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Utilization of Recycled Concrete Aggregate and

Quarry dust in Concrete


A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree
of

5 YEAR DUAL DEGREE INTEGRATED POST GRADUATE PROGRAM


In
Civil Engineering (Structural Engineering)

Submitted By

Neelendra Singh
Enrollment No. 0007CE11DD11

Under the Guidance of


Dr. S.S. Kushwaha

Department of Civil Engineering


Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal
Dec 2015

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation titled, " Utilization of Recycled Concrete Aggregate
and Quarry dust in Concrete", submitted by Neelendra Singh Enrolment No.
0007CE11DD11, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of 5 Year Dual Degree
Integrated Post Graduate Program in Civil Engineering (Structural Engineering)to the Rajiv
Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal is a bonafied record of the work carried out by
him/her under my supervision and guidance during the 2015-2016 academic year.

Dr. S.S. Kushwah


Professor and Head of Department
Rajiv GandhiProudyogikiVishwavidyalaya,
Bhopal

ABSTRACT
Currently India has taken a major initiative to developing many infrastructure such as
buildings, express highways, power projects and industrial structures etc, to meet the
requirements of globalization in the construction of buildings and other structures, concrete
plays a rightful role and a large quantum of concrete is being utilized.
Environmentally friendly building is becoming a crucial issue in construction industry. The
course towards sustainable concrete involves mainly minimizing the environmental impact of
concrete production by substituting virgin mineral materials by recycled ones as well as
reducing the global CO2 emissions. The approach adopted here includes substitution of natural
aggregates (NA) by recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) obtained from crushed concrete debris
and quarry dust (QD), i.e. stone crusher waste.
Coarse recycled aggregates recovered from demolished concrete structures and fine aggregates
from quarry dust (stone crushers) were utilized in the manufacture of new concrete mixtures.
A judicious use of resources, by using by-products and waste materials, and a lower
environmental impact, by reducing carbon dioxide emission and virgin aggregate extraction,
allow to approach sustainable building development.
In proposed work concrete specimens will be manufactured by replacing natural coarse
aggregates (0%, 30%, 50%, 100%) with recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) and by replacing
fine aggregates (0%, 30%, 50% and 100%) from quarry dust (QD).

Contents
CERTIFICATE ............................................................................................................................................ ii
ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................................. iii
ABBREVATIONS AND NOTATIONS ......................................................................................................... v
Chapter 1 .............................................................................................................................................. vi
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... vi
1.0
2.0

Overview ............................................................................................................................... vi
Objective and Scope of Study: .............................................................................................. viii

Aim of Study:.................................................................................................................................. viii


3.0

Literature review ..................................................................................................................... ix

4.0 Experiments to be performed ......................................................................................................... xiii


4.1 Initial and Final Setting Time ................................................................................................. xiii
4.2 Particle Size Distribution of Fine Aggregate ..........................................................................xiv
4.3 Determination of Bulking of Fine Aggregate .............................................................................xvi
4.4 Workability of fresh concrete .................................................................................................xvii
4.5 Compressive strength test ........................................................................................................xix
4.6 Splitting Tensile Test ................................................................................................................xxi

