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NewtonLeibniz 1516

19
19
Cauchy, RiemannWeierstrass

20 GrassmannPoincare
Cartan
Stokes

NewtonLeibniz Taylor

Riemann
Riemann
Riemann

Kummer

Euler-Maclaurin Stirling Fourier


Fourier

ii

Parseval

Lagrange
Jacobian
Riemann

Green Gauss Stokes

Riemann-Stieltjes
Riemann-Stieltjes Riemann

Green
Gauss Stokes
Gamma Stirling

Fourier Plancherel Fourier

i
Riemann

6.1 Riemann

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

39

7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

7.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

7.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

7.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

7.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

7.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

7.4

62

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

8.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

8.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

8.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

8.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

101

9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
iii

iv

9.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
9.3.2

Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

9.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
9.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
9.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

Fourier

143

10.1 Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143


10.2 Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
10.3 Parseval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
10.4 Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
10.5 Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
10.5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

10.5.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

10.5.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

10.5.4

Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

10.5.5

Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

177

11.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
11.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
11.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
11.5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

11.5.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

11.5.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Riemann

. ,
. , f pxq 1, x P r0, 1q; f pxq 2,
x P r1, 2s r0, 2s , f pxq x 0, x 2

y 0 , f pxq .
Riemann , .
Lebesgue .

6.1

Riemann

f pxq ra, bs (), x a,


y b, y 0 y f pxq . ,

, : ra, bs
a x0 x1 xn b,

i f pi qxi , i P rxi1 , xi s, xi xi xi1 .


n

f pi qxi ABCD . , ra, bs


i1

, ,
SABCD lim

}}0

f pi qxi ,

i1

}} max txi u. ,

1in

f pxqdx.
a

y = f (x)

D
0

6.1
1

Riemann

, f pxq ra, bs, ra, bs n ` 1 a


x0 x1 xn b, ra, bs n i rxi1 , xi s p1 i nq,

ra, bs ,
: a x0 x1 xn b.

i xi xi xi1 ,
}} max txi u,
1in

.
, i P i rxi1 , xi s p1 i nq.
n

f pi qxi

i1

f ra, bs Riemann .
y

y = f (x)

f (i )
D
0

x
xi1 i xi

6.2 Riemann
6.1.1 (Riemann ). f , I, 0,
0, , }} ,
n

f pi qxi I , @ i P rxi1 , xi s, i 1, , n,

i1

f ra, bs Riemann , I f ra, bs p q ,


b
I

f pxq dx lim
a

}}0

f pi qxi .

i1

f , ra, bs , a, b .

6.1 Riemann

. p1q x ,
b
b
f pxq dx
f ptq dt.
a

p2q f ra, bs ,

f pxq dx ;

6.1.1 (). f ra, bs , f ra, bs ,


.
. f ra, bs , , I . 1,
, 0, ra, bs
: a x0 x1 xn b,

}} , i P rxi1 , xi s p1 i nq,
n

f pi qxi I 1.

i1

, n

ba
, ra, bs n ,

xi a `

}}

i
pb aq, i 0, , n,
n

ba
.
n

n
b a

i
i1

f pi q I 1, @ i P a `
pb aq, a ` pb aq ,

n i1
n
n

f pi q

i1

n
p1 ` |I|q.
ba

j P t1, 2, , nu, i j , i a `

i
pb aq,
n

! `
)
i

f a ` pb aq ,
0in
n

M max

:
`

i
n

p1 ` |I|q
|f pj q|
f a ` pb aq `
n
ba
ij
pn 1qM `

n
p1 ` |I|q,
ba

Riemann

j1
j
j P a `
pb aq, a ` pb aq ,
a
a
n
|f pxq| pn 1qM `
p1 ` |I|q, @ x P ra, bs,
ba

f .
, Dirichlet Dpxq : , i
rxi1 , xi s , 0; i rxi1 , xi s , 1.


Dpxq .

, ?
, Riemann
.
: a x0 x1 xn b,

Mi

sup

f pxq, mi

xPrxi1 ,xi s

inf
xPrxi1 ,xi s

f pxq,

Mi xi , s

i1

mi xi ,

i1

S f Darboux , , Spq Sp, f q; s


Darboux , , spq sp, f q.
y

6.3
, Riemann . ,
i M i mi

sup

f pxq

xPrxi1 ,xi s

inf
xPrxi1 ,xi s

f pxq

f rxi1 , xi s . ,
Ss

i1

i xi .

6.1 Riemann

Riemann f S s (

). Darboux .
f , M sup f pxq, m inf f pxq.
xPra,bs

xPra,bs

, .
6.1.2. 1 k ,
Spq Sp 1 q Spq pM mqk}},
spq sp 1 q spq ` pM mqk}}.

, , , .
. , k 1 . , x,
x
pxj1 , xj q . ,
Spq

Mi xi Mj xj `

i1

Mi xi ,

ij

Sp 1 q Mj1 p
x xj1 q ` Mj2 pxj x
q `

Mi xi ,

ij

x, xj s . Mj1 Mj ,
Mj1 Mj2 f rxj1 , xs r
Mj2 Mj ,
q
x xj1 q ` pMj Mj2 qpxj x
0 Spq Sp 1 q pMj Mj1 qp
pM mqp
x xj1 q ` pM mqpxj x
q
pM mqxj pM mq}}.

Spq Sp 1 q Spq pM mq}}. .

6.1.3. 1 2 ,
sp1 q Sp2 q.

. 1 Y 2 1 2 (
), 1 Y 2 1 , 2
. 6.1.2,
sp1 q sp1 Y 2 q Sp1 Y 2 q Sp2 q.

.
.

Riemann

6.1.4 (Darboux). lim Spq inf Spq,

}}0

lim spq sup spq.

}}0

. , :
mpb aq spq Spq M pb aq,

inf Spq sup spq .

0, , 1 ,

Sp 1 q inf Spq ` .

1 k . , Y 1 k .
6.1.2,

Spq pM mqk}} Sp Y 1 q Sp 1 q inf Spq ` .

, }}
,
2pM m ` 1qk
inf Spq Spq pM mqk

` inf Spq `

2pM m ` 1qk
2

inf Spq ` ,

lim Spq inf Spq.

}}0

inf Spq f ra, bs , sup spq f ra, bs .

Riemann Darboux ,

??.
6.1.5 (). f ra, bs , :
p1q f ra, bs Riemann .
p2q f ra, bs .
n

p3q lim
i xi 0.
}}0 i1

p4q 0, ra, bs ,
Spq spq

i xi .

i1

. p1q p2q: f ra, bs , I. 0,


0, }} ,
I

i1

f pi q xi I ` .

6.1 Riemann

,
I

i1
n

inf
xPrxi1 ,xi s

sup

f pxq xi spq
f pxq xi Spq

i1 xPrxi1 ,xi s

I ` ,

lim spq lim Spq I. Darboux f .


}}0

}}0

p2q p1q: sup spq inf Spq I. Darboux , 0,

0, }} ,
I spq

f pi q xi Spq I ` ,

i1

lim
}}0

f pi q xi I,

i1

f ra, bs , I.
p2q p3q: Darboux
lim
}}0

i xi lim pSpq spqq inf Spq sup spq.

}}0

i1

p3q p4q: .
p4q p2q: , Spq spq ,
spq sup sp 1 q inf1 Sp 1 q Spq

0 inf1 Sp 1 q sup sp 1 q Spq spq .

f .
p1q p2q p3q p4q .

6.1.6. p1q r, s ra, bs, f ra, bs , f r, s


.
p2q c P pa, bq, f ra, cs rc, bs , f ra, bs .

. p1q 0, f ra, bs , 6.1.5 p3q, 0,


n

}} ,
i xi . r, s 1 , } 1 } . ,
i1

ra, bs , 1 ra, bs r, s , }} ,

i xi .
i xi
1

Riemann

6.1.5 p4q , f r, s .


(2) 6.1.5 p4q , .

6.1.1. f, g ra, bs , f g ra, bs .


. , K 0,
|f pxq| K, |gpxq| K, @ x P ra, bs.

0, 6.1.5 p3q, 0, }} ,

i pf q xi

,
i pgq xi
.
2K ` 1
2K
`1

rxi1 , xi s ,
i pf gq

sup

|f px1 qgpx1 q f px2 qgpx2 q|

x1 ,x2 Prxi1 ,xi s

sup

|f px1 qgpx1 q f px1 qgpx2 q ` f px1 qgpx2 q f px2 qgpx2 q|

x1 ,x2 Prxi1 ,xi s

sup

|f px1 q||gpx1 q gpx2 q| ` |gpx2 q||f px1 q f px2 q|

x1 ,x2 Prxi1 ,xi s

Kpi pgq ` i pf qq,

i pf gq xi K

pi pf q ` i pgqq xi

i pf q xi ` K

i pgq xi

`K
.
2K ` 1
2K ` 1

6.1.5 f g .

