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# Experiment #1: Current Flow

Introduction:

Computer Technology
Experiments
LAB REPORT

Yuvraj Sidhu
Introduction
Aim To investigate the flow of current in an electric circuit
In this experiment I investigated and measured the current passing through the circuit.
The objective was to calculate the amount of current passing through the circuit from
different resistors being used.
In this project, I used five different amounts of resistors to notice different current
flowing.

Materials Used
In this experiment I used the following material:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

## SK 50 bread boarding socket

1 battery
100 ohm resistor
200 ohm resistor
33 ohm resistor
1000 ohm resistor
1000000 ohm resistor
1 LED
3 wires

## Procedure of the Experiment

Firstly, we have to assemble the circuit. Place the wire, resistor and LED in
such a way that the current flows from positive (+) to the negative (-) ends.
It is to be ensured that the current easily passes and the design should be
as simple as possible. Then observe the LED bulb and notice the
brightness of it and note down the current that has passed through the
breadboard using the ohms law. The voltage passing through the circuit
was of 5 volts.
Afterwards, keep the entire structure same and just replace the resistor
with some other resistor. After you do this, you will notice that there is a

change in the brightness of LED. Note this change down and calculate the
new Amperage of the circuit.
In the similar way, I used 5 resistors of different values one by one and
wrote down the different solutions.

Results

Resistor Resistance

LED Brightness

Current

100
200
33
1000
1000000

Very Bright
Average Bright
Brightest
Very Low Brightness
Least Bright

.05
.025
.15
.005
.000005

In this experiment, I calculated and gave my view on the brightness level using the
ohms law and by observing the LED.

Discussion
In this experiment, when I changed the resistors alternatively, the brightness of the of
the LED got affected. When I used the smallest resistor (33), the current (amperage)
calculated was the highest (.05 A) and the LED grew as the brightest. Afterwards, when
I used the highest resistor (1000000 ), the current calculated was the least (.000005
A) and the brightness was at the least level. In this experiment, I used 5 different
resistors and even compared my observations with the other ones and found out that
most of the students got similar results.
In this experiment, I made an hypothesis that more is the resistance in circuit, lesser is
the current flowing and lesser is the brightness level of the LED and vice versa.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, I would like to mention that resistor is a material used to reduce the flow
of current through the circuit. This works in the following way:
More is the resistance in circuit, lesser is the current flowing and lesser is the
brightness level of the LED and vice versa.
Thus proving the ohms () law.

## Experiment No. 2: Diodes

Observations:

st

1
2nd

LED
Turns on
Turns off

Diode Marking
Gray right, Black left
Black right, Gray left

Questions:
1. Describe the change in the LED when a diode is reversed
Ans. When the long side of the diode is over the right side, the LED does not work.
2. Suggest possible observations if...
a) The LED is reversed
Ans. When the LED is reversed, it will not work because the negative side will be on the
wrong end. Thus no flow of current.
b) The resistor is reversed

Even if the resistor is reversed, then also circuit will not work.
3. Suggest an hypothesis to account for the observations
Gray is Negative and Black is positive.
Conclusion:
Diode effects the current, because the diode needs to be in the right side or else it won't
work. a diode only lets current pass though one way

## Experiment #3: Series and Parallel Resistors

Observations:
Circuit
A
B
C

LED Brightness
Medium
Low
Bright

Amps
~0.0106 amps
~0.0053 amps
~0.0212 amps

Discussion
1. Circuit A is medium brightness because there is one 470 ohm resistor. Circuit B is
least bright because in this circuit two 470 ohm resistors have been used. Circuit C is
brightest because there is least resistance and less work being done. Hece, its the
brightest. More is the resistance, lesser will be the current passing and brightness and
vice versa.
2.

Rt=

R 1 R 2
R 1+ R 2

3. In circuit B, the brightness would go lower because adding in another resistor will
create more work. in circuit c, the brightness will become brighter because the current
will be distributed proportionately between 3 resistors instead of 2.
Conclusion:
In Conclusion, circuit A is medium bright circuit B (Series Circuit) is very dim and circuit
C (Parallel Circuit) is the brightest.

## Experiment #4a: A Digital Monitor

Input

Observations
:
LED

High (5v)

Brightly lights up

No light
Questions:

## 1. Describe how the state of the input affects the LED.

When we touch the input wire to the low (ground bus), there is no positive charge
and hence circuit is incomplete. Thus, LED does not light up. If input wire was touched
to a high, then there will be a positive charge and the LED would work.
2. Discuss how the circuit could be used to monitor the state of any point in a
digital circuit.

LED and digital monitor are interlinked. When the LED is on the digital monitor it
is working and when the LED is off the digital monitor is not working.
Conclusion:
In Conclusion, a high input will turn the light on and a low input will turn the light off.

## Experiment #4b: A Digital Monitor

Input
High (5v)
Low (ground bus)

Observations:
LED
Light is on
Light is off

Questions:
1) Describe how the state of the input affects the LED.
The Input wire needs to be at high (5v) in to allow the LED to work.
2) Discuss how the circuit could be used to monitor the state of any point in a
digital circuit.

