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CPA REVIEW SCHOOL OF THE PHILIPPINES

Manila
MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES
CAPITAL BUDGETING

THEORY
1. Capital budgeting techniques are least likely to be used in evaluating the
A. Acquisition of new aircraft by a cargo company.
B. Design and implementation of a major advertising program.
C. Trade for a star quarterback by a football team.
D. Adoption of a new method of allocating non-traceable costs to product lines.
2. The inflation element refers to the
A. Impact that future price increases will have on the original cost of a capital expenditure.
B. Fact that the real purchasing power of a monetary unit usually increases over time.
C. Future deterioration of the general purchasing power of the monetary unit.
D. Future increases in the general purchasing power of the monetary unit.
3. Mahlin Movers, Inc. is planning to purchase equipment to make its operations more efficient.
This equipment has an estimated useful life of six years. As part of this acquisition, a
P150,000 investment in working capital is required. In a discounted cash flow analysis, this
investment in working capital should be
A. Amortized over the useful life of the equipment.
B. Disregarded because no cash is involved.
C. Treated as a recurring annual cash flow that is recovered at the end of six years.
D. Treated as an immediate cash outflow that is recovered at the end of six years.
4. To
A.
B.
C.
D.

approximate annual cash inflow, depreciation is


Added back to net income because it is an inflow of cash.
Subtracted from net income because it is an outflow of cash.
Subtracted from net income because it is an expense.
Added back to net income because it is not an outflow of cash.

5. In capital expenditures decisions, the following are relevant in estimating operating costs
except
A. Future costs.
B. Cash costs.
C. Differential costs. D. Historical costs.
6. Which of the following best identifies the reason for using probabilities in capital budgeting
is
A. Different life of projects.
C. Uncertainty.
B. Cost of capital.
D. Time value of money.
7. In capital budgeting decisions, the following items are considered among others:
1. Cash outflow for the investment.
2. Increase in working capital requirements.
3. Profit on sale of old asset
4. Loss on write-off of old asset.
For which of the above items would taxes be relevant?
A. Items 1 and 3 only.
C. All items.
B. Items 3 and 4 only.
D. Items 1, 3 and 4 only.
8. Your company is purchasing a transport equipment as part of its territorial expansion
strategy. The technical services department indicated that this equipment needs overhauling
in year 4 or year 5 of its useful life. The overhauling cost will be expected during the year

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the overhauling is done. The finance officer insists that the overhauling be done in year 4,
not in year 5. The most likely reason is
A. There is lower tax rate in year 5.
C. The time value of money is considered.
B. There is higher tax rate in year 5
D. Due statements A and C above.
9. An
A.
B.
C.
D.

optimal capital budget is determined by the point where the marginal cost of capital is
Minimized.
Equal to the average cost of capital.
Equal to the rate of return on total assets.
Equal to the marginal rate of return on investment.

10. The following statements refer to the accounting rate of return (ARR)
1. The ARR is based on the accrual basis, not cash basis.
2. The ARR does not consider the time value of money.
3. The profitability of the project is considered.
From the above statements, which are considered limitations of the ARR concept?
A. Statements 2 and 3 only.
C. All the 3 statements.
B. Statements 3 and 1 only.
D. Statements 1 and 2 only.
11. The payback method assumes that all cash inflows are reinvested to yield a return equal to
A. the discount rate.
C. the internal rate of return.
B. the hurdle rate.
D. zero.
12. As a capital budgeting technique, the payback period considers depreciation expenses (DE)
and time value of money (TVM) as follows:
A.
B.
C.
D.
DE
relevant
irrelevant
Irrelevant
relevant
TVM
relevant
irrelevant
Relevant
irrelevant
13. The bailout payback period is
A. The payback period used by firms with government insured loans.
B. The length of time for payback using cash flows plus the salvage value to recover the
original investment
C. (a) and (b)
D. None of the above.
14. Which of the following methods measures the cash flows and outflows of a project as if they
occurred at a single point in time?
A. Cash flow based payback period.
C. Payback method.
B. Capital budgeting.
D. Discounted cash flow.
15. When using one of the discounted-cash-flow methods to evaluate the feasibility of a capital
budgeting project, which of the following factors generally is not important?
A. The method of financing the project under consideration.
B. The impact of the project on income taxes to be paid.
C. The timing of cash flows relating to the project.
D. The amount of cash flows relating to the project.
16. In an investment in plant the return that should keep the market price of the firm stock
unchanged is
A. Payback
C. Net present value
B. Discounted rate of return
D. Cost of capital
17. The excess present value method is anchored on the theory that the future returns, expressed
in terms of present value, must at least be
A. Equal to the amount of investment
C. More than the amount of investment
B. Less than the amount of investment
D. Cannot be determined

