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Anatomy4.

November20,2011
Dr.StaAna

Urinary System
OUTLINE

F.HistologyoftheMaleUrethra

I.COMPONENTPARTS

XII.EMBRYOLOGY

II.FUNCTIONS

XIII.QUESTIONS

III.KIDNEY

B.PositionoftheKidneys

Italic=audio
Times new roman=frombook

C.AnatomicRelationoftheKidney

A.GrossStructureoftheKidney

D.Renalfascia
E.RenalCapsules
F.StructureoftheKidneys
G.Renalpelvis
H.RenalParenchyma
IV.SUPRARENAL(ADRENAL)GLANDS
A.Parts
B.Bloodsupply
V.THENEPHRON
A.Renalcorpuscle
B.GlomerularFiltrationMembrane
C.Bowmanscapsule
D.ProximalConvolutedTubule(PCT)
E.LoopofHenle
F.DistalConvolutedTubule
G.JuxtaglomerularApparatus
H.CollectingTubules
VI.BLOODSUPPLYTOTHEKIDNEY
VII.URETERS
A.Parts
B.UretericRelations
C.UterinevesselsandUrinaryBladderRelations
D.Uretericconstrictions
E.Bloodsupply
F.HistologyoftheUreters
VIII.INNERVATION(KIDNEYS,URETERS,ADRENALGLANDS)
XI.LYMPHATICSOFTHEKIDNEYS,URETERS,ADRENALGLANDS
X.THEURINARYBLADDER
A.Parts
B.OrientationoftheUrinaryBladder
C.LigamentSupportoftheBladder
D.Bloodsupplyofbladder
E.InnervationoftheUrinaryBladders
F.Lymphaticdrainage
G.HistologyofBladderandUrethra
XI.URETHRA
A.Maleurethra
B.Femalurethra

I.COMPONENTPARTS

Kidneysprocessafiltrateofthebloodtoformurine
Uretersconducturinefromthekidneytobladder
Urinarybladdertemporarystorageforurine
Urethrapassagethruwhichurineisvoided
II.FUNCTIONS

Excretorywasteproductsofmetabolismisexcretedthruproduction
ofurine
Maintenanceofbodyhomeostasiskidneysmaintaintheacidbase
balanceofthebodyandmaintainthenormalbodyfluidby
eliminatingexcesswater
Endocrinereleasesofhormoneslikeerythropoeitinandrenin
(controlofbloodpressure)
Reproductiveexclusivetothemaleurethraasapassagewayfor
semen(infemales,urethraisforurinaryfunctiononly)

TheKidneys,Ureters,andtheSuprarenalGlands

III.KIDNEY
A.GrossStructureoftheKidney

Beanshaped,reddishbrownorgan
Retroperitonealontheposteriorabdominalwall
ExtendfromT12L3
120170g(ave:150g)
1012cm(l)x56cm(w)x34cm(apthickness)

B.PositionoftheKidneys

Lkidneyis12cmhigherthantheRkidney(becauseontheright
youhavetheliver)
Supineposition:
o Lkidneysuperiorpole=T12
o Inferiorpole=L3
o Rkidney=IVC
o Lkidney=aorta
**Betweenkidneys=celiacplexusandANSganglia

C.BloodsupplyofUrethra
D.LymphaticDrainageofUrethra
E.InnervationoftheUrethra

TheAngsandJoie

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F.StructureoftheKidneys

Figure1.RelationshipofKidneystoUreterandBladder

C.AnatomicRelationoftheKidney

AnteriorRelations
o Rightkidney

Hepaticflexureofthecolonandduodenum

Liverright kidney is separated from the liver by the


Hepatorenal recess
o LeftKidney

Tailofthepancreas

Splenicflexure

Stomach

jejunum

Descending colon
PosteriorRelations(kidneybed)
o 2/3oftheposteriorkidneylieonthequadratuslumborum
ms.(partofposteriorabdominalwall)
o mediallypsoasmuscles
o laterallytransversusabdominis
o upper1/3ofposteriorkidneyliesontheabdominalsurface
andarcuateligamentofthediaphragm
o 3nerves(importanttonoteforsurgeryinposterior
abdominalwall)
th

subcostalor12 intercostaln.

iliohypogastricn.

ilioinguinaln.