ABBREVATIONS AND NOTATIONS

Abbreviations:
ACI

American Concrete Institute

ASCI

American Society of Civil Engineers

IS

Indian Standard

BS

British Standard

Notation:
RCA

Recycled Concrete Aggregate

FA

Fine Aggregate

QD

Quarry Dust

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.0 Overview
Concrete industry, is known to be a heavy contributor to the environmental damage and
CO2emissions. Over the years, the use of FA and RCA in concrete production has become a
common practice worldwide not only to reduce environmental charges but also due to the
several benefits. The use of FA in concrete has proven to improve workability and long term
strength, reduce permeability, minimize risk of alkali silica reaction, lowering heat of hydration
in mass concrete, and enhancing durability performance (resistance to chloride and sulphate
attack). Aggregates, in terms of volume, are the major component of concrete and may have
significant effect on both engineering properties and the final cost of concrete mixture.
Moreover, natural resources remarkably decline due to extensive use generated by high demand
of new buildings and constructions. Every year, more than 165 million tonnes of natural
aggregates are used in different civil and industrial constructions. Meanwhile, approximately
109 million tonnes of construction and demolition residues are generated in the UK; around 60
million tonnes of this is derived from concrete.
Therefore, as concrete is still the material the most used in civil and industrial infrastructure
and is also the major absorbing of natural mineral resources, recycling rubble concrete gains
importance. It preserves natural resources and eliminates the need for disposal by using the
demolished concrete as an alternative aggregates for new concrete production.
Embedding the maximum possible amount of recycled materials in concrete matrix is the most
effective and a promising policy toward sustainable concrete material. In fact, a sustainable
concrete design includes minimizing the global CO2released and energy consumed to produce
concrete as well as the various components needed. Indeed, extracting virgin aggregates is
causing huge damage to the environment and considerable energy is required for both
extraction as well as crushing processes. Thus, a growing interest in substituting natural
aggregates with alternative recycled aggregates derived from different constructions and
demolitions wastes.
On the other hand, aggregate in fact, is known to play a substantial role in determining
workability, strength, dimensional stability, and durability of the concrete. Due to their bonded

mortar, recycled concrete aggregates have a lower specific gravity and a higher water
absorption capacity compared to natural aggregates. The compressive strength varies with the
compressive strength of the old concrete and the water-cementing materials ratio (w/c) of the
new concrete. While recycling old concrete into aggregate is a relatively simple process which
involves breaking, removing, and crushing existing concrete into a material with a specified
size and quality; the properties of concrete made with RCA are strongly dependent on the
quality of the recycled materials used as well as the primary concrete crushed. Although the
potential for the use of coarse RCA has now been widely acknowledged and promoted,
however RCA shall conform to the requirements specified in BS 8500-2 and the resulted
composites with RCA shall perform quite similarly to NA concrete. Lack of widespread
reliable data on RCA aggregate characteristics and its influence on concrete performance can
restrict it use to full potential. For durable RCA concrete design, a wide range of test data are
need on concrete made with various cements and combinations, and different replacement
levels of RCA. The use of various industrial by-products and recycled materials offers multiple
environmental advantages by offering potential diversion of useful materials from the waste
streams, reducing the energy investment in processing virgin materials, conserving natural
resources, and allaying pollution. Extensive research work has already been performed on the
use of fly ash and other supplementary cementitious materials to enhance sustainability and
durability of concrete material; whereas, most of the existing work is mainly carried out on
concrete with natural aggregates.

2.0 Objective and Scope of Study:

To find the optimum percentage of replacement of natural sand with quarry dust and
coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate at which maximum strength is
obtained. .

To conduct compression test on and control concrete on standard IS specimen size


(150x150x150) mm.

To study about the mix properties of QD and RCA in concrete.

To conduct compressive strength test, split tensile strength test

To provide economical construction material.

Provide safeguard to the environment by utilizing waste properly

Aim of Study:
The Main aim of proposed work:

To find out the replacement of fine aggregate with increase compressive and tensile
strength of conventional concrete

The replacement should be such that it should be economical as a compared to


conventional concrete

Various study conducted on waste product of RCA with different percentage with
conventional sand shows that it strength is increases with proper mix ratio

In the test mixture dust and RCA are using as a full and partially replacement of fine
aggregates and coarse aggregate and know its compressive and tensile strength of 7
days and 28 days

All the work are done for M40 concrete

The comparison of strength with control mix are found

3.0 Literature review


In 1977, Frondistou-Yannas evaluated and compared the mechanical properties of
conventional concrete and concrete containing pieces of concrete from demolition waste in the
place of natural coarse aggregate[1]. He found out that recycled concrete best matches the
mechanical behaviour of conventional concrete when the recycled concrete is enriched in
gravel at the expense of mortar. The recycled aggregate concrete has a compressive strength of
at least 76% and modulus of elasticity from 60% to 100% of the control mix.
Hansen and Narud[2] found that the compressive strength of recycled concrete is strongly
correlated with the watercement ratio of the original concrete if other factors are kept the
same. When the watercement ratio of the original concrete is the same or lower than that of
the recycled concrete, the new strength will be as good as or better than the original strength,
and vice versa.
Later in 1984, Hansen and Hedegkd showed that the addition of a plasticizing, an air entraining,
a retarding, and an accelerating admixture to the original concrete had little or no effect on the
properties of recycled concrete[3].
Test results by Tavakoli and Soroushian indicated that thestrength of recycled aggregate
concrete is affected by the strength of the original concrete, percentage of the coarse aggregate
in the
original concrete, the ratio of top size of aggregate in the original concrete to that of the recycled
aggregate, and the Los Angeles abrasion loss as well as the water absorption of the recycled
aggregate[4]. It was shown that the conventional relationships between splitting tensile,
flexural and compressive strengths are different for recycled concrete.
In a study by Sagoe-Crentsil and Brown [5], it was found that the processing of recycled
concrete aggregates commercially produces smoother spherical particles than those produced
in the laboratory, which improves concrete workability.
Tests on the compressive and tensile strengths of hardened concrete showed no significant
difference between recycled concrete and concrete made with natural aggregates. Investigation
of the durability indicated that the recycled aggregates caused a higher drying shrinkage values
and reduced the abrasion resistance by about 12%. The water absorption and carbonation rates
showed little difference between the recycled concrete and conventional one.

