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950 m3 (TYPE-3) TANK CALCULATIONS

A) SYSTEM AND DESIGN DATA


Design pressure

Atmospheric

Tank inner diameter (m):

Di 11.5

Tank height (m):

H 11

Freeboard (m):

fb 0.5

Liquid level (m):

Hliq H fb

Discharge pipe level (m):

Hd 0

Tank usefull volume:

Stored material:

Su

Density of stored material:

1000

Hliq 10.5

m
2

Di
4

( Hliq Hd)

V 1.091 10

kg
m

Specific gravity:

Wind Velocity:

Vwm 36

G1

1000
m

Vw Vwm 3.6

Vw 129.6

km
h

Tank is outside the building.


Design temperature:

Td 30

Snow load (kg/m2):

Sn 100

C
kg
m

Live Load on Roof (kg/m2):

Lr 250

kg
m

Seismic Zone :
(Turkis h Earthquake Code)

Corrosion allowance:

CA 6

Material:

ST37-2

Height of courses (m):

h0 1.5

Minimum Yield Strenght (MPa):

Sy 235

Minimum Tensile Strenght (MPa):

Sut 485

mm

The Maximum Allowable Product Design Stress (MPa):


Sd1

2
3

Sy

Sd1 156.667

MPa

Sd2

Sd

Sd1

Sd2

2
5

Sut

Sd2 194

Sd min ( Sd)

MPa

Sd 156.667

Mpa

The Maximum Allowable Hydrostatic Test Stress (MPa):


St1

St2

St

St1

St2

3
4
3
7

Sy

St1 176.25

MPa

Sut

St2 207.857

MPa

St min ( St)

Reference Standard:

St 176.25

Mpa

API Standard 650


12th Edition, 2013

B) SHELL DESIGN
1) 1 FOOT METHOD:
Di 11.5 m

API 650 Section 5.6.3

60 m

1 Foot method can be used

Design shell thickness ( mm):

td

Hydrostatic test shell thickness ( mm):

tt

4.9 Di ( Hliq 0.3) G


Sd

CA

4.9 Di ( Hliq 0.3)


St

td 9.669

mm

tt 3.261

mm

2) VARIABLE DESIGN POINT METHOD:


L

( 500 Di td)

L 235.787

mm
API 650 Section 5.6.4

L
Hliq

22.456

1000

Variable Design Point Method can be used.

a) The bottom course thickness (t1):


Design shell thickness (mm):

t1d 1.06

0.0696 Di
Hliq

Hliq G 4.9 Hliq Di G CA

Sd
Sd

t1d 9.929 mm

Hydrostatic test shell thickness (in):

t1t 1.06

0.0696 Di
Hliq

Hliq 4.9 Hliq Di

St
St

t1t 3.496 mm

t1d

t1t

max ( t) 9.929

t1 max ( t)

t1 9.929

mm

b) The second course thickness (t2):


Ratio for the bottom course:

h0 1000

ratio

ratio 6.278

Ri 1000 t1
Calculation of t2a:

H1 H

H2 H1 h0

H2 9.5 m

First trial for second course:


t2d

t2t

t2d

t2t

max ( t ) 9.669

Thickness of lower course:

4.9 Di ( Hliq 0.3) G


Sd

CA

t2d 9.669 mm

4.9 Di ( Hliq 0.3)

t2t 3.261 mm

St

tu max ( t)

tu 9.669

Ratio:

tL t1

tL

K 1.027

tu

K (K 1)

mm

1 K1.5

C 0.013

Distance of the variable design point from the bottom of the course: (x)
x1 0.61 ( Ri 1000 tu) 320 C H2

x1 184.421

x2 1000 C H2

x2 126.849

x3 1.22 ( Ri 1000 tu)

x3 287.66

x1
x x2 min ( x ) 126.849 xe min ( x )
x3

4.9 Di H2
t2d1

Sd

4.9 Di H2
t2t1

t2d1

t2t1

max ( t) 9.371

xe

1000
CA t2d1 9.371 mm
xe

1000

St

t2a max ( t)

t2t1 2.997

t2a 9.371 mm

t2 9.371

c) The third course thickness (t3):


Ratio for the lower course:

ratio

h0 1000

ratio 6.462

( Ri 1000 t2)
Calculation of t3a:

H3 H2 h0

H3 8 m

mm

First trial for third course:


t3d

t3t

t3d

t3t

max ( t) 8.77

Thickness of lower course:

4.9 Di ( H3 0.3) G
Sd

CA

t3d 8.77

4.9 Di ( H3 0.3)

t3t 2.462 mm

St

tu max ( t)

tu 8.77

Ratio:

tL t2

mm

mm

tL

K 1.069

tu
K (K 1)

C 0.034

1 K1.5

Distance of the variable design point from the bottom of the course: (x)
x1 0.61 ( Ri 1000 tu) 320 C H3

x1 223.265

x2 1000 C H3

x2 269.644

x3 1.22 ( Ri 1000 tu)

x3 273.957

x1
x x2 min ( x ) 223.265
x3

xe min ( x )

4.9 Di H3
t3d1

Sd

4.9 Di H3
t3t1

t3d1

t3t1

t3 8.797

max ( t) 8.797

xe

1000
CA

t3d1 8.797 mm

xe

1000

St

t3a max ( t)

t3t1 2.486

mm

t3a 8.797

mm

mm

d) The fourth course thickness (t4):


Ratio for the lower course:

ratio

h0 1000

ratio 6.669

( Ri 1000 t3)
Calculation of t4a:

H4 H3 h0

First trial for fourth course:

t4d

t4t

t4d

t4t

max ( t) 8.23

H4 6.5

4.9 Di ( H4 0.3) G
Sd
4.9 Di ( H4 0.3)
St

tu max ( t)

