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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. DEFINITION OF PROPERTY .................................................................................................................................. 3

    



 

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II. OWNERSHIP ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

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$

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III. RIGHTS OF ACCESSION .................................................................................................................................... 11

  

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IV. QUIETING OF TITLE ........................................................................................................................................ 15

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V. CO-OWNERSHIP............................................................................................................................................... 16

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VI. POSSESSION ................................................................................................................................................... 21

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VII. USUFRUCT .................................................................................................................................................... 26

  

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VIII. EASEMENTS OR SERVITUDES ......................................................................................................................... 32

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BOOK III Ȃ DIFFERENT MODES OF ACQUIRING OWNERSHIP ..................................................................................... 37
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9
 

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DONATION ......................................................................................................................................................... 39
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Y

Y   YY  


Y
c c 
Y / & ,&  &   &      ,  
&   D    , ,    & 

Y /  &     3
VY ?   &  
VY / %    &  +@&  &   
&

VY         

A.Y Classification under the Civil Code

(
Y Immovableor ealcroperty

(
Y ›ands,buildings,roadandonstrutions  A 

.
Y rees,plants,growingruits     &     && 

Y verythingattahed &&   +& ,     &  A
&     ;
1
Y útatues,relies,paintingsorotherobjetsoruseorornamentation,      
&&  &     & & &
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Y Pahineries,reeptales,instrumentsandimplements  & A
&         , &  
A
"
Y ‡nimalhouses,pigeonhouses,beehives,ishpondsorbreedingplaesosimilarnature,    
& & & &    ,  &  &  
 @ &    @
9
Y µertilizer      
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Y Pines,uarries,andslagdumps,&   &   ,    
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Y (o sandstrutures,       ;&    +   ,
 A 
(C
Y Ìontrat   A servitudes otherrealrights&&   


Y 6   & &    

1(!,c ( , ,    A
1(!,c $0,>   & 


Y /  

1(!,c .,    
1(!,c    && 
1(!,c 9*D


Y # 

1(!,c 1% , ,   ;  & 
1(!,c !0 ,  ,& & &
1(!,c "& , 7, ,       &  
1(!,c '#A 


Y  

1(!,c (C    A,  &&   

Povablesorcersonalcroperty

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<(=Y &          
<.=Y c          
<=Y *     
<1=Y / ,      &    & &     
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1(9        3
<(=Y        ;& &  &
<.=Y %  A   ,&&   , &    


DAVAO SAWMILL v CASTILLO ()
BERKENKOTER v CU UNJIENG ()
LOPEZ v OROSA ()
TUMALAD v VICENCIO ()
ASSOCIATED INSURANCE v IYA ()
MAKATI LEASING v WEAREVER ()
BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS v MERALCO ()
MERALCO v BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS ()
MERALCO v BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS ()
CALTEX v BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS ()
BENGUET CORP. v BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS ()

.
Y /&   %      
*&   3


Y &  

Y *&  & && 

Y c 

Y EB8

Y  + 

Y # % (!11

(!11/ samething  dierentvendees,      & 
 irstta enpossession ingoodaith,  IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
6 
   


     
% IMMOVABLE PROPERTY,     >goodaith,
irstreorded  c 

% noinsription,        inthepossession@ ,
 ,  oldesttitle,  



Y c  

Y    


Y #      c  

cointoomparison ‡› IGHú c ú
‡› IGHú
#  c       c  & 
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&  &&   &    ,
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& (=Y % ;  ;   (=Y  ;3   
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=Y   D   .=Y )      
       
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=Y      
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B.Y Classification by Ownership

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Y es
ullius   ;  

     

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Y cubli(ominion   ;  D
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1.C     &3
<(=Y  publiuse,  ,  ,,,   , % , A,,
    &   
<.=Y  % ,    ,   &publiservie development
onationalwealth

1.(‡llotherproperty % ,      ,patrimonialproperty

1..c    &,nolongerintended publiusepubliservie,  &   & 
  % 


1.1cropertyorpubliuse, ,, & ,    ,,& ,
> ,  ,   , &    A        ,,& 

      &patrimonial,    , ;  
   



Y c  % 
1.C1.(1.. 