6.1.5 , .
6.1.7 (). p1q f ra, bs , f ra, bs ;
p2q f ra, bs , f ;
p3q f ra, bs , f ;

. p1q (??).
p2q 6.1.5 p4q . 0, x
k pk 1, , N q f

, p
xk , x
k ` q pk 1, , N q
, 0
4pM m ` 1qN
. , ra, bs , f

. , ,

6.1 Riemann

. r
xk , x
k ` s
2pb aq
p1 k N q ra, bs , . ,
f

Spq spq

pb aq ` pM mq
2
2pb aq
i1

2N
` pM mq
.
2
4pM m ` 1qN

6.1.5 p4q f .
p3q f ra, bs , f . 0, ra, bs

, }}
,
f pbq f paq ` 1
n

i xi

i1

f pxi q f pxi1 q xi
i1
n

f
pbq

f
paq ` 1
i1
`

f pxn q f px0 q
f pbq f paq ` 1
`

f pbq f paq
,
f pbq f paq ` 1

f pxi q f pxi1 q

6.1.5 p3q f .

f ra, bs , ra, bs
: a x0 x1 x2 xn b,

f pxi1 , xi q , f .
6.1.8. .
. .

6.1.2. pq r0, 1s .
. Rpxq
$
1

, x pq P p0, 1q, p, q ,

&q
Rpxq 1, x 0, 1,

%0, x P p0, 1q .
1

2
p
, 0 Rpxq 1. 0, , q , r0, 1s
q
2

N N pq .
, }} ,
4N

Riemann

10

2N , Rpxq
0

Rpi qxi 2N }} `

,
2

xi ,
2 i


Rpxq r0, 1s , .

, f , ,
f ,
. .
6.1.9 (Riemann). f ra, bs , f
, 0, ra, bs ,

xi .

. () f , 6.1.5 p4q, , 0, ,
n

i xi ,

i1

xi

i xi ,

i1

xi .

() , 0, ra, bs ,

xi

i 2pbaq

.
2pM m ` 1q

,
n

i xi

i xi `

i 2pbaq

i1

i xi

i 2pbaq

2pb aq
i

2pbaq

xi ` pM mq

xi

i 2pbaq

pb aq ` pM mq
.
2pb aq
2pM m ` 1q

6.1.5 p4q f .

6.1 Riemann

11

6.1.3. pq f ra, bs , r, s , pr, sq ra, bs.


f r, s .

. f ra, bs , . 0, 0, x, y P

. r, s ,
ra, bs, |x y| , |f pxq f pyq|
2p q
6.1.9, r, s : t0 t1 tm ,

ti

i pq

,
4K ` 1

K max |f pxq|.
xPra,bs

i pf q ti

i1

i pf q ti `

i pq

2K

i pf q ti

i pq

ti `

i pq

2K

2p q

ti

i pq

`
p q .
4K ` 1 2p q


6.1.5 p4q f r, s .
. f , , f pq ().
, Lebesgue .

6.1.2 (). A R, 0, A
tIi u,
n

|Ii | , @ n 1,

i1

A .
6.1.4. p1q ; p2q ; p3q
; p4q .
. p1q A txi uni1 , 0,
`

, xi `
, i 1, 2, , n.
Ii xi
2n
2n

, tIi u A ,
n

i1

A .

|Ii |

i1

,
2n

Riemann

12
p2q A txi u8
i1 , 0,
`
Ii xi

2i`1

, xi `

2i`1

, i 1, 2, .

, tIi u A ,
n

|Ii |

i1

i1

,
2i`1

A .
p3q , .
p4q Ai pi 1q . 0, i, Ai

tIij u, tIij u i .
2
, tIij u tAi u

` 2 ` 3 ` .
2 2
2


tAi u .

f ra, bs . , f x P ra, bs

pf, xq lim supt|f px1 q f px2 q| : x1 , x2 P px r, x ` rq X ra, bsu.


r0`

f x pf, xq 0. 0,
D tx P ra, bs | pf, xq u,

f () Df

n1

D n1 .

6.1.10 (Lebsegue). f ra, bs Riemann


Df .
. () f ra, bs Riemann . 0, 0,
ra, bs
: a x0 x1 xn b,

i xi .
2
i1

x P D X pxi1 , xi q, i pf, xq .

xi .
2
D Xpx
,x qH

i1

6.1 Riemann

13

pxi1 , xi q

xi

i0

D Xpxi1 ,xi qH

, xi `
,
4pn ` 1q
4pn ` 1q

xi `

D Xpxi1 ,xi qH

2

pn ` 1q ` ,
4pn ` 1q
2 2

D . Df

n1

D n1 .

() |f pxq| K, @ x P ra, bs. , Df , 0,

tpj , j q|j 1, 2, u, Df pj , j q,
j

pj j q
j

x P ra, bs

.
4K ` 1

pj , j q, f x , x Ix , f

. tpj , j q, Ix u ra, bs ,
2pb aq
, Lebesgue , ra, bs

Ix

: a x0 x1 xn b,

rxi1 , xi s pj , j q Ix .
n

i1

i xi

i xi `

xi `

rxi1 ,xi spj ,j q

2K

pj j q `

2K

i xi

rxi1 ,xi sIx

rxi1 ,xi spj ,j q

2K

2pb aq

xi

rxi1 ,xi sIx

pb aq
2pb aq

` .
4K ` 1 2

f ra, bs Riemann .

6.1.11 (Lebesgue ). tU uP ra, bs ,


0, I ra, bs
U .
1
,
n
In U . In ran , bn s, tan u ,

. () , In , n 1, 2, , |In |

, tan u , P ra, bs. , tbn u .

Riemann

14

tU u ra, bs , , P U . U ,
0, p , ` q U . , n ,
an , bn P p , ` q U ,


In ran , bn s U . In .

Lebesgue ,
.
6.1
1. r0, 1s :
$
&1, x P Q,
p1q f pxq
%1,
x P R Q.
$
&sgnpsin q, x 0,
x
p3q f pxq
%0,
x 0.

$
&x, x P Q,
p2q f pxq
%0, x P R Q.
$
& 1 r 1 s, x 0,
x
p4q f pxq x
%0,
x 0.

2. f pxq ra, bs , f px ` cq ra c, b cs ,
b

bc
f pxqdx

f px ` cqdx.
ac

3. :
b
p1q
a

x a ` b dx;
2

b
p2q
a

`
a ` b 2
x
dx.
2

4. f pxq ra, bs , gpxq f pxq , gpxq ,


b

b
f pxqdx

5. f pxq r0, 1s ,

gpxqdx.
a

f pxqdx A 0. , r, s,

1
A, @ x P r, s. (: .)
2
1
6. f pxq r0, 1s ,
f pxqdx 0. , 0,
f pxq

r, s, f pxq , @ x P r, s.
7. f pxq ra, bs . ,

, f .

6.2

15

8. f pxq ra, bs , C 0, |f pxq| C pa x bq.


1
ra, bs .
f
9. f pxq ra, bs ,
f pxq inf tf ptqu, f pxq sup tf ptqu
tPra,xs

tPra,xs

ra, bs .
10. f pxq, gpxq ra, bs , f pxq gpxq ,
b

b
f pxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

11. pq f pxq 0 ra, bs ,

b
f pxqdx 0.
a

12. pq () .
13. pq f, g , f g ,

. (: , .)
14. pq f , g f , g

, .

6.2

,
a b ,
a b ,

b
f pxqdx

b
b

f pxqdx,
a

f pxqdx 0.
a

6.2.1. p1q f, g ra, bs , , P R, f ` g ra, bs ,

b
pf ` gqdx

b
f pxqdx `

gpxqdx.
a

p2q f ra, bs , c P pa, bq, f ra, cs rc, bs ,


b

c
f pxqdx

b
f pxqdx `

f pxqdx.
c

Riemann

16

. p1q 0, f, g , 0, ra, bs }}

b
b
n
n

f pi q xi
f pxqdx ,
gpi q xi
gpxqdx ,

i1

i1

b
b

n
rf pi q ` gpi qs xi

f
pxqdx
`

gpxqdx

i1

b
b
n
n

f pi q xi
gpi q xi
gpxqdx
||
f pxqdx ` ||
a

i1

i1

|| ` || p|| ` ||q ,

, f ` g ,
b

b
f pxqdx `

gpxqdx.

p2q f . 1 , 2 ra, cs rc, bs ,

}1 } 0, }2 } 0 , 1 Y 2 }} 0.
b
f pxqdx lim

}1 }0
}2 }0

f pi q xi lim

}1 }0

1 Y2

f pi qxi ` lim

}2 }0

f pi qxi

b
f pxqdx `

f pxqdx.
c

. , a, b, c f ,
, p2q .
6.2.2. p1q f ra, bs , ;
p2q f, g ra, bs , f pxq gpxq,
b

b
f pxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

p3q f ra, bs , |f pxq| ,


b
b

|f pxq|dx.
f pxqdx
a

. p1q f , , .
p2q 6.2.1 p1q, f g ra, bs , p1q
b
0

b
pf gqdx

b
f pxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

6.2

17

p3q f ra, bs , 0, ra, bs

i pf q xi .

|f pxq| |f pyq| |f pxq f pyq|, i p|f |q i pf q,

i p|f |q xi ,

|f | .

|f pi q| xi ,
f pi q xi

b
b

|f pxq|dx.
f pxqdx
a

.
6.2.3 (). f, g ra, bs , gpxq ,
, inf f pxq sup f pxq,
xPra,bs

xPra,bs

b
f pxqgpxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

. , gpxq 0.
`

inf f pxq gpxq f pxqgpxq sup f pxq gpxq.

xPra,bs

xPra,bs

6.2.2
b
inf f pxq

xPra,bs

b
gpxqdx

b
f pxqgpxqdx sup f pxq

xPra,bs

gpxqdx.
a

b
b
f pxqgpxqdx 0, . ,
gpxqdx 0,
,
a
a
b
f pxqgpxqdx
a b
, inf f pxq sup f pxq.

xPra,bs
xPra,bs
gpxqdx
a

. . gpxq 1 ,
b
f pxqdx pb aq.
a

Riemann

18

6.2.4. f pxq ra, bs ,


x
F pxq
f ptqdt, x P ra, bs,
a

F ra, bs .