CA

t4d 8.23

mm

t4t 1.982 mm

tu 8.23

mm

Thickness of lower course:

Ratio:

tL t3

tL

K 1.069

tu
K (K 1)

1 K1.5

C 0.034

Distance of the variable design point from the bottom of the course: (x)
x1 0.61 ( Ri 1000 tu) 320 C H4

x1 203.091

x2 1000 C H4

x2 219.979

x3 1.22 ( Ri 1000 tu)

x3 265.396

x1
x x2 min ( x ) 203.091
x3

xe min ( x )
xe

4.9 Di H4
t4d1

t4t1

t4d1

t4t1

t4 8.265

max ( t) 8.265

CA

Sd
4.9 Di H4

1000

xe

t4d1 8.265 mm

1000

St

t4a max ( t)

t4t1 2.013

mm

t4a 8.265

mm

mm

e) The fifth course thickness (t5):


Ratio for the lower course:

ratio

h0 1000

ratio 6.881

( Ri 1000 t4)
Calculation of t5a:

H5 H4 h0

First trial for fourth course:

t5d

t5t

t5d

t5t

max ( t) 7.691

Thickness of lower course:

tL t4

H5 5

4.9 Di ( H5 0.3) G
Sd

CA

4.9 Di ( H5 0.3)

t5d 7.691 mm

t5t 1.503 mm

St

tu max ( t)

tu 7.691

Ratio:

Distance of the variable design point from the bottom of the course: (x)

tL

mm

K 1.075

tu
K (K 1)

1 K1.5

C 0.037

x1 0.61 ( Ri 1000 tu) 320 C H5

x1 186.872

x2 1000 C H5

x2 183.117

x3 1.22 ( Ri 1000 tu)

x3 256.549

x1
x x2 min ( x ) 183.117
x3

xe min ( x )

4.9 Di H5
t5d1

t5t1

t5d1

t5t1

t5 7.733

max ( t) 7.733

Sd
4.9 Di H5

xe

1000

CA

t5d1 7.733 mm

xe

1000

St

t5a max ( t)

t5t1 1.54

mm

t5a 7.733

mm

mm

f) The sixth course thickness (t6):


Ratio for the lower course:

ratio

h0 1000

ratio 7.114

( Ri 1000 t5)
Calculation of t6a:

H6 H5 h0

First trial for fourth course:

t6d

t6t

t6d

t6t

max ( t) 7.151

Thickness of lower course:

tL t5

H6 3.5

4.9 Di ( H6 0.3) G
Sd

CA

4.9 Di ( H6 0.3)

t6d 7.151 mm

t6t 1.023 mm

St

tu max ( t)

tu 7.151

Ratio:

tL

mm

K 1.081

tu

K (K 1)

1 K1.5

Distance of the variable design point from the bottom of the course: (x)
x1 0.61 ( Ri 1000 tu) 320 C H6

x1 168.278

x2 1000 C H6

x2 139.326

x3 1.22 ( Ri 1000 tu)

x3 247.387

C 0.04

x1
x x2 min ( x ) 139.326
x3

xe min ( x )

4.9 Di H6
t6d1

Sd

4.9 Di H6
t6t1
t

t6d1

t6t1

t6 7.209

max ( t) 7.209

xe

1000
CA t6d1 7.209 mm
xe

1000

St

t6a max ( t)

t6t1 1.074

mm

t6a 7.209

mm

mm

g) The seventh course thickness (t7):


Ratio for the lower course:

h0 1000

ratio

ratio 7.368

( Ri 1000 t6)
Calculation of t7a:

H7 H6 h0

First trial for fourth course:

t7d

t7t

t7d

t7t

max ( t) 6.611

Thickness of lower course:

H7 2

4.9 Di ( H7 0.3) G
Sd

CA

t7d 6.611 mm

4.9 Di ( H7 0.3)

t7t 0.544 mm

St

tu max ( t)

tL t6

tu 6.611

Ratio:

tL

K 1.09

tu

mm

K (K 1)

1 K
1.5

C 0.044

Distance of the variable design point from the bottom of the course: (x)
x1 0.61 ( Ri 1000 tu) 320 C H7

x1 147.168

x2 1000 C H7

x2 88.227

x3 1.22 ( Ri 1000 tu)

x3 237.871

x1
x x2 min ( x ) 88.227
x3

xe min ( x )

4.9 Di H7
t7d1

Sd

xe

1000
CA t7d1 6.688 mm

4.9 Di H7
t7t1
t

t7d1

t7t1

t7 6.688

max ( t) 6.688

xe

1000

St

t7a max ( t)

t7t1 0.611

mm

t7a 6.688

mm

mm

h) The eighth course thickness (t8):


Ratio for the lower course:

h0 1000

ratio

ratio 7.649

( Ri 1000 t7)
Calculation of t8a:

H8 H7 h0

First trial for fourth course:

t8d

t8t

t8d

t8t

max ( t) 6.072

Thickness of lower course:

H8 0.5

4.9 Di ( H8 0.3) G
Sd

CA

t8d 6.072 mm

4.9 Di ( H8 0.3)

t8t 0.064 mm

St

tu max ( t)

tu 6.072

Ratio:

tL t7

tL

K 1.101

tu

mm

K (K 1)

1 K1.5

C 0.049

Distance of the variable design point from the bottom of the course: (x)
x1 0.61 ( Ri 1000 tu) 320 C H8

x1 121.877

x2 1000 C H8

x2 24.68

x3 1.22 ( Ri 1000 tu)

x3 227.959

x1
x x2 min ( x ) 24.68
x3

xe min ( x )