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18. A company had made the decision to finance next years capital projects through debt rather
than additional equity. The benchmark cost of capital for these projects should be
A. The before-tax cost of new-debt financing. C. The cost of equity financing.
B. The after-tax cost of new-debt financing. D. The weighted-average cost of capital.
19. All of the following refer to the discount rate used by a firm in capital budgeting except
A. Hurdle rate.
C. Opportunity cost.
B. Required rate of return.
D. Opportunity cost of capital.
20. If a firm identifies (or creates) an investment opportunity with a present value <List A> its
cost, the value of the firm and the price of its common stock will <List B>
A.
B.
C.
D.
List A
Greater than
Greater than
Equal to
Equal to
List B
Increase
Decrease
Increase
Decrease
21. The common assumption in capital budgeting analysis is that cash inflows occur in lump
sums at the end of individual years during the life of an investment project when in fact they
flow more or less continuously during those years
A. Results in understated estimates of NPV.
B. Is done because present value tables for continuous flows cannot be constructed.
C. Will result in inconsistent errors being made on estimating NPVs such that project cannot
be evaluated reliably.
D. Results in higher estimate for the IRR on the investment.
22. An advantage of the net present value method over the internal rate of return model in
discounted cash flow analysis is that the net present value method
A. Computes a desired rate of return for capital projects.
B. Can be used when there is no constant rate of return required for each year of the project.
C. Uses a discount rate that equates the discounted cash inflows with the outflows.
D. Uses discounted cash flows whereas the internal rate of return model does not.
23. When using the net present value method for capital budgeting analysis, the required rate of
return is called all of the following except the
A. Risk-free rate.
B. Cost of capital.
C. Discount rate.
D. Cutoff rate.
24. A projects net present value, ignoring income tax considerations, is normally affected by the
A. Proceeds from the sale of the asset to be replaced.
B. Carrying amount of the asset to be replaced by the project.
C. Amount of annual depreciation on the asset to be replaced.
D. Amount of annual depreciation on fixed assets used directly on the project.
25. You have determined the profitability of a planned project by finding the present value of all
the cash flows from that project. Which of the following would cause the project to look less
appealing, that is, have a lower present value?
A. The discount rate increases.
B. The cash flows are extended over a longer period of time.
C. The investment cost decreases without affecting the expected income and life of the
project.
D. The cash flows are accelerated and the project life is correspondingly shortened.
26. How are the following used in the calculation of the internal rate of return of a proposed
project? Ignore income tax considerations.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Residual sales value of project
Exclude
Include
Exclude
Include
Depreciation expense
Include
Include
Exclude
Exclude

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27. The discount rate that equates the present value of the expected cash flows with the cost of
the investment is the
A. Net present value
C. Accounting rate of return
B. Internal rate of return
D. Payback period.
28. Which of the following characteristics represent an advantage of the internal rate of return
techniques over the accounting rate of return technique in evaluating a project?
I Recognition of the projects salvage value.
II Emphasis on cash flows.
III Recognition of the time value of money.
A. I only.
B. I and II.
C. II and III.
D. I, II, and III.
29. Polo Co. requires higher rates of return for projects with a life span greater than 5 years.
Projects extending beyond 5 years must earn a higher specified rate of return. Which of the
following capital budgeting techniques can readily accommodate this requirement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Internal Rate of Return
Yes
No
No
Yes
Net Present Value
No
Yes
No
Yes
30. Which of the following combinations is NOT possible?
Profitability Index
NPV
A. Greater than 1
Positive
B. Equals 1
Zero
C. Less than 1
Negative
D. Less than 1
Positive

IRR
More than cost of capital
Equals cost of capital
Less than cost of capital
Less than cost of capital

31. Which of the following is always true with regard to the net present value (NPV) approach?
A. If a project is found to be acceptable under the NPV approach, it would also be
acceptable under the internal rate of return (IRR) approach.
B. The NPV and the IRR approaches will always rank projects in the same order.
C. If a project is found to be acceptable under the NPV approach, it would also be
acceptable under the payback approach.
D. The NPV and payback approaches will always rank projects in the same order.
32. When ranking two mutually exclusive investments with
management should give first priority to the project
A. That generates cash flows for the longer period of time.
B. Whose net after-tax flows equal the initial investment.
C. That has the greater accounting rate of return.
D. That has the greater profitability index.

different

initial

amounts,

33. Which mutually exclusive project would you select, if both are priced at $1,000 and your
discount rate is 15%; Project A with three annual cash flows of $1,000, or Project B, with 3
years of zero cash flow followed by 3 years of $1,500 annually?
A. Project A.
B. Project B.
C. The IRRs are equal, hence you are indifferent.
D. The NPVs are equal, hence you are indifferent.
34. Payback period (PP), profitability index (PI), and simple accounting rate of return (SARR)
are some of the capital budgeting techniques. What is the effect of an increase in the cost of
capital on these techniques?
A.
B.
C.
D.
PP
Increase
No change
No change
Decrease
PI
Decrease
Decrease
Increase
No change
SARR
Increase
No change
Decrease
No change

