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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Tourism is the largest and fastest growing industry in the world. It accounts to about 7%
of world capital investment with revenue predicted to rise up to 1.550 billion dollars by the year
2015. Africa has a meaningful share in the growing international tourism trade in terms of both
tourist arrival and receipt. The importance of Nigerian tourism industry lies in its tourism
resources in generating foreign exchange. The Central Bank of Nigeria revealed that the
geometric increase in Nigerian tourism industry in which a total number of 828,906 tourists was
registered in 2007 and about 900 billion tourist arrive worldwide has made tourism industry one
of the most vibrant industries of the world, especially from the economic point of view. Nigeria
has a land mass of about 365,000 square miles and she is a country of magnificent site, a wide
range of fauna, excellent place for vacation, exploration and sightseeing. In terms of the
environment, she has world class tropical rain forests, savannah, grassland, mangrove swamps
and the Sahel savannah very close to the Sahara desert.
One of the main factors behind the success of Nigerian tourism is the natural beauty.
Nigeria is located along the South Atlantic Ocean and she is blessed with a wide range of water
resources. Being a coastal country, she has a wide range of beaches and other marine beauties.
Historically, the coastal region aroused about two centuries ago in many European and North
America nations as a new form of tourism destination for leisure purposes. Up to the 18th
centuries, the coastal area has been a mere landscape, where religious presence and sociocultural values had not encouraged the area to be known as a leisure site. Nigeria is also rich in

handicrafts and sculptures, historical monuments, arts, sport, places of beauty, socio-cultural
events, parks, museums, relaxation sites, waterfalls, resorts, hotels and other accommodation
facilities among others. She also has abundant cultural and historical heritage which is one of the
critical factors for developing rural and urban tourism in the country. However, several museums
and other heritage sites in Nigeria often establish a special exhibition to showcase their product
to prospective tourists and stakeholders.
All these tourism potentials make Nigeria a hospitable nation and the local norms and
values combined with peaceful environment full of loving and friendly people makes her a good
and well tantalizing tourism destination.
Nigeria is composed of 36 States including the Federal capital territory Abuja and 774 Local
government councils (NBS, 2010). Each state is tasked with implementing policies and directive
from the Federal Ministry of Culture and tourism. The States also initiate projects and regulate
land allocation for tourism projects and for tourism development in the States. The States also
regulates the operations of hotels and catering outlets in line with the Federal government
National Tourism Policy.
Lagos has several tourist attractions spread across the state. Apart from being a historical
city in Nigeria, it is known to be the most attractive in terms of business and pleasure to both
local and international tourists. Apart from seaside and resorts, Lagos also has historical places,
like the first missionary post and houses. These are the first two buildings in Nigeria. National
Museums which houses important relics such as traditional Benin bronzes and the replica of the
Festac 77 symbols. The state is also rich in art and culture. The popular EYO FESTIVAL
attracts more than 10 million people annually to Lagos. Other tourists attractions includes
beaches, Kings palace, African shrine, 5 star hotels, national art theatre, National amusement

parks, water parks, botanical garden, Silverbird Galleria, markets, conducive weather and
hospitable people among others. (Motherland Nigeria, 2002)
The socio-economic benefits of tourism site to the host community cannot be
underestimated. This can be seen in the establishment of community based conservation and
participation whereby the money generated from the site is used to develop the local community.
Also the boundary between the tourism industry and the host community is now bridged making
it possible for tourism to fit into the community and share in its ways. The management and
ownership of most tourism services is now being given to the host to pave way for active
participation of everybody around the community (Adegbite, 1995, Tijani, 2006).
Tourism to some of these states such as Lagos State is a major source of revenue to
support its current and recurrent expenditures. Lagos State has introduced a 500,000 registration
fees to be paid by existing and new hotel and lodging operators in the state (LASG, 2010a).
Lagos State is one of the most populous cities in Nigeria with a population of about 9.4 million
(UNDATA, 2009). BBC report suggests that the population of Lagos is about 18 million with an
economy worth around $33 billion dollars (Cossou, 2010). Some of the steps been taken by
Lagos State is the construction of a new airport in Lagos at the Lekki peninsula, construction of
new roads and expansion of old roads, such as the Lagos Badagry express road that links Lagos
to the neighboring country - Benin republic which borders Lagos and Nigeria on the west. The
provision of these infrastructures has helped to boost tourism development. The Lagos State
government has made the historic slave port located at Badagry available to Malon Jackson the
senior brother to Michael Jackson for the development of a 2.4 billion pounds Slave memorial
and Luxury resort (BBC, 2010), it is expected that the development will help attract tourist,
especially the Afro American wanting to trace their African roots back to Nigeria. The yearly
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organization of tourism investment trade fair at the Lagos international trade fair attracts
thousands of local and international visitor and hundreds of participants. Hotels such as Sheraton
towers, Hilton and major airlines such as Air France and British airways all take part in the trade
fair. The Lagos International trade fair organization is an avenue for Lagos State to promote its
tourism products such as cultural festivals and sports tourism. The Lagos State government
anticipates that tourism will serve as a catalyst to achieving its mega city status (LASG, 2010b).
It is a well known fact that the tourism industry is still developing in Nigeria and has not
started yielding much gain. Government has been pumping money to the sector without seeing
remarkable improvement. For instance Federal Government of Nigeria spent the sum of N292,
3571, 156.00 between 1988 to 1999 on Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation. This led to
the privatization of some tourist attractions to encourage public private participation, to
encourage and improve the quality of these sites with proper funding and to put tourism in a
level that will benefit both the government and the people. Government and private individuals
in Nigeria especially Lagos where this study is being focused cannot enumerate categorically the
benefits of tourism due to paucity of research in such areas. A concise analysis of the economic
impact of tourism for a developing country is however important to guide the policy intended to
develop tourism and augment, its benefit on the economy. Its on this basis that the present study
focuses on the local and socio-economic impacts of Alpha beach resort to the host community
which is Okun Alpha under Eti-Osa local government area of Lagos state.
The researcher will achieve this by looking into those gains and disadvantages local community
stand to derive from such attraction and the level of involvement and participation of government
and the community towards the smooth functioning of the tourist site.

There are many beaches in Lagos State ranging from Alpha, Kuramo, Eleko, Lekki,
Oniru, Badagry, Takwa bay, Bar Beach among others. But the main focus of this research will be
on Alfa beach which happen to be one of the most famous beaches in Lagos.
1.2

STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The derivation of economic growth and development from material and mineral wealth is
gradually giving way to more cultural, natural and less exploitative means. The world is
increasingly focusing on achieving development by exploring avenues that hitherto would have
been thought to be incapable of producing any form of financial value. This diversion from the
norm is mostly centered on the concept of modification which involves giving value to the
natural tourism potentials of a locality, state or nation and thereby generating enough economic
activity and energy to attain development (Miller, 2007)
Despite the fact that tourism is important to any nation, the problems associated with
coastal tourism are quite enormous. In that case, such problems are perceptive at the coastal line
of Lagos. Being the industrial capital of Nigeria, Lagos has attracted millions of people to the
area for business, leisure and other purposes. This resulted in the coastline being over-congested
during holidays and festive periods. Despite that tourism is of great importance to developing
countries, there are still some negative aspect, ranging from insecurity of tourist down to
environmental hazards and fear of kidnapping. The infrastructural facilities such as good road
network and parking space are not enough to meet the demand of the coastal region. The
problem of pollution is one of the vital issues in contention. The solid waste disposal in the water
by the residents and visitors has posed a potential environmental problem in the area and also
made the coastal region unattractive. Flooding is also a major problem in the coastal area.
Finally, the political will on the side of the government is not appreciable. Government is not
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paying adequate attention to coastal tourism and this constitutes a major setback to the
development of tourism along the coastal line of Lagos.
Alpha beach, which is situated off IGBE-FON Ajah-Epe express road on the southern
fringe of Victoria Island. It is located at Ubeju Okun Alpha Village in Eti Osa local government
area of Lagos state terrestrially, but its nautical edges co-terminates with other wider fringes of
the Atlantic Ocean. Alpha beach is one of the natural tourism potentials in the country that is
being owned, managed and controlled by the government through the effort of the community
and sometimes with the intervention of private sectors. It is therefore pertinent to take an indepth look at the tourist site and the host community to identify the impacts the tourist potential
is contributing to the local economy of the host community which is Lekki area of Eti-Osa.
Apart from the problems incurred as a result of the presence of the coast line, the socio-economic
effects of the area are not far-fetched in the later chapters.

1.3

JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY

Tourism is a concomitant to sustainable development. It is a great generator of economic wealth


for developed countries like The United State of America, Germany, Japan, France and Canada.
The challenge of international tourism has been accepted by few African Countries like Kenya,
Tanzania, Botswana, Egypt and Algeria. These Countries are associated with tourism
development.
Tourism is widely acknowledged as an effective tool for socio-economic development
because of the possible backward and forward linkages with the rest of the economy, which
allows it to facilitate employment opportunities, income, local economic development and
enhance the quality of life (Hall 2007). However, Hall (2007) argues that the extent to which the

benefits accrue to a nation crucially depends on local conditions. Furthermore, Manwa (2012)
argue that for tourism to be sustainable, the community has to benefit directly from it. This will
make them to protect and conserve the resources upon which it is based.
This is further emphasized by Smith (2007) that apart from the type of tourism, the extent
to which tourism and the host countrys ability to provide appropriate and adequate facilities.
And unless economic policies to promote tourism remain a focus in developing countries,
tourism will not be a potential source of economic growth (Ekanayake and Long, 2012). This has
a problem for the developing countries with inadequate infrastructure generally and tourism
supporting infrastructure in particular. There is nowhere the problem of infrastructure is most
pronounced than Nigeria where the dearth of infrastructure compounded by the inability to
maintain the few existing ones and replicate infrastructure to areas lacking amenities usually
outside of the capital and major cities.
While tourism presents developing countries like Nigeria with huge opportunity and
scope for economic diversification, efforts should be made to manage possible adverse social and
environmental impacts. Although the quality of the environment, both natural and man-made, is
essential to tourism, this cannot be taken for granted given the complex relationships that exist
between tourism and the environment (Mbaiwa, 2003). Many of these impacts are linked with
the construction of general tourism enhancing infrastructures such as roads and air ports, and
some of tourism facilities, including resorts, hotels, restaurants, shops, golf courses and marinas
to name but a few. The associated environmental problems, according to Giaoutzi and Nijkamp
(2006), have consequences for the quality and quantity of available resources which in the long
run could undermine tourism development.