D.Renalfascia

Convexlateralborder
Concavemedialborder
Roundedpoles(superiorandinferior)
Medialsurfaceisconcaveindentedbythehilus,whichleadsto
therenalsinus
Renal sinus is the area surrounding the calyces; while renal pelvis
is the expanded upper end of the ureter. [Junqueira]
Hilustransmitsrenalvessels
o Renalvesselsarrangement(anteriorposterior)

renalvein

2renalarteries

ureter

Fig. 2. External appearance of the right kidney, with the renal sinus shown to
contain the renal pelvis and renal vessels
**It is important to take note the arrangement of the vessels because this will
come out in the exam. tip: ureters are directed downwards(pababa).

G.Renalpelvis

Flattened,funnelshapedexpansionofthesuperiorendofthe
ureter
Apex of the renal pelvis is continuous with the ureter
R e c e i v e s 23majorcalyces
23minorcalyceswhichcomefromthemajorcalyces
Each minor calyx is indented by the renal papilla, the apex of the
renal pyramid, from which the urine is excrete

Fibrous/truerenalcapsule
o Thin,fibrousglisteningmembranewhichenclosestherenal
parenchyma
o RepresentstheTRUEcapsule
o Canbestrippedofffromnormalparenchyma
o Providesbarrieragainstspreadofinfection
o Servesasabarrierforspreadofinfection

E.RenalCapsules

Perirenal/perinephricfat
o AdiposecapsulefoundimmediatelyoutsidetheTRUE
capsule
Fibrousrenalfascia/Gerotasfascia
o Fasciaenclosingtheperirenalfat
o ReferredtoasRENALfascia
Pararenal/paranephricFat
o Extraperitonealfatofthelumbarregion

TheAngsandJoie

Figure 3. Internal Appearance of the Kidney. The renal pyramids contain the collecting
tubules and form the medulla of the kidney. The renal cortex contain the renal corpuscles.
The renal papilla, project into the minor calices, into which they discharge urine, which then
passess into the major calices and renal pelvis.

H.RenalParenchyma

Cortex(outer)
o Darkbrown
o Grainy

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Parts:

Corticalarches

RenalcolumnsofBertin(inbetweenpyramids)

Medullaryrays

ContainsNEPHRON

Medulla(inner)
o Appearstriatedandlighterbrownincolor
o 610medullarypyramids

apex

renalpapilla

areacribrosa(whereurinepassesthrough)

base

medullaryraysmadeupofcollectingtubulesand
LH
**Each medullary pyramid plus the cortical tissue at its base and along
its sides constitutes a renal lobe.
o

Figure5.KidneysandAdrenalGlands

Table1.ComparisonofLeftandRightAdrenalGlands

Left

Right

Shape

Crescent

Pyramid

Location

Superomedial

Moreapical
-located anterolateral to right crus of
diaphragm

Anatomic
Relations

-related to spleen,
stomach, pancreas and left
crus of diaphragm

-anterolaterally: in contact with liver


-anteromedially: in contact with IVC

A.Parts

Figure4.Kidney:HistologicPictureofRenalLobule

IV.SUPRARENAL(ADRENAL)GLANDS

Locatedbetweensuperomedialaspectsofkidneyanddiaphragm
Separated from the kidney via a thin septum, which is part of the
renal fascia
Majorattachmentistodiaphragmaticcrura(andnottokidney
itself,somovementofdiaphragmmaymovesuprarenalglandbut
notkidney)
o The glands are enclosed by renal fascia by which they are
connected to the diaphragmatic crura (movement of the
diaphragm will move the adrenals but not the kidney)