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35. A company is evaluating three possible investments. Information relating to the company and
the investments follow:
Fisher rate for the three projects
7%
Cost of capital
8%
Based on this information, we know that
A. all three projects are acceptable.
B. none of the projects are acceptable.
C. the capital budgeting evaluation techniques profitability index, net present value, and
internal rate of return will provide a consistent ranking of the projects.
D. the net present value method will provide a ranking of the projects that is superior to the
ranking obtained using the internal rate of return method.
36. Several proposed capital projects which are economically acceptable may have to be ranked
due to constraints in financial resources. In ranking these projects, the least pertinent is this
statement.
A. If the internal rate of return method is used in the capital rationing problem, the higher
the rate, the better the project.
B. In selecting the required rate of return, one may either calculate the organizations cost of
capital or use a rate generally acceptable in the industry.
C. A ranking procedure on the basis of quantitative criteria may be established by specifying
a minimum desired rate of return, which rate is used in calculating the net present value
of each project.
D. If the net present value method is used, the profitability index is calculated to rank the
projects. The lower the index, the better the project.
37. Capital budgeting methods are often divided into two classifications: project screening and
project ranking. Which one of the following is considered a ranking method rather than a
screening method?
A. Net present value.
C. Profitability index.
B. Time-adjusted rate of return.
D. Accounting rate of return.
38. A company has analyzed seven new projects, each of which has its own internal rate of
return. It should consider each project whose internal rate of return is _____ its marginal cost
of capital and accept those projects in _____ order of their internal rate of return.
A. Below; decreasing.
C. Above; increasing.
B. Above; decreasing.
D. Below; increasing.
39. Velasquez & Co. is considering an investment proposal for P10 million yielding a net present
value of P450,000. The project has a life of 7 years with salvage value of P200,000. The
company uses a discount rate of 12%. Which of the following would decrease the net
present value?
A. Extend the project life and associated cash inflows.
B. Increase discount rate to 15%.
C. Decrease the initial investment amount to P9.0 million.
D. Increase the salvage value.
40. What is the effect of changes in cash inflows, investment cost and cash outflows on
profitability (present value) index (PI)
A. PI will increase with an increase in cash inflows, a decrease in investment cost, or a
decrease in cash outflows.
B. PI will increase with an increase in cash inflows, an increase in investment cost, or an
increase in cash outflows.
C. PI will decrease with an increase in cash inflows, a decrease in investment cost, or a
decrease in cash outflows.
D. PI will decrease with an increase in cash outflows, an increase in investment cost, or an
increase in cash inflows.

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PROBLEMS
1. Acme is considering the sale of a machine with a book value of $80,000 and 3 years
remaining in its useful life. Straight-line depreciation of $25,000 annually is available. The
machine has a current market value of $100,000. What is the cash flow from selling the
machine if the tax rate 40%.
A. $25,000
B. $80,000
C. $92,000
D. $100,000
2

Hatchet Company is considering replacing a machine with a book value of $400,000, a


remaining useful life of 5 years, and annual straight-line depreciation of $80,000. The
existing machine has a current market value of $400,000. The replacement machine would
cost $550,000, have a 5-year life, and save $75,000 per year in cash operating costs. If the
replacement machine would be depreciated using the straight-line method and the tax rate is
40%, what would be the net investment required to replace the existing machine?
A. $90,000.
B. $150,000
C. $330,000
D. $550,000

3. Diliman Republic Publishers, Inc. is considering replacing an old press that cost P800,000 six
years ago with a new one that would cost P2,250,000. Shipping and installation would cost
an additional P200,000. The old press has a book value of P150,000 and could be sold
currently for P50,000. The increased production of the new press would increase inventories
by P40,000, accounts receivable by P160,000 and accounts payable by P140,000. Diliman
Republics net initial investment for analyzing the acquisition of the new press assuming a
35% income tax rate would be
A. P2,450,000
B. P2,425,000
C. P2,600,000
D. P2,250,000
4. Key Corp. plans to replace a production machine that was acquired several years ago.
Acquisition cost is P450,000 with salvage value of P50,000. The machine being considered
is worth P800,000 and the supplier is willing to accept the old machine at a trade-in value of
P60,000. Should the company decide not to acquire the new machine, it needs to repair the
old one at a cost of P200,000. Tax-wise, the trade-in transaction will not have any
implication but the cost to repair is tax-deductible. The effective corporate tax rate is 35% of
net income subject to tax. For purposes of capital budgeting, the net investment in the new
machine is
A. P540,000
B. P610,000
C. P660,000
D. P800,000
5. Great Value Company is planning to purchase a new machine costing P50,000 with freight
and installation costs amounting to P1,500. The old unit is to be traded-in will be given a
trade-in allowance of P7,500. Other assets that are to be retired as a result of the acquisition
of the new machine can be salvaged and sold for P3,000. The loss on retirement of these
other assets is P1,000 which will reduce income taxes of P400. If the new equipment is not
purchased, repair of the old unit will have to be made at an estimated cost of P4,000. This
cost can be avoided by purchasing the new equipment. Additional gross working capital of
P12,000 will be needed to support operation planned with the new equipment.
The net investment assigned to the new machine for decision analysis is
A. P50,200
B. P52,600
C. P53,600
D. P57,600
6. Hooker Oak Furniture Company is considering the purchase of wood cutting equipment.
Data on the equipment are as follows:
Original investment
$30,000
Net annual cash inflow
$12,000
Expected economic life in years
5
Salvage value at the end of five years
$3,000
The company uses the straight-line method of depreciation with no mid-year convention.
What is the accounting rate of return on original investment rounded off to the nearest
percent, assuming no taxes are paid?
A. 40.0%
B. 20.0%
C. 24.0%
D. 22.0%
7. A company is considering putting up P50,000 in a three-year project.