4.9 Di H8
t8d1

t8t1

t8d1

t8t1

max ( t) 6.171

1000

Sd
4.9 Di H8

xe

St

t8a max ( t)

xe

CA

t8d1 6.171 mm

1000

t8t1 0.152

mm

t8a 6.171

mm

t8 6.171

mm

3) THICKNESSES OF ALL SHELL COURSES:


Minimum shell thickness:
According to API 650 Section 5.6.1.1. minimum shell thickness can not be less than this values:
Tank Diameter (m): Di

Di 15

15 Di 36

36 Di 60

Plate Thickness (mm): t


Di 11.5

60 Di
10

tmin 5

Selected Thicness of Shell Courses:


Number of Shell Courses:

nsh 8

i 1 nsh

Course No

Thickness (mm)

Selected Thickness (mm)

Course Height (m)

t1 9.929

th1 12

h1 h0

h1 1.5

t2 9.371

th2 12

h2 h0

h2 1.5

t3 8.797

th3 10

h3 h0

h3 1.5

t4 8.265

th4 10

h4 h0

h4 1.5

t5 7.733

th5 8

h5 h0

h5 1.5

t6 7.209

th6 8

h6 h0

h6 1.5

t7 6.688

th7 8

h7 h0

h7 1.5

t8 6.171

th8 8

h8 H8

h8 0.5

Mid Elevations of Shell Courses:


Course No

Mid Elevations of Shell Courses


h1

hm1

hm2 h1

hm3 hm2

hm4 hm3

hm5 hm4

hm6 hm5

hm7 hm6

hm8 hm7

Mid Elevations (m)


hm1 0.75

2
h2

hm2 2.25

2
h2
2
h3
2
h4
2
h5
2
h6
2
h7
2

h3

hm3 3.75

2
h4

hm4 5.25

2
h5

hm5 6.75

2
h6

hm6 8.25

2
h7

hm7 9.75

2
h8

hm8 10.75

mm

hi thi
Average Thickness of Tank Shell (mm):

tav

tav 9.636

mm

hi

i
4

hi thi

Wsh Di 7.85

Weight of Shell Courses (kg):

Wsh 3.006 10

hi thi hmi
Center of Gravity of Shell Courses (m):

Hs

Hs 4.991

hi thi

C) BOTTOM PLATES
td CA

Product Stress (MPa):

PS

Hydrostatic Test Stress (MPa):

HTS

Stress in First Shell Course (MPa):

th1 CA
tt
th1

Sd

PS 95.795

St

MPa

HTS 47.898 MPa

max ( PS HTS)

95.795

MPa

According to API 650 Table 5.1 Annular Bottom Plate Thickness (tb):
Plate Thickness of First
Shell Course, t (mm)

tb 6

Stress in First Shell Course, (MPa)


190

210

230

250

t 19

19 t 25

10

11

25 t 32

12

14

32 t 40

11

14

17

40 t 45

13

16

19

mm
Selected Annular Bottom Plate Thickness (including Corrosion Allowance):

tbs 12 mm

Selected Bottom Plate Thickness:

tbs 8

If annular plates are used, minimum radial width of annular plates:

215 tbs
( Hliq G)

D) TOP AND INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS


1) TOP WIND GIRDER:

10

mm

w 530.804 mm

Required minimum section modulus (cm3):

Di H
17

Vw

190

Z 39.815

cm

H1 94.477

Profile UNP100 can be selected with section Z = 41.2 cm3.

2) INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDER:


The top shell course plate thickness:

t 8

The maximum height of the unstiffened shell :

H1 9.47 t

mm

t

Di

190

Vw

Vertical distance between the intermediate wind girder and top wind girder H1:

H1 94.477

If the height of the transformed shell, Wtr, is greater than the maximum height H1, an intermediate wind girder
is required.

H1 94.477

Wtr 8.806

The intermediate wind girder is not required.

E) ROOF PLATES
Loads
Dead Load (the weight of the roof):

DL = t x (7.85) x 0.01

kPa

Design External Pressure:

Pe 0.25

kPa

Roof Live Load:

LR Lr 0.01

LR 2.5

kPa

Snow Load:

S Sn 0.01

S1

kPa

Self supporting cone roof


Self supporting cone roofs should conform to the following requirements:
Angle of the cone roof elements to the horizontal (degree):

9.5 37

Assume an angle for plate thickness calculation:

18

Dead Load (with plate thickness assumption):

DL 12 ( 7.85) 0.01

DL 0.942

kPa

1) DL + (Lr or S) + 0.4Pe

T1 DL LR 0.4 Pe

T1 3.542

kPa

2) DL + Pe + 0.4(Lr or S)

T2 DL Pe 0.4 LR

T2 2.192

kPa

deg

deg

Greater of load combinations:

11

T max ( T1 T2)

Minimum roof plate thickness:

trmin

T 3.542

Di


4.8 sin

180

T
2.2

kPa

trmin 11.838 mm

Calculated minimum roof plate thickness should not be greater than 13 mm according to API 650. Therefore
supported cone roof will not be considered.
Selected plate thickness of the supported cone roof:

tr 12

mm

F) OVERTURNING STABILITY UNDER WINDLOAD


The wind pressure on projected areas of cylindrical surfaces for 100 miles/h wind velocity:
fw 0.86

kPa
2

Vw Di H 1000

9.81
190

The wind load acting on tank:

Fw fw

Overturning moment from wind load:

Mw Fw

Fw 5.16 10

kg
4

kg m

kg

Mw 2.838 10

Weight of tank:
Weight of Bottom Plates:

Wb

Di 0.001 th1 0.52


4

tbs ( 7.85) Wb 7.117 10

Weight of Shell Courses:

Wsh 3.006 10

kg

( Di 0.5)

Weight of Roof (with stiffeners):

Wro

Resisting weight:

Wres Wsh Wro

Overturning moment from wind load:

Mw 2.838 10

( tr 1) ( 7.85)

kg m

Wro 1.154 10

kg

Wres 4.16 10

Wres Di 1.595 105

3
2

kg

kg m

There is no overturning due to wind load. Therefore anchor bolts are not required.