Suprarenalcortex
o derivedfrommesoderm
o secretesandrogensandsteroids
o These hormones cause the kidneys to retain sodium and water
in response to stress, increasing the blood volume and blood
pressure.
Suprarenalmedulla
o fromneuroectoderm
o massofnervoustissuepermeatedwithcapillariesand
sinusoids
o chromaffin cells of the medulla are related to sympathetic
ganglion (postsynaptic) neurons in both derivation and
function

secrete catecholamines

epinephrine and norepinephrine activate the bodys fight


or flight response

B.Bloodsupply

hasabundantbloodsupplybecauseofitsendocrinefunction
Arterialbloodsupply
o superiorsuprarenala. from inferior phrenic aa.
o middlesuprarenala.from abdominal aorta
o inferiorsuprarenala.from the renal aa.
Venousdrainageviathesuprarenalveins
o (R)suprarenalveinIVC
o (L)suprarenalvein(L)renalvein
NerveSupply
o celiac plexus and abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves
o presynaptic sympathetic fibers derived from lateral horn of
gray matter of the spinal cord (T10-L1)

V.THENEPHRON
Tubularfunctionalunitofkidney
Parts:
Renalcorpuscle,PCT,HenlesLoop,andDCT,CT,CD
Nephron+CT/CD=uriniferoustubules
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PodocytesfootlikeprocessesthatcoverBM

Separatedbyfiltrationslits

Cell body from which arise several primary processes,


and each of these gives rise to numerous secondary
(foot) processes o pedicels that embrace a portion of one
glomerular capillary.
Basallamina

C.Bowmanscapsule

Figure6.RenalCorpuscle

A.Renalcorpuscle

Glomerulustuftofcapillarieswhichcollectfiltrateofthepassing
thruthecapillaries

Bowmanscapsuledoublewalledepithelialtissue

Parietallayer/bowmansorurinaryspaceformstheouter
surfaceofthecapsule

Viscerallayerenvelopestheglomerularcapillaries
o Vascularpolewhereafferentarterioleentersandefferent
arterioleleaves
o UrinarypolebeginningofPCT
Inbetweentheparietalandviscerallayeristheurinaryspace

Parietallayer
o Simplesquamousepithelium
o Supportedbybasallaminawithreticularfibers
Mesangialcellsandtheirmatrixformthemesangium
o Foundintheintersticesbetweenthecapillariesthat lack
podocytes
o Functionsofthemesangium:

Physicalsupportandcontractioninternal structural
support to glomerulus; respond to vasoactive sbstances
to help maintain hydrostatic pressure

Phagocytosisphagocystose protein aggregates that


adhere to the glomerular filter, including antibodyantigen complexes abundant in many pathological
conditions

Secretioncells synthesize and secretes cytokines,


prostaglandins and other immune factors for defense and
repair in the glomerulus

D.ProximalConvolutedTubule(PCT)

Beginsattheurinarypole
Longestpartofnephron
2parts
o parsconvoluta
o parsrecta
epitheliallining:simplecuboidalorcolumnarwithbrushborder
(microvilliincreasesurfacearea)
cells of PCT reabsorbs 60-65% of water filtered in renal corpuscle;
this water and its solutes are transferred directly across the tubular
wall and immediately taken up by the peritubular capillaries.

E.LoopofHenle

Figure7.HistologyofRenalCorpuscle

B.GlomerularFiltrationMembrane
primaryfunctionistoallowultrafiltrationofblood

Viscerallayermadeupof
o Fenestratedcapillaryendotheliumpermeabletowaterand
smallsolutes

Functions:ultrafiltration,preventsescapeofCHONand
macromolecules
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Ushapedstructure
Parts
o ThickdescendinglimbverysimilartoPCT
o Thindescendinglimbsimplesquamousepitheliumwith
irregularlyspacedmicrovilli
o Thinascendinglimbsimplesquamousepitheliumwith
irregularlyspacedmicrovilli
o Thickascendinglimbsimplecuboidalepithelium;
resemblesDCT
Functions
o Thin descending limbs- freely permeable to water but not
salts
o Thin ascending limbs- permeable to NaCl but impermeable to
water
o Thick ascending limbs- actively transport NaCl out of the
tubule against a concentration gradient