. ?? , .
6.2.5 (). f ra, bs .

p1q g ra, bs , gpxq 0, @ x P ra, bs, P ra, bs

f pxqgpxqdx gpaq

f pxqdx.

p2q g ra, bs , gpxq 0, @ x P ra, bs, P ra, bs

b
f pxqgpxqdx gpbq

f pxqdx.

p3q , g ra, bs , P ra, bs,


b

b
f pxqgpxqdx gpaq
f pxqdx ` gpbq
f pxqdx.
a

. p1q F pxq

f ptqdt. 6.2.4 F , M

m. f ra, bs , f . |f pxq| K, @ x P ra, bs.


g , , g . 0, ra, bs : a x0
x1 xn b,

i pgq xi .

i1

( F px0 q F paq 0)
b
n xi

f pxqgpxqdx
f pxqgpxqdx
a

i1 xi1
n

xi
rgpxq gpxi1 qs f pxqdx `

i1 xi1
n xi

xi
gpxi1 q

i1
n

|gpxq gpxi1 q| |f pxq|dx `

i1 xi1

gpxi1 q rF pxi q F pxi1 qs

i1

i pgq xi `

i1

K `M

f pxqdx
xi1

n1

F pxi q rgpxi1 q gpxi qs ` F pbq gpxn1 q

i1
n1

rgpxi1 q gpxi qs ` M gpxn1 q

i1

K ` M gpaq.

6.2

19

f pxq, ( F m)
b
f pxq gpxqdx K m gpaq,
a

,
b
m gpaq K

f pxqgpxqdx M gpaq ` K ,
a

0` ,
b
f pxqgpxqdx M gpaq.

m gpaq
a

gpaq 0,

f pxqgpxqdx 0. gpaq 0,

b
f pxqgpxqdx
m

M,

gpaq

b
f pxqgpxqdx

, P ra, bs F pq
b

gpaq

f pxqgpxqdx gpaq F pq gpaq


a

p2q F pxq

f pxqdx.
a

. p1q ,
f ptqdt, F M

x
n xi

b
f pxqgpxqdx
a

f pxqgpxqdx

i1 xi1
n xi

rgpxq gpxi qsf pxqdx `

i1 xi1
n

i pgq xi `

i1

i1

xi
gpxi q

f pxqdx
xi1

gpxi qrF pxi1 q F pxi qs

i1

K ` gpx1 q F px0 q `

n1

F pxi qrgpxi`1 q gpxi qs

i1

gpx1 q ` M

K `M

n1

i1

gpbq.
K `M

p1q .

rgpxi`1 q gpxi qs

Riemann

20

p3q g , hpxq gpxq gpbq, h , h 0. p1q,

P ra, bs,
b

f pxq hpxqdx hpaq

f pxqdx.
a

hpxq gpxq gpbq , . g . 


. Abel ,
.
6.2.1. lim

n8 0

xn
dx 0.
1`x

1
1
1
xn

1, xn
xn ,
2
1`x
2
1`x

1 n
1
1 1 n
x
x dx
dx
xn dx.
2 0
1
`
x
0
0

. x P r0, 1s ,

n `8 , 0. .

6.2.2. 0, b a 0,
b
sin x 2

dx .
ex
x
a
a

. gpxq

b
a

ex

ex
, f pxq sin x , P ra, bs,
x

ea
sin x
dx

x
a

sin x dx
a

ea
pcos a cos q,
a

b
2
sin x
ea

dx 2
,
ex
x
a
a
a


.
6.2.3. lim

A8 0

sin x
dx .
x

. 0, B A 0 ,
A

B sin x
sin x B sin x
2

dx
dx
dx
0 pA 8q,

x
x
x
A
0
0
A

Cauchy .
6.2.4. pq .

6.2

21

. . ra, bs tIi u ,
Ii ra, bs. i Ii ,
i pxq 1, x P Ii ; i pxq 0, x R Ii .

i ra, bs ,
b
i pxq dx |Ii |.
a

tIi u ra, bs

i pxq 1, @ x P ra, bs.

|Ii |

b
i

i pxq dx

b
a

i pxq dx b a.

ra, bs , ,
b a. , ra, bs .

6.2.5 (). f pxq ra, bs , 0,


gpxq,
b
|f pxq gpxq|dx .
a

. f , 0, ra, bs
: a x0 x1 x2 xn b,

i pf qxi .

i1

ra, bs g,
gpxq f pxi1 q, @ x P rxi1 , xi q, i 1, 2, , n.

b
|f pxq gpxq|dx
a

n xi

i1 xi1
n xi

i1 xi1
n xi

i1 xi1
n

|f pxq gpxq|dx
|f pxq f pxi1 q|dx
i pf qdx

i pf qpxi xi1 q .

i1

Riemann

22

gpxq .
. ,
inf f pxq g sup f pxq.

xPra,bs

xPra,bs

6.2.6 (Riemann-Lebesgue). f pxq ra, bs ,


b
b
lim
f pxq sin xdx 0, lim
f pxq cos xdx 0.
`8 a

`8 a

. . f , 0, ra, bs
: a x0 x1 x2 xn b,

i pf qxi

i1

1
.
2

f , K, |f pxq| K, @ x P ra, bs.

4nK
,

n xi
b

f pxq sin xdx


f pxq sin xdx
a

i1 xi1

n xi
n xi

rf pxq f pxi1 qs sin xdx `


f pxi1 q sin xdx
i1 xi1

n xi

i1 xi1
n

i pf qxi `

i1

|f pxq f pxi1 q|dx `

i1 xi1
xi

|f pxi1 q|

i1

xi1

sin xdx

1
K | cos xi1 cos xi |

i1

1
2nK
`
.
2

. .

6.2
1. f, g ra, bs , maxtf, gu mintf, gu .
2. f pxq ra, bs . f 2 pxq , |f pxq| .
3. , . (: Riemann

.)
4. f pxq ra, bs , P ra, bs,

b
f pxqdx
f pxqdx.
a

6.2

23

5. f pxq, gpxq ra, bs , Cauchy-Schwarz :


b
b
2 b
f 2 pxq dx g 2 pxq dx.
f pxqgpxq dx
a

6. f pxq 0 ra, bs , P R,
b
2 b
2 b
2
f pxq cos x dx `
f pxq sin x dx
f pxq dx .
a

(: f

f , .)

7. :

2
p1q
sin4 x dx
0

sin3 x dx; p2q

ex dx

8. f pxq r0, 1s , lim

n`8 0

9. f pxq r0, 1s , lim n


n`8

ex dx.

xn f pxqdx 0.

xn f pxqdx f p1q. (: nxn

r0, 1s 1, r0, s , 0 1.)


10. :

p1q lim

n8 0

sinn x dx 0;

n`p
lim

n8 n

cos x
dx 0 pp 0q.
x

11. pq f pxq ra, bs , 0, gpxq,


inf f gpxq sup f ,
b
|f pxq gpxq|dx .
a

12. pq f pxq rc, ds , ra, bs pc, dq,


b
lim
|f px ` hq f pxq|dx 0.
h0 a

13. pq a, b 0, f pxq ra, bs ,

xf pxqdx 0,

x f pxqdx ab
a

f pxqdx.
a

14. pq f pxq, gpxq ra, bs ,


b
b
b
1
f pxqgpxqdx
f pxqdx gpxqdx.
ba a
a
a

Riemann

24

6.3

6.3.1
x (). f ra, bs , x0 P ra, bs ,
F pxq
f ptqdt x0 ,
a

F 1 px0 q f px0 q.


. ?? , .

6.3.2. f ra, bs , upxq : pc, dq ra, bs vpxq : pc, dq ra, bs


,
upxq

f ptqdt

f pupxqqu1 pxq f pvpxqqv 1 pxq.

vpxq

. ,
upxq

f ptqdt

upxq

vpxq

vpxq
f ptqdt

u
a

f ptqdt

f ptqdt

uupxq

u pxq

vpxq
a

f ptqdt

vvpxq

v 1 pxq

f pupxqqu1 pxq f pvpxqqv 1 pxq.

6.3.1. F pxq

2x
x

. t 0

F 1 pxq

sin t
dt, F 1 pxq F 1 p0q.
t

sin t
sin t
1,
R .
t
t

sinpxq
1
sinp2xq
2
p1q psin x ` sin 2xq
2x
x
x


, x 0 , F 1 p0q 1 ` 2 3.

6.3.3 (Newton-Leibniz ). F ra, bs , F 1 f ra, bs


Riemann ,
b
f pxqdx F pbq F paq.
a

b
a

F 1 pxqdx F pbq F paq F pxq .


a

. ra, bs : a x0 x1 xn b, ,
i P pxi1 , xi q,
F pxi q F pxi1 q F 1 pi qpxi xi1 q f pi qxi , i 1, , n.