G) SEISMIC DESIGN OF TANK (for MCE - Maximum Considered Earthquake)


Reference Standard:

API Standard 650, ASCE 7

SEISMIC DESIGN FACTORS


Seismic Use Group:
Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient:
(for Seismic Zone 1 according to TEC 2007)

SUG 3
Seismic Zone

A0 0.4

Acceleration Coefficient

12

1 2 3 4

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

Importance Factor:
(API 650 Table E-5)

I 1.5

Response Modification Factor - impulsive:


(API 650 Table E-4)

Ri 4

(mechanically anchored)

Response Modification Factor - convective:


(API 650 Table E-4)

Rc 2

(mechanically anchored)

1.0 1.25 1.5

Seismic Use Group


Importance Factor

SITE GROUND MOTION


Acceleration Parameters
For sites not addressed by ASCE methods, the peak ground acceleration method shall be used. The peak
ground acceleration parameter will be calculated by using the effective ground acceleration coefficient in TE C
2007. With a conservative approach, the effective ground acceleration coefficient in TEC 2007 will be multiplied
by two.
Peak Ground Acceleration Parameter:

Sp A0 2

Sp 0.8

Mapped MCE, 5% damped, spectral response


acceleration parameter at short periods (0.2 sec), %g

Ss 2.5 Sp

Ss 2

Mapped MCE, 5 percent damped, spectral response


acceleration parameter at a period of 1 sec, %g

S1 1.25 Sp

S1 1

Modifications for Site Soil Conditions


Site Class based on the Site Soil Properties:

Acceleration Based Site Coefficient - at 0.2 sec period:


(API 650 Table E-1)

Fa 0.9

Velocity Based Site Coefficient - at 1.0 sec period:


(API 650 Table E-1

Fv 2.4

Adjusted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters:


(According to ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.3)
For short periods:

Sms Ss Fa

Sms 1.8

For 1 second:

Sm1 S1 Fv

Sm1 2.4

Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters:


(According to ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.4)
For short periods:

Sds

For 1 second:

Sd1

2
3
2
3

Sms

Sds 1.2

Sm1

Sd1 1.6

Design Response Spectrum (DRS):


(According to ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.5)
Characteristic Periods:

T0 0.2

Sd1
Sds

13

T0 0.267 s

Sd1

Ts

Ts 1.333 s

Sds

Regional Dependent Transition Period for Longer Period Ground Motion:


TL 4

(Regions outside the USA)

Natural Vibration Period (s):

T 0.01 0.015 6

Design Responce Spectrum

When

T T0

Sa ( T) Sds 0.4 0.6

When

T0 T Ts

Sa ( T) Sds

When

Ts T TL

Sa ( T)

TL T

Sa ( T) Sd1

When

Sd1
T

TL

Spectral Response Acceleration

1.2

0.8

Sa ( T) 0.6

0.4

0.2

T
Period (s)

STRUCTURAL PERIOD OF VIBRATION


Impulsive Natural Period
Density of Fluid:

1 10

kg
m

Height to Diameter Ratio:

Hliq
Di

0.913

Coefficient Ci:
(API 650 Figure E-1)

Ci 7.2

Elastic Modulus of Tank Material (MPa):

E 2.1 10

14

T0

Equivalent Uniform Thickness of Tank Shell:


(mm) (Average thickness)

tu tav

Impulsive Natural Period (s):


(API 650 Eq. E.4.5.1)

Ti

Ci Hliq

2000

tu

tu 9.636

mm

Ti 0.127

Di

Convective (Sloshing) Period


Sloshing Period Coefficient:

0.578

Ks

Ks 0.579

3.68 Hliq

tanh

The First Mode Sloshing Wave Period (s ):


(API 650 Eq. E.4.5.2)

Di

Tc 1.8 Ks Di

Tc 3.532

DESIGN SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATIONS


Impulsive Spectral Acceleration Parameter

Ri

Ai Sds

Ai 0.45

%g

Convective Spectral Acceleration Parameter


Coefficient to adjust the spectral acceleration from 5% - 0.5% damping:

K 1.5

1 I

Tc Ri

When

Tc TL

Ac K Sd1

When

Tc TL

Ac K Sd1

TL I

2 Rc
Tc
Ac 0.255

%g

DESIGN LOADS
Effective Weight of Product
Diameter to Height Ratio:

Di
Hliq

1.095
2

Total weight of tank contents (N):

Wp

Di
4

Hliq 9.81

15

Wp 1.07 10

Effective Impulsive Weight (N):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.1)

Selection of Effective Impulsive Weight Equation:

When

Di
Hliq

When

tanh 0.866

Di
Hliq

Wi

1.333

0.866

Hliq
Wp

Di

Hliq

1.333

Di

Wi 1.0 0.218

Di

Wp

Hliq

Wi 8.144 10

Effective Convective Weight (N):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.1)

Wc 0.230

Di
Hliq

3.67 Hliq Wp

Di

tanh

Wc 2.689 10

Center of Action for Ringwall Overturning Moment


The ringwall overturning moment is the portion of the total overturning moment that acts at the base of the tank
shell perimeter. This moment is used to determine loads on a ringwall foundation, the tank anchorage forces, and
to check the longitudinal shell compression.