Ajdukiewicz and Kliszczewicz examined the mechanical properties of high performance and
high strength concretes made with recycled aggregates [6]. In their work, they considered
recycled aggregates produced from concrete with compressive strength 4070 MPa. They
concluded that the water content should be modified in the recycled concrete mix design to
obtain the same workability. The results indicated that the compressive strength dropped by
about 10% when using recycled aggregates, while the bond stress at failure dropped by 820%,
depending on the type of fine aggregate used in the concrete.
The porosity of recycled concrete made with substitution of recycled concrete aggregate was
studied by Gomez-Soberon[7]. The distribution of the theoretical pore radius, critical pore
ratio, surface area of concrete, threshold ratio, and average pore ratio were investigated at 7,
28, and 90 days. The results showed that porosity increases when natural aggregate is replaced
by recycled concrete aggregate. The increase in porosity is accompanied by a reduction in
compressive and tensile strengths, as well as in modulus of elasticity.
Olorunsogo and Padayachee[8]investigated the durability of concrete made with different
percentages of recycled concrete coarse aggregates (0%, 50%, and 100%). They showed that
durability quality of recycled concrete is reduced with increases in the quantities of recycled
aggregate, and the quality improved with the age of curing. They concluded that this
phenomenon is due to cracks and fissures created within the recycled aggregate during
processing, which make the aggregate susceptible to ease of permeation, diffusion and
absorption of fluid.
Misra[9] studied the water requirements and compressive strength of cement mortar using
manufactured sand as FA, with FM ranging from 0.50 to 2.0 and 75% and 100% flow of mortar.
Based on the above extensive experimental investigations, he had concluded that the strength
of mortar with manufactured sand is higher than that of the corresponding mix with cement
(sand) mortar. He has recommended the use of manufactured sand for mortar and has cautioned
the removal of excessive proportions of very fine particles.
Studies were carried out at Pondicherry Engineering Collage, Puduchery[10] for using
manufactured sand as FA in concrete and its compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths;
sand abrasion; elastic modulus; mortar making properties and durability test under various
acidic and alkaline mediums were determined and the performance compared with
conventional concrete for M15 and M20 concretes. The size of manufacture sand used in the
above study was restricted to 4.75 mm to 150 microns i.e. the size range presented in IS

specification. From the studies, it is concluded that the manufactured sand can be used in the
concrete effectively by replacing normal river sand. Sieve analysis of the raw samples revealed
that the fine materials content (i.e. less than 150 microns) was at the maximum 10% and it was
generally between 5 - 10%. Being the case it would be of interest to study the properties of
concrete and mortar using the raw sample as such in the above.
The suitability of Crushed Granite Fine (CGF) to replace river sand in concrete production for
use in rigid pavement was investigated by Manasseh[11] . Slump, compressive strength and
indirect tensile strength tests were performed on fresh and hardened concrete. The 28 day peak
compressive and indirect tensile strength values of 40.70 N/mm2 and 2.30 N/mm2 respectively,
were obtained with the partial replacement of river sand with 20 per cent CGF, as against values
of 35.00 N/mm2 and 1.75 N/mm2 obtained with the use of river sand as fine aggregate. Based
on economic analysis and results of tests, river sand replaced with 20 per cent CGF is
recommended for use in the production of concrete for use in rigid pavement. Conservation of
river sand in addition to better ways of disposing wastes from the quarry sites are some of the
merits of using CGF.
The investigation carried out by Nagabhushana and Sharada Bai[12] studied the properties of
mortar and concrete in which Crushed Rock Powder (CRP) was used as a partial and full
replacement for natural sand. For mortar, CRP is replaced at percentages of 20, 40, 60, 80 and
100. The strength properties of concrete were investigated by replacing natural sand by CRP
at replacement level of 20, 30, and 40 per cents.
Aggrarwal[13] have carried out experimental investigations to study the effect of use of
bottom ash as a replacement of fine aggregate. Different strength properties were studied and
it consisted of compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength. The
strength development for various percentages of 0-50 replacement of fine aggregates with
bottom ash can easily be equated to the strength development of normal concrete at various
ages.
Siddique[14] presented the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the
mechanical properties of concrete mixtures in which fine aggregate i.e., sand was partially
replaced with Class F fly ash. Sand was replaced in five percentages. i.e., 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50
of class F fly ash by weight. Tests were performed for the evaluation of properties of fresh
concrete. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of
elasticity were determined at 7 14, 28, 56, 91 and 365 days. Test results indicated significant