1.4

RESEARCH QUESTION

The following statements clearly outline the research questions being addressed by the study.
1. How has the tourism potentials affected Alpha beach?
2. What are the problems facing the host community as a result of the existence of Alpha
beach in Lekki area of Lagos?
3. What benefits is the host community deriving from Alpha beach?
1.5

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.5.1

AIM OF STUDY

The aim of this research is to examine how beach tourism at Alpha beach has impacted the local
economy of Alpha community in Lekki area under Eti-Osa local government area of Lagos state.
1.5.2

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this research paper are:

1.6

(i)
(ii)

To examine the existing facilities at Alpha beach.


To investigate the economic benefits of Alpha beach to the residents of the

(iii)

community.
To examine the problems facing the host community as a result of the existence of

(iv)
(v)

Alpha beach in the area?


To examine the problems affecting the beach.
To examine government efforts towards economic activities at Alpha beach

DEFINITION OF UNFAMILIAR TERMS


A. TOURIST: This are people whose purpose of visiting is to have themselves relieve of
burdensome of work, without involving in any economical activity that could bring
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income to them. However for the purpose of this research, it is not limited to recreational
purpose, but also includes research and academics.
B. TOURISM: This is the practice of travelling for recreation so as to promote or
encourage touring.
C. COAST: This explains the land near a shore precisely sea shore. In this study the coastal
environment is only limited to beach tourism.
1.7

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study will cover the assessment of the local economic impact of beach tourism
on Alpha beach situated at Lekki, under Eti-Osa local government area of Lagos State. The
physical environmental and socio-economic impacts of beach tourism activities in the study area
that have led or contributed to the development of local economy of the study area will also be
covered in this research work. More also, the scope will further look into the problems been
faced by the host community (Eti-Osa) as a result of the existence of Alpha beach in the area, the
problems affecting the beach and government efforts towards economic activities at the beach.
1.8

THE STUDY AREA

1.8.1

GEOGRAPHY

Lagos is one of the most populous and most important cities in the Federation of Nigeria.
The country, which is located in the coast of West Africa, consists of 36 states. Nigeria shares
borders with Benin, Cameroon and Niger. Lagos is the main city of Lagos State, which is
situated in the southwestern coast of Nigeria. The Metropolitan area of Lagos takes up to 37 per
cent of the land area of Lagos State and houses about 90 per cents of its population (Unicef 1995,
Aina 1990).
The area of Lagos constitutes of two major regions: the Island, which is the original city and the
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Mainland, which is made up by rapidly growing settlements. The climate in Lagos is tropical, hot
and wet. The environment is characterized as coastal with wetlands, sandy barrier islands,
beaches, low-lying tidal flats and estuaries. The average temperature in Lagos is 27 C and the
annual average rainfall 1532 mm (Aina 1994, Peil 1991).
Lagos is the largest city and former capital of Nigeria and the largest city in sub-sahara
Africa. Modern-day Lagos is now a state in south-western Nigeria. It is bounded on the west by
the republic of Benin, to the north and east by Ogun State with the Atlantic Ocean providing a
coastline on the south. Lagos has a total of 3,577 sqare kilometers; 787 square kilometer is made
up of lagoons and creeks including: Lagos Lagoon, Lagos Harbour, five Cowrie Creek, ebutemetta Creek, Porto-Novo Creek, new Canal, Badagry Creek, kuramo Waters and Lighthouse
Creek.
Lagos state is located in the southwestern part of Nigeria. It is assumed to be the
economic and industrial capital of Nigeria. Being the smallest state in Nigeria in terms of size,
having an area of 365,861 hectares in which 75,755 are water, it has the second highest
population which is over 11% of the total national estimate. According to the website of the
Lagos state government, Lagos has a population of 17 million out of the 150 million national
population. The United Nation declared that the present growth rate of Lagos State will make her
the 3rd largest mega city in the world by the year 2015, after Tokyo in Japan and Bombay in
India. In terms of Tourism, Lagos is blessed with abundant tourism destinations, such as the
coastal region which was evaluated as the most beautiful reverine area in Nigeria (Lagos state
Government 2009).
Lagos is a metropolitan area which originated on islands separated by creeks, such as
Lagos Island, fringing the southwest mouth of Lagos Lagoon while protected from the Atlantic
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Ocean by long sand spits such as Bar Beach, which stretch up to 100 kilometers (62 miles) east
and west of the mouth. From the beginning, Lagos has expanded on the main-land west of the
lagoon and the conurbation, including Ikeja (which is the capital of Lagos) and Agege, now
reaches more than 40 kilometres (25 miles) north-west of Lagos Island. Some suburbs include
Ikorodu, Epe and Badagry, and more local councils have recently been created, bringing the total
number of local governments in Lagos to 57. (Khuoje 2013). Of which Alpha beach is under EtiOsa local government area. Alpha community is shares a boundary with Atlantic Ocean in the
south, it also shares bounders with chevron.

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Figure 1.1: The Map of Nigeria Showing the Location of Lagos State
Source: Adapted from Lagos State Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban
Development, 2015.

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Figure 1.2: A Map of Lagos State Showing the Study Area, Eti Osa Lga
Source: Lagos State Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development, 2015.

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Figure 1.3: Imagery showing Alpha beach and Alpha community


Source: Google maps, 2015

1.8.2 HISTORY OF LAGOS


According to the oral history of Lagos, at some point around 1300-1400 CE, the Oba
(king) of Benin Empire who used to send trade expeditions to Ghana, where spices were traded,
heard from one of his traders complaints about the way she was being treated by the Awori who
lived in the area of current day Lagos. The Oba of Benin then sent a trade expedition by sea to
engage with the Awori people, who nonetheless declined to engage and attacked the mission sent
by Benin. Upon hearing this as the mission returned to Benin City, the Oba of Benin commanded
the assembling of a war expedition, led by Ado, a Benin Prince, which headed to the settlement
of the Awori (current-day Lagos; then called Eko by the Benin people) and demanded an
explanation.
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On getting there, Ado and his army were more than well received, the Awori from Lagos
asked Benin Prince Ado to stay there and become their leader. Ado agreed, on the condition that
they surrender their sovereignty to Oba of Benin, to which the Awori people of Lagos agreed.
Upon all this, the Oba of Benin gave his permission for prince Ado and the expedition to remain
in Eko with the Awori. The Oba of Benin later sent some of his chiefs, including the Eletu Odibo,
Obanikoro and others, to assist Ado in the running of Eko.
1.8.2.1

LAGOS AS A TRIBUTARY TO THE BENIN EMPIRE


From the crowning of Ado as its first Oba, Lagos (then called Eko) served as a major

center for slave-trade, from which then Oba of Benin Ado and all his successors for over four
centuries benefitted until 1814 when Oba Akitoye ascended to the throne of Lagos and tried to
ban slave-trading. Local merchants strongly opposed the intended move, and deposed and exiled
the king, and installed Akitoyes brother Kosoko as Oba.
At exile in Europe, Akitoye met with British authorities, who had banned slave-trading in
1807, and who therefore decided to support the deposed Oba to reign his throne. With the
success of the British influence, and ten years later, in 1861, Lagos was finally annexed as a
British colony.
Alpha community has been into existence for more than 500 years. Alpha beach is the
third in ranking when mentioning beaches in Lagos State. The residents of Alpha community are
living fine and enjoying the natural scenery of the beach. The community is being headed by the
Baale, of which the name of the current head of the community is Chief Yusuf Atewolara
Elegushi the Baale of Okun Alpha. He was installed as the community head in the year 2000.
This beach, from the time past has been a major source of livelihood for the residents of Alpha
community. Some of the benefits derived from this beach includes: fishing, trading, relaxation,

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recreation, and farming. All the afore mentioned benefits were derivable before the community
was exposed to a serious ocean surge which do occur once in seven or ten years. As a result of
the serious Ocean surge, the community has lost virtually all it means of livelihood.
1.8.2.2

COLONIAL LAGOS AS CAPITAL OF NIGERIA


The British annexed Lagos as a colony in 1861. The remainder of the Benin Empire-i.e,

modern day Nigeria, were seized by the British in 1887, and when the British established the
colony and Protectorate of Nigeria in 1914, Lagos was declared its capital. Lagos maintained its
status as capital when Nigeria obtained its independence from Britain in 1960. Lagos was
therefore the capital city of Nigeria from 1914 until 1991, when it was replaced as Federal
Capital Territory by planned city of Abuja, built specifically for such purpose.
Until today, the Oba of Lagos is the head of all the Kings in Lagos State and his status is
different from other Obas most of who were later given back their crowns and staff of office
only within the last 40 years. Those who got their crowns back were the original land owners
(Olofins children). Modern-day Lagos residents (Lagosians) have so intermingled that no single
tribe or people can claim it even though the predominant language is Yoruba.
Until the coming of the Benins, Lagoss geographic boundary was Lagos Mainland.
Lagos Island, the seat of the Oba of Lagos, then consisted of pepper farm and fishing posts. No
one lived there. The name Eko was given to it by its first king, Oba Ado, during its early history;
it also saw periods of rule by the kingdom of Benin.
Eko was the land area now known as Lagos Island where the kings palace was built. The palace
is called Iga Idunganran, meaning palace built on the pepper farm. Oba Ado and the warriors
from Benin, as well as some of the indigenous people who sought safety, settled down in the

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southern part of Eko called Isale Eko, Isale literally meaning bottom, but must have been used
to indicate downtown (as in Downtown Lagos).

1.8.2 .3

ECONOMY

Lagos was until 1991 the capital of Nigeria. Today, Abuja is the countrys administrative
and Political capital but Lagos is still Nigerias industrial, commercial and financial center.
Lagos is estimated to count for over 60 per cent of nations industrial and commercial
establishment, 90 percent of foreign trade and controlling about 80 per cent of the total value of
the imports of the Country. It benefits Nigerias oil, natural gas, coal, fuel wood and water. Also
about 70 per cent of the national industrial investments are in the Metropolitan Lagos (Aina
1994, UN 1995, McNulty 1988).
The activities carried out at Alpha beach alongside some of the beaches under Eti-osa
local government area of Lagos state, has brought about some socio-economic benefits to the
area some of which are Institute of Oceanography, Nigerian Television Authority to mention but
a few. All this factors has thus made Eti-osa local government area to be one of the richest local
government areas in Nigeria.