Height of the Lateral Seismic Force:


Applied to Wi (m)
(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.2.1)

Selection of Height Equation:

When

Di
Hliq

When

Di
Hliq

1.333

1.333

Xi 0.375 Hliq

Xi 0.5 0.094

Di

Hliq

Hliq
m

Xi 4.169

3.67 Hliq 1

cosh

Di
Hliq
Xc 1.0

3.67 Hliq sinh 3.67 Hliq

Di
Di

Height of the Lateral Seismic Force:


Applied to Wc (m)
(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.2.1)

Xc 7.579

Center of Action for Slab Overturning Moment


The slab overturning moment is the total overturning moment acting across the entire tank base cross section. This
overturning moment is used to design slab and pile cap foundation (if any).
Height of the Lateral Seismic Force:
Applied to Wi (m)
(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.2.2)
When

Selection of Height Equation:

Di
Hliq

1.333

0.866 Di

Hliq
Xis 0.375 1.0 1.333
1.0 Hliq

Di

tanh 0.866 Hliq



16

When

Di
Hliq

1.333

Xis 0.5 0.06

Di

Hliq

Hliq
m

Xis 5.94

Height of the Lateral Seismic Force:


Applied to Wc (m)
(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.2.2)

Xcs 1.0

3.67 Hliq 1.937

Di
Hliq
3.67

Hliq
3.67

Hliq

sinh

Di
Di
cosh

Xcs 7.785

Overturning Moment
The seismic overturning moment at the base of the tank is evaluated as the SRSS summation of the impulsive and
convective components multiplied by the respective moment arms to the center of action of these forces.
5

Total weight of tank shell (N):

Ws Wsh 9.81

Ws 2.949 10

Height of Shell's Center of Gravity (m)

Xs Hs

Xs 4.991

Weight of Roof (N):

Wr Wro 9.81

Wr 1.132 10

Height of Roof's Center of Gravity (m)

Xr H

Ringwall Overturning Moment (Nm):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.5)
for global evaluations

Mrw

Slab Overturning Moment (Nm):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.5)

Ms

m
5

Di tan

3 2
180
1

Xr 11.623

[ Ai ( Wi Xi Ws Xs Wr Xr) ] [ Ac ( Wc Xc) ]

[ Ai ( Wi Xis Ws Xs Wr Xr) ] [ Ac ( Wc Xcs ) ]


7

Vertical Seismic Effects


The vertical seismic acceleration parameter Av is defined as 0.14*Sds in API 650 and as 0.2*Sds in ASCE 7
method. Conservatively 0.2*Sds is choosen in calculations.
Av 0.24

Dynamic Liquid Hoop Forces


Dynamic hoop tensile stress due to seismic motion of the liquid is calculated by the following formulas.
Calculation for the 1.st shell course:
Distance from liquid surface to analysis point (m):

Y Hliq

17

Y 10.5 m

Nm

Ms 2.363 10

Av 0.2 Sds

Mrw 1.733 10

Vertical Seismic Acceleration Coeff. (%g):

Nm

Impulsive Hoop Membrane Force in Tank Shell (N/mm):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.4)

When

Di
Hliq

When

Di
Hliq

When

Di
Hliq

Selection of Force Equation:

2
Y
Y tanh 0.866 Di
0.5

Hliq
Hliq
Hliq

Ni 8.48 Ai G Di Hliq

1.333

1.333

and

Y 0.75 Di

2
Y
Y

Ni 5.22 Ai G Di
0.5

0.75 Di
0.75 Di

1.333

and

Y 0.75 Di

Ni 2.6 Ai G Di

Ni 154.732

mm

Convective Hoop Membrane Force in Tank Shell (N/mm):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.4)

1.85 Ac G Di cosh 3.68


Nc

( Hliq Y)
Di

3.68 Hliq

Di

Nc 4.325

mm

cosh

Liquid Hydrostatic Membrane Force in Tank Shell (N/mm):


Y G Di

Nh

Thickness of the shell ring under consideration (mm):

Total Combined Hoop Stress (MPa):

ts th1 CA
2

Nh

Nh 592.279

9.81

ts 6

Ni Nc ( Av Nh)
ts

mm

mm

t 133.74

MPa

The maximum allowable hoop tension membrane stress for the combination of hydrostatic and dynamic membrane
hoop effects should be less than allowable design stress of the shell increased by 33%.
Allowable Stress for MCE seismic design:

Comparison:

t 133.74

Hoop Stress Ratio:

all 1.33 Sd

MPa

all 208.367

SRhs

t
all

all 208.367

MPa

SRhs 0.642

OK

MPa

Calculation for the 2.nd shell course:


Distance from liquid surface to analysis point (m):

Y Hliq h0

18

Y9

Impulsive Hoop Membrane Force in Tank Shell (N/mm):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.4)

When

Di
Hliq

When

Di
Hliq

When

Di
Hliq

Selection of Force Equation:

2
Y
Y tanh 0.866 Di
0.5

Hliq
Hliq
Hliq

Ni 8.48 Ai G Di Hliq

1.333

1.333

and

1.333

and

Y 0.75 Di

Ni 5.22 Ai G Di

Y 0.75 Di

Ni 2.6 Ai G Di

0.75 Di

2
Y

0.75 Di

0.5

Ni 154.732

mm

Convective Hoop Membrane Force in Tank Shell (N/mm):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.4)

1.85 Ac G Di cosh 3.68


Nc

( Hliq Y)
Di

3.68 Hliq

Di

Nc 4.833

mm

cosh

Liquid Hydrostatic Membrane Force in Tank Shell (N/mm):


Y G Di

Nh

Thickness of the shell ring under consideration (mm):

Total Combined Hoop Stress (MPa):

ts th2 CA
2

Nh

Nh 507.668

9.81

ts 6

Ni Nc ( Av Nh)
ts

mm

mm

t 117.445

MPa

The maximum allowable hoop tension membrane stress for the combination of hydrostatic and dynamic membrane
hoop effects should be less than allowable design stress of the shell increased by 33%.
Allowable Stress for MCE seismic design:

Comparison:

t 117.445

Hoop Stress Ratio:

all 1.33 Sd

MPa

all 208.367

SRhs

t
all

all 208.367

MPa

SRhs 0.564

OK

MPa

Calculation for the 3.rd shell course:


Distance from liquid surface to analysis point (m):

Y Hliq 2 h0

19

Y 7.5

Impulsive Hoop Membrane Force in Tank Shell (N/mm):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.4)

When

Di
Hliq

When

Di
Hliq

When

Di
Hliq

Selection of Force Equation:

2
Y
Y
Di

Ni 8.48 Ai G Di Hliq
0.5
tanh 0.866

Hliq
Hliq
Hliq

1.333

1.333

and

1.333

and

Y 0.75 Di

Ni 5.22 Ai G Di

Y 0.75 Di

Ni 2.6 Ai G Di

0.75 Di

2
Y

0.75 Di

0.5

Ni 152.685

mm

Convective Hoop Membrane Force in Tank Shell (N/mm):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.1.4)

1.85 Ac G Di cosh 3.68


Nc

( Hliq Y)
Di

3.68 Hliq

Di

Nc 6.476

mm

cosh

Liquid Hydrostatic Membrane Force in Tank Shell (N/mm):


Y G Di

Nh

Thickness of the shell ring under consideration (mm):

Total Combined Hoop Stress (MPa):

ts th3 CA
2

Nh

Nh 423.056

9.81

ts 4

Ni Nc ( Av Nh)
ts

mm

mm

MPa

t 151.633

The maximum allowable hoop tension membrane stress for the combination of hydrostatic and dynamic membrane
hoop effects should be less than allowable design stress of the shell increased by 33%.
Allowable Stress for MCE seismic design:

Comparison:

t 151.633

Hoop Stress Ratio:

MPa

all 1.33 Sd

all 208.367

SRhs

t
all

all 208.367

MPa

SRhs 0.728

OK

MPa

FOUNDATION LOADS
Dead Load per Unit Length (N/m):
(Shell and Roof)

DL

Ws Wr

20

Di

DL 1.13 10

N
m

Lr 9.81

( Di 0.5)
4

Live Load per Unit Length (N/m):


(Live Load on Roof)

LL

Total Dead Weight (N):


(Shell, Roof and Liquid)

Wt Ws Wr Wp

Total Load per Unit Area during Operation (N/m2):


(Shell, Roof and Liquid)

Wo

LL 7.677 10

Di

m
7

Wt 1.111 10

Wt

N
N

Wo 1.069 10

Di2

Seismic loads:
The equivalent lateral seismic forces are calculated by considering the effective mass and dynamic liquid pressures.
The seismic base shear is evaluated as the SRSS summation of the impulsive and convective components.

Base Shear due to Seismic Load (N):

Seq

[ Ai ( Wi Ws Wr) ] ( Ac Wc )

2
6

Seq 3.909 10
Ringwall Overturning Moment due to Seismic Load (Nm):

Mrw 1.733 10

Nm

Slab Overturning Moment due to Seismic Load (Nm):

Ms 2.363 10

Nm

Vertical Seismic Force (N):


(Shell and Roof)

Fvs Av ( Ws Wr)

Vertical Seismic Force per Unit Length (N/m):


(Shel and Roof)

VSF

Total Vertical Seismic Force (N):


(Shell, Roof and Liquid)

Fvst Av Wt

Fvst 2.666 10

Total Vertical Load (N):


(Total Vertical Seismic and Total Dead W.)

Fvt Fvst Wt

Fvt 1.377 10

Fvs
( Di )

Fvs 9.795 10

VSF 2.711 10

N
m

ANCHORAGE LOADS
Resistance to the overturning (ringwall) moment at the base of the shell is provided by mechanical anchorage
devices (anchor bolts). The resisting weight of the liquid is neglected in the calculation of the uplift load on the
anchors. The anchors are sized to provide at least the minimum anchorage resistance calculated as follows:
Distributed Compression Force due to Roof (N/m): wr

Distributed Compression Force due to Shell (N/m): ws


Total Distributed Compression Force (N/m):

Wr
Di
Ws
Di

wt wr ws

Vertical Seismic Acceleration (g's):

Minimum Anchorage Resistance (N/m):


(API 650 Eq. E.6.2.1.2)

wr 3.134 10

N
m

ws 8.163 10
4

wt 1.13 10

N
m
N
m

Av 0.24

wab

1.273 Mrw wt ( 1 0.4 Av) wab 1.566 105

2
Di

21

N
m

ANCHOR BOLT VERIFICATION (LRFD CRITERION)


Due to the adoption of shear keys, anchor bolts are subjected to traction loads only. Max applied tractions are
evaluated from above calculated anchorage loads and anchor bolt capacity is determined according to ACI 318-05
Appendix D
Requirements according to API 650 E.7.1.2:

- Minimum 6 anchors should be provided.


- The spacing between anchors should be less than 3 m.
- Anchors should have a minimum diameter of 25 mm.