Y *  

Y *  

Y * &    

LA BUGAL B͛LAAN TRIBAL ASSN. v RAMOS (2004)
ON RECONSIDERATION (2005)

CHAVEZ v PEA AMARI (2002)


ON RECONSIDERATION (2003)

USERO v CA (2006)
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Y c  0   
1.1,c ( 


Y *    A   


Y c c 


Y c & c  % 
1.( 


Y c & c  0   
1.1,c . 


Y c c  c c
1.!c     ,  &    % , , 
& ,    belongingtoprivatepersons, 


TANTOCO v MUNICIPAL COUNCIL ()
ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE v CITY OF ZAMBOANGA ()
SALAS v JARENCIO ()
CEBU ACETYLENE v BERCILLES ()
MUNICIPALITY OF SAN MIGUEL v FERNANDEZ ()
GOVERNMENT v CABANGIS ()
CHAVEZ v PEA AMARI (2002)
ON MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION (2003)

1
Y   %       c  c  c #&


Y c outsidetheommere & 

Y c    ; auisitivepresription

Y c   attahedorlevied +

Y c     voluntaryeasement

C.Y Other Classifications

(
Y   +

Y    &  ,&  A,+     ,
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Y /         
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&& >3

Y + &   

Y c   & 

Y c       

.
Y  & 

Y c     

   

Y       

 + & 


Y   
1($0   & 7&& 
   &   
 &     withoutbeingonsumed
  alltheothers


Y &       


 

Y 67& & 
(ierentiatedromµungibleor
on-ungible
*     <      =      &A,
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&   
67    <   &=  &  

Y # 7 
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Y #     ; ; 

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Y /    &    & 
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Y ) & ,  

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Y %       

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Y +  &

Y c+  ,   

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Y *+  , +    + &  


  

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Y    

Y % 

Y %& 

Y & 

Y ?   &  ;  &,&   


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Y        

Y 67   

Y    

Y     

Y 6   

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Y     &&

Y 4&& & 

Y && & 

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Y

Y  YY

A.Y Definition


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Y ñ/independentright exlusiveenjoymentandontrol       & 
advantages> 3
VY    < = 
VY c&   
subjettotherestritions&  3
VY 
VY  
Y „  / relationinprivatelaw   <  =   & 
subjetedtohiswill   publilawonurrenewiththerightsoanother
VY   „      



B.Y Bundle of Rights included in Ownership

1.'      righttoexlude   &enjoyment disposal
*
 ,&   &     repelorprevent         
    


Y ñ 
 ;    
Y ñ  
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Y ñ  
 
Y ñ 

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Y ñ 

 

C.Y Other Specific Rights found in the Civil Code



(
Y +@ 7 @# % 7 
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ÊÊ ÊÊ !Ê

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Y  
1C&    & &   ,, ,  
& &



Y ;&    +   
1!6       +  ompetentauthority  publiuse    just
ompensation


1
Y  
1$:    ,    

6,& propertyoanother,  útate   , byhane
G     
/   trespasser,      

/   ointeresttosieneorthearts,% &  >& ; ,  
 & 


1' ,    , hiddenandun nowndeposit money,jewelry,preious
objets,lawulownership   


!
Y    
19

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Y  
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VY   < „„
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VY /    ,     < „„
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Y   B < "

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Y     cB 


Y *&&   
(=Y „„
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.=Y „„
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=Y * 7     *,/& ,% , % <*/%%=
1=Y ?   7 B     B    
     +    B  <   ,(  &   
&    &=
!=Y 4  
"=Y 4 ;

HILARIO v SALVADOR (2005)
SAMPAYANG v CA (2005)
SANTOS v AYON (2005)
GANILA v CA (2005)
ROSS RICA SALES CENTER v SPS. ONG (2005)
PERALTA-LABRADOR v BUARIN (2005)


Y *&   
(=Y  


Y > 
11/  ,propertymustbeidentiied,    &relyonthestrengthohis
title  A   H &



Y /   
SERINA v CABALLERO (2004)