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F.DistalConvolutedTubule

Locatedincorticalarea
3parts
o parsrecta
o parsconvoluta
o parsmaculata
linedbysimplecuboidalepitheliumwithnobrushborder
Functions
o Water-salt balance Na and water absorption and K secretion
in the presence of aldosterone
o Acid-base balance H and NH4 secretion into tubular urine

Figure8.PCT(left)andDCT(right)

G.JuxtaglomerularApparatus

Parts
o MaculadensaofDCT

SpecializedcellsthatcomeintocontactwithJGcells

Linedbycolumnarepithelium
o JGcellsofAfferentarteriole

Modifiedsmoothmscellsoftunicamedia

Secreterenin(responsibleforproductionofangiotensin
IIpotentvasoconstrictorandstimulatesaldosterone
secretionwhichpromotesNaandH2Oreabsorptionin
theDCT)
o Laciscells

SupportingcellsofJGapparatus
Functions
o Autoregulation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
o Control of blood pressure

H.CollectingTubules

FoundinthemedullareceiveurinefromDCT
tubulesjointoformCDorPapillaryDuctsofBellinitoemptyinto
theminorcalyces
linedbysimplecuboidalepitheliumbecomescolumnardeepin
medulla(collectingduct)
carryoutfinalmechanismoftheURINECONCENTRATIONSYSTEM
Aquaporins- integral proteins; function as selective pores for
passage of water molecules.

Table2.ComparisonofthePCTandDCT

PCT
Liningepithelium
Simplecuboidalor
columnarwithbrush
border
Cellsize
Larger
Staining
Moreacidophilic
(abundant
mitochondrias)
Lumen
narrow
#ofnuclei(wall)
lesser
indistinct
Lateralborder
(cells)

TheAngsandJoie

Figure9.Renaltubulesandassociatedhistologicpicture

VI.BLOODSUPPLYTOTHEKIDNEY
Mainrenalarterydividesinto5artery.Hassegments,whichare
resectable
A.Vascularrenalsegments(anterior/posteriorsurfaces)

DCT
Simplecuboidal
withfeworwithout
brushborder
smaller
Lesser

Wider
Greater
Distinct

Figure9.Bloodsupplyofdifferentrenalsegments

Arterialbloodsupply(dividesnearthehilumtoanendartery;end
arterymeaningthereareveryfewornoanastomoses)
Renal arteries arise at the level of the IV disc between L1 and L2
o Superiorsegmentala.
o Anterosuperiorsegmentala.
o Anteroinferiorsegmentala.
o Inferiorsegmentala.
o Posteriorsegmentala.

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Venousdrainage
o RenalveinsIVC
o LrenalveinreceivesLsuprarenalvein,L.gonadalvein,L
ascendinglumbarvein

VII.URETERS

Musculartube
Retrotperitonealinlocation
Conveyurinetobladder
2025cms(length)
RightureterisparalleltoIVC
Leftureterisparalleltoabdominalaorta

A.Parts

efferentarteriolegivesnourishmenttotubulesinmedulla
andmedullaryinterstitium
afferentarteriolessupplycapillaryofglomerulus
efferentarteriolesinthejuxtaglomerularwillgiveoffvasa
rectathatformloopswhichwillformvenules

renalpelvis

abdominal/falseureter

pelvic/trueureter

intravesicalureter

B.UretericRelations

Nervesupply
o Sympathetic renal plexus supplied by fibers from
abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves.
o Visceral afferent fibers- convey pain sensation; follow the
sympathetic fibers retrograde to spinal ganglia and cord (T11L2)
o Ureteric pain is usually referred to the ipsilateral lower
quadrant of the anterior abdominal wall and especially to the
groin.