improvement in the strength properties of plain concrete by the inclusion of fly ash as partial
replacement of fine aggregate (sand), and could be effectively used in Structural Concrete.
Abdurrahman [15], Alshahwany,Mosul University , Effect of Partial Replacement of Sand
with Limestone Filler on Some Properties of Normal Concrete 2011. In this paper they present
the extent of improvement in concrete properties for different amounts of limestone filler,
proportion of (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50)% replacement are considered, and they found compressive
strength of concrete increases with the increase in limestone filler replacement up to an optimal
value, concrete made with 20% limestone filler replacement by sand showed higher
compressive strength which increased by 14.6% . Slump decreases with the increase of
limestone filler amount, so water demand increases slightly with increasing limestone filler
content.

4.0 Experiments to be performed

4.1 Initial and Final Setting Time


Objective : To determine the initial and final setting time of a given sample of cement.
Reference : IS : 4031 ( Part 4 ) -1988, IS : 4031 ( Pat 5 ) - 1988, IS : 5513-1976,
Theory : For convenience, initial setting time is regarded as the time elapsed between the
moments that the water is added to the cement, to the time that the paste starts losing its
plasticity. The final setting time is the time elapsed between the moment the water is added to
the cement, and the time when the paste has completely lost its plasticity and has attained
sufficient firmness to resist certain definite pressure.
Apparatus : Vicat apparatus conforming to IS : 5513-1976, Balance, Gauging Trowel, Stop
Watch, etc
Procedure :
1. Preparation of Test Block - Prepare a neat 300 gms cement paste by gauging the cement
with 0.85 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency. Potable or distilled
water shall be used in preparing the paste
. 2. Start a stop-watch at the instant when water is added to the cement. Fill the Vicat mould
with a cement paste gauged as above, the mould resting on a nonporous plate. Fill the mould
completely and smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the mould.
3. Immediately after moulding, place the test block in the moist closet or moist room and allow
it to remain there except when determinations of time of setting are being made.
4. Determination of Initial Setting Time - Place the test block confined in the mould and resting
on the non-porous plate, under the rod bearing the needle ( C ); lower the needle gently until it
comes in contact with the surface of the test block and quickly release, allowing it to penetrate
into the test block
5. Repeat this procedure until the needle, when brought in contact with the test block and
released as described above, fails to pierce the block beyond 5.0 0.5 mm measured from the
bottom of the mould shall be the initial setting time.

6. Determination of Final Setting Time - Replace the needle (C) of the Vicat apparatus by the
needle with an annular attachment (F).
7. The cement shall be considered as finally set when, upon applying the needle gently to the
surface of the test block, the needle makes an impression thereon, while the attachment fails
to do so.
8. The period elapsing between the time when water is added to the cement and the time at
which the needle makes an impression on the surface of test block while the attachment fails
to do so shall be the final setting time