1.8.2.4

POPULATION
URBANIZATION

The population in Lagos started to grow since 1970 due to migration from rural areas and
high fertility rate. Even the fertility rate is lower in Lagos than in the countryside, in the future
the city population tends to grow more than the population in rural areas. Also migration to the
city does not seem to decrease, rather increase. The population growth in the last ten years was
highest than ever and the growth in the future is estimated to be even higher.

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Lagos is the biggest city in West Africa. It was the first city in the continent to become
one of the worlds ten largest cities. At the moment the population is about 14 million but the city
is projected to be one of the worlds five biggest cities already by 2005. Population in the city is
expected to grow at the annual rate of 4 per cent for the next 20 years, reaching 24 million people
by 2015. Then it is expected to rank third among the worlds cities. The population density was
20 000 persons per km2 already in 1988, but it has increased a lot from this in the past 13 years
(Bilsborrow 1998, Peil 1991). The population of people at the study area which is under Eti-osa
local government area, as at 1991 is 157,387, while the population increased to 283,791 over
time in the 2006 making the local government to rank sixth most populous in the entire local
government area under the whole of Lagos state.
Table1. Population figures for some LGAs around the lagoons
LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS

1991 POPULATION CENSUS

Amuwo-Odofin
225,823
Apapa
154,477
Eti-Osa
157,387
Ikorodu
Kosofe
412,407
Lagos Island
165,996
Lagos Mainland
273,079
Shomolu
358,787
Source: National Population Commission of Nigeria, 2006.

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2006 POPULATION CENSUS

328,975
222,986
283,791
535,619
682,772
212,700
326,700
403,569

Fig 1.4: Growth of Metropolitan Lagos


Source: Gandy, 2005
1.8.2.5

MIGRATION

The total population growth rate is much higher in Lagos than the national average.
Between 1953 and 1980 the annual growth rate was 9.4 per cent which from, net migration rate
was 5.4 per cent. Also at the moment migration takes the biggest part of the population growth in
the city and it is estimated to even increase from the past (Bilsborrow 1998, McNulty 1988).
Because Lagos is smallest state in Nigeria, the government has tried to change the capital to
central Nigeria, Abuja. This is one way to control the enormous migration and urbanization in
Lagos. Although, the population in Lagos is growing all the time and the pull factors of the city
are high, even higher than Abujas (UN 1995).

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1.8.2.6

PUSH AND PULL FACTORS


Lagos is a unique national center for trade and commerce in Nigeria so the pull factors of

the city are evident. The main motivation for migration to Lagos is economic. Income levels are
higher in Metropolitan Lagos than in other regions of Nigeria. Many people come to Lagos in
search for a job and most of these migrants tend to work within the informal sector (Kuvaja
2001, McNulty 1988).
The main push factors to Lagos are poverty, too small arable land areas per persons, big
family sizes and worse soil quality. Due to these factors many rural people do not have other
choice than to move to the city and try their luck. Fortunately the nepotism is so strong that
immigrants are often welcomed to live in the houses of their relatives and often the first job is
household work in their relatives' houses. (Rinne 2001).
1.8.2.7

ENVIRONMENT
Lagos has often been referred to as the dirtiest, most disorganized, and the most unsafe

mega-city in the world. Lagos is seen as an intolerable place, which offers minimum resources
for a healthy, safe, and productive life. The problems in the city are similar to all the other megacities; traffic jams make transportation inefficient, waste management is malfunctioning leaving
tons of waste on the streets, water resources are overused or polluted and inadequate housing, as
well as slums, are becoming reality for an increasing number of inhabitants. It has been
estimated that the infrastructure of Lagos is able to fulfill the needs of 300.000 people, although
the population nowadays is 14 million. Due to this it is clear that the infrastructure is not
sufficient. (Kuvaja 2001).

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CHAPTER 2
CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Conceptual Background
Tourism is the business of providing and marketing services and facilities for pleasure

travelers. It is a form of recreation that requires leaving home for some other places, whether
near or far. It can also be defined as the phenomenon arising from temporary visits (or stay away
from home) outside the normal place of residence for any reason other than furthering an
occupation remunerated from within the place visited. Paul (2010) defined tourism as recreation
activities requiring at least one nights stay away from home following a recreational interest.
Over the years tourism has been characterized by interpretations that are conflicting
(Hunt and Layne, 1991; Morley, 1990). Hall (1995) argues that the personalized and proliferation
of ad hoc definitions among researcher is one of the most frustrating aspects in studying tourism.
Weaver (1998) argued that, to overcome this problem it is crucial to understand the term tourist.
He suggested that three elements must be combined to arrive at a working definition of who a
tourist is; the purpose of travel, the origins of the traveler and the length of stay at the
destination. Swarbrook and Horner (2007, p.4) defined tourism s a short-term movement of
people to places some distance away from their place of residence to indulge in pleasurable
activities. It also involves travel for business purposes. Tourism is not a simple concept: it thus
encompasses the lucrative field of business tourism, where the purpose of travel is not for
pleasure but work. It is difficult to arrive at a conclusion how far one has to travel to be
categorized as a tourist and how many nights one have stay away to be classified as a tourist.
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Swarbrook and Horner (2007; p.4) further described tourism as an activity which is
serviced by a number of other industries such as hospitality and transport. Collin (1994)
describes hospitality as looking after guests. Hospitality therefore encompasses organizations,
which provides guests with food, drinks and leisure facilities, including accommodation.
However, not all hospitality is concerned with tourism.
2.1.1

Forms of tourism

There are various forms of tourism classified by typical features of spreading time in the
destination, it is worthy to note that forms of tourism individuals participate in, depends on the
level of satisfaction he or she derives from previous experience. The forms of tourism are
highlighted below;
i.

Seaside tourism
Recreation by the sea, water sports (swimming, rowing, sailing, surfing,
windsurfing)

ii.

Mountain tourism
This explains mountain hiking, climbing, biking to mention a few

iii.

iv.

v.
vi.

Sport tourism
Winter sports- skiing, snowboarding, cross-country skiing
Summer sports, extreme sports (rafting, paragliding, sky diving, etc.)
Sport events (World championship)
Cultural tourism
Historical sites, building and monuments
Places of historical events, e.g. battles (Waterloo), catastrophes (Pompeii)
Health tourism
Spas, fitness, relaxation, wellness
Rural tourism
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Ecotourism= besides relaxation people work in farms rearing animals,


participating in farming processes, i.e. dairying, processing of vines,

vii.

viii.

ix.

taking care of horses, etc.


Event and gastronomic tourism
Music, theatre or beer festivals
Trying wines and meals of regions abroad
Shopping tourism
To go for shopping abroad due to lower prices of goods, e.g. from SK to
PL, CZ
Business tourism
International/national/regional/local conferences, seminars, business trips,
etc.

2.1.2

CONCEPT OF TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT


Tourism is widely acknowledged as an effective tool for socio-economic development,

because of the possible backward and forward linkages with the rest sectors of the economy,
which allows it to facilitate employment opportunities, income, local economic development,
and enhance the quality of life (Hall, 2007). However, Hall (2007) argues that the extent to
which these benefits accrue to a nation crucially depends on local conditions. Furthermore,
Manwa (2012) argue that for tourism to be sustainable the community has to benefit directly
from it, this will enable them to protect and conserve the resources upon which it is based. This
is further emphasized by Smith (2007) that apart from the type of tourism, the extent to which
tourism confers economic benefits on any country also depends on the expectations of the
tourists and the host countrys ability to provide appropriate and adequate facilities. And unless
economic policies to promote tourism remain a focus in developing countries, tourism will not
be a potential source of economic growth (Ekanayake and Long, 2012).

23

This has been a problem for the developing countries with inadequate infrastructure
generally and tourism supporting infrastructure in particular. There is no where the problem of
inadequate infrastructure is most pronounced than in Nigeria where the dearth of infrastructure is
compounded by the inability to maintain the few existing ones and replicate infrastructure to
areas lacking in amenities usually outside of the capital and major cities. In Nigeria, lack of
infrastructures is most pronounced in the rural areas where incidentally most of its tourist sites
are also located. Nevertheless, efforts at developing infrastructure to support tourism in Nigeria,
paltry as these may be, happen only in the urban areas (Briedenhann and Wickens, 2004). This is
where and how tourism is expected to have its most impact on economic development given the
infrastructure and income it can attract to rural Nigeria to spur economic growth (Fayissa, Nsiah
and Tadaese, 2007), and development in rural areas and the regions (SEPO, 2006) In this regard,
tourism can facilitate the replication of infrastructure to the regions and the rural areas of
Nigeria, which are usually the areas which lack amenities (Hawkins and Mann, 2007; SEPO,
2006).
While tourism presents developing countries like Nigeria with huge opportunity and
scope for economic diversification, efforts should be made to manage possible adverse social and
environmental impacts. Although the quality of the environment, both natural and man-made, is
essential to tourism, this cannot be taken for granted given the complex relationships that exist
between tourism and the environment (Mbaiwa, 2003). Many of these impacts are linked with
the construction of general tourism enhancing infrastructure such as roads and airports, and of
tourism facilities, including resorts, hotels, restaurants, shops, golf courses and marinas to name
but a few. The associated environmental problems, according to Giaoutzi and Nijkamp (2006),

24

have consequences for the quality and quantity of available resources, which in the long run
could undermine tourism development.
However, Yasong (2008) has argued that it is not difficult to mitigate the negative impacts
of tourism and clarify associated benefits, and that this can be effectively done through tourism
planning. This is particularly the case in order not to undermine the carrying-capacity of the
biophysical environment. In particular, tourism can also impact negatively on the social fabrics
of local economies where local culture such as local celebrations, festivals, dance, and folklore
amongst others could be subsumed (Godfrey and Clarke, 2000).
2.1.3

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AS A PROCESS

The development of tourism is largely categorized by creation of basic infrastructures in


the host community. Tourism development involves careful planning, administration and
management. The ideal of developing tourism in a region is based on the infrastructures that are
put in place. This facility brings about the development of tourism in the region. The presence of
good facility helps to improve economic impact of tourism on the host community, having in
mind that community is the major factor to modern tourism (Godfrey and Clarke 2000).
However, communities were the basic element in the supply of accommodation, transport
facilities and services. As the trends goes on, the inflow of tourist will be on the increase, thereby
creating avenue for hotel businesses and restaurants. As the process of development continues,
the government and private investors would be encouraged to invest more in the tourism
industry. The cooperation of the government and private investors would bring about the creation
of games parks, amusement parks, and other facilities that can bring much improvement to the
development of tourism.