The companys

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expected rate of return is 12%. The present value of P1.00 at 12% for one year is 0.893, for
two years is 0.797, and for three years is 0.712. The cash flow, net of income taxes will be
P18,000 (present value of P16,074) for the first year and P22,000 (present value of P17,534)
for the second year. Assuming that the rate of return is exactly 12%, the cash flow, net of
income taxes, for the third year would be
A. P7,120
B. P10,000
C. P16,392
D. P23,022
8. Lor Industries is analyzing a capital investment proposal for new machinery to produce a
new product over the next ten years. At the end of the ten years, the machinery must be
disposed of with a zero net book value but with a scrap salvage value of P20,000. It will
require some P30,000 to remove the machinery. The applicable tax rate is 35%. The
appropriate end-of-life cash flow based on the foregoing information is
A. Inflow of P30,000.
C. Outflow of P10,000.
B. Outflow of P6,500.
D. Outflow of P17,000.
9. C Corp. faces a marginal tax rate of 35 percent. One project that is currently under evaluation
has a cash flow in the fourth year of its life that has a present value of $10,000 (after-tax). C
Corp. assumes that all cash flows occur at the end of the year and the company uses 11
percent as its discount rate. What is the pre-tax amount of the cash flow in year 4? (Round to
the nearest dollar.)
A. $15,181
B. $23,356
C. $9,868
D. $43,375
10. Maxwell Company has an opportunity to acquire a new machine to replace one of its present
machines. The new machine would cost $90,000, have a 5-year life, and no estimated
salvage value. Variable operating costs would be $100,000 per year. The present machine
has a book value of $50,000 and a remaining life of 5 years. Its disposal value now is
$5,000, but it would be zero after 5 years. Variable operating costs would be $125,000 per
year. Ignore income taxes. Considering the 5 years in total, what would be the difference in
profit before income taxes by acquiring the new machine as opposed to retaining the present
one?
A. $10,000 decrease B. $15,000 decrease C. $35,000 increase D. $40,000 increase
11. A project under consideration by the White Corp. would require a working capital investment
of $200,000. The working capital would be liquidated at the end of the project's 10-year life.
If White Corp. has an after-tax cost of capital of 10 percent and a marginal tax rate of 30
percent, what is the present value of the working capital cash flow expected to be received in
year 10?
A. $36,868
B. $77,100
C. $53,970
D. $23,130
12. Lyben Inc. is planning to produce a new product. To do this, it is necessary to acquire a new
equipment that will cost the company P100,000. The estimated life of the new equipment is
five years with no salvage value. The estimated income and costs based on expected sales of
P10,000 units per year are:
Sales @ P10.00 per unit
P100,000
Costs @ P8.00 per unit
80,000
Net income
P 20,000
The accounting rate of return based on initial investment is 20%
What will be the accounting rate of return based on initial investment of P100,000 if
management decrease its selling price of the new product by 10%?
A. 5%
B. 10%
C. 15%
D. 20%
13. MLF Corporation is evaluating the purchase of a P500,000 die attach machine. The cash
inflows expected from the investment is P145,000 per year for five years with no equipment
salvage value. The cost of capital is 12%. The net present value factor for five (5) years at
12% is 3.6048 and at 14% is 3.4331. The internal rate of return for this investment is
A. 3.45%
B. 2.04%
C. 13.8%
D. 15.48%

