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Blood and

Immunity

Blood is a tissue

Blood is called a fluid tissue: Like


other body tissues, blood is made up
of cells working together for a
common purpose. Blood has 2 main
purposes:
I) Transport
II) Homeostatic Regulation
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I) Transport

The primary function of the blood is to transport


and distribute energy and materials throughout
the body.
Blood transports Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide.
Blood delivers chemical messengers called
hormones from the glands where the are
produced to target tissues.
Blood absorbs nutrients from the digestive
system (such as glucose and amino acids) and
brings them to the liver where they may be
stored or further processed.
Blood takes wastes from cellular metabolism
and delivers them to the kidneys for processing
and excretion.
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II) Homeostatic
Regulation

When the bodys internal temperature


gets too warm the body must be able to
rid itself of the heat in order to maintain
a constant internal temperature.
Blood coming to the skin from the
interior of the body is usually warmer
than the skin. As more blood passes by
the skin, more heat is lost: the greater
the temperature differential the more
rapid the heat loss.
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Countercurrent Heat
exchange

Components of Blood

Adult humans have about 4 6 L of


blood in their circulatory system.
Blood consists of liquid called plasma
with various types of cells suspended in
it.
About 55% of total blood is liquid plasma
45% of the total blood is the formed
portion which consists of Red Blood
Cells, White Blood Cells and Platlets.
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Components of blood

Components of blood

1) Plasma

Plasma is about 90% water with the


rest being dissolved gases, ions
(electrolytes), nutrients, vitamins,
minerals, waste products and proteins.

There are 3 different


categories of blood
proteins:

Albumins: Produced by the liver. Establish


osmotic pressure and draw water from the
body tissues back into the circulatory
system, maintaining fluid levels of the
blood and blood pressure in the vessels.
Globulins: Help in the transport of
materials. Gamma Globulins produce
antibodies that provide protection against
invading microbes.
Fibrinogens: Are important in blood
clotting
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Plasma can be dehydrated,


rehydrated and administered to
persons in shock to make up missing
blood volume without fear of a
rejection.

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2) Formed Portion

All the cellular components of


blood are produced by the bone
marrow. Namely in the ribs,
sternum, skull and vertebrae

Red
Blood
Cell

White
Blood
cell
Platelet

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Cellular components are


produced in bone marrow

Cellular components of
blood

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I) Red blood cells

Red blood cells, also called


erythrocytes (erythros red -cyte
cell), are the most numerous cells in
the blood.
In a normal adult there could be as
many as 25 trillion!!
The primary function of red blood
cells is to carry oxygen to tissues and
organs throughout the body.
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Red Blood Cells


(erythrocytes)

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Hematocrit

Hematocrit: The
percentage of red blood
cells in the blood.
A normal count is about
40%. A normal male will
have about 5.5 million
RBCs per milliliter of
blood while the average
female will have about
4.5 million. Individuals
who live at very high
altitudes may have as
many as 8 million RBCs
per milliliter.
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Mammalian Red Blood Cells are


Biconcave. This means that they are
concave on both sides. This shape
increases surface area by 20-30% so
each cell can carry more oxygen.

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The cells are so specialized in their


function to carry oxygen that they
have no nucleus or mitochondria.
Although oxygen can diffuse directly
into plasma, the pigment
hemoglobin increases the bloods
ability to carry oxygen by more than
70x. Without hemoglobin, your
blood would carry enough oxygen to
maintain life for about 4.5 seconds.
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Hemoglobin:

Hemoglobin: about 280 million


hemoglobin molecules per red blood
cell
Hemoglobin is made of 2 components:
- Heme group- is the iron containing
pigment which binds to the oxygen
molecules
- Globin group- is the complex protein
structure that the Heme groups bind to.

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The Iron in Hemoglobin chemically


binds to the oxygen then releases it
by the process of diffusion in the
presence of cells that require it.
Hemoglobin also picks up waste
carbon dioxide.

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When the iron of the Heme group is


bound to an oxygen molecule we get
a complex called oxyhemoglobin,
which gives blood a bright red
colour. When the Heme group is
bound to carbon dioxide
(carboxyhemoglobin), the molecule
changes shape and reflects a bluish
light making deoxygenated blood
look dark blue/purple.