25

As it was mentioned above, tourism is a fast growing industry in the world. It has become
potentially important for some countries as their major source of income. Apart from being an
economic backbone of some countries, it also helps in the social life of the host communities. In
developed countries such as France and Spain, tourism has contributed immensely to the growth
of the country. In the last decade, Tourism has played an increasingly major role in the economic
development of many countries. The growth has been driven by an increase in demand and in the
effort of the supply destinations. As such, demand for tourism is a fundamental element in the
tourism system. The level of tourism demand has reached an unexpected level in the new
millennium thereby providing the tourism industry and other tourism stakeholders a great
challenge (Godfrey and Clarke, 2000).
2.1.4

MEASURE AND CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT

In measuring the development of a country certain statistical indexes are taken into
consideration which includes income per capital, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy,
and the rate of literacy.
Developing countries in general are countries that have not achieved a significant degree
of industrialization relative to their populations, and have, in most cases, a medium to low
standard of living. Developing countries are faced with low income and high population growth.
In general, development entails a modern infrastructure (both institutional and physical) most
importantly diverting from agriculture. Tourism as a sector can bring about the necessary
development needed for rapid growth of the economy of these developing nations. (Godfrey and
Clarke 2000).
The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as income per
capita (per person) (gross domestic product), life expectancy, the rate of literacy (ignoring
26

reading addiction), et cetera. The UN has developed the Human Development Index (HDI), a
compound indicator of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for
countries where data is available. (Godfrey & Clarke. 2000) Developing countries are, in
general, countries that have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their
populations, and have, in most cases, a medium to low standard of living. There is a strong
association between low income and high population growth. The terms utilized when discussing
developing countries refer to the intent and to the constructs of those who utilize these terms.
Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries (LDCs), least economically developed
countries (LEDCs), "underdeveloped nations" or Third World nations, and "non-industrialized
nations.
2.1.5

TOURISM MARKETING
Tourism marketing is the method of applying the correct marketing concepts and

ideology to planning a strategy to attract tourists to particular destinations which may come in
form of resort, city, region or country. However, tourism and marketing go hand in hand.
Marketing of tourism is very important because it is a process of planning and executing the
conception, which includes pricing and promotion and distribution of ideals and goods and
services. . (Cooper et al 2008, 31). Marketing is a process of identifying customers satisfaction,
design appropriate product and design a market to convey it to the final consumer (Pierre 2000).
Tourisms economic benefits are touted by the industry for a variety of reasons. Claims of
tourisms economic significance give the industry greater respect among the business
community, public officials, and the public in general. This often translates into decisions or
public policies that are favorable to tourism. Community support is important for tourism, as it is

27

an activity that affects the entire community. Tourism businesses depend extensively on each
other as well as on other businesses, government and residents of the local community.
Economic benefits and costs of tourism reach virtually everyone in the region in one way
or another. Economic impact analyses provide tangible estimates of these economic interdependencies and a better understanding of the role and importance of tourism in a regions
economy. Tourism activity also involves economic costs, including the direct costs incurred by
tourism businesses, government costs for infrastructure to better serve tourists, as well as
congestion and related costs borne by individuals in the community (Kolb 2006.)
The growth in tourism industry can also be attributed to the increase in tourism
marketing. Tourism marketing is the method of applying the correct marketing concepts and
ideology to planning a strategy to attract tourists to particular destinations which may come in
form of resort, city, region or country. Marketing is a process of planning and executing the
conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create ex-changes
that will satisfy individual and organizational goals. Referring to the definition in the concept of
tourism marketing, it revolves around planning for tourism from the demand and supply concept
in order to satisfy both the host communities (suppliers of tourism) and the visitors (Godfrey and
Clarke, 2000)
2.1.6

TOURISM PLANNING
Tourism development cannot be discussed without taking into consideration the planning

of tourism. Tourism planning has recently been acknowledged from three different levels,
namely the national, local and personal attractions. The central government coordinates and
manages the tourist regions in the whole country, possibly through policy development, national
standard and institutions. Also, it involves the developing and planning of individual tourist
28

attractions, services and facilities to serve the tourists need. At the local level, it equally
involved the planning and management of tourist destination area and these factors are equally
important to that of the national level (Godfrey and Clarke 2000). They are the major point for
the supply of tourism services such as accommodation, catering, tourist information,
transportation and all other tourist services. These services are the reasons why national and local
government focused attention on them in order to establish a maintainable tourism destination.
Tourism planning has evolved from two related but distinct sets of planning philosophies and
methods. On the one hand, tourism is one of many activities in an area that must be considered as
part of physical, environmental, social, and economic planning. Therefore, it is common to find
tourism addressed, at least partially, in a regional land use, transportation, recreation, economic
development, or comprehensive plan. Tourism may also be viewed as a business in which a
community or region chooses to engage. Individual tourism businesses conduct a variety of
planning activities including feasibility, marketing, product development, promotion, forecasting,
and strategic planning. (George, Mair and Reid 2009, 25)
2.1.7

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TOURISM


Tourism economic benefits are touted by the industry for a variety of reasons. Tourism

businesses depend extensively on each other as well as other businesses, government and
residents of the local community. Economic benefits of tourism will reach virtually everyone in
the region in one way or another. Tourisms economic impacts are therefore an important
consideration in state, regional and community planning and economic development. Economic
impacts are also important factors in marketing and management decisions. Communities
therefore need to understand the relative importance of tourism to their region, including
tourisms contribution to economic activity in the area. (URS, 2007.)
29

However, from the ecological point of view tourism is often more acceptable and
preferable than any other industrial production, as it is environmentally friendlier. The problem is
that it is not easy to change the traditional way of life of the local communities. It often creates
pseudo conflicts. Undoubtedly in some regions or countries the alternative industries are even
more harmful to the environment than tourism. Tourism has the power to affect cultural change.
Successful development of a resource can lead to numerous negative impacts. Among these are
overdevelopment, assimilation, conflict, and artificial re-construction. While presenting a culture
to tourists may help preserve the culture, it can also dilute or even destroy it. The point is to
promote tourism in the region so that it would both give incomes and create respect for the local
tradition and culture. (URS, 2007.)
Economic impacts of tourism are therefore an important consideration in state, regional
and community. The impacts of tourism are also important factors in marketing and management
decisions. Communities therefore need to understand the relative importance of tourism to their
region, including tourisms contribution to economic activity in the area. Furthermore, the
activities of tourism involves economic cost which includes direct construction incurred by
tourism businesses, government cost for infrastructure to serve the tourist, as well as congestion
and related cost borne by the individual in the given region. (Ratze and Puczko, 2003.)
2.1.8

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Over the years, tourism development has witnessed emphasis on eco-tourism. As a result

research documenting the expansion of tropical forest has attracted attention. Whether in the
coastal regions of Nigeria (Esuola, 2009), islands such as Puerto Rico, the Amazon basin and the
Mexico highlands (Grau and Aide, 2008; Grau et al. 2008), or in India (Forter and Rozenzweig,
2003), these research findings points at the tropical forest transition. Forest transition is a theory
30

model of metamorphosis of the forest (Mather and Needle, 1998; Rudel et al. 2005), as a result
of the impact of economic modernization on the forest cover. The forest transition model posits
that regions in Less Developed Countries during their initial development, experiences the rural
populations increase which causes the clearing of the forest for the expansion of agriculture and
timber extraction for construction material and generating of fuel. Urban opportunities presenting
itself, makes farmers to abandon marginal farm lands. The demand for forest products by urban
markets and the political need for forest conservation spur its protection via forest regeneration
and plantation.
It is significant to note that this processes that causes historical, temperate forest
transition (Mather and Needle, 1998) might be different in terms of operation in contemporary
tropical developing regions that are affected by globalization (Hecht et al. 2006; Klooster 2003).
Most literature on tropical forest transition emphasizes the process driving this model to a
linkage to modernization. Rudel et al. (2005) identified two main paths to forest transition that
are linked to modernization: economic development path leading to farm abandonment and
consumption driven forest scarcity path leading to tree planting increase. There have been calls
for more studies on tropical forest transition. Rudel et al (2005) called for specific studies on
tourism particular in relation to the ecologies, politics and economies of different regions.
Bentinck (2002) argues that tourism development ultimate aim is its sustainability in ecological
and economic terms. Bentinck (2002) argued further that any sustainable economic development
has to be private sector driven and the involvement of the public sector should be kept to a
minimum, especially its commercial activities. In general, the participation of the private sector
in the tourism sector is necessary, not only to relieve Government of the administrative burden of
a large bureaucracy, but to also help the growth of the private sector itself.
31

2.1.9

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: THE ECONOMIC VIEW

Since the post war Era, the corner-stone of development funding sources encompass economic
growth and free trade (Mowforth and Munt, 2003). Sharpley (2002, p.23) describe development
as a philosophy, a process, the outcome or product of that process, and a plan guiding the
process towards desired objectives. From a philosophical perspective it describe a future
desirable state, a society might progress into. While this philosophy serves as the bases from
which tourism policies, plans and projects are derived, the tourism development process, the
occurrence rate and the form it takes has different impacts on different regions in different
countries, and these impacts are profound on less developed countries (Sharpley, 2002).
Development plans will high-light the procedure for attaining the desired development outcome.
Different economic theories have evolved over the years aimed at shaping economic
development The Neo-classical theory originated during the late eighteenth century but not
until the 1930s, before it stated resurfacing in the academic circle again (Mowforth and Munt,
2009). But it was during the late 1950s that it began to shape developed countries political
environment (Mowforth and Munt, 2009). Neo-classical economics concentrated on the
withdrawal of state participation, regulation and minimum taxation, and the neoclassical free
market practice encourages less developed countries to open up their economies, allowing Trans
National Companies to enter (Hampton, 2003). The Neo-classical liberalism theory is conceived
of anti-communist sentiments, championing the principle of individualism, liberation from state
control and innovation. Easterly (2001, p.230) argues that state interference with trade distorts
prices so that inefficient producers will get subsidized. MacEwan (2001, p.30) argues that
although neoliberals fosters economic globalization and global market emergence, power
always involves rivalries and those rivalries lead to inter and intra-regional conflicts. Shiva
32

(1999: p.8) as sited by (Mowforth and Munt, 2009: p.179) argues that individual should be given
economic right before corporations are given the right to make limitless profits through
destruction that is limitless. The neo-classical economic theory and the neo-classical liberal
economic theory are present in the policies of major International funding agencies such as
World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (Hawkins and Mann, 2007).
Trickle down mechanism is cited in tourism as a process whereby wealth is spread from
the richest to the poorest (Arndt, 1993). Arndt (1993) argues that despite the acceptance of trickle
down hypothesis as a theory no reputable economist ever employed the theory. Ravallion (2004)
challenged the relationship between economic growth and reduction of poverty, and Ranis et al
(2000) challenges the prioritization attached to economic growth as a development intervention.
Ravallion (2004) argues that economic development and poverty reduction has no direct link.
Ravalion (2004, p.15) asserts that the poor will gain little or nothing from economic growth at
the initial high inequality level (Yunus, 1998). WTO (2002) asserts that tourism development
projects if successful would attract international investment, contribute to a nations foreign
exchange earnings and create economic development. By the trickle down process local
communities will benefit through employment and local economic development, thereby
facilitating the generation of more spending power by poor people in a community. WTO (2002)
asserts that to increase the benefit to the local economy a number of things need to be done: the
local access to the tourism industry need to be enhanced; leakages need to be minimized whilst
maximizing the linkage into the local economy; building on and complementing exiting
livelihood strategies through employment and small enterprise development; natural and cultural
assets needs to be maintained and ensuring that the adverse social impacts are under control.