6.3

25

F pbq F paq

rF pxi q F pxi1 qs

f pi qxi ,

i1

i1

f , }} 0

f pxq dx,

b
F pbq F paq

f pxq dx.
a

. (1) , ,
.
(2) , ,
$
&x2 sin 12 , x 0,
x
F pxq
%0,
x 0,

r0, 1s ,
$
&2x sin 12
x
F 1 pxq
%0,

2
x

cos x12 , x 0,
x 0,

, Riemann .
.
6.3.2. f ra, bs , f paq 0,
b

pb aq2 b 1
2
f pxqdx
rf pxqs2 dx.
2
a
a
. f 2 pxq:

2
`
2 x 1
f 2 pxq f pxq f paq
f ptqdt
a
x
x
1
2
2

rf ptqs dt
1 dt
pCauchy Schwarzq
a

b
px aq

rf 1 ptqs2 dt,

f 2 pxqdx

b
px aq

a
b

rf 1 ptqs2 dt dx

rf 1 ptqs2 dt

pb aq2

b
a

px aq2 b

2
a

rf 1 pxqs2 dx.

Riemann

26

6.3.4 (). f pxq ra, bs , x ptq r, s ,


pr, sq ra, bs, pq a, pq b,
b

f pxqdx
f pptqq 1 ptqdt.
a

. f , , f F , F 1 pxq f pxq,
rF pptqqs1 F 1 pptqq 1 ptq f pptqq 1 ptq.

Newton-Leibniz ,

1
f pptqq ptqdt
rF pptqqs1 dt

F pptqq F ppqq F ppqq


b
F pbq F paq
f pxqdx.
a

. p1q 6.3.3 , ptq , 1 ptq ,


;
p2q () f , :
(
) gptq r, s Riemann , c P r, s

gptq dt, G . f Gpr, sq , Gpq a,

Gpxq
c

Gpq b, f pGptqqgptq r, s ,
b

f pxqdx

f pGptqqgptqdt.

,
, .
6.3.5 (). pq r, s , 1 .
f pr, sq , pq a, pq b, f pptqq1 ptq r, s
,
b

f pxqdx

f pptqq1 ptqdt.

. . r, s
: t0 t1 tn ,

ra, bs
1 : a pq x0 pt1 q x1 ptn q xn b,

6.3

27

. , i P pti1 , ti q,
pti q pti1 q 1 pi qpti ti1 q,

, 1 , , }} , } 1 }
. pi q P rpti1 q, pti qs rxi1 , xi s,
n

f ppi qqppti q pti1 qq

i1

f ra, bs Riemann ,
lim
}}0

b
f ppi qqppti q pti1 qq

f pxqdx.
a

i1

, i P rti1 , ti s, f pptqq1 ptq Riemann


n

f ppi qq1 pi qpti ti1 q,


i1
n
n

f ppi qqppti q pti1 qq


f ppi qq1 pi qpti ti1 q

i1

i1

rf ppi qq f ppi qqsppti q pti1 qq


i1
n

`
f ppi qqp1 pi q 1 pi qqpti ti1 q
i1

i pf qxi ` sup |f pxq|


xPra,bs

i1

i p1 qti ,

i1

f 1 , }} 0 ,
f pptqqptq Riemann , f ra, bs .

6.3.6 (). upxq, vpxq ra, bs ,


b
b b

upxqv 1 pxqdx upxqvpxq


u1 pxqvpxqdx.
a

. , upxqv 1 pxq u1 pxqvpxq . 6.3.3


b
b
1
upxqv pxqdx `
u1 pxqvpxqdx
a
a
b
`

upxqv 1 pxq ` u1 pxqvpxq dx


a
b
b

puvq1 pxqdx upxqvpxq .


a

Riemann

28

6.3.3.
? 2
2a ? 2

t sin 2t2
x a2
x sin x
p1q
dt;
p2q
dx
pa

0q;
p3q
dx.
2
4
2
1 ` sin t
x
0
a
0 1 ` cos x
. p1q
t sin 2t2 2t sin t2 cos t2 sin t2 psin t2 q1 ,

x sin t2 ,
1

1
x

dx rx lnp1 ` xqs 1 ln 2.
0
0 1`x
a

p2q x
, x a 2a , t 0 ,
cos t
3
?
3

1
1
3
2
3 3
sin t cos tdt 2 sin t 2 .

2
3a
8a
0
0 a

(3)

I
0

x sin x
dx
1 ` cos2 x
x sin x
dx `
1 ` cos2 x

x sin x
dx,
1 ` cos2 x

x t,

0
x sin t
p tq sin t

dx
dt
1 ` cos2 x

1 ` cos2 t
2
2
2
2
sin t
t sin t

dt
dt,
2t
1
`
cos
1
`
cos2 t
0
0

I
0

`
2
sin t
2

dt

arctanpcos
tq
.

1 ` cos2 t
4
0

6.3.4. pm P Z` q

2
sinm x dx, Jm
Im
0

cosm x dx.

. . I0 {2, I1 1. m 2
2
2
m
Im
sin x dx
sinm1 x dpcos xq
0
0
2
2
m1

p sin
xqpcos xq 0 `
pm 1q sinm2 x cos2 x dx
0
2
sinm2 x p1 sin2 xq dx
pm 1q
0

pm 1qIm2 pm 1qIm ,

6.3

Im

29

m1
Im2 .
m
I2n

2n 1
2n 1 2n 3
p2n 1q!!
I2n2
I2n4
.
2n
2n 2n 2
p2nq!! 2

I2n`1

p2nq!!
.
p2n ` 1q!!

t Jm Im .
2
. 0 x {2 , sin2n`1 x sin2n x sin2n1 x,

I2n`1 I2n I2n1 ,

,
p2nq!!
p2n 1q!!
p2n 2q!!

,
p2n ` 1q!!
p2nq!! 2
p2n 1q!!

p2nq!! 2 1
1 p2nq!! 2

,
2n ` 1 p2n 1q!!
2
p2n 1q!! 2n
1

, , Wallis :
2n 2
2

p2nq!! 2 1
lim
.
n8 p2n 1q!!
2
2n ` 1

6.3.5. f T . a P R,
a`T
T
f pxqdx
f pxqdx.
a

a`T
0
T
a`T
f pxqdx
f pxqdx `
f pxq `
f pxqdx.
a

x t ` T
a
a
f pt ` T qdt
f ptqdt,
0

.
6.3.6. pq f ra, bs ,
b
b
F pxqdx pb xqf pxqdx,
a

x
F pxq

f ptqdt, x P ra, bs.


a

Riemann

30

. f . F , F 1 f .
b
b b

F pxqdx F pxqx
F 1 pxqxdx
a
a
a
b
b
xf pxqdx pb xqf pxqdx.
bF pbq
a

, 0, g,
b
|f pxq gpxq|dx .
a

x
Gpxq

gptqdt, x P ra, bs,


a

x `

|F pxq Gpxq|
f ptq gptq dt , @ x P ra, bs,
a

b
Gpxqdx

pb xqgpxqdx.
a

b
b
b
b`


F pxq Gpxq dx pb xq f pxq gpxq dx
F pxqdx pb xqf pxqdx
a
a
a
a
b
b

F pxq Gpxqdx ` pb xq|f pxq gpxq|dx

a
a
b
pb aq ` pb aq |f pxq gpxq|dx
a

2pb aq,

f .
6.3
1. :
2

d x
dt
d b
d cos x a
2
a
1 ` t dt, p2q
, p3q
sinpx ` tqdt.
p1q
dx 0
dx sin x 1 ` sin2 t
dx a
2. :

4
a
?
1`x
? dx;
a x dx;
p1q
cos2 xdx;
p2q
p3q
x
1
0

02

sin2 x dx
;
p5q
sin3 x dx;
p6q
x2 cos x dx;
p4q
1
`
cos
x
02
0a a

1
lnp1 ` xq
2
2
2
2
p7q
cos x cos 4x dx; p8q
x a x dx; p9q
dx.
1`x
0
0
0

6.3

31

3. , 3 ` 1{15 3 ` 1{7:
1
p1q
0

p1 x2 qx4
dx;
1 ` x2

1
p2q
0

p1 xq4 x4
dx.
1 ` x2

4. :
p1q lim p n12 `
n8

1
psin
n8 n
1
lim 4 p1 `
n8 n

p2q lim
p3q

2
n1
n2 ` ` n2 q;

2
n ` sin n ` `
3
3

sin n1
n q;

2 ` ` n q.

5. :
x
1
p1q lim 4
x0 x

x
0

1
sin3 tdt; p2q lim
x0 x

cos t2 dt; p3q

lim

x`8

et dt

0 x

dt.
2

e2t

6. m,
n ,
p1q
sin2 mx dx
cos2 mx dx ,

p2q
sin mx sin nx dx
cos mx cos nx dx 0 pm nq,

p3q
sin mx cos nx dx 0.