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14. APJ, Inc. is planning to purchase a new machine that will take six years to recover the cost.
The new machine is expected to produce cash flow from operations, net of income taxes, of
P4,500 a year for the first three years of the payback period and P3,500 a year of the last
three years of the payback period. Depreciation of P3,000 a year shall be charged to income
of the six years of the payback period. How much shall the machine cost?
A. P12,000
B. P18,000
C. P24,000
D. P36,000
15. Sweets, Etc., Inc. plans to undertake a capital expenditure requiring P2 million cash outlay.
Below are the projected after-tax cash inflow for the five year period covering the useful life.
The companys tax rate is 35%.
Year
1
2
3
4
5
P000
600
700
480
400
400
The founder and president of the candy company believes that the best gauge for capital
expenditure is cash payback period and that the recovery period should not be more than
75% of the useful life of the project or the asset. Should the company undertake the project?
A. No, since the payback period is 4 years or 80% of the useful life of the project.
B. Yes, since the payback period is 3.55 years or 71% of the useful life of the project.
C. No, since the payback period extends beyond the life of the project.
D. Yes, since the payback period is 4 years and still shorter than the useful life of the
project.
16. Womark Company purchased a new machine on January 1 of this year for $90,000, with an
estimated useful life of 5 years and a salvage value of $10,000. The machine will be
depreciated using the straight-line method. The machine is expected to produce cash flow
from operations, net of income taxes, of $36,000 a year in each of the next 5 years. The new
machines salvage value is $20,000 in years 1 and 2, and $15,0000 in years 3 and 4. What
will be the bailout period (rounded) for the new machine?
A. 1.4 years.
B. 2.2 years.
C. 1.9 years.
D. 3.4 years.
17. It is the start of the year and St. Tropez Co. plans to replace its old sing-along equipment.
These information are available:
Old
New
Equipment cost
P70,000
P120,000
Current salvage value
10,000
Salvage value, end of useful life
2,000
16,000
Annual operating costs
56,000
38,000
Accumulated depreciation
55,300
Estimated useful life
10 years
10 years
The companys income tax rate is 35% and its cost of capital is 12%. What is the present
value of all the relevant cash flows at time zero?
A. (P54,000)
B. (P110,000)
C. (P120,000)
D. (P124,700)
18. Cramden Armored Car Co. is considering the acquisition of a new armored truck. The truck
is expected to cost $300,000. The company's discount rate is 12 percent. The firm has
determined that the truck generates a positive net present value of $17,022. However, the
firm is uncertain as to whether it has determined a reasonable estimate of the salvage value of
the truck. In computing the net present value, the company assumed that the truck would be
salvaged at the end of the fifth year for $60,000. What expected salvage value for the truck
would cause the investment to generate a net present value of $0? Ignore taxes.
A. $30,000
B. $0
C. $55,278
D. $42,978
19. Booker Steel Inc. is considering an investment that would require an initial cash outlay of
$400,000 and would have no salvage value. The project would generate annual cash inflows
of $75,000. The firm's discount rate is 8 percent. How many years must the annual cash
flows be generated for the project to generate a net present value of $0?
A. between 5 and 6 years
C. between 7 and 8 years
B. between 6 and 7 years
D. between 8 and 9 years

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20. Salvage Co. is considering the purchase of a new ocean-going vessel that could potentially
reduce labor costs of its operation by a considerable margin. The new ship would cost
$500,000 and would be fully depreciated by the straight-line method over 10 years. At the
end of 10 years, the ship will have no value and will be sunk in some already polluted harbor.
The Salvage Co.'s cost of capital is 12 percent, and its marginal tax rate is 40 percent. If the
ship produces equal annual labor cost savings over its 10-year life, how much do the annual
savings in labor costs need to be to generate a net present value of $0 on the project? (Round
to the nearest dollar.)
A. $68,492
B. $114,154
C. $88,492
D. $147,487
21. The McNally Co. is considering an investment in a project that generates a profitability index
of 1.3. The present value of the cash inflows on the project is $44,000. What is the net
present value of this project?
A. $10,154
B. $13,200
C. $57,200
D. $33,846
22. The Zeron Corporation wants to purchase a new machine for its factory operations at a cost
of $950,000. The investment is expected to generate $350,000 in annual cash flows for a
period of four years. The required rate of return is 14%. The old machine can be sold for
$50,000. The machine is expected to have zero value at the end of the four-year period. What
is the net present value of the investment? Would the company want to purchase the new
machine? Income taxes are not considered.
A. $119,550; yes
B. $69,550; no
C. $1,019,550; yes
D. $326,750; no
23. Drillers Inc. is evaluating a project to produce a high-tech deep-sea oil exploration device.
The investment required is $80 million for a plant with a capacity of 15,000 units a year for 5
years. The device will be sold for a price of $12,000 per unit. Sales are expected to be 12,000
units per year. The variable cost is $7,000 and fixed costs, excluding depreciation, are $25
million per year. Assume Drillers employs straight-line depreciation on all depreciable
assets, and assume that they are taxed at a rate of 36%. If the required rate of return is 12%,
what is the approximate NPV of the project?
A. $17,225,000
B. $21,511,000
C. $26,780,000
D. $56,117,000
24. JJ Corp. is considering the purchase of a new machine that will cost P320,000. It has an
estimated useful life of 3 years. Assume that 30% of the depreciable base will be depreciated
in the first year, 40% in the second year, and 30% in the third year. It has a resale value of
P20,000 at the end of its economic life. Savings are expected from the use of machine
estimated at P170,000 annually. The company has an effective tax rate of 40%. It uses 16%
as hurdle rate in evaluating capital projects. Should the company proceed with the P320,000
capital investment?
Year
Present Value of P1
Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity of P1
1
0.862
0.862
2
0.743
1.605
3
0.641
2.246
A. Yes, due to NPV of P6,556.
C. Yes, due to NPV of P61,820.
B. Yes, due to NPV of P11,684.
D. No, due to negative NPV of P1,136
25. A company's marginal cost of new capital (MCC) is 10% up to $600,000. MCC increases
.5% for the next $400,000 and another .5% thereafter. Several proposed capital projects are
under consideration, with projected cost and internal rates of return (IRR) as follows:
Project
Cost
IRR
A
$100,000
10.5%
B
$300,000
14.0%
C
$450,000
10.8%
D
$350,000
13.5%
E
$400,000
12.0%
What should the company's capital budget be?
A. $0
B. $1,050,000
C. $1,500,000
D. $1,600,000

