR FORCE ................................................................................................. 25

APPENDIX A.6 BENDING MOMENT ....................................................................................... 26

APPENDIX A.7 TORSIONAL MOMENT................................................................................... 27

APPENDIX A.8 BENDING MOMENT ....................................................................................... 28

APPENDIX A.8 BENDING MOMENT ....................................................................................... 29

APPENDIX A.9 SHEAR STRESS................................................................................................ 30

ii

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATION

SPECIFICATIONS

WING SPAN

10 m

2.59 m

WING AREA

15 m2

LENGTH

7.29 m

509 kg

WING LOADING (LSA)

5292.86 Nm-2

3.7

83.25 L

PERFORMANCE

TAKE OFF ROLL

422 m

LANDING ROLL

328 m

202 kmh-1

78 kmh-1

RATE OF CLIMB

3.4 ms-1

SERVICE CEILING

4300 m

778

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

WING STRUCTURE

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

The wing structure consists of two long I beam web with six ribs and it is strengthen

with upper and lower spar caps. Spar web doublers are used at the root of the wing to increase

the connection strength between the wing and the fuselage. The function of spar is to transmit

bending and torsional load. The spar has to be strong enough in order to work as it functions;

as a result, thicker material is used on spar. The wing is reinforced with skin to support shear

stress and axial bending load. The ribs consist of nose ribs and rear ribs and it acts to maintain

the airfoil shape of the wing. It also increases the skin buckling strength by reducing the load

to smaller sections. Other than that, the ribs carry the bending moment of the spar in spanwise

direction. The direction of load will go from wing skin to wing rib and finally spar.

CESSNA 150 is a small aircraft that only carry two passengers, so the structure of the

aircraft is also not as strong as the big aircraft. For example, the big commercial airliner will

have stronger and more complex structure. It will have stringers to strengthen the structure of

the wings. CESSNA 150 does not have any stringers and its support structure is only depends

on the spar and ribs. The strength also the depends on the wing and the rivets that connect the

skin to the skeleton. The rivets even though small is very crucial to spread n reduce and transfer

the shear stress to the wing skeleton.

A wing produces lift because of unequal pressures on its top and bottom surfaces. This

creates a shear force and a bending moment, both of which are at their highest values at the

point where the wing meets the fuselage. The structure at this point needs to be very strong, to

resist the loads and moments, but also quite stiff, and to reduce wing bending. The wing will

be quite thick at this point, to give the maximum stiffness with minimum weight. An advantage

of wing-mounted engines is that their weight is close to the area in which the lift is produced.

This reduces the total fuselage weight, reducing the shear force and bending moment at the

wing root. A correct position of the fuel-load also results in a smaller moment at the wing root.

Fuel load close to the tips reduces this moment. Therefore, the order in which the tanks

are emptied is from the root to the tip. The tailplane, rudder and ailerons also create lift, causing

a torsion in the fuselage. Since the fuselage is cylindrical, it can withstand torsion very

effectively. In addition, the landing gear can generate side loads causing torsion of the fuselage.

However, the main force caused by the landing gear is an upward shock during landing. For

this, shock absorbers are present, absorbing the landing energy and thus reducing the force

done on the structure. The extra work generated during a hard landing results in a very large

increase in the force on the structure. This is why the absorbers are designed with a safety

margin by taking into account a vertical speed 1.5 times higher than the maximum vertical

speed during landing.

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

V-N DIAGRAM

V-n diagram represent the flight envelope of a certain aircraft. It is used to refer to the

boundaries of the aircraft loading and flight conditions within which operation of the aircraft

is satisfactory, and beyond which some aspect becomes unacceptable. The load factor is

defined as the ratio between the total external normal forces on the aircraft and its weight. It is

an important parameter in determining the flight envelope of the aircraft. Based on the

specification of CESSNA 150:

Cruise Speed, VC = 202 km/h

Ultimate Load Factor = 3.7 g

Clmax = +1.2311/0.8938

m = 509 kg

S = 15 m2

b = 10 m

The cruise speed of the aircraft:

VC = 202 km/h = 56.11 m/s

The dive speed of the aircraft:

VD = 1.5VC = 303

km

= 84.17 m/s

h

Vstall =

2mg

SClmax

when n = +1

Vstall = 24.00 m/s

And when n = 1

Vstall = 24.00 m/s

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

V-n Diagram

4.00

3.50

3.00

L

o

a

d

2.50

2.00

1.50

F 1.00

a

0.50

c

t 0.00

o

0.00

-0.50

r

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

60.00

70.00

80.00

90.00

-1.00

-1.50

-2.00

Velocity, m/s

Figure 3 V-n Diagram

STRESS ANALYSIS

The Schrenks method relies on the fact that the distribution of lift across the span of an

unswept wing does not differ much from elliptic, even for a highly non-elliptic planform. The

process required is therefore to create an elliptic planform over a wingspan, and then modify it

by considering the wing chord variation along the wing. The method states that the resultant

load distribution is arithmetic mean of:

A load distribution representing the actual planform shape

An elliptical distribution of the same span and area

The semi-span wing area = area of quadrant = S/2

Area of ellipse:

a=

4S

b

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Equation of ellipse:

cy 2

y2

+

=1

(b/2)2 (a)2

cy =

4S

2y

1 ( )2

b

b

The elliptical lift distribution for wing can be representing by this equation:

=

( )

The taper lift distribution for trapezoidal/ taper wing can be representing by this equation:

Taper ratio = = ct /cr

Area = S/2 = [(cr + ct )/2] (b/2) = b (1 + ) cr /4

Hence,

cr = 2S/[(1 + )b]

cy = cr [1 + (

2y

)[( 1)]

b

Therefore,

=

[ + ( ) ( )]

( + )

Wy, Elliptical

7000.000

Wy, Trapezoidal

Shrenk's Approximation

6000.000

Lift Distribution (N/m)

5000.000

4000.000

3000.000

2000.000

1000.000

5

4.75

4.5

4.25

3.75

3.5

3.25

2.75

2.5

2.25

1.75

1.5

1.25

0.75

0.5

0.25

0.000

Half Span Position,y (m)

Figure 4 Lift distribution across the half span

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Wing load is mostly carried by the weight of the wing itself that made up of the wing

structure and load due to fuel. The weight of the wing is calculated by using the assumption

used in Aircraft Performance and Design book by John D. Anderson, which stated that the

weight of the wing is equal to the product of wing planform area (in ft 2 ) with constant of 2.5

= .

Structure

2000.000

1800.000

1600.000

1400.000

1200.000

1000.000

800.000

600.000

400.000

200.000

0.000

0 0.250.50.75 1 1.251.51.75 2 2.252.52.75 3 3.253.53.75 4 4.254.54.75 5 5.25

Half Span Location,m

Figure 5 Wing weight distribution across half span

Fuel tank capacity for the aircraft is 83.25 L which located at both side of the wing with

each wing carry 41.625 L of the fuel. The type of fuel used is Aviation Gasoline (AvGas) as it

is a common aviation used to powet spark-ignite piston engine aircraft. AvGas 100LL is chose

as it has low lead.

Weight of fuel = 721 0.041526 9.81 = 294.41 N

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Fuel

2000.000

1800.000

1600.000

1400.000

1200.000

1000.000

800.000

600.000

400.000

200.000

0.000

0 0.250.50.75 1 1.251.51.75 2 2.252.52.75 3 3.253.53.75 4 4.254.54.75 5 5.25

Half Span Location,m

Figure 6 Fuel weight distribution across the half span.

Net wing loading is calculated by summing up the loads that acts on the wing which are;

Wing Weight

Fuel Weight

= + . + .

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Net Loading

6000.000

Wing Structure

Fuel

Shrenk Approximation

5000.000

4000.000

3000.000

2000.000

1000.000

0.000

0

The shear force is calculated by the integration of overall lift along the spanwise of the

wing. The sectional shear force can be calculated by using trapezoidal rule. This rule is used to

integrate the non-uniform distribution of overall lift.

1

Shear Force, N = (Overall Lift n + Overall Lift n1 )(yn yn1 )

2

Overall shear is obtained by doing summation of shear at each point on the wing:

= +

10

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Shear Force

0

0

-2000

-4000

-6000

-8000

-10000

-12000

-14000

From the calculation of shear force, we can determine the bending moment act on the

wing by integrating the shear force curve. Similar to the method used to find integration of

lift, we used trapezoidal rule to determine bending moment for each point on the wing.

1

Bending Moment, Nm = (Shear forcen + Shear Forcen1 )(yn yn1 )

2

Overall bending moment is obtained by doing summation of moment at each point on the

wing:

= +

11

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

35000

Moment, Nm

30000

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

0

Torsional moment is acting across the cross-section of the wing. It is depend on the

location of the center of gravity, pressure center and the shear center. The cross section of the

wing is as follow:

AIRFOIL 0018

0.1

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

-0.1

12

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Location of center of pressure (C.P) with respect to wing chord:

=

Moment coefficient = 0.062

The location of center of gravity:

For rectangular wing,

xcg = (0.42 0.45)c

Therefore, estimate:

= .