7. ( m, n ):
1
1
xn
xn
dx;
p2q
dx;
p3q
p1 x2 qn dx;
2
1
`
x
1
`
x
02
02
02
n
n
cos x sin nxdx; p5q
cos x cos nxdx; p6q
cosm x sinn xdx;
p4q
04
02
02
sin nx
sin2 nx
n
p7q
tan xdx;
p8q
dx;
p9q
dx.
sin x
sin2 x
0
0
0
1

p1q

8. f pxq r0, 1s ,


xf psin xqdx
f psin xqdx,
2 0
0

x sin x

dx.
1
`
cos2 x
0
9. :
1
p1q
0

lnp1 ` xq
dx;
1 ` x2

1
p2q
0

arctan x
dx.
1`x

Riemann

32

10. 0 , 1,
?
1
dx
1
1 `
a
? .
?
?
ln
1
1 2x ` 2 1 2x ` 2
1
11. f pxq ra, bs ,

b
1 b
1
px aqpx bqf 2 pxqdx.
f pxqdx rf paq ` f pbqspb aq `
2
2 a
a
12. f pxq ra, bs , f paq f pbq 0. , P pa, bq,

b
4

|f 1 pq|
f
pxqdx

.
pb aq2 a
(: px

a`b
1
2 qf pxq

.)

13. f pxq T , ,

1
1 T
lim
f pxqdx
f pxqdx.
8 0
T 0
14. pq f pxq r0, 1s ,
1
nf pxq

lim
dx f p0q.
2
2
n8 0 1 ` n x
2
15. pq f pxq r1, 1s ,
1
hf pxq
lim
dx f p0q.
2
2
`
h0
1 h ` x

6.4


.
, , ,

.
, .
(1)

f ra, bs . c P ra, bs,


f pcqpb aq f ra, bs . , f , |f 1 pxq| M1 ,
@ x P pa, bq. ,
b
b
b

f pxqdx f pcqpb aq pf pxq f pcqqdx f 1 pqpx cqdx


a

|f 1 pq||x c|dx M1

1
M1 rpc aq2 ` pb cq2 s.
2

|x c|dx
a

6.4

, c

33
a`b
.
2

b
1
`a ` b

pb aq M1 pb aq2 .
f pxqdx f
2
4
a

(6.1)

, f , (),
a`b
. f , |f 2 pxq| M2 , @ x P ra, bs. f
2
Taylor ,
f pxq f

`a ` b
2

` f1

,
b
f pxqdx f

` a ` b `
2

`a ` b
2

a ` b 1 2 `
a ` b 2
` f pq x
,
2
2
2

1
pb aq `
2

b
a

`
a ` b 2
f 2 pq x
dx,
2

b
b
1
`
a ` b 2
1
a`b

qpb aq M2
x
dx
M2 pb aq3 .
f pxqdx f p
2
2
2
24
a
a

(6.2)

, ra, bs n ,
,
Rn

n
n

` xi1 ` xi b a
ba `
2i 1

f a`
pb aq ,
f
2
n
n i1
n
i1

(6.3)

f ra, bs . f ,
n
b

` b a 2
M1
1

f
pxqdx

R
M1

pb aq2 ;

n
4
n
4n
a
i1

f ,
n
b

` b a 3
M2
1

M2

pb aq3 .
f pxqdx Rn
2
24
n
24n
a
i1

(6.4)

(6.5)

(2)

f ra, bs , f , |f 2 pxq| M2 , @ x P ra, bs,


(??)
|f pxq lpxq|

1
M2 px aqpb xq, x P ra, bs,
2

lpxq

xb
xa
f paq `
f pbq, x P ra, bs.
ab
ba

Riemann

34

b
lpxqdx
a

f paq ` f pbq
pb aq,
2

.
b
1
b
f paq ` f pbq
M2

pb aq M2 px aqpb xqdx
pb aq3 . (6.6)
f pxqdx
2
2
12
a
a
ra, bs n , , f

Tn

n1
n

f paq ` f pbq
b a `
i
f pxi1 q ` f pxi q b a

f a ` pb aq `
. (6.7)
2
n
n
n
2
i1
i1

n
b

` b a 3
1
M2

M2

pb aq3 .
f pxqdx Tn
2
12
n
12n
a
i1

(6.8)

(3) Simpson

f , |f 3 pxq| M3 , @ x P ra, bs.


`a ` b

pa, f paqq,

, fp

a`b
q , pb, f pbqq
2

,
p2 paq f paq, p2

`a ` b
2

`a ` b
, p2 pbq f pbq
2

,
p2 pxq

px
pa

a`b
2 qpx bq
f paq`
a`b
2 qpa bq

` a ` b px aqpx a`b
px aqpx bq
2 q
f
f pbq,
`
a`b
a`b
2
p a`b
pb

aqpb

aqp

bq
2
2
2 q

b
p2 pxqdx
a

`a ` b

b a
f paq ` 4f
` f pbq ,
6
2

f ra, bs , Simpson .
,
f pxq p2 pxq

`
1 3
a ` b
f pqpx aq x
px bq, P pa, bq.
6
2

b
`a ` b

b a

f paq ` 4f
` f pbq
f pxqdx
6
2
a
b

a ` b
1
M3
pb aq4 .
M3 px aqx
pb xqdx
6
2
192
a

(6.9)

6.4

35

`
a ` b
px bqdx 0,
px aq x
2
a

. f . ,
`
a ` b
gpxq f pxq p2 pxq px aq x
px bq
2

a`b
a`b
. c a,
, b.
2
2
F pxq gpxq

`
gpcq
a ` b 2
px aq x
px bq,
a`b 2
2
pc aqpc 2 q pc bq

1 a`b
F paq F p a`b
2 q F pbq F pcq 0, F p 2 q 0. Rolle ,

1 , 2 , 3
F 1 p1 q F 1 p2 q F 1 p3 q 0,
a`b
, F 1 Rolle , ,
2
F p4q pq 0.

f p4q pq

gpcq
4! 0,
2
pc aqpc a`b
2 q pc bq

(c x)
gpxq

`
1 p4q
a ` b 2
f pqpx aq x
px bq,
24
2

ra, bs ,
b

`a ` b

b a
f paq ` 4f
` f pbq
6
2
a

`
1 b p4q
a ` b 2

f pqpx aq x
px bqdx,
24 a
2
f pxqdx

|f p4q pxq| M4 ,
b
`a ` b

b a

f paq ` 4f
` f pbq
f pxqdx
6
2
a
b
`
a ` b 2
M4
1
M4 px aq x
pb xqdx
pb aq5 .

24
2
180
24
a

(6.10)

ra, bs n ,
Simpson :
Sn

` xi1 ` xi

b a
f pxi1 q ` 4f
` f pxi q .
6n
2
i1

(6.11)

Riemann

36

. f ,
b

M3

pb aq4 ;
f pxqdx Sn
192n3
a

(6.12)

f ,
b

f pxqdx Sn
a

M4
pb aq5 .
180p2nq4

(6.13)

(4) Newton-Cotes

,
f . , ra, bs m ,
xi a `

i
pb aq, i 0, 1, , m.
m

txi u f Lagrange pm ,
pm pxq

x xj
f pxi q,
x
xj
i0 ji i

pm f :
b
m

pm pxqdx pb aq
Cpm, iqf pxi q,
a

(Newton-Cotes)

i0

, Cpm, iq f :

x xj
1 m tj
dx
dt
m 0 ji i j
a ji xi xj

1 p1qmi m

pt jqdt.
m i!pm iq! 0 ji

Cpm, iq

1
ba

f m ` 1 , ,
m

f pxq pm pxq

f pm`1q pq
px xi q,
pm ` 1q! i0

|f pm`1q pxq| Mm`1 ,


b
b
m
b

Mm`1

pm pxqdx
|x xi |dx
f pxqdx
pm ` 1q! a i0
a
a
m
Mm`1 pb aqm`2 m

|t i|dt.
pm ` 1q!mm`2 0 i0
, , .
1
1

dx .
6.4.1.
2
4
0 1`x

6.4

37

. n 2 .
R2

1 1
3 336
fp q ` fp q
0.791;
2
4
4
425

T2

31
11
1
1
f p0q ` f p q ` f p1q
0.775;
2 2
2
2
40

Simpson

1
1
1
3
f p0q ` 4f p q ` 2f p q ` 4f p q ` f p1q
12
4
2
4
8011
0.78539.

10200

S2

1 ` x2

, f pxq

f p4q pxq parctan xqp5q 24 cos5 parctan xq sin 5parctan x `

q,
2

|f p4q pxq| 24. n 2 Simpson


24
1

0.0005.
180 44
1920

.
6.4
1. :
Rn 2T2n Tn .
2. , Simpson :
Sn

2
1
Rn ` Tn .
3
3

3. C, |f 3 pxq| M f :

b
f paq ` f pbq

pb aq CM pb aq4 .
f pxqdx
2
a
4. f pxq ra, bs , P pa, bq,
b
f pxqdx pb aqf
a

`a ` b
2

1
pb aq3 f 2 pq.
24

Riemann

38

5. f pxq ra, bs , |f 1 pxq| M , @ x P ra, bs.


b
1
f paq ` f pbq

pb aq M pb aq2 .
f pxqdx
2
4
a
6. f , Simpson .
7. Newton-Cotes :
Cpm, iq Cpm, m iq, 0 i m;

Cpm, iq 1.

i0

8. Newton-Cotes .
9. ra, bs 2k ,
xi a `

i
pb aq, i 0, 1, , 2k.
2k

b
2k

px xi qdx 0.

a i0

10. f 2k ` 2 , p2k f ,
b

b
f pxqdx

1
p2k pxqdx
p2k ` 2q!

b
a

2k
`
a ` b
f p2k`2q pq x
px xi qdx.
2
i0

11. , Simpson ln 2

2
1

1
dx ,
x

12. f ra, bs 4 , :
b
f pxqdx
a

1
24

b
a

f paq ` f pbq
pb aq
2

f p4q pxqpx aq2 px bq2 dx

1
pb aq2 rf 1 pbq f 1 paqs.
12

,
, . ,
.
Stirling .
, .