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26. The following forecasts have been prepared for a new investment by Oxford Industries of
$20 million with an 8-year life:
Pessimistic
Expected
Optimistic
Market size
60,000
90,000
140,000
Market share, %
25
30
35
Unit price
$750
$800
$875
Unit variable cost
$500
$400
$350
Fixed cost, millions
$7
$4
$3.5
Assume that Oxford employs straight-line depreciation, and that they are taxed at 35%.
Assuming an opportunity cost of capital of 14%, what is the NPV of this project, based on
expected outcomes?
A. $2,626,415
B. $4,563,505
C. $6,722,109
D. $8,055,722
27. The following data pertain to Sunlight Corp., whose management is planning to purchase an
automated tanning equipment.
1. Economic life of equipment 8 years.
2. Disposal value after 8 years nil.
3. Estimated net annual cash inflows for each of the 8 years P81,000.
4. Time-adjusted internal rate of return 14%
5. Cost of capital of Sunlight Corp 16%
6. The table of present values of P1 received annually for 8 years has these factors: at
14% = 4.639, at 16% = 4.344
7. Depreciation is approximately P46,970 annually.
Find the required increase in annual cash inflows in order to have the time-adjusted rate of
return approximately equal the cost of capital.
A. P5,501
B. P6,501
C. P4,344
D. P5,871
28. Payback Company is considering the purchase of a copier machine for P42,825. The copier
machine will be expected to be economically productive for 4 years. The salvage value at
the end of 4 years is negligible. The machine is expected to provide 15% internal rate of
return. The company is subject to 40% income tax rate. The present value of an ordinary
annuity of 1 for 4 periods is 2.85498. In order to realize the IRR of 15%, how much is the
estimated before-tax cash inflow to be provided by the machine?
A. P17,860
B. P15,000
C. P25,000
D. P35,700
29. Para Co. is reviewing the following data relating to an energy saving investment proposal:
Cost
$50,000
Residual value at the end of 5 years
10,000
Present value of an annuity of 1 at 12% for 5 years
3.60
Present value of 1 due in 5 years at 12%
0.57
What would be the annual savings needed to make the investment realize a 12% yield?
A. $8,189
B. $11,111
C. $12,306
D. $13,889
30. Smoot Automotive has implemented a new project that has an initial cost, and then generates
inflows of $10,000 a year for the next seven (7) years. The project has a payback period of
4.0 years. What is the project's internal rate of return (IRR)?
A. 14.79%
B. 16.33%
C. 18.54%
D. 15.61%
31. Berry Products is considering two pieces of machinery. The first machine costs P50,000
more than the second machine. During the two-year life of these two alternatives, the first
machine has P155,000 more cash flow in year one and a P110,000 less cash flow in year two
than the second machine. All cash flows occur at year-end. The present value of 1 at 15%
end of 1 period and 2 periods are 0.86957 and 0.75614, respectively. The present value of 1
at 8% end of period 1 is 0.92593 and period 2 is 0.85734.
At what discount rate would Machine 1 equally acceptable as machine 2?
A. 9%
B. 10%
C. 11%
D. 12%