Medialpartofthepsoasmuscles
Obliquelycrossedbygonadalvessels(waterunderthebridge)
wateristheureterandthegonadalvesselsisthebridge

Rureter=IVC

Lureter=abdominalaorta

Liesanteriortotheinternaliliacarteryfromthepelvicsidewall

C.UterinevesselsandUrinaryBladderRelations

B.InternalVasculature

Medullarybloodsupply
2typesofvasarecta:
o vasarectavera

truevasarecta

arisedirectlyfromarcuateorinterlobulararterioles

participateincountercurrentexchangesystem
o vasarectaspuriae

falsevasarecta

fromefferentarteriolesofjuxtamedullaryglomeruli

returnbloodtorenalcortexviathevenulesandbring
oxygenandnutrientstonephronsegments
**vascularbundlesorrete:countercurrentexchangesystem

Uretersenterthebladderposteriorly
Crossiliacvesselstoenterpelvisnearthebifurcationofthe
internalandexternalarteries
Ureterscoursesundertheuterinevesselsveryneartheisthmus
oftheuterus

D.Uretericconstrictions

Atthejunctionoftheuretersandrenalpelvis
Wheretheureterscrossthepelvicbrim
Duringthepassagethruthewallofurinarybladder
**theseconstrictedareasarepotentialsitesofobstructionby
ureteric(kidney)stones

E.Bloodsupply

Bloodvesselsofuretersareeasilytraumatizedduringsurgery
Arterialbloodsupply
o Renalarteries(constant)
o Testicularorovariana.
o Abdominalaorta
o Commoniliaca.
Branches approach the ureters medially and divide into ascending
and descending branches, forming a longitudinal anastomosis on
the ureteric wall.
Venousdrainage
o Renalandgonadalv.

Figure 10. Blood supply to the kidney. A coronal view (left) shows the major
blood vessels of the kidney. The microvascular components extending into the
cortex and medulla from the interlobular vessels are shown on the right. Pink
boxes indicate vessels with arterial blood and blue indicate the venous return.
The intervening lavender boxes and vessels are intermediate sites where most
reabsorbed material reenters the blood.
TheAngsandJoie

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VIII.INNERVATION(Kidneys,Ureters,AdrenalGlands)

Table3.Organ/Partandtheircorrespondinginnervations
Organ/Part
Innervation
Kidneys
renalnerveplexus
Abdominalpartoftheureters
renal,abdominalaorticand
superiorhypogastricplexuses
Suprarenalglands
celiacplexusandgreater,lesser,
leastsplanchnicnerves

SandPSfibers

Suppliedbyfiberscomingfromtheabdominopelvic
splanchnicnerves

Ureters

Renal,aortic,superiorandinfhypogastricn

Afferentpainfibersfollowsympathteticfiberstospinal
gangliaandcordsegmentsT11T12

Renalcalculipainisreferredipsilaterally(lointothegroin)

Figure11.BloodSupplytoKidneys.(Arteriesinthispicturefrommostsuperior:
renal,gonadal,aorta,commoniliac,internaliliac,superiorvesical,uterine,

IX.LYMPHATICSofKidneys,UretersandSuprarenalGlands

middlerectal,inguinal,inferiorvesical)

Clinical Correlation
In operations in the posterior abdominal region, surgeons pay special
attention to the location of the ureters and are careful not to retract them
laterally or unnecessarily.

F.HistologyoftheUreters

RenallymphaticvesselsdrainintoRandLlumbarLN
Superiorpartofureterlumbarnodes
Middlepartofureterdrainintocommoniliacnodes
Inferiorpartofuretercommon,ext,internaliliacnodes
SuprarenalLVfrommedullalumbarLN

Stellateshapedlumen
Linedbyatransitionalepitheliumorurothelium
o Singlelayerofsmallbasalcells
o Intermediatelayerofonetoseverallayersof
columnarcells
o Umbrellacells

Figure12.Lymphaticsupplyofkidney,ureterandsuprarenalglands.