Y c    A    
PEREZ v MENDOZA (1975)
DIZON v CA (1993)

D.Y Limitations of Real Right of Ownership

(
Y )  & 

Y c       #
1"4   &D &    , 
,   &  ,?6 %%  & 
D; 


Y  + 

Y && 
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Y %   & 

Y  

Y & &    &  

Y    

Y %    


Y &  &   

1(   & A &  injuretherightsoathirdperson.
ÕY      

  
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1.   prohibittheintererene   &,   
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& 
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ÕY   
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<(=Y explosionomahinery   A  ,   &&  + 
    A     >   
<.=Y exessivesmo e,&   &    
<=Y allingotrees     ,    & ;
<1=Y emanations & ,  ,   & ,   
  

"9C#  , , &  ;   >
"99      
"9$  >,,,  ,&, ,    ,&  
"9'c    &
"1' &   
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"9         & 
"9" &   
"11 & &   &  >
"$17"$9    ;  

US v CAUSBY ( )
LUNOD v MENESES ( )


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Y   YY Y

A.Y Concept
11C        ,  
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Ê$$$%%Ê$
Y 

3      &  &  
&      ,    

Y ñ3+           <
  & =
7Y /  &    ,&;+ 
7Y       
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7Y /   

B.Y General Principles of Accession

(
Y   :     


Y    <„„ &   
„ =

Y 6  ; +   

.
Y   %%/66/6? 


Y 4 built,plantedorsown    improvementsrepairs& , 
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11!

Y A,     &madebyowner athisexpense,  

11"

Y     annotbeseparatedinjuryA
destrution  ,A
.  ,119

Y      &  >


Y      D   
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Y   %%/6#/%  


Y        6?  ,/6#?% /  /E/  11(

Fc/6%3

Y c 

Y / 

Y / <  =

Y / 

C.Y Obligations of Receiver of Fruits to Pay Expenses by 3rd person in production, gathering and preservation

11:     + &    prodution,gathering 
preservation

ÕY %/%3& ;&  +   
ÕY    + 3
VY # annualprodution  improvement   
VY &  ,+  +, &    &naturallyreuired 
 A & 
ÕY  + +   ,& + ; &,   & A
:
  &  A 

ÕY 4:08?%/*667c06** ?/%3&  & &    
ÕY *     3 <11'=
ÕY *   3  ,             &
&& 
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D.Y Kinds of Accession

1.Y Accession Discreta (Fruits)

11C      3
VY  <  =
VY     ,     <  =


Y 6     &  

Y /  & &A   

Y     ,  A &   &   

BACHRACH v SEIFERT ( )
BACHRACH v TALISAY ( )

2.Y Accession Continua

Over Immovables

O.Y ‡rtiiialorIndustrial  uilding,clanting,úowing

a.Y wneris cúusingmaterialoanother›- cúandP 
119 & A,   ,  ,A&    ,
        ,        & 
0  
&&  ;A,  ,
A 
:,     ,0& && ,  & 
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Y  
>c%    &  

Y   


Y c% ,   H &  <  c%700=
11$
11'
1!C
1!(
1!.
1!
1!1

Y c% 
11$

Y c%  
11'
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1!(


Y     

(=Y  > ,   
ÚY c  
7Y     
7Y 6 @  &   

.=Y  c   %
ÚY c&       & c@     c
ÚY c%  

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Y  c%  
1!.
11

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1!1
119
Õ    119



Y c% ,   H &     
1!!

6

3) +
1!"

BERNARDO v BATACLAN ( )
IGNACIO v HILARIO ( )
SARMIENTO v AGANA ( )
DEPRA v DUMLAO ( )
TECHNOGAS PHIL v CA ( )
ORTIZ v KAYANAN ( )
GEMINIANO v CA ( )
PLEASANTVILLE DEV͛T CORP v CA ( )
FELICES v IRIOLA ( )
SPOUSES NUGUID v CA (1993)
SPOUSES NUGUID v CA (2005)

9.Y
atural‡essionÌontinua
atural 


Y &
1!9   ; A      &  
  


ÕY 2?/%/%*  6# /6-c * :6*/*: /c /646 
<(=Y #     &   7+A  
<.=Y 0     
<=Y    A   ;  A 
ÕY @ A  I   D      &  
      
ÕY 4  &54  &      
 

ÕY     &&       &&  

REPUBLIC v CA ( )
GRANDE v CA ( )
MENESES ( )


Y 
1!'4  ,A  &   A A    
    ,        ,  
& &. 