7.1
7.1.1

I r, s , : I R2
ptq pxptq, yptqq, t P I.

xptq, yptq , R2 . xptq, yptq


(), () .
y

x
0

7.1
, ,

Lpq

rpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt.

. :
a
a
| a2 ` b2 a2 ` c2 | |b c|, @ a, b, c P R.
r, s t0 t1 tn , pxpti q, ypti qq
, ,
n a

Lpq
pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 ,
i1

39

40

, i , i P pti1 , ti q,
xpti q xpti1 q x1 pi qpti ti1 q, ypti q ypti1 q y 1 pi qpti ti1 q,

a
a
pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti .

a
a

px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti |y 1 pi q y 1 pi q|ti ,

|y 1 pi q y 1 pi q|ti

i1

i py 1 qti 0, p}} maxt|ti ti1 |u 0q

i1

Lpq lim

}}0

lim

}}0

n a

pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2


i1
n a

px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti

i1
1

rpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt.

. px ptqq ` py 1 ptqq2 0,
t
1
s ptq rpx1 puqq2 ` py 1 puqq2 s 2 du, t P r, s.
1

: r, s r0, Lpqs , , t psq, s


. psq ppsqq, s P r0, Lpqs.
}
1 psq}

a
p
x1 psqq2 ` p
y 1 psqq2 1.

7.2

7.1

41

7.1.1.
pxptq, yptqq papt sin tq, ap1 cos tqq, a 0

.
. t P r0, 2s
2
1
l
rpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt
0
2
1

arp1 cos tq2 ` sin2 ts 2 dt


0
2
t
2a
sin dt 8a.
2
0
. (), .
7.1.2

p1q f 0 ra, bs , y f pxq, x a, x b pa bq


y 0
b
S

f pxq dx.
a

, f , , ,
b
S
|f pxq| dx
a

. , y f2 pxq, y f1 pxq x a, x b

b
S

|f2 pxq f1 pxq| dx.


a

y
y

y = f2 (x)
y = |f (x)|

x
0

b
y = f1 (x)
0

7.3

x
b

42

p2q ,

r rpq, P r, s

, rpq , 2. ,
,

1 2
1 2
r pi q i
r pq d.
2
2
}}0
i1

S lim

7.4

.
p3q ptq pxptq, yptqq, t P r, s , yptq 0, x t

, xpr, sq ra, bs. x a, x b y 0

yptqx1 ptqdt.

. , x
,

|yptqx1 ptq|dt.

()

()
x
0

x
0

7.5
t , ,

S
yptqx1 ptqdt
xptqy 1 ptqdt,

yptqx ptqdt yptqxptq


y 1 ptqxptqdt
1

y 1 ptqxptqdt,

7.1

43

S ryptqx1 ptq y 1 ptqxptqs dt.


2
7.1.2.
.

x2 y 2
`
1
a2 b2

. ,
a c
x2
S4
b 1 2 dx
a
0
2 a
4b
1 sin2 t a cos t dt
0
2
4ab
cos2 t dt ab.

x
a

7.6

7.1.3. px2 ` y 2 q2
a2 px2 y 2 q .

r2 = a2 cos 2

. x r cos , y r sin


3 3
r2 a2 cos 2, P r , s Y r ,
s.
4 4
4 4

7.7

,
S 4

1
2

r2 pq d 2a2

cos 2 d a2 .

p4q

y
(t) = (x(t), y(t))

ptq pxptq, yptqq, t P r, s, yptq 0.


x

1
S
2yptqrpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt.

x
0

: r, s
, ti1 , ti

7.8

,
a
pypti1 q ` ypti qq pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 ,

44

a
pypti1 q ` ypti qq pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 ,

i1

, ,
pypti1 q ` ypti qq 2ypi q, pi P rti1 , ti sq

a
a
pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti ,

, .
S lim

}}0

2ypi qrpx1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 s 2 ti

i1
1

2yptqrpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt.

7.1.4. x2 `pybq2 a2 p0 a bq

x .
b

(a cos t, b + a sin t)
t

.
xptq a cos t, yptq b ` a sin t, t P r0, 2s.

2
1
S
2pb ` a sin tqra2 sin2 t ` a2 cos2 ts 2 dt
0
2
2a
pb ` a sin tq dt 4 2 ab.

x
0

7.9 ()

7.1.3

p1q

R3 , x a x b pa bq . Spxq
x P ra, bs x . Spxq x ,

b
V

Spxqdx.
a

, A B , .
5 6 () , 17 Cavalieri
.

7.1

45

a
z
0
y

7.10
7.1.5.
.

x2 y 2 z 2
` 2 ` 2 1
a2
b
c

. x P pa, aq,
0
`
z2
x2
y2
c
`

,
b2
c2
a2
z

`
`
x2 12 `
x2 12
x2
Spxq b 1 2 c 1 2
bc 1 2 ,
7.11
a
a
a

a
a
`
x2
4
V
Spxq dx
bc 1 2 dx abc.
a
3
a
a

x
a

p2q
y

f ra, bs ,

|y| |f (x)|

tpx, yq | a x b, 0 |y| |f pxq|u

x
0 a

x .
x P ra, bs ,

Spxq f pxq.

7.12


b
V

b
Spxq dx

f 2 pxq dx.

46

7.1.6. h, r

x
0

. ,
h
` r 2
1
V
x dx r2 h.
h
3
0
7.1.4

7.13

p1q

m ,
, k, ,
mg kv m

dv
,
dt

, g , v , .

k
d kt
pe m vq ge m t ,
dt

,
e

k
mt

t
vg

e m s ds

mg k t
pe m 1q,
k

vptq

, t 8 vptq
p2q

k
mg
p1 e m t q.
k

mg
, .
k

, , :
? , .
, x
F GM mx2 ,

, G , M , m . ,
GM mR2 mg,

R . r pr Rq
r
r
`1
1
GM mx2 dx
mgR2 x2 dx mgR2
.
R r
R
R

7.1

47

,
W lim mgR2
r8

`1
R

1
mgR.
r

, v0 ,
1
mv 2 mgR,
2 0

v0

a
a
2gR 2 9.81pm{s2 q 6.371 106 m 11.2 pkm{sq.

p3q

, .
? ,
.
, f ,
k, n , F , F
.
F + F
F

kN

7.14
, .
N , kN . F, F ` F ,
,
$
&N pF ` F q sin ` F sin ,
2
2
%pF ` F q cos F cos ` kN.
2

N , 0,
dF
F
lim
kF,
0
d

48

F pq f ek .

2n , F f e2kn . , k
F 10e3 kg 100000kg.
7.1.5

1
, n 6, f 10kg,
4

p1q Stirling

f ra, bs , (??)
|f pxq lpxq|

1
M px aqpb xq, @ x P ra, bs,
2

, M max |f 2 pxq|,
xPra,bs

lpxq f paq `

f pbq f paq
px aq, x P ra, bs.
ba

b
b
1 b
1

M pb aq3 .
lpxqdx M px aqpb xqdx
f pxqdx
2
12
a
a
a
f ra, bs .
y
y = ln x

x
0

7.15
f ln x r1, ns .
n
n n

An
ln x dx x ln x
pln xq1 xdx n ln n n ` 1,
1

1
1
1
Bn pln 1 ` ln 2q ` pln 2 ` ln 3q ` ` plnpn 1q ` ln nq
2
2
2
1
ln n! ln n,
2

, ln x ,
k`1
1
1 1
0
ln x dx pln k ` lnpk ` 1qq
.
2
12 k 2
k

7.1

49

Cn An Bn , Cn n 1 , n .
n1
8

`1
1 1
1
1 1

1
`

,
12 k1 k 2
12
k k`1
6
k1

0 Cn

lim Cn C ,
n8

8
1 1
12 kn k 2

11
1
1
1`1
1

`
`
`
`
.
2
2
12 n
npn ` 1q pn ` 1qpn ` 2q
12 n
n

0 C Cn

C . ,
Cn An Bn n ln n n ` 1 ln n! `

1
ln n,
2

n! e1Cn nn` 2 en .

Wallis ,
?
pn!q2 22n 1
p2nq!!
1
? lim
? ,
n8 p2nq!
n8
n
p2n 1q!! n
lim

n! p2nq! ,
?

e1C
e2p1Cn q n2n`1 e2n 22n
? ? ,
1
p2n`
q
n8 e1C2n p2nq
n
2 e2n
2

lim

n!
n!

2n

` n n
e

eCCn ,

p Stirling q

1 eCCn e 12 p n2 ` n q 1 `
p2q .

1
1
`
, @ n 1.
12n 10n2

2, ,

. 1761 , Lambert . 1947 , Niven


, Niven .
a
. , , a, b .
b
f pxq

n .

1 n
x pa bxqn , x P r0, s,
n!