X.THEURINARYBLADDER

Extraperitonealorganlyingwithinthepelvis
Receptacleforurinestorage
Strongmuscularwall(detrusormuscle)
Distensible
Emptystate:liewithinlesserpelvis
Fullstate:ovoid,ascendintoabdominalcavity

A.Parts

Figure11.Uretershistologicpicture.
TheAngsandJoie

Funduscentralandsuppostpartthatexpandsfreely,rises
abovepubiccrest
Apexantsupportion,conntectedtoant.abdominalwallby
medianumbilicalligament

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Bodypostinfpart,hasthetwouretericorifices
BaseliesonpelvicfloorformingtheTRIGONE(triangulararea
formedbylinedrawnbetweentwouretericorificesandapex
formedbyinternalurethralmeatus)

Neckcontinuouswithurethra

B.OrientationoftheUrinaryBladder

G.HistologyofBladderandUrethra

Thebaseofthebladderistriangularandlocateposteroinferiorly
Inmales,theprostrateglandisattacheddirectlytothebaseof
thebladder
o Liesanteriortotherectum

Infemales,itrestsdirectlyonthepelvicfloorinferiortothe
uterus
o Closelyrelatedtoant.vaginalwall

C.LigamentSupportoftheBladder

Figure13.Transitionalepithelium/urotheliumliningbladderandurethra

Medianumbilicalligament
o Remnantoftheurachus
o Fibrouscordextfromapexofthebladdertotheumbilicus

Lateralumbilicalligament
o Stabilizethebladderanteriorlytogetherwiththemedian
umbilicalligament

Medialpuboprostatic(male)/medialpubovesicalligament
(female)
o Fromthebackofsymphysispubistobladderneckand
prostate(males)

Lateralpuboprostatic(male)/lateralpubovesicalligament
(female)
o Frompelvicfacisaatareaoflevatoranitotheneckofthe
bladderandprostate(males)
o Supportstheneckofthebladder

D.Bloodsupplyofbladder

Arteries
o Internaliliaca(main)
o Superiorvesicalasuperolateral/anterosuperiorwall
o Inferiorvesicala.ureter,fundusandneckofbladder,
prostateandurethra

Infemales=vaginala.
Veins
o Perivesicalplexusdrainintoinferiorvesicalvein

Figure14.Bladderwallandurothelium.(a): In the neck of the bladder, near the


urethra, the wall shows four layers: the mucosa with urothelium (U) and lamina
propria (LP); the thin submucosa (S); inner, middle, and outer layers of smooth
muscle (IL, ML, and OL), and the adventitia (A). X15. H&E. (b): When the
bladder is empty, the mucosa is highly folded and the urothelium has bulbous
umbrella cells. X250. PSH. (c): when the bladder is full, the mucosa is pulled
smooth, the urothelium is thinner, and the umbrella cells are flatter. X250. H&E.

E.InnervationoftheUrinaryBladders

Sympathetic
o Hypogastricplexus(L12)orfillingnerves
o Inhibitdetrussorms.contractiontoallowfillingupofbladder
o Increaseurethralsphinctertone
Parasympathetic
o PelvicsplanchnicnervesandinferiorHypogastricnerves(S2
S4)oremptyingnerves
o Contractsthebladder
o Internalurethralsphincterrelaxes

Basichistologicstructure:
o Mucosalinedbytransitionalepithelium(urothelium)
o Laminapropria
o Submucosasmoothmusclelayer
o Adventitia

Urothelium
o Basallayercuboidalcells
o Intermediatelayer(polygonal;hasabilitytostretch)
o Umbrellacels(protectivelayer)
Laminapropria
o CTbedwithcapillaries,lymphaticsandnerves
Inner,middleandouterlayersofsmoothmuscles
o Longitudinalms.layer
o Circularms.layer(intermediatelayer)
o Adventitia

F.Lymphaticdrainage

Anterior/superolateralwallexternaliliacnodes
Posterior/fundusandneckinternaliliacnodes
Neckofbladdersacralnodesand/orcommoniliacnodes

TheAngsandJoie

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B.Femalurethra
XI.URETHRA

A.Maleurethra

Figure15.LocationofUrethrainFemales

Figure14.LocationofUrethrainMales

20cms(length)
o startsfrombladdernecktoexternalmeatusofglanspenis
o parts

prostatic

membranous

spongy/penile
ProstaticUrethra
o 3cmslong
o widestandmostdilatableportion
o traversesthruprostateglandtoterminateatsuperiorfascia
ofurogenitaldiaphragm
o lined by urothelium
o parts

urethralcrest

prostaticsinuseswhereprostaticglandsopen

utricle

ejaculatoryducts
MembranousUrethra
o 2cmslong
nd
o shortest,leastdilatable,2 narrowest
o foundwithintheurogenitaldiaphragm
o surroundedbyurethralsphinctermuscle
o lined by stratified columnar and pseudostratified epithelium
Spongy/penileUrethra
o 15cmslong
o traversesbulbandcorpusspongiosumofpenis
o enlargesintoFossaNavicularisattheareaoftheglans
o terminatesatexternalurethralmeatus
o lined by stratified columnar and pseudostratified columnar
epithelium