33

The World Bank is one of the major agencies that support the development of tourism.
The World Bank has allocated over $3.5 billion (USD) to tourism development projects in
developing regions (Hawkins and Mann, 2007). Whilst the World Bank investment is indicative
of the tourism been recognized as a viable industry, its development sustainability still remains
unclear in some countries such as Nigeria that have benefited from the World Bank Investment in
its tourism sector.
The support of international agencies towards tourism is based on two assumptions.
Firstly, the development of tourism leads to economic growth, and secondly poverty can be
effectively reduced by economic growth. The advocates of the former supports the assertion that
liberalized free global market is the best environment to stimulate economic growth, and the
development of the less developed countries economy can be strengthened by tourism
development (Hampton, 2003; Sharpley, 2002). Specifically, the United Nations World Tourism
Organization promotes tourism in less developed countries as a suitable economic growth sector,
based on the argument that it is a diverse industry that has the potential to support other
economic activities, it is labor intensive, community infrastructure can be provided by tourism
and small enterprise opportunities can be created.
Tourism development has been critiqued for its economic theory basis and neo-classical
philosophies which the development of theories and plans emarginated from. Tourism researches
have revealed redistribution inequality of wealth from developed countries to less developed
countries (Harrison, 1992). There is usually leakage of capital through capital repatriation
(Harrison, 1992: p.81). Britton (1983) argues that tourism development degrade less developed
countries as a result of Trans National Companies exploitive trade relationships. Hampton (2003)
argues further that TNCs can in fact increase marginalization and poverty. Problems associated

34

with outward growth strategies were outlined by Brohman (1996): These problems in developing
countries includes high rate of foreign ownership, loss of resource control by locals, low
economic multiplier effects and socio-economic inequality and spatial
distribution of benefit disproportionately.
2.1.10 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: TOURISM AND SUSTAINABILITY
The importance of holidays taken far away from our homes is well documented in many
literatures (Krippendorf, 1987; Murphy, 1985). Mowforth and Munt (2009) assert that, the
tourism industry has been stimulated by the development of technology in the field of transport.
For instance the Great Britains histories of railways in the nineteenth century, widespread
ownership of motor vehicle in the 1950s and air transport jets (Mowforth and Munt, 1998). Some
tourism development models such as Butlers product life circle model (Butler, 1980) try to
expatiate the behavior of the tourism industry and that of the destination community. Mowforth
and Munt (1998) argue that there is no absolute true nature of sustainability; it can only be
defined in terms of the context, control and the position of who ever are defining it. The concept
of sustainability has many ramification: In 1992 a global action plan on sustainability called
agenda 21 was endorsed at the 1992 Rio world summit on sustainability and was reaffirmed at
the world summit on sustainability development held in Johannesburg in 2002 (WTO,2002).
Stanchiffe (1995) provides points of relevance in agenda 21 for the tourism industry: Agenda 21
affects tourism in two ways. Firstly it specifically mentions tourism as offering sustainable
development potential to certain communities in fragile environments. Secondly, Agenda 21
program of action impinges on tourism because its many impacts can be altered by policies, legal
framework and management practice under which it operates. As argued by Arden Clarke
(1992: p.13) the whole of the agenda 21 section dealing with trade amounted to an evasion of
35

key trade and environmental issues, rather than the basis for their solution . Arden-Clarke (1992)
argues further that the overall treatment of general area of trade by Agenda 21 is applicable to the
field of tourism. Mowforth and Munt (2009) criticized the Agenda 21 on two particular features.
Firstly the notion that it endorses the idea that sustainable development can only be achieved
through trade liberalization and secondly it also endorses the regulation of environmental and
social cost. Mowforth and Munt (2009) Identifies government role in tourism development in the
Agenda 21 action plan: The Agenda 21 action plan urges that government pricing and subsidy
policies should be reoriented, and that economy diversification should be by creating and
strengthening tourism. Furthermore government should provide mechanism to protect
endangered area that could protect wildlife, and promote environmental leisure and tourism
programs.
Maldonado et al. (1992) Suggested that an important method of assessing environmental
impact and sustainability is the calculation of carrying capacities. (Mowforth and Munt, 1998)
argue that although the work of Maldonado et al. (1992) takes the carrying capacity measurement
someway pass what the scientific community have so far manage, it is important to take into
cognize that the concept of carrying capacity can be used to tackle the social or economic
constraint in tourism sustainability. Mowforth and Munt (1998) discussed the issue of Social
sustainability community ability to absorb inputs, such as extra people whether for long or
short period of time, and to continue functioning without disharmony as a result of this input.
Tourisms past negative effect have included the creation of social divisions that were
nonexistence preciously or the escalation or divisions that were already in existence. Mowforth
and Munt (1998; 2009) on the notion of cultural sustainability, refers to culture as a dynamic
future of human life and cultural sustainability as the ability of individual to retain some sectors

36

of their culture which differentiate them from others. Mowforth and Munt (1998) argue that a
small influx of tourist can influence the culture of the host community and Smith (1989) argued
the ill-effect on culture by tourism, the subversion of many local communities cultures by
visitors. But its harmful effect will depend on the responsible behavior of the visitors.
Mowforth and Munt (2009) discussed sustainability measurement, asserting that it can be
assessed by a given benchmark. Although they noted that sustainability measurement may be
contested just as the principle of sustainability.
2.2

LITERATURE REVIEW
(Goudie et al., 1999; Kirsten and Rogerson, 2002, 2006; Mahony and van Zyl, 2002)

indicated that over the last few decades several countries have looked towards tourism as a
means of employment creation and poverty reduction and generally for promoting development
and economic growth. This is due to the fact that tourism has grown to become the world s
second largest industry, directly accounting for 3.8% of global growth domestic product in 2009
according to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC, 2010).
According to Rogerson (2001) tourism is being placed on the forefront of promoting
local economic development (LED) in disadvantaged communities of South Africa.
According to Ashley (2006), the tourism sector is becoming an increasingly important in
the development of African continent.
According to Rogerson (2001) most governments now have included tourism in their
national development strategies. He continued to state that many efforts are under way to
increase understanding of how tourism can contribute to poverty reduction and of how to
translate this understanding into concrete action.

37

According to Scheyvens (1999:247) economic empowerment mean that tourism brings


lasting economic gains to a local community. This is characterized by the fact that tourism brings
long term financial benefits to a destination community and money is spread throughout the
community. There noticeable improvements in local service and infrastructure as well as
educational opportunities for locals through the corporate social responsibility adopted by
investors in the tourism industry.
Tourism can have positive as well as negative effects on an area. The impacts depend on
the kind of tourism developed in the tourist area and the volume and characteristics of the
tourists (extent of stay, activity, type of transport, travel arrangement, type of facilities available,
etc). Tourism is like export industries because it generates foreign exchange. However, unlike
export industries, consumers have to travel to destinations to consume the products they purchase
(for example going to a beach or a theme park in a different country; tourism products are
generally location specific). It is also important to know that leakages take place as a result of
capital flight. (Olorunfemi and Emmanuel, 2013)
Tourism is defined as the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside
their usual environment for not more than one year for leisure, business and other purposes not
related with the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited (Olorunfemi
and Raheem, 2008).
True economic empowerment, however, requires more than corporate social
responsibility approach to development (Milman and Pizam, 1988). It is important to base the
empowerment of local communities on their contributing to the transaction. The extent of
empowerment however is usually dependent on rural communities having access to an asset
(such as land), which can be utilized to secure a string of benefits to local communities.

38

The major benefit of tourism for a region or country is economic as it provides an


opportunity for job creation and generation of revenue at international, national, regional and
local levels. Tourism can also benefit economies at regional and local levels, as money comes
into urban and rural areas which in turn stimulates new business enterprises and promotes a more
positive image in an area (Cooper et al., 1993).
Tourism may have many different effects on the social and cultural aspects of life in a
particular region or area, depending on the cultural and religious strengths of that region. The
interaction between tourists and the host community can be one of the factors that may affect a
community as tourists may not be sensitive to local customs, traditions and standards. The effect
can be positive or negative on the host community (Mathieson & Wall, 1982). Local
communities can mix with people from diverse backgrounds with different lifestyles which
through demonstration effect may lead to the development of improved lifestyles and practices
from the tourists examples;
There can be an improvement in local life through better local facilities and
infrastructure (developed to sustain tourism) which could lead to better education, health
care, employment opportunities and income;
More cultural and social events available for local people such as entertainment,
exhibitions etc.
Improved sports and leisure facilities created for the tourists which local people may use,
particularly out of the tourist season;
Conservation of the local cultural heritage of an area and rebirth of its crafts, architectural
traditions and ancestral heritage;

39

Urban areas which may be in decline can be revived and the movement of people from
rural areas to urban areas for employment may be reversed as jobs will be available in the
tourism industry;

Another major direct economic effect of tourism relates to employment (Inskeep, 1991).
The unemployment impact of tourism is diffused widely over the economy affecting almost
all parts of the services and other sectors. The tourism industry is highly labor intensive
service industry and hence, it is a valuable source of employment. It provides employment
several times more than normal manufacturing industries. Several type of business firms such
as hotels, motels, restaurants, transport agencies, travel agents, tour operators, gift shops, car
and rickshaw drivers, guide etc. flourish from tourism. It employs large number of people
and provides a wide range of jobs, which are intended from unskilled to highly specialized
one. Then, there are other supporting industries, small and large, which in turn, cater to the
needs of tourism industries directly, or indirectly providing and supplying the requirement of
the tourists. The following list ranks various businesses, with the highest employer at the top:
Food service
Entertainment
Accommodation
Automobile transportations
Public transportation

2.3

CONCLUSION

40

There are increase arguments among researchers that it is not enough to assume that the
benefit of economic growth will trickle down automatically to the poor. A reduction in poverty in
Less Developed Countries can only be achieved if benefit of tourism economic growth are
redistributed to the poor and the poor are brought into the economic activity by getting the poor
employed and through entrepreneurial success. Tourism does not only brings material benefits to
the poor Pro-poor tourism the tourism that generate nets benefit to the poor, benefit greater
than cost (WTO, 2002: p.65), it also brings a sense of ownership and control.
This study focuses on Alpha beach, which happens to be a community beach, and the
economic benefits the community stands to benefit which include means of livelihood to some
households who are residents of the community, means of employment generation, source of
income to residents e.t.c, all this accruable benefits came into being as a result of the existence of
the beach in the area.