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32. The Zeron Corporation recently purchased a new machine for its factory operations at a cost
of $921,250. The investment is expected to generate $250,000 in annual cash flows for a
period of six years. The required rate of return is 14%. The old machine has a remaining life
of six years. The new machine is expected to have zero value at the end of the six-year
period. The disposal value of the old machine at the time of replacement is zero. What is the
internal rate of return?
A. 15%
B. 16%
C. 17%
D. 18%
33. Rohan Transport is considering two alternative buses to transport people between cities that
are in the Southeastern U.S., such as Baton Rouge and Gainesville. A gas-powered bus has a
cost of $55,000, and will produce end-of-year net cash flows of $22,000 per year for 4 years.
A new electric bus will cost $90,000, and will produce cash flows of $28,000 per year for 8
years. The company must provide bus service for 8 years, after which it plans to give up its
franchise and to cease operating the route. Inflation is not expected to affect either costs or
revenues during the next 8 years. If Rohan Transport's cost of capital is 17 percent, by what
amount will the better project increase the company's value?
A. $5,350
B. -$17,441
C. $10,701
D. $27,801
34. Union Electric Company must clean up the water released from its generating plant. The
company's cost of capital is 11 percent for average projects, and that rate is normally adjusted
up or down by 2 percentage points for high- and low-risk projects. Clean-Up Plan A, which
is of average risk, has an initial cost of $10 million, and its operating cost will be $1 million
per year for its 10-year life. Plan B, which is a high-risk project, has an initial cost of $5
million, and its annual operating cost over Years 1 to 10 will be $2 million. What is the
approximate PV of costs for the better project? (VD)
A. -$5.9 million.
B. -$15.9 million. C. -$16.8 million.
D. -$17.8 million.
35. Mulva Inc. is considering the following five independent projects:
Project
Required Amount of Capital
IRR
A
$300,000
25.35%
B
500,000
23.22%
C
400,000
19.10%
D
550,000
9.25%
E
650,000
8.50%
The company has a target capital structure which is 40 percent debt and 60 percent equity.
The company can issue bonds with a yield to maturity of 10 percent. The company has
$900,000 in retained earnings, and the current stock price is $40 per share. The flotation costs
associated with issuing new equity are $2 per share. Mulva's earnings are expected to
continue to grow at 5 percent per year. Next year's dividend (D1) is forecasted to be $2.50.
The firm faces a 40 percent tax rate. What is the size of Mulva's capital budget?
A. $1,200,000
B. $1,750,000
C. $2,400,000
D. $800,000
36. A tax-exempt foundation, Sincerely Foundation, Inc. intends to invest P1 million in a fiveyear project. The foundation estimates that the annual savings from the project will amount
to P325,000. The P1 million asset is depreciable over five (5) years on a straight-line basis.
The foundations hurdle rate is 12% and as a consultant of the foundation, you are asked to
determine the internal rate of return and advise if the project should be pursued.
To facilitate computations, below are present value factors:
N=5
12%
14%
16%
Present value of P1
0.57
0.52
0.48
Present value of an annuity of P1
3.60
3.40
3.30
Your advice is
A. To proceed due to an estimated IRR of less than 14% but not more than 12%.
B. To proceed due to an estimated IRR of less than 16% but not more than 14%.
C. Not to proceed due to an estimated IRR of less than 12%.
D. To proceed due to an estimated IRR of more than 16%.

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37. The following data relate to two capital-budgeting projects of equal risk:
Present Value of Cash Flows
Period
Project A
Project B
0
$(10,000)
$(30,000)
1
4,550
13,650
2
4,150
12,450
3
3,750
11,250
Which of the projects will be selected using the profitability index (PI) approach and the
NPV approach?
A.
B.
C.
D.
PI
B
Either
Either
B
NPV
A
B
A
B
38. Five mutually exclusive projects had the following information:
A
B
C
NPV
$500
$(200)
$200
IRR
12%
8%
13%
Which project is preferred?
A. A
C. C
B. B
D. D

D
$1,000
10%

39. The Nativity Corporation has the following investment opportunities:


Proposal
Profitability Index
Initial Cash Outlay
1
1.15
P200,000
2
1.13
125,000
3
1.11
175,000
4
1.08
150,000
The firm has a budget constraint of P300,000.
What proposal(s) should be accepted?
A. Proposal 1 because it has the highest profitability index.
B. Proposal 4 because it has the lowest profitability index.
C. Proposals 2 and 3 because their total net present values are the highest among all possible
proposal combinations.
D. Proposals 1 and 2 because their total net present values are the highest among all possible
proposal combinations.
40. Information on three (3) investment projects is given below:
Project
Investment Required
Net Present Value
X
P150,000
P34,005
G
100,000
22,670
W
60,000
13,602
Rank the projects in terms of preference:
A. 1st W; 2nd G; 3rd X.
C. 1st X; 2nd G; 3rd W.
B. 1st G; 2nd W; 3rd X.
D. The ranking is the same.
Problem 41 and 42 are based on the following information.
Daneches, a tax-exempt entity, plans to purchase a new machine which they project to
depreciate over a ten-year period without salvage value. The new machine will cost P200,000
and is expected to generate cash savings of P60,000 per year in operating costs. Daneche's cost
of capital is 12%.
For ten periods at 12%, the present value of P1 is P0.3220, while the present value of an ordinary
annuity of P1 is P5.650.
41. What is the net present value of the proposed investment, assuming Daneche uses a 12%
discount rate?
A. P185,640
B. P69,980
C. P139,000
D. None of the above.