TheAngsandJoie

4cmslong
exclusivelyaurinaryorgan
correspondstotheprostaticandmembranousportionsofmale
urethra
paraurethralgandshomologueofprostateglandinmales;
foundatsitesoftheexternalurethralmeatus
initially lined by transitional epithelium, then by stratified
squamous epithelium and some areas of pseudostratified columnar
epithelium

C.BloodsupplyofUrethra

Males
o ArterialBloodSupply

prostaticvessels(infvesicalandmiddlerectala.)
prostraticurethra

dorsalarteryofthepenismembranousandspongy
urethra
o Venousdrainage:prostaticvenousplexus

Females
o ArterialBloodSupply

Internalpudendalandvaginala.
o Venousdrainage:internalpudendalandvaginalveins

D.LymphaticDrainageofUrethra

Males
o ProstaticandmembranousurethrainternaliliacLNand
externaliliacLN
o SpongyurethradeepinguinalLNandexternaliliacLN
FemaleSacralandinternalLN

E.InnervationoftheUrethra

Male
o Prostaticnerveplexusfromhypogastricplexus
o Dorsalnerveofpenisfrompudendalnerve(distalurethra)
Female
o Vesicalnerveplexus
o Pudendalnerve

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F.HistologyoftheMaleUrethra

XII.EMBRYOLOGY

Figure16.Histologyofmaleurethra

G.

Urethralmucosahaslargelongitudinalfolds
Maleurethra:3segments
o Prostaticurethralinedbytransitionalepithelium
o Membranousurethralinedbystratifiedcolumnarand
pseudostratifiedepithelium
o Spongyurethrastratifiedcolumnarandpseudostratified
withstratifiedsquamousepitheliumdistally
HistologyoftheFemaleurethra

Figure17.Urethra.A fibromuscular tube that carries urine from the bladder to


the exterior of the body. (a): A transverse section shows that the mucosa has
large longitudinal folds around the lumen (L). X50. H&E. (b): A higher
magnification of the urethral epithelium is shown in this micrograph. The thick
epithelial lining is stratified columnar in some areas and pseudostratified
columnar elsewhere, but becomes stratified squamous at the distal end of the
urethra. X250. H&E.

Liningepithelium:
o Proximaltransitionalepithelium
o Distal:stratifiedswuamous,nonkeratinizing
o Middlepartsurroundedbyexternalstriatedms.
Sphincter

3overlapingkidneysystems:
pronephrosexcretoryorganwhichappearsfirst
o rudimentaryandnonfunctional
th
o developin4 week
mesonephrosdevelopsafterthedegenerationofthe
pronephros
o formscaudally
o functionforashorttime
th
metanephrosappearsinthe5 week
o definitivekidney

XIII.QUESTIONS

Whatarterysuppliesthepelvicportionoftheureter?
a. Renal
b. Vesical
c. Commoniliac
d. Gonadal

Arteryfoundalongsidetherenalpyramids
a. arcuate
b. segmental
c. interlobular
d. interlobar

Whatisthefascia/capsulethatliesexternaltorenalfasciaandforms
partofretropeitoneal/extraperitonealfat?
a. Pararenalfat
b. Renalfascia
c. Perirenalfatcapsule
d. Fibrouscapsule

Arterysupplyingpelvicportionofureter
a. renalkidney
b. vesicalbladder
c. commoniliac
d. gonadal

Transitionalepitheliumisseenintheffexcept:
a. DCT
b. ureter
c. renalpelvis
d. urinarybladder

TheAngsandJoie

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