Number of Equally Spaced Anchors Around the Tank Circumference:

nb 24

Distance from bolt center to shell (mm):

Dbs 92

Bolt Circle Diameter (m):

Db Di 2

Bolt Spacing Angle:

Bolt Spacing (m):

Dbs th1
1000

360

Db 11.708

Db

degrees

15

nb

Bsp

mm

Bsp 1.533

nb

Concrete strength (MPa):

flc 25

MPa

Anchor Bolt Characteristics


Cast in headed stud anchor
Nominal Diameter of Anchor (mm):

db 48

Threaded Area of Bolt (mm2):

Ath

mm
2

0.75 db
4

Ath 1.357 10

Anchor bolt material: S275JR (St44-2) or equivalent


Ultimate Tensile Strenght (MPa):

Sub 430

Yield Strenght (MPa):

Syb 275

Maximum traction
As LRFD design method is used for anchor bolt verification, following load combination will be adopted
U = 0.9 x D + E
Bsp 1000

Bolt Spacing to Diameter ratio

db
Max traction on single bolt (kN)

Tb

wab Bsp
1000

22

Tb 240

31.929

kN

mm

Bolts tension capacity (according to clause D.5)


Reduction Factor (according to clause D.4.4.a)

t 0.75

Additional seismic strength reduction factor

s 0.75

Design tensile strength (ACI 318 D.5.1.2) (MPa)

futa min ( Sub 860 1.9 Syb)

Nominal bolt strength in tension (kN)

Nsa Ath min ( futa 860) 10

Nsa 583.582

Bolt tension capacity (kN)

Nsa s t Nsa

Nsa 328.265 kN

Bolt tension demand (kN)

Nua Tb

Nua 240

Comparison:

futa 430

Nsa 328.265 kN

Nua 240

Bolt usage ratio:

kN

kN

kN

Nua

FUt

MPa

OK

FUt 0.731

Nsa

Pullout strength in tension (according to clause D.5.3)


Modification Factor:

cp 1.4

Reduction Factor:

p 0.75

Bearing area at head of anchor bolt (mm2):

db2

Abrg 160
4

Pull out strength in tension of an headed bolt (kN):

Np 8 Abrg flc 10

Nominal pull out strength (kN):

Npn Np cp

Npn 6.661 10
kN

Design pull out strength (kN):

Np p s Npn

Np 3.747 10
kN

Comparison:

Np 3.747 10 kN

Nsa 328.265

Abrg 2.379 10 mm

Np 4.758 kN
10

OK

kN

Bolt adequacy for uplift loads


According to Table 3.21 of API 650
Dead load of shell minus any corrosion allowance and any dead load including roof plate acting on the shell minus
any corrosion allowance (N):

tav CA Wro tr CA 9.81

tav
tr

W2 Wsh

Seismic uplift loads (N):

U 4

Ms
Di

Nm

W2 1.679 10

W2 ( 1 0.4 Av)

As Ms is used for a verification based on ASD criterion a new evaluation can be made as follows:
Slab Overturning Moment (Nm):
Ms

[ Ai 0.7 ( Wi Xis Ws Xs Wr Xr) ] [ Ac ( Wc Xcs ) ]

23

Ms 1.698 10

Levhali

Seismic uplift loads (N):

Uplift load per anchor (N):

Uasd 4

tb

Ms
Di

Uasd

al 0.8 Syb

Average induced stress (MPa):

ub

Nm

MPa

al 220

tb

ub 176.627 MPa

Ath
ub

SRu

Uasd 5.753 10

tb 2.397 10

nb

Allowable Ancher Bolt Stress (MPa):


according to Table 3.21 of API 650

Uplift stress ratio

W2 ( 1 0.4 Av)

OK

SRu 0.803

al

SHEAR KEY VERIFICATION (ASD CRITERION)


Shear keys characteristics

Depth of shear key (mm):

dp 100 mm

Width of shear key (mm):

wsk 100 mm

Thickness of shear key (mm):

tsk 20

Number:

nsk 24

Material:

S275 JRG2

Plate minimum yield stress (MPa)

ysk 275

mm

Verification procedure
The shear keys are verified for the bending moment and shear stresses in the plates produced by the concrete
bearing reaction in the contact area, assumed as uniformly distributed.
Two verifications are performed:
A global verification at the shear key connection to the annular plate
A local verification at the connection of the two vertical plates forming the shear key.
6

Total Base Shear due to seismic load (N):

0.7 Seq 2.736 10

Shear for each shear key (N):

Ssk

Concrete compression (MPa):

fc

0.7 Seq
nsk
Ssk

wsk dp

Concrete allowable compression (MPa):

fcall 0.65 0.85 flc

Concrete compression ratio

SRck

fc
fcall

N
5

Ssk 1.14 10

fc 11.402 MPa

fcall 13.813

MPa
OK

SRck 0.825

Global verification
Shear area (mm2):

Assk tsk wsk

24

Assk 2 10

mm

Shear stress (MPa):

Ssk

Shear key allowable bending stress (MPa):

allsk

Shear key allowable shear stress (MPa):

allsk

MPa

57.009

Assk
2
3

allsk 183.333 MPa

ysk

allsk

MPa

allsk 129.636

2
Shear stress ratio:

SR

dp

Arm of the global concrete reaction (mm):

afc

Global bending moment (Nmm):

Mgk Ssk afc

Global inertia moment (mm4):

Igk

afc 50

mm
6

Mgk 5.701 10

12

OK

SR 0.44

allsk

( wsk) tsk ( wsk tsk) tsk

Igk 1.72 10
Global section modulus (mm3):

Shear key global bending stress (MPa):

Shear key global bending stress ratio.