4.2 Particle Size Distribution of Fine Aggregate


Objective : To determine fineness modulus of fine aggregate and classifications based on IS: 383-1970
Reference : IS : 2386 ( Part I) 1963, IS: 383-1970, IS : 460-1962
Theory : This is the name given to the operation of dividing a sample of aggregate into various fractions
each consisting of particles of the same size. The sieve analysis is conducted to determine the particle

size distribution in a sample of aggregate, which we call gradation. Many a time, fine aggregates are
designated as coarse sand, medium sand and fine sand. These classifications do not give any precise
meaning. What the supplier terms as fine sand may be really medium or even coarse sand. To avoid this
ambiguity fineness modulus could be used as a yard stick to indicate the fineness of sand.
The following limits may be taken as guidance: Fine sand : Fineness Modulus : 2.2 - 2.6, Medium sand
: F.M. : 2.6 - 2.9, Coarse sand : F.M. : 2.9 - 3.2
Sand having a fineness modulus more than 3.2 will be unsuitable for making satisfactory concrete.
Apparatus : Test Sieves conforming to IS : 460-1962 Specification of 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm,
600 micron, 300 micron, 150 micron, Balance, Gauging Trowel, Stop Watch, etc.

Procedure :
1. The sample shall be brought to an air-dry condition before weighing and sieving. The air-dry sample
shall be weighed and sieved successively on the appropriate sieves starting with the largest. Care shall
be taken to ensure that the sieves are clean before use.
2. The shaking shall be done with a varied motion, backward sand forwards, left to right, circular
clockwise and anti-clockwise, and with frequent jarring, so that the material is kept moving over the
sieve surface in frequently changing directions.
3. Material shall not be forced through the sieve by hand pressure. Lumps of fine material, if present,
may be broken by gentle pressure with fingers against the side of the sieve.
4. Light brushing with a fine camel hair brush may be used on the 150-micron and 75-micron IS Sieves
to prevent aggregation of powder and blinding of apertures. 5. On completion of sieving, the material
retained on each sieve, together with any material cleaned from the mesh, shall be weighed
Calculation : Fineness modulus is an empirical factor obtained by adding the cumulative percentages
of aggregate retained on each of the standard sieves ranging from 4.75 mm to 150 micron and dividing
this sum by an arbitrary number 100.
Fineness Module (FM) = ( Total Cumulative Percentage passing(%) /100)
Conclusion / Result :

i) Fineness modulus of a given sample of fine aggregate is .. that indicate Coarse sand/ Medium
sand/ Fine sand.
ii) The given sample of fine aggregate is belong to Grading Zones I / II / III / IV

4.3 Determination of Bulking of Fine Aggregate


Objective : To determine bulking of a given sample of fine aggregate.
Reference : IS : 2386 ( Part III ) - 1963
Theory : Free moisture forms a film around each particle. This film of moisture exerts what is known
as surface tension which keeps the neighbouring particles away from it. Similarly, the force exerted by
surface tension keeps every particle away from each other. Therefore, no point contact is possible
between the particles. This causes bulking of the volume. It is interesting to note that the bulking
increases with the increase in moisture content upto a certain limit and beyond that the further increase
in the moisture content results in the decrease in the volume and at a moisture content representing
saturation point, the fine aggregate shows no bulking.
Apparatus : Measuring jar, Taping rod etc
Procedure :

1. Put sufficient quantity of the sand loosely into a container. Level off the top of the sand and pushing
a steel rule vertically down through the sand at the middle to the bottom, measure the height. Suppose
this is h1 cm.
2. Empty the sand out of the container into another container where none of it will be lost. Half fill the
first container with water. Put back about half the sand and rod it with a steel rod, about 6 mm in
diameter, so that its volume is reduced to a minimum. Then add the remainder of the sand and rod it in
the same way.
3. The percentage of bulking of the sand due to moisture shall be calculated from the formula:
Percentage Bulking =( h/h1 1 )*100
Conclusion / Result : Bulking of a given sample of fine aggregate is found to be . %

4.4 Workability of fresh concrete


Objective : To determine the relative consistency of freshly mixed concrete by the use of
Slump Test
Reference : IS: 7320-1974, IS: 1199-1959, SP : 23-1982
Theory : The word workability or workable concrete signifies much wider and deeper
meaning than the other terminology consistency often used loosely for workability.
Consistency is a general term to indicate the degree of fluidity or the degree of mobility.
The factors helping concrete to have more lubricating effect to reduce internal friction for
helping easy compaction are given below:
(a) Water Content (b) Mix Proportions (c) Size of Aggregates (d) Shape of Aggregates (e)
Surface Texture of Aggregate (f) Grading of Aggregate (g) Use of Admixtures.

Measurement of Workability
The following tests are commonly employed to measure workability (a) Slump Test (b)
Compacting Factor Test (c) Flow Test (d) Kelly Ball Test (e) Vee Bee Consistometer Test.

