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Grade 7 Science

Unit 2
Heat is transferred from one place to
another by three different processes.

Chapter 6

Heat Transfer
Heat transfers from a hot object to a
cold object.
Heat moves NOT cold
Something cold is really just
something less hot

3 Types of Heat Transfer

1.Conduction
2.Convection
3.Radiation

1. Conduction
Particle movement:
the particles in an object vibrate in place
but collide with neighbouring particles
passing kinetic energy to them.

State(s) in which it occurs:


Can happen in Solid, liquid and gas
Best in solids worse in gases

The particles stay in position!

Examples of conduction
Cooling on a stove

Ice packs

Can you think of other examples?

Conduction mini experiment


Comparing conduction
Do some materials conduct better
than others?

2. Convection
Particle movement:
When heated the particles gain energy,
spread out, become less dense and rise.
As it cools, the particles lose energy, get
closer together, become more dense and
sink.

State(s) in which it occurs:


Can happen in liquids and gas
Not in Solids!

Examples of Convection
Boiling water on the stove
Radiators
Can you think of
other examples?

Convection Demonstration
convection currents using a
convection box or convection tube

3. Radiation
Particle movement:
No particles!!
electromagnetic waves carry energy
from a source to another object.

State(s) in which it occurs:


Any or none! No state necessary
Can occur in the vacuum of space

Examples of Radiation
Fireplace
Sunlight

All 3 can happen at the same time!

3 ways radiant energy transfers


1. Reflect: bounce of shiny, smooth
surfaces
2. Absorb: Taken in by rough, dull
coloured surfaces (gets warmer)
3. Transmit: Moves through glass,
plastic, paper.

Interactive:
http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/asse
t/lsps07_int_heattransfer/
Online Practice:
http://www.webquest.hawaii.edu/kahi
hi/puzzles/energytransfer/index.php

Core Lab Activity!

Activity 6-1D
Absorb That Energy
Page 184

Home Heating!
Brainstorm: How do we heat our homes?
The Past

The Present

Home Heating Technology


Wood stove
Electric Heaters
Oil Furnace
Air to Air Heat Pump
Geothermal
Solar

Oil furnace

Hot-water radiation

Air to air

Geothermal

Core STSE

Heat Pumps: An Alternative Way


to Heat Homes

Section Review Questions

Page 191 Qs: 1, 2, 3, 4 & 9

Conductors Vs. Insulators


Thermal
Conductor
Allows Heat to
Transfer

Thermal
Insulator
Prevents Heat
from Transferring

Ex. Metal (some


metal are better
than others)

Ex. Wood, plastic

Thermal conductors
Allows heat to travel
Cookware warms your food
Car Radiator warms your car

Thermal insulators
Keeps Items Warm!

Animal Fur animals/humans


Sod houses in the past
Fibreglass houses in the present
Thermos - food

How does a thermos work?


A vacuum exists
between the layer
No particles means
little heat transfers!

Try it out!
Interactive mini-lab
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienc
eclips/ages/8_9/keeping_warm.shtml

Section Review Questions

Page 205 Qs: 1, 2& 9

Heat Vs. Temperature


Heat: The energy which is transferred from
hotter substances to colder ones.
Note: cold doesnt move, heat does!

Heat: the total


energy
Temperature: the
average energy

Specific Heat Capacity


Specific Heat Capacity: Measures
the amount of heat transferred
The amount of heat needed to raise
the temperature of 1.00 g of a
substance by 1.00C.

Specific Heat Capacity


High specific heat capacity takes a lot
of heat to warm up
A lot of heat transfers

Low specific heat capacity takes only


a little heat to warm up
Only a little heat transfers

Specific heat capacities of various


substances

Dont Need to memorize these!

Which has a higher Specific Heat


capacity?
Water or soil?

Think about it:


On a hot day which warms up more
quickly the water or sand?

Which has a higher Specific Heat


capacity?
Water or soil?
Soil!

Think about it:


On a hot day which warms up more
quickly the water or sand?
Sand! It cools more quickly as well

Question 1
Why do metal objects often feel
colder than the surrounding air
temperature?

Question 1
Why do metal objects often feel
colder than the surrounding air
temperature?
Not because the metal is colder
Metal has a low specific heat capacity, it will
quickly absorb heat!
The heat from our hands is transferred to the
metal quickly
This makes our fingers cold the metal feels
cold!

Question 2
Why does a piece of aluminum
foil feel cool after taken out of
the oven for only minutes?

Question 2
Why does a piece of aluminum foil
feel cool after taken out of the
oven for only minutes?
The aluminum has a low specific heat capacity.
It quickly takes in heat, but also loses it quickly
It doesnt take much heat to warm it up so it
will lose that small amount of heat quickly

Question 3
Why should you be cautious when
eating an apple pie which has been
taken from the oven for twenty
minutes?

Question 3
Why should you be cautious when
eating an apple pie which has been
taken from the oven for twenty
minutes?
The apple pie has a high specific heat capacity.
It takes a lot of heat to warm it up so it will
take a long time to lose all of that heat!

Interactive
comparing specific heat interactive:
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/educat
ion/pd/oceans_weather_climate/media
/specific_heat.swf

Discussion: Sea and Land Breeze

Heat and Technology


The need to stay warm have led to
many new technologies (past and
present)
Make a list of heat-technologies with
a partner (come up with as many as
possible!)

Section Review Questions

Page 215 Qs: 1, 2, 3 & 7

Chapter Review Questions:

Page 216-17 Qs: 1, 3, 5, 7, & 16

Unit Review Questions:

Page 216-17 Qs: 3, 4, 12, 13, 18,


19, 26, 31, 35 & 40