NAVARRO ( )


Y     
1"(
1".
1"

BAES v CA ( )
BINALAY v MANALO

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Y *&  / 
1"(
1".
1"
1"1
1"!
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?.Y everse‡ession
(.C,*
.(,

Over Movables

O.Y Ìonjuntionand‡djuntion


Y $
„ 
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Y  %

Y c&   & 

Y *&  && 


Y  4 


Y Ê„  4


Y 
 c 

9.Y ÌommixtionandÌonusion

SIARI VALLEY ESTATES v LUCASAN (1955)
SANTOS v BERNABE ()

?.Y úpeiiation
c c c
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Y  YY Y



A.Y Differences between Action to Quiet Title and Action:

‡tiontouietitle ‡tionto emoveaÌloud
%            c  , ,   &,
+      &   &  &   H
&  ;+&;& 

c         c      
   &&  ,       H &,  , 
  &withoutoundation       
   natureohislaimsothatitmaybe
determinedbyderee

‡tiontouietitle ‡tiontocreventaÌloud
       
 +, & >

ÕY @ I  &,, &,&        ,
& &  ;  

ÕY /&   &          

ÕY  &  &      &  &   

ÕY /   &    +


B.Y Prescription of Action to Quiet Title


Y /     3&   


Y /     3          ,   

OLVIGA v CA (1993)
PINGOL v CA (1993)

C.Y Who are Entitled to Bring Action?
"1,%
(,c .,  

D.Y Notes

(
Y         

19"4      ,    &,, &,
&  ,        , , 
  , &   ;  ,  &   &>

 &       &       

.
Y c    >  ;B   


Y /& &,&     ,   , , , 
  

1
Y c  &   &  


TITONG v CA (1998)

!
Y >  > 
 


SPS. PORTIC v CRISTOBAL (2005)




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Y  Y

A.Y Definition

Ì-
 úHIc
Y  &&&&      <  = 
 


B.Y Characteristics of co-ownership

(
Y    ,   

.
Y    ,     


Y  7    

1
Y 0   &7  ;&      

 
PARDELL v BARTOLOME ( )

C.Y Differences between Co-ownership and Joint Tenancy

Ìo-ownership ointenany
 

D.Y Differences between Co-ownership and Partnership

Ìo-ownership cartnership
 

GATCHALIAN v COLLECTOR ( )

E.Y Source of Co-ownership

(
Y 


Y   
(19,*
(1$,*
'C


Y c 
(1!.


Y %
Y / 3(1!.
Y  3c .&


Y # 
9!
!9,.c 


Y  
19.

SIARI VALLEY ESTATE v LUCASAN ()




Y : 
1$


Y  &   
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    c O  

"!$


Y  

PUNZALAN v BOON LIAT ( )

+
Y && 
%"<=, 19."

.
Y  


Y  &
#  7 31'1
 

Y ?   
(99$
(99'
(9$C


Y    
(99!

F.Y Rights of each co-owner as to the thing owned in common

(
Y    &     &,+ & , 3

Y /; ; 7  @

Y 4  7
1$"

PARDELL v BARTOLOME ( )

.
Y      ,       &  
1$!

Y    
Y c&    >   


Y  7&    ;&
1$9

RESUENA v CA (2005)
ACABAL v ACABAL (2005)

1
Y & 7 3

Y +     &&

Y  &  +
1$$

Y 7H    >  &   „

 
+ 3   ; 7 
Y >      &  & +  & && &&  & 
1$'
Y     7

!
Y       

& 7    
1'(

‡Ìúµ‡› ‡I


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Y  
Y  ;&& 7
Y  &  ,      +   &
 7


Y # &   & 
1'.