CHAPTER 3
41

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, different approaches that will be adopted in the course of this research
shall be considered. Research methodology is of great importance to the researcher to ensure that
the research is consistently and accordingly so as to solve the research problem. This is usually
achieve through a well-defined research guide that detailed information on the population under
study, identifies the sample size within the sample frame, and collects data with appropriate data
collection.
3.1

RESEARCH DESIGN
The type of research design employed is survey design. This involved pilot survey and

full survey. The pilot survey was carried out to get necessary preliminary information from Alpha
community. Some of the questionnaires were administered to ascertain the appropriateness of the
questions. The full survey involved the administration of regional number of questionnaires to
respondent to obtain relevant data from residents of the community, business owners, tourists
and the management of the beach.
3.2

DATA SOURCES
The two fundamental sources of data which were explored for data collection for this

study are Primary and Secondary sources. There are two sources from which data can be
collected. The sources are primary and secondary source. Both the primary and secondary
sources were used for the purpose of this research.

3.2.1

PRIMARY SOURCES
42

The sources were residents at Eti-Osa community, the business owners around Alfa beach
(Artisans, Traders, Okada riders), staff of Alfa beach resort and the tourists all provided data on
local economic Impact of Alfa beach on Eti-Osa community
Primary data were obtained from the above sources through a survey with the
administration of questionnaires and through personal observation; the personal observation was
done through direct observation and physical inspection of the study area. The respondents were
residents of Eti-Osa community of Lagos state who provided data on the local economic impact
of beach tourism on the community.
3.2.2

SECONDARY SOURCES
Secondary data were obtained from the Local Government secretariat on the level at

which Alfa beach as foster the development of the local economy of the community. Relevant
data obtained on the population of the study area were gotten from National Population
Commission. Sources of secondary data were from past thesis; essays, books, journal, seminar
reports, base maps, documentary reports, newspaper reports, magazines, dissertations, library
and the internet were consulted for the purpose of this research.
3.3

RESEARCH POPULATION
According to 2006 population report from national population commission, the total

population of Eti-Osa stands at 283,791 and the population was estimated to have over 300,350
residents by the end of year 2015 according to NPC projection with the PGR of 3.18%. The
positive random sampling was employed in selecting the sample size from the total population.
The target population for this study is the total number people in the core area of Alpha
community, the tourist on visit to Alpha beach and the business owners at Alpha beach.
43

3.4

SAMPLING SIZE
To administer questionnaires at Alpha beach, systematic sampling was used to select the

respondents. One out of every three beach-users and community residents was selected.
However, any person ready to supply information was randomly picked.
The formula is shown below;
S= ( X2NP(1-P)/D2(N-1)+X2P(1-P)
S= Required Sample Size
X2= the table value for 1 degree of freedom at the desired confidence level (3.841)
N= the population size
P= the population proportion (assumed to be 0.50 since this would provide the maximum sample
size)
D= the degree of accuracy expressed as a proportion of (0.05)
Using the above method, 132 questionnaires were administered. The distribution of the
questionnaires in each section of the beach was based on the level of economic activities at the
selected beach.
Based on this, population of 132 respondents was selected amounting to 132
questionnaires, which were administered in order to have representation of the community in the
study area.
3.5

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

44

The stratified random sampling was employed in administering the questionnaires in


order to get the information needed on the local economic impact of Alfa beach on the host
community. The streets were employed as strata for this research. The total numbers of buildings
selected in the study are for this research were 1351 buildings. The questionnaires distributed to
residents using 5% of the total number of buildings in Alpha community which is 67 using
stratified random sampling. The questionnaires distributed to business owners were based on
100% of 15 business owners in the community. The tourists were selected using 50% of the
average number of tourist visiting the beach within a day as shown in the Table 2 below.
Table 2: sampling technique employed in selecting the number of questionnaires
ZONE

% OF SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE

RESIDENTS
5% of 1351
BUSINESS OWNERS
100% of 15
TOURIST
50% of 100
TOTAL
100%
Source: Authors Field Work, August 2015

TOTAL QUESTIONNAIRE

67
15
50
132

Based on this, the number questionnaires administered to residents were 67 out of which 51
questionnaires were retrieved and 16 were missing. The number of questionnaires administered
to tourists was 50 and the number of questionnaires administered to business owners were 15 out
of which 4 were missing and 11 was retrieved.
3.6

DATA COLLECTION PROCESS


In order to conduct a thorough survey in the area, 3 field assistance were trained and

engaged in the administration of the questionnaires to the residents, Business Owners and
tourists. A resident of the resort was interviewed using interview guide. The survey was
conducted by trained field assistants on weekend to allow for easy and maximum access to
45

respondents. The field assistants were final year students of the Department of Urban And
Regional Planning of the Federal University of Technology Akure in the 2014/2015 academic
section who were briefed on the research aim and objectives and the nature of data to seek on the
field. In the process of collecting the data, business owners at Alfa beach were interviewed. The
residents, business owners and the tourists were administered questionnaires. The survey was
conducted between the hours of 9am to 4pm.
3.7

DATA ANALYSIS
All the data collected were collated, coded and processed through descriptive statistical

methods. Among the statistical analysis that were used are frequency, table, charts and graph to
arrive at various conclusions on the local economic impact of Alfa beach on the host community.
The frequency table was used to analyze the descriptive data collected from the field. Statistical
packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0 and Microsoft Excel were used for analyzing
the data.

3.8

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

Research instrument is an object or data collection tool, such as a survey, experiment, etc. used to
achieve the objectives of the research. The appropriate type of research instrument to be used
depends on the objectives of the research and the literature review. In this research,
questionnaires, interview guide and camera were the research instruments used.

46

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0

ANALYSIS OF DATA, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION


This chapter presents the result of the study carried out at Alpha beach on the local

economic impact of coastal tourism on the beach. Interpretations were given to the result
obtained from the analysis while major findings were discussed with the overall purpose of the
study.

47

4.1

DATA ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS OWNERS

4.1.1

Gender of Respondents
From the field work carried out at Alpha community in Lagos state Nigeria, it was

observed that there were more male respondents who were business owners than their female
counterpart. This shows that males were more of entrepreneurial ability than females. This is
contrary to the saying that females are known to be the major traders in any society. The
proactive measures of male on beach trading supersedes that of their female, thereby also
contradicting the saying that what a man can do a woman can do better. The economic activities
on the beach that involves males includes bar attendants, horsemen and photography.

56.00%
54.00%
52.00%
50.00%
48.00%
46.00%
44.00%
42.00%
40.00%

54.50%

businessmen
45.50%

male
female

Figure 4.1: Gender of respondents for business owners


Source: Authors field survey August 2015
4.1.2

Marital Status

48

The marital status of individual varied and might influence the type of activity he
or she will partake in. Most couples engaged in activities other than recreation and tourism. They
might have obligations to meet up with, which might not give them much time to spend on
tourism. However table 3 shows that business owners at their early marriage stage engage in
trading activities with over 30% of respondents at Alpha beach married, while the population of
business owners who were single stays at 27%. This further confirms the fact that married
couples who are saddled with more responsibility of catering for their home engage more in
business activities than singles who are only looking for a means of livelihood and has lesser
responsibility to cater for.

Table 3: Marital Status of Business Owners


S/N
Percent
1

Marital status

Frequency

married

36.4
2

single

27.3
3

divorced

10.2
4

widow/widower

18.4
Total

11

100.0

Source: Authors field survey 2015


49

4.1.3

Educational Qualification

According to the saying that knowledge is power, education appeared to have created
more enlightenment and interest for prospective business owners. Fig 6 shows that majority of
the business owners at Alpha beach are well educated. Some of the business owners are
graduates of various institutions ranging from monotechnics, polytechnics, colleges of education
and universities. This indicates that majority of the respondents are literate. It could also be
deduced from this Figure that in the nearest future, Alpha beach will enjoy more literate
individuals engaging in business activities at the beach, hence the higher the literacy level of the
country, the more stable the economic activities of the beach would be.

49.40%
50.00%
45.00%
40.00%
35.00%
30.00%
25.00%
20.00%
15.00%
10.00%
5.00%
0.00%

37.30%
29.10%
primary
secondary
16.30%

no formal education

businessmen

Figure 4.2: Educational Qualification of respondents


Source: Authors field survey 2015
4.1.4

tertiary

INCOME LEVEL
50

The level of income of a person has lasting impact on his expenditure. Fig 4.3 shows that
most of the business owners are middle income earners with 58.40% of the respondents earning
between 51,000-100,000 naira monthly.
However, the percentages of low income earners which for the purpose of this research are
people earning below 50,000 naira monthly. This implies that the economic status of people will
have great effect on the economic activities of Alpha beach.