50
p1q f pxq f p xq, x P r0, s;
p2q f pkq p0q , k 1, 2, . . . , 2n;
p3q f pkq pq , k 1, 2, . . . , 2n.

, p1q . p2q , 0 k n f pkq p0q 0; n k 2n


,
f pkq p0q

1 kn 2nk
C
a
pbqkn k!,
n! n

. p3q p1q p2q .

F pxq f pxq f p2q pxq ` f p4q pxq ` p1qn f p2nq pxq,

F 2 pxq ` F pxq f pxq,

f pxq sin x dx rF 1 pxq sin x F pxq cos xs0 F pq ` F p0q P Z.

1
paqn ,
, p0, q 0 f pxq n!

1
f pxq sin x dx
f pxq dx
0

paqn
0, pn 8q

n!


.
7.1
1. :
3

p1q y x 2 , p0 x 4q;
p2q x et cos t, y et sin t, t P r0, 2s;
p3q x a cos4 t, y a sin4 t, a 0, t P r0, s;
p4q y 2 2ax, a 0, 0 x a.
2. :
p1q y 2 ax, y a1 x2 , a 0;
p2q y x2 2x, y x2 ;
p3q y xpx 1qpx 2q, y 0;
p4q y 2 x2 pa2 x2 q, a 0;

7.2

51

p5q r ap1 cos q, a 0, P r0, 2s;


p6q r a sin 3, a 0.
3. :
p1q y tan x x , x P r0, 4 s;
p2q x apt sin tq, y ap1 cos tq y a, a 0, t P r 2 , 3
2 s;
p3q x2 ` y 2 a2 x , a 0;
p4q r2 a2 cos 2

4.

4. :
p1q x ` y ` z 2 1, x 0, y 0;
p2q x2 ` y 2 a2 , y 2 ` z 2 a2 , a 0;
p3q z 2 bpa xq, x2 ` y 2 ax, a 0, b 0;
p4q x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 ` xy ` yz ` zx a2 , a 0.
5. :
p1q x apt sin tq, y ap1 cos tq, t P r0, 2s x ;
p2q px aq2 ` y 2 b2 pa b 0q y ;
p3q y 2 2ax pa 0q x b pb 0q ;
p4q y sin x, x P r0, s x .
6. cn p1 `

1
2

` `

1
nq
1

f pxq ln x f pxq x

ln n pn 1q. Stirling ,

p1q lim cn ;
n8

p2q lim cn c, lim npcn cq 12 .


n8

n8

7. : r0, 1s R2 ,
Lpq |p1q p0q|,

Lpq , |p q| p q .

7.2

52

, Riemann
. ,
, ? ,
, rR, `8q .
, .
1
, p0, 1s f pxq ? ,
x
, y f pxq x 0, x 1 y 0

1
y=
x

, .
.
7.2.1 (). a P R, ra, `8q

f ra, As Riemann ,

f pxq dx

A`8 a

`8

p q,

7.16

A
lim

f pxq dx ,

`8
f pxq dx lim

`8

f pxq dx,

A`8 a

f pxq dx .

`8

,
f pxq dx,
f pxq dx.
8
8
`8
a
`8

f pxq dx
f pxq dx
f pxq dx ,
8

`8

`8

f pxq dx
8

f pxq dx `

f pxq dx, @ a P R.

,
A
lim

A`8 A

f pxq dx

f p8, `8q , ,
Cauchy ,
A

`8
f pxq dx lim

pV.P.q
8

A`8 A

f pxq dx.

7.2

53

( Cauchy ) f pxq ra, `8q 0,

M M pq, B A M ,
B

f pxq dx .

p8, as p8, `8q .


`8
1
7.2.1.
dx pp P Rq .
p
x
1
. A 1 ,
A
1

$
&ln A,
p 1,
1
dx

% 1 pA1p 1q, p 1.
xp
1p

p 1 ,
`8
1
1
1
dx lim
pA1p 1q
.
p
A`8 1 p
x
p1
1
, f ra, `8q F , ,
A
lim
f pxq dx lim F pAq F paq,
A`8 a

A`8

lim F pAq .
A`8

7.2.2.

`8
8

1
dx .
1 ` x2

1
.
arctan x,
1 ` x2
`8
`8
0
1
1
1
dx
dx `
dx
2
2
1
`
x
1
`
x
1
`
x2
8
0
8
0
`8
arctan x8 ` arctan x0

` .
2
2

, .
7.2.2 (). f ra1 , bs pa a1 bq Riemann
,
b
f pxq dx

lim

a1 a`

p q,

a1

f pxq dx ,

f pxq dx,

f pxq dx lim
a

a1 a`

a1

54

f pxq dx .

, f ra, bs Riemann , f Riemann


. f a , ra, bs Riemann , a f
. , ra, bq ,
, Cauchy .
, , ,
,
, .
1
1
7.2.3.
dx pp P Rq .
p
x
0
. 0 a 1 ,
1
a

$
& ln a,
p 1,
1
dx

% 1 p1 a1p q, p 1.
xp
1p

p 1 ,
1
1
1
1
dx lim
p1 a1p q
.
p
a0 1 p
1p
0 x
1
1
?
dx.
7.2.4.
1
x2
1
. 1.
0
1
1
1
1
1
?
?
?
dx
dx `
dx
2
2
1x
1x
1 x2
1
0
1
0
1
arcsin x1 ` arcsin x0

` .
2
2
Riemann , , ,
.
7.2.1. a, b, c 8 `8,
p1q f ra, bs, rb, cs , f ra, cs ,
c
b
c
f pxq dx
f pxq dx `
f pxq dx;
a

p2q f , g ra, bs , f ` g p, P Rq ra, bs

,
b

b
rf pxq ` gpxqs dx

b
f pxq dx `

gpxq dx.
a

7.2

55

7.2.5.

1
ln x dx .
0

. lim` x ln x 0
x0

1 1
1

ln x dx x ln x
x dx 1.
x
0
0
0
`8
7.2.6.
cospx2 q dx .
1

. r1, `8q . x
`8

1 `8 cos t
? dt.
cospx2 q dx
2 1
t
1

t,

Cauchy :
B

cos t sin t B 1 B sin t

?
?
`
dt

dt

t A 2

t
A
A t2
B
3
1
1
1
2
? `? `
t 2 dt ? 0 pB A `8q.
2
A
B
A
A
.
, f ra, `8q f pxq 0 px
`8q.

7.2
1. f ra, bs . a1 P pa, bq, f ra1 , bs
Riemann , f ra, bs ,
b
b
lim
f pxq dx
f pxq dx.
a1 a`

a1

2. :
`8
`8
`8
ln x
dx
dx
;
p1q
;
p2q
dx;
p3q
2
p
2
xpln
xq
x
2
x
ln
x
ln
pln xq
2`8 ?
1`8
e`8
2
x5 ex dx;
e x dx;
xex dx;
p6q
p4q
p5q
0`8
0`8
0`8
dx
dx
dx
p7q
; p8q
; p9q
.
2
xp1 ` xq
px ` 2qpx ` 3q
x ` 2x ` 2
1
0
0
3. :
1
1
1
x3
xdx
arcsin x
?
?
?
p1q
dx;
p2q
;
p3q
dx;
2
2
2
1x
1x
?
01 1 x
1
1
1

dx
arcsin x
xdx
a
a
?
p4q
; p6q
dx.
; p5q
px qp xq
xp1 xq
0 p2 xq 1 x
0

56

4. :
`8
`8
dx
2
? .
p1q
| cos x |dx; p2q
x
e x
0
0
5. :
1
1
2
dx
ln x
dx
p1q
; p2q
dx; p3q
.
2
0 ln x
0 1x
0 px 1q
6. f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8

f pxqdx 0, f pxq 0.

7. f pxq 0, f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8
f pxqdx 0.
a

8. f pxq ra, `8q , f pxq ra, `8q ,


lim f pxq 0.

x`8

(: Cauchy .)
9. f pxq ra, `8q , f pxq ra, `8q , f 1 pxq

, lim f pxq 0. (: .)
x`8

10. f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8

f pxqdx

`8

lim f pxq 0.

f 1 pxqdx ,

x`8

`8
11. pq ,
f pxqdx , f pxq ,
a
`8

f 2 pxqdx .
a

12. pq ,

`8

f pxqdx , f pxq ,

lim f pxq 0.

x`8

7.3

Cauchy .
, . ,
A
f ,
f pxq dx A ,
a

, :

7.3

57

7.3.1. f 0,

`8

f pxq dx

A
F pAq

f pxq dx
a

A P ra, `8q ; .
:
`8
7.3.2. 0 f M g, M 0 ,
gpxq dx
a
`8
`8
,
f pxq dx ;
f pxq dx ,
a
a
`8
gpxq dx ; .
a

.
A
F pAq

A
f pxq dx, GpAq

gpxq dx,
a

0 F pAq M GpAq, A P ra, `8q. , GpAq , F pAq ;




F pAq , GpAq .
lim f pxq
x`8 gpxq

. p1q M . l
,
`8
`8
0 l 8 ,
f pxq dx
gpxq dx ; l 0 ,
a
a
`8
`8
`8

gpxq dx ,
f pxq dx ; l `8 ,
gpxq dx
a
a
a
`8
,
f pxq dx .
a

p2q f xp , Cauchy :
(i) p 1, C 0,
0 f pxq

`8
a

f pxq dx ;
(ii) p 1, C 0,
f pxq

`8

C
p@ x x0 q,
xp

C
p@ x x0 q,
xp

f pxq dx ;

, C , lim xp f pxq l ,
x`8
`8
(iii) p 1, 0 l `8,
f pxq dx ;
a

58
(iv) p 1, 0 l `8,
p3q , x

`8

f pxq dx ;

, Cauchy

.
7.3.1.