Deoxygena
ted Blood
seen with
infrared

Oxygenated
blood cells
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Erythropoiesis:

Erythropoiesis: (-poiesis to make)


Because Red Blood cells( RBCs)
have no nucleus they are unable to
reproduce.

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Blood cells start out as nucleated


stem cells in the bone marrow. RBCs
last about 3 4 months before they
become brittle and are destroyed.
Dead RBCs are brought to the liver to
be recycled. The iron from the
hemoglobin is returned to the bone
marrow for use in new RBCs and the
heme group is turned into a product
called bilirubin.
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Bilirubin is a yellow-brown
compound that is responsible for the
colour of bile and feces. Bilirubin
can be seen as the yellow residue
left after a bruise, and an
accumulation of it in the body is
called Jaundice.

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Breakdown of RBC

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If the oxygen concentration of the blood get


too low (eg. Not enough red blood cells)
special receptor cells in the kidneys release
a hormone called Renal Erythropoietic
Factor (REF). REF combines with blood
globulins to form a hormone called
erythropoietin (EPO). EPO stimulates the
bone marrow to produce more RBCs.

Low O2 Concentration Picked up by Kidneys Release of REF

REF + Globulins =EPO More RBCs Made

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Athletes have been known to abuse EPO


or to train at altitudes where oxygen
concentrations are low to increase their
hematocrit for athletic events.
This increased number of RBCs allows
the blood to carry more oxygen and
deliver more energy to the muscles.
The combination of dehydration from
exercise coupled with thicker blood can
result in clotting, stroke, heart failure
and even death.
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A deficiency in Iron, Hemoglobin or


red blood cells, decreases oxygen
delivery to body tissues.
If 40% of blood is lost the body
cannot cope. Oxygen deficiency
results in low energy levels. This
condition is know as Anemia and
can be caused by hemorrhage
(externally or internally) or a dietary
Iron deficiency.
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II) White blood cells

White blood cells, or leukocytes (leuko- white


cyte- cell) are very important in fighting
disease and infection.
Leucocytes make up about 1% of total blood
volume and are outnumbered by RBCs by about
700:1, although the numbers of leukocytes can
double if your body is fighting off an infection.
All Leukocytes have a nucleus, appear
colourless and are formed from stem cells in
the bone marrow. Leukocytes can be divided
into 3 groups:
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Granulocytes: include eosinophils,


basophils and neutrophils.
a) Eosinophiles and Basophils release
histamine which causes capillaries to dilate
and allows other white blood cells to move
out of the capillaries into surrounding
tissue. The accompanying swelling can be
reduced by using antihistamines.

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b) Neutrophils are phagocytes. They


engulf bacteria and foreign proteins
much like an amoeba and destroy
them with digestive enzymes

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Monocytes: are phagocytes as well


and can leave the bloodstream and
become more specialized
macrophages which engulf
bacteria.

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Lymphocytes are white blood cells


that are divided into two
catagories: B cells and T cells. T
cells recognize there is an infection
and B cells produce antibodies.
Antibodies are proteins that attach
to invaders making them more
recognizable to other
immune cells.
Lymphoc
yte

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Leukocytes

Granulocytes

Eosinophi
ls
Basophils
Neutrophi
ls

Monocytes

Lymphocytes

-Leave blood stream -Produce T and B cells


To become Phagocytes -Produce Antibodies

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III) Platelets

Platelets or thrombocytes are a


vital part of the clotting process of
blood. (clotting prevents excessive
blood loss after injury). Platelets do
not have a nucleus and are formed in
the bone marrow from cells called
megakaryocytes.