Slump Test:
Slump test is the most commonly used method of measuring consistency of concrete which can
be employed either in laboratory or at site of work. It is not a suitable method for very wet or
very dry concrete. It does not measure all factors contributing to workability, nor is it always
representative of the placability of the concrete. The pattern of slump is shown in Fig. It
indicates the characteristic of concrete in addition to the slump value. If the concrete slumps
evenly it is called true slump. If one half of the cone slides down, it is called shear slump. In
case of a shear slump, the slump value is measured as the difference in height between the
height of the mould and the average value of the subsidence.
Apparatus : The Slump Cone apparatus for conducting the slump test essentially consists of
a metallic mould in the form of a frustum of a cone having the internal dimensions as under:
Bottom diameter : 20 cm, Top diameter : 10 cm, Height : 30 cm and the thickness of the metallic
sheet for the mould should not be thinner than 1.6 mm Weights and weighing device, Tamper
( 16 mm in diameter and 600 mm length), Ruler, Tools and containers for mixing, or concrete
mixer etc.
Procedure :
1. Dampen the mold and place it on a flat, moist, nonabsorbent (rigid) surface. It shall be held
firmly in place during filling by the operator standing on the two foot pieces. Immediately fill
the mold in three layers, each approximately one third the volume of the mold.
2. Rod each layer with 25 strokes of the tamping rod. Uniformly distribute the strokes over the
cross section of each layer.
3. In filling and rodding the top layer, heap the concrete above the mold before rodding start.
If the rodding operation results in subsidence of the concrete below the top edge of the mold,
add additional concrete to keep an excess of concrete above the top of the mold at all time.
4. After the top layer has been rodded, strike off the surface of the concrete by means of
screeding and rolling motion of the tamping rod.
5. Remove the mold immediately from the concrete by raising it carefully in the vertical
direction. Raise the mold a distance of 300 mm in 5 2 sec by a steady upward lift with no
lateral or torsional motion.

6. Immediately measure the slump by determining the vertical difference between top of the
mold and the displaces original center of the top surface of the specimen. Complete the entire
test from the start of the filling through removal of the mold without interruption and complete
it within 2 min.
7. If a decided falling away or shearing off of concrete from one side or portion of the mass
occurs, disregard the test and make a new test on another portion of the sample. If two
consecutive tests on a sample of concrete show a falling away or shearing off of a portion of
concrete from the mass of specimen, the concrete lacks necessary plasticity and cohesiveness
for the slump test to be applicable. 8. After completion of the test, the sample may be used for
casting

of

the

specimens

for

the

future

testing

4.5 Compressive strength test


Objective : The test method covers determination of compressive strength of cubic concrete
specimens. It consists of applying a compressive axial load to molded cubes at a rate which is
within a prescribed range until failure occurs.

Reference : IS : 516 - 1959, IS: 1199-1959, SP : 23-1982, IS : 10086-1982


Theory : Age at Test - Tests shall be made at recognized ages of the test specimens, the most
usual being 7 and 28 days. Where it may be necessary to obtain the early strengths, tests may
be made at the ages of 24 hours hour and 72 hours 2 hours. The ages shall be calculated
from the time of the addition of water to the 63 dry ingredients.
Number of Specimens - At least three specimens, preferably from different batches, shall be
made for testing at each selected age.
Cube Moulds - The mould shall be of 150 mm size conforming to IS: 10086-1982.

Procedure :
1. Sampling of Materials - Samples of aggregates for each batch of concrete shall be of the
desired grading and shall be in an air-dried condition. The cement samples, on arrival at the
laboratory, shall be thoroughly mixed dry either by hand or in a suitable mixer in such a manner
as to ensure the greatest possible blending and uniformity in the material.
2. Proportioning - The proportions of the materials, including water, in concrete mixes used
for determining the suitability of the materials available, shall be similar in all respects to those
to be employed in the work
3. Weighing - The quantities of cement, each size of aggregate, and water for each batch shall
be determined by weight, to an accuracy of 0.1 percent of the total weight of the batch.
4. Mixing Concrete - The concrete shall be mixed by hand, or preferably, in a laboratory batch
mixer, in such a manner as to avoid loss of water or other materials. Each batch of concrete
shall be of such a size as to leave about 10 percent excess after moulding the desired number
of test specimens.
5. Mould - Test specimens cubical in shape shall be 15 15 15 cm. If the largest nominal
size of the aggregate does not exceed 2 cm, 10 cm cubes may be used as an alternative.
Cylindrical test specimens shall have a length equal to twice the diameter
6. Compacting - The test specimens shall be made as soon as practicable after mixing, and in
such a way as to produce full compaction of the concrete with neither segregation nor excessive
laitance.