‡tso‡lteration ‡tso‡dministration
 


Y        & 77

~UERY: Is lease of real property owned in common an act of alteration?
"19
 ($9$<$=

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Y      & ;  ; &
1'.,c 

LAVADIA v COSME ()
MELENCIO v DY TIAO LAY ()
TUASON v TUASON ()

9
Y + & 
(".C
(".

MARIANO v CA ()
VERDAD v CA ()

$
Y  A  
1'1

RAMIREZ v RAMIREZ ()
AGUILAR v CA (1993)
VDA DE APE v CA (2005)

'
Y    & 
(".(
("..

HALILI v CA (1998)
FRANCISCO v BOISER (2000)

G.Y Implications of co-owners right over his ideal share

(
Y 7 3


Y      

Y   ,& &      
?37& +  & 

Y    ;& 

Y   &  +   
1$$

.
Y       7


Y &  

Y    >        

Y  7&    A &  ; 
c c c
    c OÆ  

1''
Fc   A       
1'9

CARVAJAL v CA ()
PAMPLONA v MORETO ()
CASTRO v ATIENZA ()
ESTO~UE v PAJIMULA ()
DIVERSIFIED CREDIT v ROSADO ()
PNB v CA ()

H.Y Rules on co-ownership not applicable to conjugal partnership of gains or absolute community of property

I.Y Special rules on co-ownership of different stories of a house as differentiated from provisions of Condominium Law
(Act No. 4726)

(
Y   &&

.
Y  > &&


Y     &&

SUNSENT VIEW CONDOMINIUM v JUDGE CAMPOS (1981)

J.Y Extinguishment of co-ownership

(
Y   

.
Y 0   


Y >  


Y   

Y 7   7
Y 2?/%/%7?>   3

Y ?>      7 <  & 7=A
7    

Y     ,&  >  +  
>  

Y  &    7 
 
CAPITLE v DE GABAN (2004)

1
Y c 


Y  A    &,Fc3


Y 4     < (C =



Y 4 &    < =+.C 
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Y 4   &&  <  =



Y 4      


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Y 4  < &   7 =
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ÚY      >   
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Y    
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Y    7
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Y c  
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A.Y Definition and Concept

cúúúúI

Y /   ;&  , &      
 ;  
Y /       & 

  < 
=  &
 <  
=

B.Y Essential Requisites of Possession

(
Y :  <„  = 


Y &     

Y +  

Y  <  =

RAMOS v DIRECTOR OF LANDS ( )
DIRECTOR v CA ( )

.
Y / <
  
=

C.Y Degrees of Holding of Possession

(
Y 0      


    B     

.
Y c ; ,    


   ,  , ,,, 

Y   neverripenintoullownership  norepudiation  
 



Y c ;    ,  &


    &  
Y         &


1
Y c ; &
Y      ,   A,  



D.Y Cases of Possession

(
Y c onesel +one͛sownname  nameoanother
!.1

.
Y coneptoanowner  oneptoamereholder   
!.!


Y cgoodaith  badaith
!."

PLEASANTVILLE DEV͛T CORP v CA ( )


Y 0 A     >       

KASILAG v RO~UE (1939)



c c c
    c 99  

E.Y What things or rights may be possessed

!Csuseptibleoappropriation&   ;  

F.Y What may not be possessed by private persons

(
Y &&

.
Y c    &


Y  B7  &


G.Y Acquisition of Possession



(
Y 4   > 
!(


Y 0    


Y % ;  

Y #  

Y /
(=Y   "
    H 
Y 

    ,  
.=Y  „
    &   H 
Y 

 ,  && &


Y c     & 
Y   >   3
7Y % 
7Y $
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7Y  „  
7Y  
Y / 

  
„ , ,<  =, ,; 
  , + ;&,+     &

BANCO ESPANOL FILIPINO v PETERSON ( )

.
Y &   >
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Y  & 
ÊÊ ÊÊ%'$$$
(
Y   > 
.
Y / 

Y c   > 

Y    
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