When the input wire is high and the LED is on then the digital monitor is working. But if
the input is low then the LED won't work and the digital monitor won't work either

Conclusion:
In conclusion a high input will turn the light on and a low input will turn the light off.

## Experiment #5: 7- Segment Display

Pin#

Observations:
LED Segment on

1
2
3

A
F
Do not connect

6
7
8
9

Left Dot
E
D
Right Dot

10
11
12
13
14

C
G
B
Do not connect
Conclusion:

In Conclusion, The 7-segment display will light up only when all the right pins are
powered. All the pins being grounded will light up

Input A

Observation:
Input B

Output

High (1)
High (1)
Low (0)
Low (0)

High (1)
Low (0)
High (1)
Low (0)

On
Off
Off
Off

(LED-On).
1 for 1 stays on

## 2. Describe the input states [voltage] required to obtain an output at 0 volts

(LED-Off).
1 for 0 and 0 for 0 is off.
Conclusion
:
In conclusion, if both the inputs are high, then the LED stays ON and if they are low or
high-low then the LED stays OFF.

Observations:
Input A
High (1)
High (1)
Low (0)
Low (0)

Input B
High (1)
Low (0)
High (1)
Low (0)

Output
On
On
On
Off
Questions:

## 1. Describe the input states [voltage] required to obtain an output at 5 volts

(LED-On).
High-high and high-low stays ON

## 2. Describe the input states [voltage] required to obtain an output at 0 volts

(LED-Off).
Low-low stays off
Conclusion:
In conclusion, if both the inputs are high or high-low then the LED stays ON and if its
low-low then the LED stays OFF.

Observations:
Input A
High (1)
Low (0)

Output
Off
On
Questions:

## 1. Suggest why the 7404 integrated circuit has been designed

7404 integrated circuit has been designed to power pin 14 as the rest
2. What output would occur if 2 inverters are used in series?
The LED is going to be less bright because more work is being done
Conclusion:
Allows current to flow through multiple pins at the same time

Observations:
Input A
High(1)
High (1)
Low (0)

Input B
High (1)
Low (0)
High (1)

Output
Off
On
On

Low (0)

Low (0)

Off
Questions:

## 1. Describe the input states [voltage] required to obtain an output at 5 volts

(LED-On).
High-Low and Low to high works
2. Describe the input states [voltage] required to obtain an output at 0 volts
(LED-Off).
High-high and Low-low does not work.
3. What does the 'N' in the word NAND stand for?
N stands for negative
4. What is the relationship between AND and NAND gates?
If the input is the same then it is AND and if the inputs and different then it
is NAND.
Conclusion:
In Conclusion, if it high-high or low-low then the LED is off and if it is high-low
then the LED is on.

## Experiment # 10: NOR Gates

Observations:
Input A
High(1)
High(1)
Low(0)
Low(0)

Input B
High(1)
Low(0)
High(1)
Low(0)

Output
Off
On
On
off

Questions:
1. Describe the input states [voltage] required to obtain an output at 5 volts (LEDOn).
High-low and low-high turns on
2. Describe the input states [voltage] required to obtain an output at 0 volts (LEDOff).
High-high and low-low stays off
3. What does the 'N' in the word NOR stand for?
The 'N' in NOR stands for Negative
4. What is the relationship between NOR and OR gates?
NOR and OR are the same except NOR is negatively charged
Conclusion:
In Conclusion, if it high-high or low-low then the LED is off and if it is high-low
then the LED is on.
Experiment #11: Exclusive OR Gates
Observations:
Input A
High(1)
High(1)
Low(0)
Low(0)

Input B
High(1)
Low(0)
High(1)
Low(0)

Output
Off
On
Off
On
Questions:

1. Describe the input states [voltage] required to obtain an output at 5 volts (LEDOn).
High-low and Low high is on

2. Describe the input states [voltage] required to obtain an output at 0 volts (LEDOff).
High-high and Low-low is off
Conclusion:
In Conclusion, if it high-high or low-high then the LED is off and if it is high-low or lowlow then the LED is on.

Observations:
2nd Resistor
22 K
47 K
100 K
470 K
660 K
1M

48/10s
22/10s
16/10s
4/10s
5/10s
2/10s

## No. of Blinks in Resistance

Column2
60
50
40
No. of Blinks per 10 seconds

30
20
10
0
22K

47K

100K

470K

660K

1M

Resistance count

Questions:
1. Describe the type of curve obtained through the point.
The graph shows a negative trend which means the higher the resistor
value, the less are the no. of blinks
2. What common applications for the circuit can you think of?
This could be used for the indicators in cars
3. What change in the results would occur if a different value is used for the
capacitor
If the value of the capacitor would change, then the frequency of the blinks
on the LED would also change.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, if the resistance is low then there will be more blinks and if the resistance
is high than there will be less blinks