Igk

Wgk

gk

wsk

mm

Wgk 3.44 10

Mgk

mm

gk 165.723 MPa

Wgk

SRgk

Nmm

gk

OK

SRgk 0.904

allsk

Local verification
Conservatively we consider a simple cantilever beam of unit width

Shear key overhang (mm):

esk

wsk tsk

Bending moment due to concrete reaction (Nmm/mm): Mlk fc esk


1

Shear key section modulus per unit depth (mm3/mm): Wlk

Shear key bending stress (MPa):

Shear key local bending stress ratio:

esk 40

lk

Mlk
Wlk

SRlk

25

tsk

esk

lk
allsk

mm
3 N mm

Mlk 9.121 10

mm
3

Wlk 66.667

lk 136.821

SRlk 0.746

mm

mm
MPa

OK

MAXIMUM LONGITUDILAN SHELL MEMBRANE COMPRESSION STRESS


Shell Compression in Mechanically Anchored Tanks
The maximum longitudinal shell compression stress at the bottom of the shell for mechanically anchored tanks is
evaluated according to API 650 E.6.2.2.2
Thickness of Bottom Shell Course less CA (mm): tsb th1 CA

c wt ( 1 0.4 Av)

1.273 Mrw

1000 tsb

Di

tsb 6

mm

MPa

c 29.865

Allowable Longitudinal Shell Membrane Compression Stress


The seismic allowable stress Fc is evaluated according to API 650 E.6.2.2.3
2

The Parameter:

Para

G Hliq Di

Para 38.573

tsb
The Allowable Compression Stress (MPa):
(API 650 Eq. E.6.2.2.3)

Selection of Stress Equation:


2

G Hliq Di

When

44

Fc

tsb

83 tsb
Di

G Hliq Di

When

44

tsb

Fc

83 tsb
2.5 Di

7.5 ( G Hliq) 0.5 Sy


Fc 41.625

Comparison:

c 29.865

Compression Stress Ratio:

Rcs

MPa

Fc 41.625

MPa

MPa

OK

Rcs 0.717

Fc

ANCHOR CHAIR VERIFICATION (ASD CRITERION)


The tank is anchored to the foundation by mean of anchor bolts and chairs. The verification of various components
of the chair (top plate and gussets) is performed according to procedure 3-14 "Design of base details for vertical
vessels" of Pressure Vessel Design Manual by D. Moss.
Used symbols are shown in next figure.
Input data
Material S235 JRG2
Plate minimum yield stress (MPa):

y Sy

y 235

Plate allowable stress (MPa):

ball Sd

ball 156.667 MPa

Bolt eccentricity (mm):

a Dbs

a 92

26

MPa

mm

Height from top of annular plate (mm):

h 250 mm

Distance between gussets (mm):

b 100 mm

Thickness of bottom shell (mm):

ts th1

Bolt diameter (mm):

ts 12

mm

db 48

mm

Bolt hole in the top plate (mm)

dbh db 24

Top plate thickness (mm):

tc 30

Top plate width (mm):

A 400 mm

Top plate edge distance from bolt axis (mm):

c 85

Top plate width ouside bolt hole (mm):

e c

Thickness of gussets (mm):

tg 25 mm

Bolt pitch (mm):

bp Bsp 1000

bp 1.533 10

mm

Base plate span between chairs (mm):

bs bp ( b 2 tg)

bs 1.383 10

mm

Number of gussets per chair:

ng 2

Shell reinforcement plate thickness (mm:)

rpt 20 mm

Shell reinforcement plate halfwidth (mm):

rpw 200 mm

dbh 72

mm

mm

mm

dbh

e 49 mm

Design loads
Bolt traction
As ASD design method is used for anchor chair verification, a new evaluation of max bolt traction is done as follows:

Maximum traction on single bolt (N):

Tbc

1.273 Mrw wt ( 1 0.4 Av 0.7) bp

1000
2
Db

Tbc 2.305 10

For additional conservatism we consider the max between the computed traction and the ASD bolt capacity
Maximum load considered for the chair verification (N): Tbc max Tbc0.7Nsa1000
Tbc 2.305 10

Maximum compression per unit length (N/m):

C wt ( 1 0.4 Av 0.7)

1.273 Mrw
2

Di

C 1.789 10

27

N
m

Annular bottom plate characteristics


Selected bottom plate thickness (mm):

tb tbs

tb 8

Annular plate width (mm):

mm

w 530.804

mm

Top plate verification


The top plate is assumed as a beam, with dimensions e x A, with partially fixed ends, and a portion (1/3) of the
total anchor bolt force Tbc, distributed along part of the span.

Maximum induced bending stress (MPa):

Tbc

tp

( 0.375 b 0.22db)

tp 140.808 MPa

e tc

Top plate bending stress ratio

SRtp

tp

OK

SRtp 0.899

ball

Gusset verification
Gusset maximum axial compression force (N):

Tbc

Cg

Cg 1.152 10

ng

Gusset width at bottom edge (mm):

wo 15 mm

Gusset mean width (mm):

bg

( a c ) wo

bg 96

mm

Gusset thickness (mm):

tg 25

Shell reinforcement plate thickness (mm):

rpt 20 mm

Shell reinforcement plate halfwidth (mm):

rpw 200

Section total area (mm2):

Neutral axis distance from midsurface of


reinforcement plate (mm):

mm

mm
2

Ag bg tg rpt rpw

Ag 6.4 10

bg rpt

2
2
na tg bg

na 21.75

Ag

mm

mm

Longitudinal inertia moment (mm4):


3

Il

tg bg
12

bg rpt na rpw rpt rpt rpw ( na) 2

2
12
2

tg bg

Transv ersal inertia moment (mm4):

It

Inertia radius (mm):

rl

12
1

Ag

28

bg tg rpt rpw

Il

rt

Il 7.023 10

It
Ag

It 1.346 10

rl 33.125

mm

rt 45.857

mm

mm

mm

rmin min ( rl rt)


Instability Factor:

IF 1

Young's modulus (MPa):

E 210000 MPa

Yield s tress (MPa):

rmin 33.125 mm

y 235

Cc factor:

2 E

Cc

MPa

Cc 132.813

Allowable compression stress (MPa):

cgall

IF h

rmin
1
2
2 rmin

3
5
h
IF h 1
3 IF

3
3
8 Cc rmin
rmin
8 Cc

Max compression stress (MPa)

Compression stress ratio

cg

Cg
Ag

SRcg

29

cg
cgall

cgall 135.608 MPa

cg 18.008

SRcg 0.133

MPa

OK