7. Curing - The test specimens shall be stored in a place, free from vibration, in moist air of at
least 90 percent relative humidity and at a temperature of 27 2C for 24 hours hour from
the time of addition of water to the dry ingredients.
8. Placing the Specimen in the Testing Machine - The bearing surfaces of the testing machine
shall 64 be wiped clean and any loose sand or other material removed from the surfaces of the
specimen which are to be in contact with the compression platens.
9. In the case of cubes, the specimen shall be placed in the machine in such a manner that the
load shall be applied to opposite sides of the cubes as cast, that is, not to the top and bottom.
10. The axis of the specimen shall be carefully aligned with the centre of thrust of the
spherically seated platen. No packing shall be used between the faces of the test specimen and
the steel platen of the testing machine
11. The load shall be applied without shock and increased continuously at a rate of
approximately 140 kg/sq cm/min until the resistance of the specimen to the increasing load
breaks down and no greater load can be sustained. 12. The maximum load applied to the
specimen shall then be recorded and the appearance of the concrete and any unusual features
in the type of failure shall be noted.

4.6 Splitting Tensile Test


Objective : This method covers the determination of the splitting tensile strength of cylindrical
concrete specimens.
Reference : IS : 516 - 1959, IS: 1199-1959, SP : 23-1982, IS : 10086-1982
Theory : Age at Test - Tests shall be made at recognized ages of the test specimens, the most
usual being 7 and 28 days. Where it may be necessary to obtain the early strengths, tests may

be made at the ages of 24 hours hour and 72 hours 2 hours. The ages shall be calculated
from the time of the addition of water to the dry ingredients.
Number of Specimens - At least three specimens, preferably from different batches, shall be
made for testing at each selected age.
Cylinders -The cylindrical mould shall be of 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height conforming
to IS: 10086-1982. Weights and weighing device, Tools and containers for mixing, Tamper
(square in cross section) etc
Procedure :
1. Sampling of Materials - Samples of aggregates for each batch of concrete shall be of the
desired grading and shall be in an air-dried condition. The cement samples, on arrival at the
laboratory, shall be thoroughly mixed dry either by hand or in a suitable mixer in such a manner
as to ensure the greatest possible blending and uniformity in the material.
2. Proportioning - The proportions of the materials, including water, in concrete mixes used for
determining the suitability of the materials available, shall be similar in all respects to those to
be employed in the work.
3. Weighing - The quantities of cement, each size of aggregate, and water for each batch shall
be determined by weight, to an accuracy of 0.1 percent of the total weight of the batch.
4. Mixing Concrete - The concrete shall be mixed by hand, or preferably, in a laboratory batch
mixer, in such a manner as to avoid loss of water or other materials. Each batch of concrete
shall be of such a size as to leave about 10 percent excess after moulding the desired number
of test specimens.
5. Mould - The cylindrical mould shall be of 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height conforming
to IS: 10086-1982.
6. Compacting - The test specimens shall be made as soon as practicable after mixing, and in
such a way as to produce full compaction of the concrete with neither segregation nor excessive
laitance.
7. Curing - The test specimens shall be stored in a place, free from vibration, in moist air of at
least 90 percent relative humidity and at a temperature of 27 2C for 24 hours hour from
the time of addition of water to the dry ingredients.

8. Placing the Specimen in the Testing Machine - The bearing surfaces of the supporting and
loading rollers shall be wiped clean, and any loose sand or other material removed from the
surfaces of the specimen where they are to make contact with the rollers.
9. Two bearings strips of nominal (1/8 in i.e 3.175mm) thick plywood, free of imperfections,
approximately (25mm) wide, and of length equal to or slightly longer than that of the specimen
should be provided for each specimen.
10. The bearing strips are placed between the specimen and both upper and lower bearing
blocks of the testing machine or between the specimen and the supplemental bars or plates.
11. Draw diametric lines an each end of the specimen using a suitable device that will ensure
that they are in the same axial plane. Center one of the plywood strips along the center of the
lower bearing block.
12. Place the specimen on the plywood strip and align so that the lines marked on the ends of
the specimen are vertical and centered over the plywood strip.
13. Place a second plywood strip lengthwise on the
cylinder, centered on the lines marked on the ends of the
cylinder. Apply the load continuously and without shock, at
a constant rate within, the range of 71 689 to 1380 kPa/min
splitting tensile stress until failure of the specimen
14 .Record the maximum applied load indicated by the
testing machine at failure. Note the type of failure and
appearance of fracture.