3%
1%

below 50,000

businessmen

51,000-100,000
47.30%

101,000-150,000
above 150,000

27.40%

0.00%

10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00%

Figure 4.3: Income level of respondents


Source: Authors field survey August 2015

4.1.5

Type of Business
From Fig 4.4 it could be deduced that the most prevalent business type in Alpha

community is food vending and bars where drinks and other items like snacks, roasted meats
(suya and asun) were sold. This is supporting the saying that, food is the basic necessity of man
irrespective of status or social characteristics. More also it was obvious that contrary to the
51

saying that businesses are more dominated by woman, the reverse is the case in this research
study because the percentages of the men who are business owners to women who are business
owners are of ratio 27: 73. Most common business at the beach with the largest percentage is
photography, bar, horse owners, all of which are controlled, owned and managed by men. Plate I
is showing one of the food vending shops at the beach displaying their coolers, pots and chairs
for customers comfortability.

trader

Horsemen

photographer
7%

33%

food vendor

13%
20%

27%

Figure 4.4: Type of Business


Source: Authors field survey August 2015

52

bar

Plate I: Showing a food Vending Shop at the Beach


Source: Authors field survey August 2015

53

Plate II: Bars at the Beach


Source: Authors field survey August 2015

Plate III: Horsemen and their horses at the beach


Source: Authors field survey August 2015

54

Plate IV: Business Activities at the Beach


Source: Authors field survey August 2015

Plate V: Other Business Activities at the Beach


Source: Authors field survey August 2015
4.1.6: Beach Benefits
As a result of the existence of beach at Alpha community, this had triggered the level of
community development in the Alpha. This can be deduced from the above chart showing that
the beach had resulted into general community development. This could be because many rich
people love to build their houses close to beach because of breeze and beautiful natural scenery.
This will on the long run lead conglomeration of the rich which would easily foster community
development. This process is referred to as economic revitalization.

55

recreation

10.20%

high income generation


30.30%

community development

Beach Benefits

20.30%

high market sales


0.00%

10.00%

36.40%
20.00%

30.00%

40.00%

Figure 4.5: Benefit of the beach business owners


Source: Authors field survey August 2015
4.2

DATA ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTS

4.2.1

Age Group of Respondents


The level of passion for coastal tourism of various age distributions may differ from one

age group to another. Trends have shown that younger generation has more passion for tourism
than the aged. The case was not different in Alpha community, as shown in Table 4. This
indicates that Alpha community is mostly dominated by younger people. This could be as a result
of the fact that greater percentage of the younger generations loves pleasure and they tend to
reside in a funfair environment. As people grow older, the level of fun tends to decrease thereby
causing the older generation to relocate from the funfair (but usually lousy) environment.
Table 4: Age group of respondents
S/N

Age group

Frequency

Percent

56

18-30

25

31-40

10

41-50

51 above

51.0
2
20.4
3
10.2
4
18.4
Total

49

100.0

4.2.2 Gender of Respondents


From the field work carried out at Alpha community in Lagos state Nigeria, it was
observed that there are more male respondents who are residents than their female counterpart.
This shows that males are more explorative and adventurous than females. Hence, more male
tends to reside in a lively environment than female. Findings in Figure 4.6 indicates that the
population of male that resides in Alpha community is more than female as discovered by this
study on Alpha beach even though the population gap between both gender is not so wide.

57

45%
45%
45%

44%

residents

44%
44%
male

female

Figure 4.6: Gender of respondents of residents


Source: Authors field survey August 2015
4.2.3

Income Level of Respondents


The level of income of a person has lasting impact on his expenditure. Fig 4.7 shows that

most of the residents are middle income earners with 58.40% of the respondents earning between
51,000-100,000 naira monthly.
However, the percentages of low income earners which for the purpose of this research are
people earning below 50,000 naira monthly. This implies that the economic status of people
residing in this community have great effect on the level of economic development within the
community.

58

14.30%
residents

16.30%

below 50,000
51,000-100,000
58.40% 101,000-150,000

18.40%

0.00%

20.00%

above 150,000

40.00%

60.00%

Figure 4.7: Income level of Respondents for Residents


Source: Authors field survey 2015

4.2.4

Beach Benefits

As a result of the existence of beach at Alpha community, this had triggered the level of
community development in the community. This can be deduced from fig 12 showing that the
beach had resulted into general community development. This could be because many rich
people love to build their houses close to beach because of breeze and beautiful natural scenery.
This will on the long run lead to conglomeration of the rich which would easily foster
community development. This process is referred to as economic revitalization. It could be
deduced from this findings that 36.40% of the respondents reported that the beach had
contributed to the community development which makes it highest of all the percentages.

59

29%

23%
high market sales
community development

17%

31%

high income generation


recreation

Figure 4.8: Benefit of the beach to the community


Source: Authors field survey 2015

4.2.5 Negative Impact of beach to Host community


Flooding had been a major problem combating with virtually every coastal community around
Nigeria coastal line. This could be caused as a result ocean surge. Ocean surge occurs when the
ocean overflows it banks there by resulting to flooding around the coastal communities. This
accretion is not different from what is happening in Alpha community. Fig 4.9 shows a clear
indication that the major problem combating Alpha community is flooding which makes refuse
dumping at the beach to rank second on the list of problems facing the beach.

60

30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

26%

9%
3%

5%
negative impacts

Fig 4.9: Negative impact of beach to Host community


Source: Authors field survey 2015

Plate VI: A Building Being Destroyed as a result of Flooding


Source: Authors field survey 2015

61

Plate VII: Refuse Dump at the Beach


Source: Authors field survey 2015

4.2.6

Government Efforts towards Economic Activities at the Beach

For any tourism activity to thrive, it must have the legal support from private organizations and
government both at state and the national level. The cost of maintaining, managing and
protecting coastal communities is enormous, which cannot be single handedly handled by the
community. This is the case with Alpha beach. It could be said from the above chart that the
effort of government towards economic activities at the beach is not sufficient thereby hindering
the economic state of the beach. Some of the roads, land and buildings in this community had
been claimed by ocean. To reclaim this lost land areas, it can only take the effort of the
government.

62

7%

15%

11%
very good
good
fair

67%

poor

Figure 4.10: Government efforts towards economic activities at the beach


Source: Authors field survey 2015

4.3

DATA ANALYSIS OF TOURISTS

4.3.1

Gender of Respondents
From the field work carried out at Alpha community Under Eti Osa LGA in Lagos state

Nigeria, it was observed that there are more male respondents who are tourist than their female
counterpart. This shows that males are more explorative and adventurous than females. Hence,
more male tends to embark on tourism than female. Findings in Figure 14 indicate that male
embark on tourism activities than female as discovered by this study on Alpha beach.

63

tourists
27
27
26
25
24
23
22
21

tourists
23

male

female

Figure 4.11: Gender of respondents for tourists


Source: Authors field survey August 2015
4.3.2

Age of Respondents
The level of passion for coastal tourism of various age distributions may differ from one

age group to another. Trends have shown that younger generation has more passion for tourism
than the aged. The case was not different on Alpha beach, as shown in figure 4.12. The age of
respondents is inversely proportional to the percentage of tourists visiting the beach. This
indicates that as people grow older, their level of patronage especially to beach or coastal regions
reduces. This reduction could be as a result of the fact that greater percentage of the younger
generations loves pleasure and they tend to drop it as they grow older. As people grow older, the
level of patronage of Alpha beach reduces.

64

51-60

41-50

12

31-40

tourists

20

18-30

50
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Figure 4.12: Age of Respondent for tourists


Source: Authors field survey August 2015
4.3.3

INCOME LEVEL
The level of income of a person has lasting impact on his expenditure. Fig 4.13 shows

that most of the tourists are middle income earners with 58.40% of the respondents earning
between 51,000-100,000 naira monthly.
However, the percentages of low income earners which for the purpose of this research are
people earning below 50,000 naira monthly. This implies that the economic status of people will
have great effect on the level of patronage of Alpha beach. The low income earners which
constitute the higher percentage of the national population will not be able visit the beach
thereby reducing the cost of patronage.

65

below 50,000
51,000-100,000

0.77
0.25

0.16

100.00%

0.2

101,000-150,000
above 150,000

50.00%
0.00%
tourists

Figure 4.13: Income Level of Respondents for Tourists


Source: Authors field survey 2015
4.3.4

Rating the Existing Facilities at the beach


It can be deduced from the field survey carried out at Alpha beach that the existing

recreational facilities at the beach were in a fair state which is caused as a result of flooding.
From an interview with one of the business owners at the beach, it was mentioned that many of
the business owners were afraid of setting up durable and expensive facilities at the beach. This
is because over the years there had been frequent occurrence of ocean surge which had destroyed
many homes and business facilities and this in due time discouraged many business owners from
establishing quality facilities at beach. This had also led to the relocation of some of the residents
and business owners to another place in search for a healthy shelter and means of livelihood. The
facilities at the tourist center were expected to compliment the enjoyment which prospective
tourist will derive from their tourism experience. This state of facilities will go a long way in
determining the level of satisfaction and in turn the level of patronage that will be enjoyed by
such tourist center.

66

48.20%
50.00%
40.00%

25.50%

30.00%
20.00%

18.20%
6.20%

10.00%
0.00%
excellent

good

fair

Figure 4.14: Facilities at the beach


Source: Authors field survey 2015

Plate VIII: State of Facilities at the Beach


Source: Authors field survey 2015

67

poor

Plate IX: Showing the Level of Facility at the Beach


Source: Authors field survey August 2015
It could be deduced from the above plate VIII and plate IX which is showing the state of some
bars at the beach that some of the bars are in very poor state, therefore needed to be improved
upon so as enhance tourists satisfaction.

68

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

This research was carried out to investigate the local economic impact of coastal tourism
on Alpha beach. Alpha beach situated at Lekki which is under Eti-Osa local government area was
picked as a case study. The research was carried out with the administration of well structured
questionnaires on the tourist site during the period which the research was being conducted, the
following findings were made.
In the world, there are two major sexes which are male and female. However, we have
few human beings with genital mutation which might result into one person having both sexes.
Finding at Alpha beach reveals that the beach enjoys patronage from both male and female, the
finding also shows that more male visits the beach than female with no indication of any
abnormality.
The social status of human being has a way of influencing some of the activities the
person will engage in. It was interesting to find out that majority of tourists visiting Alpha beach
are young and resilient some of which are couples.
The economic status of individual often times influence the nature of tourism he or she
could engage in. The case was not different at Alpha beach. It was discovered that majority of the
tourists patronizing Alpha beach were middle class income earner.
Understanding the fact that knowledge is power, this was the same scenario at Alpha
beach as most of the respondents are literate some of which have graduated from various higher
69

institutions across the nation while few others are still in school and even came to the beach for
research purpose.
Economic activities in a tourist centers most especially at the beach is very important
both to local residents and to the beach users or tourist. There is a saying that women thrives
most when it comes to trading or buying and selling. At Alpha beach, the reverse is the case as
most men are involved in buying and selling at the beach. Other activities at beach being
managed and controlled by men include bar attendants, photographers, horsemen e.t.c.
Recreational facilities are important factor that enhances the patronage of any tourist
attraction. If these facilities are not in a good state, this could result to a decrease in the level of
patronage of a tourist center. From the field survey, it was made known that the facilities at
Alpha beach are not really in a good condition.
5.2