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When a blood vessel is damaged exposing its connective


tissue layer, the cells release a substance which makes
them sticky.
Platelets floating in the blood begin to stick to the
injured site.
Platelets start to change shape and rupture releasing a
protein called thromboplastin.
Thromboplastin combines with calcium ions in the
blood to activate another protein called prothrombin.
The prothrombin turns into thrombin.
Thrombin is an enzyme that acts on substance called
fibrinogen
Fibrinogen is converted into fibrin
Fibrin is an insoluble substance which turns into a
sticky mesh. This mesh sticks to escaping blood cells
forming a clot, binding cells together, and preventing
foreign objects and bacteria from entering the body
further
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Damaged tissue
and platelets
release
Thromboplastin
into the blood. This,
combined with
Ca2+ starts the
clotting process

Prothrombin

Thrombin

Fibrinogen

Fibrin

Blood clotting is essential to preserving life but sometimes


things can go wrong.
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Clot

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Blood Disorders

Thrombus- is a blood clot that occurs within


a blood vessel. This can lead to the vessel
getting blocked and tissue after the blockage
dying due to lack of oxygen. Cerebral
Thrombosis (blockage of a blood vessel in the
brain) can cause a stroke, and a coronary
thrombosis (blockage of the coronary artery
in the heart) can cause a heart attack.
If the clot dislodges it becomes an embolus.
Embolisms can travel through the
bloodstream and lodge in body organs. What
causes these events is unknown but thought
to be linked to genetic abnormalities.
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Artery blocked
with Thrombis

Normal Artery

Clot
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Hemophilia- An inherited, lifethreatening disorder resulting from


insufficient clotting proteins in the
blood. Very rare in females bu
affects about 1 in 7000 males.
People with hemophilia are
constantly in danger of bleeding to
death, as even a small bruise can
bleed out of control.

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Leukemia- is cancer of the white


blood cells. Leukemia causes white
blood cells to be created at an
increased rate. As a result the
Leukocytes are immature and cannot
fight off infection. The increased
amount of White blood cells also
takes up the space needed by red
blood cells. This leads to anemia.

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Sickle Cell Anemia - A hereditary


Blood disease resulting from a single
amino acid mutation of the red Blood
cells that contain an abnormal type
of hemoglobin. Sometimes these red
Blood cells become crescent shaped
"sickle shaped" and have difficulty
passing through small Blood vessels.

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Lymphatic filariasis (elephantitis) - is a


debilitating Blood disease caused by nematode
worms.

Larval worms circulate in the Bloodstream of


infected persons, and adult worms live in the
lymphatic vessels.

Lymphatic filariasis is not life threatening, but it


does cause extreme discomfort, swelling of the
limbs and genitals, damage to the kidneys and
lymphatic system, impairment of the bodys ability
to fight infection, and general malaise.
Transmitted by mosquitoes.
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Lymphatic filariasis
(elephantitis)-

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HIV/AIDS - A Blood-borne disease


of the human immune system,
rendering the subject highly
vulnerable to life-threatening
conditions, such as pneumonia and
certain types of cancers. It is most
commonly transmitted in infected
Blood and bodily secretions (e.g.
semen), commonly during illicit IV
drug use and/or sexual intercourse.
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Sepsis- Sepsis is an overwhelming


and life-threatening bacterial
infection of the Blood and body
organs caused by bacteria that has
entered body tissue, most often
through a wound or incision, that
leads to the formation of pus, and/or
to the spread of the sepsis bacteria
throughout the Blood stream. Sepsis
infection can lead to a form of shock,
known as septic shock.
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Lymphatic System

Capillaries- are extremely small


blood vessels. All cells in the body
are within at least 0.1mm of a
capillary. Capillaries are present in
networks, or beds throughout the
body. Nutrients, gases and water
constantly move into and out of the
bloodstream via the capillaries.
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Capillary Bed

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The Lymphatic system and


immunity

As blood circulates through


the body and into the
capillary beds, some of the
plasma escapes from the
capillaries and becomes
part of the interstitial fluid.
Interstitial fluid
(extracellular fluid ECF)fills spaces between our
cells. It constantly baths all
the cells in the body and
exchanges energy and
waste between the
capillaries of the circulatory
system and the cells
themselves.
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Rather than re-entering the


circulatory system much of this
interstitial fluid drains into a
separate system called the
Lymphatic System. This clear to
yellowish fluid, which is similar to
plasma, is called Lymph

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Lymphatic System:

Lymphatic vessels are similar to veins and use


contractions of body muscles to propel lymph
through them. Valves in the vessels prevent
backflow.
Vessels return Lymph to the heart where it rejoins
the blood.
Enlargements called Lymph nodes are located at
intervals along the lymph vessels. Lymph nodes
contain macrophages and lymphocytes which trap
and destroy bacteria.
When you get sick your lymph nodes in your neck
may swell
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Lymphatic system

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The Defence System

The external environment is home to


billions of microscopic organisms that
could be potentially harmful to the body.
Harmful agents are called pathogens
(greek meaning producer of suffering).
The human body must defend itself against
the constant attack by pathogens by:
preventing them from entering the body
Destroying pathogens if they do enter
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I)First Line of Defence

The bodys first line of defence is to


prevent pathogens from entering the
body. This falls to the physical
defences which include:
Skin- dry, slightly acidic, oily and its
secreations contain antimicrobial agents
Eyelashes, stomach acid, mucous, ear
wax, tears

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II) Second Line of


Defence( non-specific
defences)

The second line of defence is called


the non-specific defences. Tissue cells
that are damaged release chemicals
that initiate an inflammatory response.
This localized condition results in:
increased blood flow to the damaged area
swelling
redness
heat (fever)

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This inflammatory response begins when a


blood vessel is damaged. The damaged vessel
releases special chemicals which cause other
cells to produce histamines. Histamines cause
swelling in the injured area and attracts
special white blood cells known as monocytes
to the area.
These monocytes turn into macrophages
(big eaters) which engulf bacteria.
Other white blood cells known as neutrophils
arrive. They are also macrophages and they
release digestive enzymes which destroy the
invader and the neutrophil. The remains of the
invader and the macrophages is called pus.
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Macrophage

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The
macrophag
e (A) trying
to reach
out to the
bacteria
(C) and
entrap it
with an
extension
called
pseudopodi
a (B).
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III)
Third Line of Defence
(The Immune Response)
The third line of defence begins after
a pathogen has been destroyed .
All cells have special markers located on
their cell membranes. These specific
protein markers are called antigens.
Normally the body does not react to
their own markers.
Antigen- molecules found on the surface of
cells and on pathogens. Antigens provide an
identification system.
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Two different lymphocytes


are found in the immune
system: T cells and B cells

1) T Cells- T cells are


lymphocytes that
mature in the Thymus
gland (located near the
heart). T cells seek out
invaders that have
antigen markers that
dont match the bodys
own markers.

There are several different


types of T cells:
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a) Helper T cells After a


macrophage engulphs an invader,
the invaders antigen markers are
displayed on the surface of the
macrophage. Helper T cells
stimulate the production of other
immune cells (B cells, macrophages)
by producing a chemical messenger
called lympokine.

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b) Killer T cells (cytotoxic cells)


binds with infected cells and
destroys them by puncturing their
cell membranes. Will kill bacteria,
fungus, protozoans and even body
cells that are infected by viruses.

Killer T
cells

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c) Suppressor T cells- slow and


suppress the immune response by
inhibiting the B cells
d) Memory T cells remain in the
bloodstream and are able to react
quickly if that specific antigen is
ever encountered again

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2) B Cells B cells are activated


by Helper T.

B cells produce proteins called


Antibodies.

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Antigens and Antibodies

Antibodies are proteins that protect against


foreign invaders, either foreign molecules,
viruses, or cells. They are capable of
recognizing specific particles due to their
shape. Their ability to recognize foreign shapes
makes them useful in defending against foreign
invaders.
Antigens are molecules that antibodies are
capable of recognizing. They are usually a
protein or carbohydrate chain. The body can
recognize bacteria and viruses as being foreign
because they have antigens on their surface
which are different than the bodies "self"
antigens.
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Antibodies are Y-shaped molecules


with two binding sites that vary from
one antibody to the next.
Antibodies fit together with and bind
with antigens like a lock and key.
The body does not produce
antibodies that bind to its own (self)
antigens. Therefore all particles that
are bound to antibodies are foreign.

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Cells, particles, or
molecules that are marked
with antibodies may:

1. be
phagocytized
(engulfed) by
neutrophils or
macrophages.