4.7.3 TORSIONAL MOMENT DIAGRAM

Twisting moment is act upon shear center. Since it is difficult to be determine, it can be find

by:

Shear center = 0.5 chord length

Torsional moment can be calculate by using this formula:

Mn = Lfn C1 Wn C2

Mn1 = Lfn1 C1 Wn1 C2

= +

Where:

c1 = Distance from center of pressure to shear center

c2 = Distance from center of gravity to shear center

13

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

30000

Torsional Moment (N m)

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

0

The cross section of the wing is made up of skin, spar web and spar cap. The skin helps to

transmit aerodynamic forces to the longitudinal and transverse members. It also act together

with longitudinal members to resists axial loads and applied bending. The spar web develops

shear stress to react the applied torsional moments. The spar cap on the other hand, help to

resist bending and axial. Structural idealization must take into account certain consideration:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

The longitudinal stiffeners and spar flanges carry only axial stresses

The web, skin and spars webs carry only shear stresses

The axial stress is constant over the cross section of each longitudinal stiffener

The shearing stress is uniform through the thickness of the webs

Transverse frames and ribs are rigid within their own planes and have no rigidity normal

to their plane.

As the NACA 0018 wing is an symmetrical wing, few skin booms are calculated to idealize

the structure. For analysis purpose, the front and middle section of the wing is used. The control

surface can be neglect, as it will not contribute to the structure integrity of the wing. Therefore,

the idealization only considers this section of wing. Wing root cross section is analyzed, as it

will experience the most moment and shear force.

14

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

NACA 0018

0.1

0.05

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

-0.05

-0.1

Skin thickness = 0.002 m

Spar web thickness = 0.003 m

Wing area idealizes formula:

t

Af =

h

2

h

2

ht

2

a

h

2

h

2

Af =

ht

2

4.9.1 TENSILE ZONE FAILURE ULTIMATE STRENGTH

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

-0.02 0

-0.04

-0.06

-0.08

-0.1

1

12 0.1

6

Y

0.2

11

0.3

10

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

y =

Ai yi

Ai

z =

Ai zi

Ai

15

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

y =

2432336.367

7679.143014

z =

= 316.75 mm

0

7679.143014

= 0 mm

=

( + ) + ( + )

[

]

taken at wing root, as it will experience the most bending moment. There is no moment act at

z-axis.

My = 28981.95953 Nm

Mz = 0 Nm

Since there is no external, force that act normal to the cross section. Therefore, no external

stress contributes to the normal stress.

P=0N

Therefore, maximum stress is at boom 4 & 9, which is

z = 7.3081 x 104 Pa

4.9.2 COMPRESSIVE ZONE FAILURE BUCKLING

To calculate the compressive zone failure due to buckling where,

cr = k

2 EI

t 2

(

)

12(1 v 2 ) b

The material selected is Aluminium 7075 where it has modulus of elasticity, E of 7.17

1010 Pa and poisson ratio of 0.33

16

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Therefore,

cr = 1.96 x 105 Pa

Hence, by comparison,

max < cr

# The design will not fail.

4.10.1 TENSILE ZONE FAILURE ULTIMATE STRENGTH

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

-0.02 0

-0.04

-0.06

-0.08

-0.1

1

12 0.1

6

Y

0.2

11

0.3

10

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Iz = 3.575 x 109 mm4

Iy = 2.953 x 107 mm4

Iyz = 0 mm4

17

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Vy = 13041 N

Vz = 0 N

( ) + ( )

= [

]

Simplify the equation:

(Vz Iyz )Qz + (Vz Iz )Qy

q = [

]

2

IY Iz Iyz

Compatibility equation:

= =

1 = 0

Therefore,

q1 = 1.75 102

q 2 = 2.449 102

= 0.000106748

Shear stress: 0.000106748

=

q

t

= 1.398 102 Pa

4.10.2 COMPRESSIVE ZONE FAILURE BUCKLING

To calculate the compressive zone failure due to buckling where,

cr = k s

2 EI

t 2

(

)

12(1 v 2 ) b

The material selected is Aluminium 7075 where it has modulus of elasticity, E of 7.17

1010 Pa and poisson ratio of 0.33

18

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Therefore,

= 5.32 107 Pa

x 1.5 = Pa

Hence, by comparison,

max (1.5) < ultimate

# The design will not fail.

19

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

REFERENCES

[1] Alumium 7075-T6. (n.d.). Retrieved from ASM Aerospace Specification Metals Inc.:

http://asm.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=MA7075T6

[2] John D. Anderson, J. (1999). Aircraft Performance and Design. McGraw-Hill.