RECOMMENDATIONS

This dissertation has carried out keen observation that characterized the local economic impact
of coaster tourism on Alpha beach, Lekki under Eti-Osa local government area of Lagos state.
The data collected has consequently revealed cogent facts through data analysis which can
incorporate recommendations expounded sequentially as follows.
The government is the body in charge of the management of this beach, there is need for
improvement in the facilities at the beach. This improvement could be done and sustained by:
Firstly, ensuring that the lives and property of the people living close to this beach is well
protected from sudden occurrence of ocean surge which has been known to be prevalent in the
community and which has also been known to have destroyed some of the infrastructural

70

amenities serving this community like the community roads, the communitys major health
center, residential buildings, the old coconuts plantation e.t.c. This could be achieved by shore
sand replenishment, rock barrier to sea wave and embarking upon every form of shore line
protection works so as to prevent the shore line from further ocean surge. In addition to this,
there is need to provide more recreational facilities at the beach so as to improve the livelihood
of both residents and beach users. It could also be suggested that existing facilities at the beach
should be subjected to a total rebranding. This will in due time foster every form of business
activities at the beach.
Secondly, security should be provided to ensure maximum protection for beach users
from hoodlums. This can be achieved by positioning security personnel in some strategic places
at the beach thereby fostering a peaceful atmosphere at the beach. When these factors are put in
place, this will foster more economic activities at the beach thereby promoting the general
welfare of residents and business owners at the beach.
Thirdly, there is need for proper sanitation at the beach. Poor disposal of waste at the
beach side is an eye saw and this could degenerate the level of beach patronage at the beach. The
Lagos State Waste Management Authority in collaboration with private organizations an the
residents of Alpha community should put in place sanitary services at the beach by ensuring that
the beach sanitized enough to attract tourist.
5.3

CONCLUSION

Tourism activities in a particular community offer tremendous opportunity to the economy of


that particular community. Although, the government and the residents of community that are in
charge of the beach has been trying their best in the upgrading of the host community, yet the
71

result is not yet satisfactory. This study therefore suggests that government should embrace
public-private-partnership in order to develop tourism sector. The government needs to diversify
revenue base in order to encourage socio-economic development of every locality. There is
immediate need to make policy that will facilitate local economic development of all the local
government through which grass root development could be guaranteed.
5.4

AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH


This research work cannot claim to have the complete and total coverage on the study of

local economic impact of coastal tourism along Nigeria coastal line. This is as a result of time
constraint. The following area will need the attention of researchers;
1. Effect of coastal tourism on the national economy.
2. The need for the protection of Nigeria coastal line for local economic development.
3. Shoreline protection, a panacea for poverty alleviation in coastal communities.
5.5

CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE
Based on the outcome of this research, it is clear that this research serves as a key to

understanding the benefits derivable from coastal tourism in different prospective coastal
communities. More also this research will serve as an eye opener to government and various
organizations willing to invest in coastal tourism the benefits they will stand to enjoy, not only
this but also the problems they are likely to encounter.

72

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APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1:
77

QUESTIONNAIRES ADMINISTERED TO TOURISTS


THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AKURE,
SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY,
DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING.
Sir/Ma
LOCAL ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COASTAL TOURISM ON ALPHA BEACH AREA
OF LAGOS STATE
QUESTIONNAIRES TO TOURISTS
The questionnaire will be purely for academic purpose and information gathered will be treated
with utmost confidentiality. Thanks in anticipation for your response.
SECTION A; GENERAL QUESTION
1.
2.
3.
4.

Gender (a) Male (b) Female


Age group of respondent (a) 18-30 (b) 31-40 (c) 41-50 (d) 51-60 (e) above 60
Marital Status (a) Married (b) single (c) divorced (d) widow/widower
Educational qualification (a) No formal education (b) Primary education (c)

Secondary Education (d) Tertiary education (e) others specify ..


5. Income level (a) 50,000 and below (b) 51,000-100,000 (c) 101,000-150,000 (d) above
150,000.
6. Place of residence of respondent (a) Okun Alpha community (b) Eti-Osa LGA (c)
Lagos State Environs (d) Outside Lagos State (e) Outside Nigeria
SECTION B

78

7. Which tourism feature attracted you the most in the tourist center? (a) Beach (b)
Breeze (c) A &B (c) the landscape (d) Others Specify..
8. How often do you visit Alpha beach? (a) Weekly (b) Monthly (c) yearly
9. Importance of Alpha beach (a) Income generation (b) market of products (c)
Employment Opportunity (d) Relaxation and Recreation
10. What is the environmental condition of the beach? (a) Very good (b) Good (c) Fair (d)
bad (e) very bad
11. What is the condition of facilities at the beach? (a) Very good (b) Good (c) Fair (d)
bad (e) very bad
12. Which area needed improvement in the tourist center? (a) Improvement on the
resources (b) Marketing (c) Provision of facilities (e) Others (specify)..............
13. Did you think Alpha beach has any impact on the Alpha community? (a) Yes (b) No
(c) Dont know
14. What motivates you to visit Alpha Beach? (a) Nature (b) Facilities (c) Relaxation (d)
Research (e) Others specify.
15. What can you say about the facilities at the beach? (a) Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d)
Poor

APPENDIX 2:
QUESTIONNAIRES ADMINISTERED TO RESIDENTS
THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AKURE,
SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY,
DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING.
Sir/Ma
79

LOCAL ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COASTAL TOURISM ON ALPHA BEACH AREA


OF LAGOS STATE
QUESTIONNAIRES FOR RESIDENTS
The questionnaire will be purely for academic purpose and information gathered will be treated
with utmost confidentiality. Thanks in anticipation for your response.
SECTION A; GENERAL QUESTION
1.
2.
3.
4.

Gender (a) Male (b) Female


Age group of respondent (a) 18-30 (b) 31-40 (c) 41-50 (d) 51-60 (e) above 60
Marital Status (a) Married (b) single (c) divorced (d) widow/widower
Educational qualification (a) No formal education (b) Primary education (c)

Secondary Education (d) Tertiary education (e) others specify ..


5. Income level (a) 50,000 and below (b) 51,000-100,000 (c) 101,000-150,000 (d) above
150,000.
SECTION B
6. What are the economic importance of Alpha beach to this community (a) Income
generation (b) Market of product (c) Employment opportunity
7. Is there any economic Impact of the tourist center to Alpha community? (a)yes (b) No
(c) Dont know (d) Not sure
8. What negative impact does tourism activities have on the community? (a) Flooding
(b) Water pollution (c) Littering of street (d) Over utilization of Infrastructures (f)
Others (specify)
9. What is the positive impact of Tourism activities to the community? (a) High market
sales (b) community development (c) High income generation (d) Others (specify)
.

80

10. What infrastructural facility was attracted to Okun Alpha community by the beach?
(a) Road Construction (b) Electricity supply (c) Water supply (d) Waste disposal
facilities (e) Others specify..
11. What did you think motivates tourists to visit Alpha Beach? (a) Nature (b) Facilities
(c) Relaxation (d) Research
12. Who controls and manage this center? (a) Government (b) Private (c) A & B
13. How can you rate the facilities at the beach? (a) Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Poor
14. What are the major problems facing Alpha beach? (a) Flooding (b) Insecurity (c)
Environmental pollution (d) Others (specify)..
16. Has there been any government intervention in tackling these problems? YES/NO
17. If YES specify
18. Rate government efforts toward economic activities at Alpha beach (a) Fair (b) Good
(c) very good (d) Excellent

81

APPENDIX 3:
QUESTIONNAIRES ADMINISTERED TO BUSINESS OWNERS
THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AKURE,
SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY,
DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING.
Sir/Ma
LOCAL ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COASTAL TOURISM ON ALPHA BEACH AREA
OF LAGOS STATE
QUESTIONNAIRES FOR BUSINESS OWNERS
The questionnaire will be purely for academic purpose and information gathered will be treated
with utmost confidentiality. Thanks in anticipation for your response.
SECTION A; GENERAL QUESTION
1. Gender (a) Male (b) Female
2. Age group of respondent (a) 18-30 (b) 31-40 (c) 41-50 (d) 51-60 (e) above 60
82

3. Marital Status (a) Married (b) single (c) divorced (d) widow/widower
4. Educational qualification (a) No formal education (b) Primary education (c)
Secondary Education (d) Tertiary education (e) others specify ..
5. Income level (a) 50,000 and below (b) 51,000-100,000 (c) 101,000-150,000 (d) above
150,000.
6. Place of residence of respondent (a) Okun Alpha community (b) Eti-Osa LGA (c)
Lagos State Environs (d) Outside Lagos State (e) Outside Nigeria

SECTION B
7. Type of business (a) Trader (b) Fisherman (c) Okada Rider (d) Photographer (d) Food
Vendor (e) Photographer (f) Others (specify).
8. Since when have you been doing business in this community? (a) less than 5 years (b)
6-10 years (c) 11-15 years (d) 16-20 years (g) More than 20 years
9. Importance of Alpha beach to your business (a) Income generation (b) Market of
Product (c) Employment Opportunity
10. Level of impact of Alpha beach on the business owners (a) Very Good (b) Good (c)
Average (d) Low (e) Very Low
11. Business owners view of economic development (a) Productivity Improvement (b)
Entrepreneurial skill (c) Social Interaction (d) Income (e) Lifestyle Improvement
12. What negative impact does tourism activities have on the community? (a) Flooding
(b) Water pollution (c) Littering of street (d) Over utilization of Infrastructures (f)
Others (specify)
13. What is the positive impact of Tourism activities to the community? (a) High market
Sales (b) community development (c) High income generation (d) Others (specify)
.

83

14. What infrastructural facility was attracted to Alpha community as a result of the
beach? (a) Road Construction (b) Electricity supply (c) Water supply (d) Waste
disposal facilities (e) Others specify
15. What is the efficiency of Security at the Tourist center (a) Efficient (b) Fairly efficient
(c) Not efficient
16. What is the level of patronage of your business by the tourist? (a) Excellent (b) Good
(c) Fair (d) Poor
17. What can you say about the facilities at the beach? (a) Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d)
Poor
18. Which area needed improvement in the tourist center? (a) Improvement on the
resources (b) Marketing (c) Provision of facilities (e) Others (specify)..............
19. What are the major problems facing this beach? (a) Flooding (b) Insecurity (c)
Environmental pollution (d) Others (specify)..
20. Has there been any government intervention in tackling these problems? YES/NO
21. If YES specify
22. Rate government efforts toward economic activities at Alpha beach (a) Fair (b) Good
(c) very good (d) Excellent

84