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2. agglutinate (clump together) because each


antibody is capable of binding to two antigens.
Antigens attached to cells will cause the cells to
clump together. The clumps are then
phagocytized.

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Immune response
summarized:

Skin is broken, inflammatory response


initiated
Non-phagocytic Leukocytes
(Eosinophiles and Basophils) release
histamines which cause inflammation
and increase blood flow to the site
Macrophages engulf bacteria and
incorporate and display the invaders
antigens onto their cell membranes
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Helper T Cells bind to the foreign


antigens and makes a copy
Helper T cells activate B cells
B cells make antibodies which attach to
invaders and help to stop the infection.
Killer T cells seek out and destroy
invaders that are marked with
antibodies
Memory cells keep a copy of the
invaders antigen so that if it is ever
encountered again, the immune
response can be initiated much quicker
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Poisons work by attaching themselves


to receptor sites on body cells.
These receptor sites usually bind to
hormones or nutrients. When the
poisons attach to the receptor sites
they are taken in to the cell and the
cell is destroyed by the poison.
Antibodies (antivenom) attach to
poisons and prevent the poisons from
attaching to cell receptors.
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Vaccines work by introducing a


weakened or dead microbe into the
body. Since the pathogen is dead or
weakened it cannot invade the body
but the immune system can develop
B cells, antibodies and helper T cells
specific to that disease without
actually becoming infected.

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Antibiotics are chemical agents


obtained from other living organisms
(mold, fungus). These chemicals are
toxic to bacteria. For example
penicillin works by destroying the
cell walls of bacteria.

Interferon: an
anti viral drug
that can also be
used to fight

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ABO Blood typing

Red blood cells carry certain antigen


markers on their cell membranes.
There are 2 different antigen
markers: A and B

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A person with Type A blood has red


blood cells with an A antigen on
their cell membranes
A person with Type B blood has red
blood cells with a B antigen on their
cell membranes
A person with AB blood has both
antigen markers
A person with type O blood has none
of the markers.
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People also carry Antibodies


against the opposite blood antigen
in their plasma. So a person with:

Type A blood has B antibodies in their


blood that bind and clump together type
B blood (anti-B antibodies)
Type B blood has antibodies in their
blood that bind and clump together type
a blood (anti-A antibodies)
Type AB has no antibodies in the plasma
Type O has both antibodies in the plasma

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This means that A person with type A


blood cannot accept blood from someone
with type B blood and vice versa.
A person with Type O (universal donors)
blood can donate blood to people of all
blood types but can only receive blood
from people who have type O blood.
A person with Type AB blood can get
blood from donors of all blood types
(universal recipients) but can only
donate their blood to others with Type
AB blood.
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Bloo
d
Type

Antibodies Antigens
in Plasma
on Red
blood
cell

Can
receive
blood
from

Can give
blood
too

Anti-B

A antigen A and O

A and AB

Anti-A

B antigen B and O

B and AB

AB

No
antibodies

A and B

A, B, AB
and O

AB

Anti- A and
Anti- B

None

A, B, AB
and O
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Rhesus Factor (Rh


factor)

Another antigen marker may appear


on Red blood cells as well. People
with the antigen are termed Rh
positive (Rh+), those without the
antigen are termed Rh negative
(Rh-). People who are Rh- usually do
not have antibodies against the Rh
antigens.
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Erythroblastosis fetalis
(hemolytic disease) or blue
baby

Sometimes, during pregnancy, a Rh- mother may


give birth to a Rh+ child.
If the blood from the child mixes with the
mothers blood during birth, the mother will
begin to produce Rh antibodies.
If the mother were to become pregnant again
with an Rh+ child, the mothers immune system
would attack the developing babies red blood
cells.
This condition prevents oxygen from getting to
the babys tissues and can lead to brain damage,
deafness or even death. Because the babys
blood lacks oxygen, the baby has a bluish colour
when it is born.
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Immune system
disorders

Autoimmune disorder- The bodys


own T cells mistakenly attack body
cells. Rheumatoid arthritis is an
example of a common autoimmune
disorder.
Allergies- This is an exaggerated
response by the immune system to a
harmless material such as pollen,
animal dander, fruit, drugs etc.
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