REFERENCE

[1] Frondistou-Yannas S. Waste concrete as aggregate for new concrete. ACI J1977;74(8):373
6.
[2] Hansen TC, Narud H. Strength of recycled concrete made from crushed concrete coarse
aggregate. Concrete Int 1983;5(1):7983.
[3] Hansen TC, Hedegkd SE. Properties of recycled aggregate concretes as affected by
admixtures in original concretes. ACI J 1984;81(1):216.
[4] Tavakoli M, Soroushian P. Strengths of recycled aggregate concrete made using fielddemolished concrete as aggregate. ACI Mater J 1996;93(2):18290.
[5] Sago-Crentsil KK, Brown T, Taylor AH. Performance of concrete made with commercially
produced coarse recycled concrete aggregate. Cement Concrete Res 2001;31:70712.
[6] Ajdukiewicz A, Kliszczewicz A. Influence of recycled aggregates on mechanical properties
of HS/HPC. Cement and Concrete Comp 2002;24:26979.
[7] Gomez-Soberon JMV. Porosity of recycled concrete with substitution of recycled concrete
aggregate an experimental study. Cement Concrete Res2002;32:130111.
[8] Olorunsogo FT, Padayachee N. Performance of recycled aggregate concrete monitored by
durability indexes. Cement Concrete Res 2002;32:17985
[9]. Misra R.N., Use of stone dust from crushers in cement-sand mortars, The Indian
Concrete Journal, August 1984, pp. 219-224.
[10]. Uma Maheswari, G., Strength and durability studies on manufactured sand concrete M.
Tech. Thesis, Submitted to the Pondicherry University, December 1996, pp. 53.
[11]. Elavenil, S., and Vijaya, B., (2013), Manufactured sand, a solution and an alternative to
river sand and in concrete manufacturing, Journal of Engineering, Computers and Applied
Sciences (JEC&AS) Volume 2, No.2, February, pp.20-24.
[12]. Manasseh, S., (2010), Use of Crushed Granite Fine as Replacement to River Sand in
Concrete Production, JOEL,Civil Engineering Department University of Agriculture
P.M.B.2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

[13]. Nagabhushana, K. And Sharada Bai, H., (2011), Use of Crushed Rock Powder as
Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Mortar and Concrete, JSS Academy of Technical
Education, Bangalore, India.
[14]. Aggarwal, P., Aggarwal, Y., and Gupta, S.M., (2007), Effect of bottom ash as
replacement of fine aggregates in concrete, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra,
India.
[15]. Siddique, R., (2002) Effect of fine aggregate replacement with Class-F fly ash on the
mechanical properties of concrete, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Deemed
University, Patiala, India.
[16] Kondraivendhan, B., Sairam, V., and Nandagopal, K., (2011). Influence of pond ash as
fineaggregate on strength and durability of concrete, The Indian Concrete Journal, 85(10),
pp.27-36.

List of IS Code reffered


1. I.S. :269-1976 Specification for ordinary and low heat portland cement, BIS, New
Delhi.
2. I.S. :383 -1970 Specification for coarse and fine aggregate from natural sources for
concrete, BIS New Delhi.
3. I.S. :516-1959, Methods of test for strength of concrete, BIS, New Delhi.
4. I.S. : 2386 (Part I) 1963, Methods of test for aggregates for concrete, part I: Particle
size and shape, BIS, New Delhi.
5. I.S. : 2386 (Part III) 1963, Methods of test for aggregates for concrete, Part III:
Specific gravity, density, voids, absorption and bulking, BIS New Delhi.
6. I.S. : 2386 (Part V) 1963, Methods of test for aggregates for concrete, Part V:
Soundness, BIS, New Delhi.
7. S.P. :23 -1982, Hand book on Concrete mixes, BIS, New Delhi.