[3] Megson, T. (2007). Thin Plates. In T. Megson, Aircraft Structures for Engineering

Students (4th ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier.

[4] Sadraey, M. (2009). V-n Diagram. In D. Muller, Aircraft Performance Analysis.

20

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A EXCEL DATA

APPENDIX A.1 LIFT DISTRIBUTION

Half Span

Position,x

(m)

Wy, Elliptical

(N/m)

Wy, Trapezoidal

(N/m)

Shrenk's

Approximation

(N/m)

5721.889

4493.961

5107.925

0.25

5714.732

4493.961

5104.347

0.5

5693.208

4493.961

5093.584

0.75

5657.151

4493.961

5075.556

5606.283

4493.961

5050.122

1.25

5540.195

4493.961

5017.078

1.5

5458.334

4493.961

4976.148

1.75

5359.978

4493.961

4926.969

5244.198

4493.961

4869.079

2.25

5109.810

4493.961

4801.886

2.5

4955.301

4493.961

4724.631

2.75

4778.719

4493.961

4636.340

4577.511

4493.961

4535.736

3.25

4348.259

4493.961

4421.110

3.5

4086.246

4493.961

4290.103

3.75

3784.674

4493.961

4139.317

3433.133

4493.961

3963.547

4.25

3014.192

4493.961

3754.076

4.5

2494.114

4493.961

3494.037

4.75

1786.659

4493.961

3140.310

0.000

4493.961

2246.981

21

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

(m)

(m2)

(N/m)

0.375

1797.584

0.25

0.375

1797.584

0.5

0.375

1797.584

0.75

0.375

1797.584

0.375

1797.584

1.25

0.375

1797.584

1.5

0.375

1797.584

1.75

0.375

1797.584

0.375

1797.584

2.25

0.375

1797.584

2.5

0.375

1797.584

2.75

0.375

1797.584

0.375

1797.584

3.25

0.375

1797.584

3.5

0.375

1797.584

3.75

0.375

1797.584

0.375

1797.584

4.25

0.375

1797.584

4.5

0.375

1797.584

4.75

0.375

1797.584

0.000

1797.584

22

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

(m)

(m)

Distributed Load,

(N/m)

0.555

196.276

0.25

0.555

196.276

0.5

0.555

196.276

0.75

0.555

196.276

0.555

196.276

1.25

0.555

196.276

1.5

1.75

2.25

2.5

2.75

3.25

3.5

3.75

4.25

4.5

4.75

23

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

(m)

(N/m)

3114.065

0.25

3110.486083

0.5

3099.723837

0.75

3081.695767

3056.261686

1.25

3023.217604

1.5

3178.563144

1.75

3129.384935

3071.494981

2.25

3004.301169

2.5

2927.046654

2.75

2838.755765

2738.151643

3.25

2623.525638

3.5

2492.519088

3.75

2341.732968

2165.962757

4.25

1956.492095

4.5

1696.452865

4.75

1342.725712

449.396

24

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

(m)

Shear force, V

(N)

-13165.05617

0.25

-12386.98735

0.5

-11610.71111

0.75

-10838.03366

-10070.78898

1.25

-9310.854067

1.5

-8535.631473

1.75

-7747.137963

-6972.027974

2.25

-6212.553455

2.5

-5471.134977

2.75

-4750.409675

-4053.296249

3.25

-3383.086589

3.5

-2743.580998

3.75

-2139.299491

-1575.837525

4.25

-1060.530669

4.5

-603.9125485

4.75

-224.0152264

25

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

(m)

Bending Moment, My

(Nm)

29068.08952

0.25

25874.08407

0.5

22874.37177

0.75

20068.27867

17454.67584

1.25

15031.97046

1.5

12801.15977

1.75

10765.81359

8925.917847

2.25

7277.845168

2.5

5817.384114

2.75

4539.691033

3439.227793

3.25

2509.679938

3.5

1743.84649

3.75

1133.486429

669.0943015

4.25

339.5482773

4.5

131.4928752

4.75

28.00190331

26

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Half Span

Position,x

(m)

0

Wing Chord

Length

(m)

1.5

Xcg

(m)

Xcp

(m)

Xf

(m)

mz (N)