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42. With the companys initial investment on the new machine, the accounting rate of return is
A. 15%
B. 20%
C. 25%
D. None of the above.
Questions 43 and 44 are based on the following information.
The construction of a waste treatment plant was arrived at after a careful cost-benefit analysis.
During the construction period a status report was presented for your review:
completed cost as originally estimated, P5 million
% of actual completion to date, 65%
actual cost to date, P3.75 million
43. Assuming cost is evenly distributed throughout the construction period, how much will the
completion cost be most likely?
A. The original cost estimate of P5 million.
B. P5 million plus a cost overrun of about P769,000
C. P500,000 less than the original cost at completion.
D. About P100,000 above the original cost at completion.
44. What would be an appropriate action to take considering the situation in number 28?
A. No need to take any action.
B. Immediately stop further work on the project.
C. Recommend immediate review with the project implementation team to determine the
cause of overrun and the corrective actions to be taken.
D. Wait for the next quarterly status report on the project.
Questions 45 and 46 are based on the following information.
Beta Company plans to replace its company car with a new one. The new car costs P120,000
and its estimated useful life is five years without scrap value. The old car has a book value of
P15,000 and can be sold at P12,000. The acquisition of the new car will yield annual cash
savings of P20,000 before income tax. Income tax rate is 25%. (M)
45. The net investment of the new car is
A. P108,000
B. P108,750

C. P107,250

46. The payback period of the investment is (M)


A. 5.14 years
B. 5.18 years
C. 5.11 years

D. P107,000

D. 5.095 years

47. Telephone Corp. is contemplating four projects: L, M, N, and O. The capital costs for the
initiation of each mutually-exclusive project and its estimated after-tax, net cash flow are
listed below. The companys desired after-tax opportunity costs is 12%. It has P900,000
capital budget for the year. Idle funds cannot be reinvested at greater than 12%.
In Thousand Pesos
L
M
N
O
Initial cost
400
470
380
420
Annual cash flows
Year 1
113
180
90
80
2
113
170
110
100
3
113
150
130
120
4
113
110
140
130
5
113
100
150
150
Net present value
P7,540
P59,654
P54,666
P(15,708)
Internal rate of return
12.7%
17.6%
17.2%
10.6%
Excess present value index
1.02
1.13
1.14
0.96
The company will choose
A. Projects M & N.
B. Projects L & N. C. Projects L & M.
D. Projects M, N & O.

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Questions 48 through 55 are based on the following information.


The Burgos Corporation is considering investing in a project. It requires an immediate cash
outlay of P100,000. It has a life of four years and will be depreciated on a straight-line basis (no
salvage value). The firms tax rate is 25% and requires a return of 10%. Income before
depreciation is projected to be:
YEAR
1
2
3
4
Income before depreciation
P30,000
P30,000
P40,000
P40,000
The present value factors for P1 at 10% is
Year
1
2
3
4
Present Value Factor
0.909
0.826
0.751
0.683
48. The net cash flow for year 1 is
A. P25,850
B. P28,750

C. P31,250

D. P34,450

49. The net cash flow for year 4 is


A. P35,850
B. P35,950

C. P30,150

D. P36,250

50. The payback period for the project is


A. 3 years
B. 3.17 years

C. 3.5 years

D. 4 years.

51. The accounting rate of return of the project is


A. 7%
B. 9%
C. 12%

D. 15%

52. The present value of year twos cash flow is


A. P23,747.50
B. P25,856.25
C. P26,100.75

D. P29,750.75

53. The present value of the projects net cash flow is


A. P95,650.15
B. P98,151.25
C. P101,863.75

D. P104,750.25

54. The profitability index of the project (rounded to the nearest hundredth) is
A. 0.96
B. 0.98
C. 1.02
D. 1.05
55. The project would be accepted on the basis of the
A. Payback and present value results.
B. Accounting rate of return and profitability index results.
C. Payback results only
D. a and b combined

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Answer Sheet
Theory
1. D
2. C
3. D
4. D
5. D
6. C
7. B
8. A
9. D
10. D
11. D
12. B
13. B
14. D
15. A
16. D
17. A
18. D
19. C
20. A

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

A
B
A
A
A
D
B
C
D
D
A
D
A
B
C
D
C
B
B
A

Problem
1. C
2. B
3. B
4. B
5. A
6. D
7. D
8. B
9. B
10. D
11. B
12. B
13. C
14. C
15. B
16. C
17. B
18. A
19. C
20. B

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

A
A
B
B
B
B
A
A
C
B
B
B
D
B
B
D
B
D
C
D

41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.

C
B
B
C
C
C
A
B
D
B
D
A
C
C
D

MSQ-06
Page 15