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3075.663786

0.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3074.321879

768.7482082

14833.3493

0.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3070.286037

768.0759896

15601.42529

0.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3063.525511

766.7264435

16368.15173

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3053.98773

764.6891552

17132.84089

1.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3041.5962

761.9479913

17894.78888

1.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3026.247267

758.4804334

18653.26931

1.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

3007.805439

754.2565882

19407.5259

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2986.096706

749.237768

20156.76367

2.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2960.899026

743.3744665

20900.13813

2.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2931.928583

736.6034512

21636.74158

2.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2898.8195

728.8435104

22365.58509

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2861.092954

719.9890568

23085.57415

3.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2818.108202

709.9001445

23795.4743

3.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2768.980746

698.3861185

24493.86041

3.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2712.435951

685.1770871

25179.0375

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2646.522122

669.8697591

25848.90726

4.25

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2567.970624

651.8115932

26500.71885

4.5

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2470.455912

629.803317

27130.52217

4.75

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

2337.80823

601.0330178

27731.55519

1.5

0.3750

0.6450

0.7500

843.3676875

397.6469897

28129.20218

delta mz (N)

Mz

(Nm)

14064.60109

27

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Boom

Area

Idealized

(m2)

y'

(mm)

z'

(mm)

Ay'

(mm3)

Az'

(mm3)

y = y'-ybar

(mm)

z = z'-zbar

(mm)

Iz = Ay^2

(mm4)

522.4573404

24.472

32.367

12785.57603

16910.37674

-292.2738091

32.367

44630385.12

536.9283483

95.492

57.561

51272.36184

30906.13266

-221.2538091

57.561

26284386.61

817.4053975

206.107

72.143

168472.9743

58970.0776

-110.6388091

72.143

10005815.39

644.1347871

345.492

74.468

222543.4159

47967.42933

28.74619091

74.468

532276.5892

659.9675156

500

66.175

329983.7578

43673.35035

183.2541909

66.175

22163094.11

658.6781181

654.508

51.147

431110.0977

33689.40971

337.7621909

51.147

75144171.78

658.6781181

654.508

-51.147

431110.0977

-33689.40971

337.7621909

-51.147

75144171.78

659.9675156

500

-66.175

329983.7578

-43673.35035

183.2541909

-66.175

22163094.11

644.1347871

345.492

-74.468

222543.4159

-47967.42933

28.74619091

-74.468

532276.5892

10

817.4053975

206.107

-72.143

168472.9743

-58970.0776

-110.6388091

-72.143

10005815.39

11

536.9283483

95.492

-57.561

51272.36184

-30906.13266

-221.2538091

-57.561

26284386.61

12

522.4573404

24.472

-32.367

12785.57603

-16910.37674

-292.2738091

-32.367

44630385.12

SUM

7679.143014

2432336.367

357520259.2

28

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

Part 1

z

Part 2

z

z

(kg.mm-1.s-2)

z

(kg.m-1.s-2)

(Pa)

31.8589024

31.8589024

31858.9024

56.65740665

56.65740665

56657.40665

71.01049822

71.01049822

71010.49822

73.29900033

73.29900033

73299.00033

65.13618396

65.13618396

65136.18396

50.34409371

50.34409371

50344.09371

-50.34409371

-50.34409371

-50344.09371

-65.13618396

-65.13618396

-65136.18396

-73.29900033

-73.29900033

-73299.00033

-71.01049822

-71.01049822

-71010.49822

-56.65740665

-56.65740665

-56657.40665

-31.8589024

-31.8589024

-31858.9024

29

DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE

qs'

c11

c12

c22

c11q's

c12q's c22q's

64.734

0.00080216

0.0000

0.0000

0.0008

0.0000

75.356

0.00140068

-7.5386

-7.5386

0.0014

-0.0106

111.572

0.00207383

-13.7778

-21.3163

0.0021

-0.0442

139.404

0.00259116

-26.2885

-47.6049

0.0026

-0.1234

154.730

0.00287603

-21.3836

-68.9885

0.0029

-0.1984

155.237

0.00288545

-19.4693

-88.4578

0.0029

-0.2552

102.294

0.00126758

-15.0185

103.4764

0.0013

-0.1312

155.237

0.00288545

15.0185

-88.4578

0.0029

-0.2552

154.730

0.00287603

19.4693

-68.9885

0.0029

-0.1984

10

139.404

0.00259116

21.3836

-47.6049

0.0026

-0.1234

11

111.572

0.00207383

26.2885

-21.3163

0.0021

-0.0442

12

75.356

0.00140068

13.7778

-7.5386

0.0014

-0.0106

144.286

0.00178793

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

30

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