`8
x

x2

1
dx .
`x`1

.
1
0 ? 2
x2 , @ x 1,
x x `x`1


.
7.3.2.

`8

xa ex dx pa P Rq .

.
x2`a
0,
x`8 ex

lim x2 xa ex lim

x`8

.
7.3.3.

`8
1

1
dx .
xp1 ` ln xq

. F pxq lnp1 ` ln xq, Newton-Leibniz




, .
, .
f ,
f ` pxq maxt0, f pxqu,

f pxq maxt0, f pxqu,

f ` f , f f ` f . , f ` f ,
f , f , |f | f ` ` f
. f , |f | , f .
`8
cos x
dx pp 1q .
7.3.4.
xp
1
.
cos x

xp , @ x 1,
xp

p 1 xp , .
`8
7.3.5.
cos xp dx pp 1q .
1

7.3

59

. x t p (Cauchy ),
.
1
p1 ` cos 2xp q,
2

| cos xp | cos2 xp

cos 2xp , cos xp r1, `8q .

,
.
7.3.3 (Dirichlet). F pAq

f pxq dx ra, `8q , gpxq


`8
ra, `8q , lim gpxq 0,
f pxqgpxq dx .
a

x`8

. |F pAq| C, @ A a.
A
B
B

f pxq dx
f pxq dx
f pxq dx 2C, @ A, B a.

lim gpxq 0, 0, M 0, x M
x`8

|gpxq|

.
4C

, A, B M

B
B

f pxqgpxq dx gpAq
f pxq dx ` gpBq
f pxq dx

f pxq dx `
f pxq dx

4C A
4C

2C `
2C .
4C
4C

Cauchy

`8

f pxqgpxq dx .

7.3.6.

`8
0

sin x
dx p0 p 2q .
xp

.
lim xp1

x`0

sin x
1,
xp

sin x
x1p . p 2 x1p
xp
sin x
p0, 1s . p r1, `8q .
x
A
1
sin x dx , p pp 0q r1, `8q , Dirichlet
x
1
.


p0, 1s

. , 0 p 1 , ; 1 p 2
.

60
`8

7.3.4 (Abel).
f pxq dx , gpxq ra, `8q
a
`8
f pxqgpxq dx .
,
a

. g ,
|gpxq| C, @ x P ra, `8q.

f , 0, M 0, A, B M

f pxq dx
.

2C
A
,

f pxqgpxq dx gpAq
f pxq dx ` gpBq
f pxq dx

C
f pxq dx ` C
f pxq dx
A

`C
.
C
2C
2C

Cauchy

`8

f pxqgpxq dx .

, .
`8
sin x
dx .
7.3.7. a 0,
eax
x
0
. eax r0, `8q ,

sin x
r0, `8q
x


, Abel .
`8
sin x
7.3.8.
arctan x dx pp 0q .
xp
1

sin x
, gpxq arctan x, f r1, `8q , g
xp
r1, `8q , Abel .


. f pxq
7.3

1. :
`8
`8
`8
dx
dx
x3 dx
?
?
?
p1q
;
p2q
;
p3q
;
3
4
7
1`8 x2 ` 1
0`8 1 ` x
0`8 1 `2 x
sin x
x arctan x
x
?
? dx; p5q
p4q
dx; p6q
dx;
3
6
x
1
`
x
0`8
1`8
1`8 1 ` x
cos x
lnp1 ` xq
2 arctan x
p7q
dx; p8q
dx; p9q
dx.
2
n
1
`
x
x
x
0
1
1

7.3

61

2. :
1
1
1
dx
dx
dx
?
?
?
p1q
;
p2q
;
;
p3q
3
3
4
x
ln
x
0 1 x
02
01 1 x
dx
1 cos x
ln x
?
p4q
;
p5q
dx; p6q
dx;
m
2
x
01 sin x
01
01 p1 xq
1
1
ln x
dx
p7q
sin dx; p8q
dx;
p9q
.

2
x
0 x
0 1x
0.5 ln x
3. pp 0q:
?
`8
`8
`8
cos x
lnpln xq
sin x
p1q
dx;
p2q
dx; p3q
sin xdx;
x
x
ln x
e
1`8 ?
1`8

`8
sin x1
x sin x
sin xp1 cos xq
p4q
dx; p5q
dx; p6q
dx.
1
`
x
x
xp
0
1
0
4. (p, q 0):
`8
`8
1
ln x
xp
xp
?
dx;
p1q
;
p2q
dx;
p3q
p
q
4
1`8 xx
02 1 ` x
0`8 1 x
e 1
dx
| sin x|
p4q
dx; p5q
; p6q
dx.
p
p
q
x
xp
0
0 sin x cos x
0
5. f pxq r1, `8q ,

`8

f 2 pxqdx ,

. (: .)

`8
1

6. f pxq ra, As pA 8q .
`8
L 0,
f 2 pxqdx .

f pxq
dx
x

`8
|f pxq|dx , lim f pxq L,
x`8

7. f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8

(: rA{2, As .)

f pxqdx , lim xf pxq 0.


x`8

8. f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8
`8a
f pxq{x dx ,
f pxqdx
a

. (: , .)
`8
9.
f pxqdx , x `8 xf pxq ,
a

lim xf pxq ln x 0.

x`8

10. pq f pxq 0 r0, `8q ,

`8
0

1
lim
`8

dx
,
f pxq

f pxqdx `8.
0

62
11. pq
`8
xp

dx
dx pp, q P Rq
lnq x

7.4


. .
`8
7.4.1. I
eax sin bx dx pa 0q.
0

. ,
a sin bx ` b cos bx ax
F pxq
e
,
a2 ` b2
, Newton-Leibniz ,
b
.
I F p`8q F p0q F p0q 2
a ` b2
`
1 r2
7.4.2. I
dx p0 r 1q.
2
1 2r cos x ` r
. t tan x2 ,
`8
I
8

1 r2
2dt
1t2
2
1 2r 1`t2 ` r 1 ` t2

`8

2p1 r2 q
dt
2
2 2
8 p1 rq ` p1 ` rq t
1 ` r `8
2 arctan
t
2.
1 r 8
`8
1
dx.
7.4.3. I
1 ` x4
0
1
. x ,
t
`8
`8 2
t dt
t2
I

dt,
4
1`t
1 ` t4
0
0

`8
2I
0

`8

`8

`8

1 ` x2
dx
1 ` x4
1 ` x12
dx
x2 ` x12
dpx x1 q
px x1 q2 ` 2

du
? .
u2 ` 2
2

7.4

63

I ? .
2 2

7.4.4. In

`8

xn ex dx pn q.

. n 0 ,
`8
I0
0

`8

1,
ex dx ex
0

n 1 ,
`8

`8
`8
`n
x
xn1 ex dx

n x

In

x n

x e dx e
0
`8
n
xn1 ex dx nIn1 ,
0

In n!, @ n 0.

7.4.5.

`8
0

1
dx pn 1q.
p1 ` x2 qn

. n 1 ,
`8
I1
0

`8
1

dx

arctan
x
,

1 ` x2
2
0

n 2 ,
`8
1 ` x2 x2
1
dx

dx
2
n
p1 ` x q
p1 ` x2 qn
0
0
`8
x2
In1 `
dx
p1 ` x2 qn
0
`8
`8
1
x
1
1

In1 `

dx

2
n1
2pn 1q p1 ` x q
2pn 1q 0 p1 ` x2 qn1
0
2n 3

In1 .
2n 2
`8

In

In

7.4.6.

`8

p2n 3q!!

, @ n 1.
2 p2n 2q!!
2

ex dx pEuler-Poisson q.

. Taylor
et 1 ` t, @ t P R,

64

1 x2 ex

1
, @ x 0.
1 ` x2

1
`8
`8
2 n
nx2
p1 x q dx
e
dx
0

1
dx,
p1 ` x2 qn

t
x sin t, x ? ,
n
,
`8
2
p2nq!!
1
p2n 3q!!
?
,
ex dx
p2n ` 1q!!
n 0
2 p2n 2q!!

Wallis

rp2nq!!s2
lim
n8 rp2n 1q!!s2 p2n ` 1q
2

?
`8
?
p2nq!!

x2
e
dx lim n

.
n8
p2n
`
1q!!
2
0
`8
2
b
7.4.7. I
eax x2 dx pa, b 0q.
0

. x

b 1
a t,

`8
I

tb2 at2

e
0

b 1
dt,
a t2

`8
2I

`
1`

e
0

e2
?

ab

`8

b 1
dx
a x2

?
?
p ax xb q2

?
2 ab

ax2 xb2

`?
d ax

`8

eu du

b
x

2?ab
e
.
a

1
I
2
`8

7.4.8.

2?ab
e
.
a

sin2 x
dx.
x2

. sinp2n 1qx sinp2n 3qx 2 sin x cos 2pn 1qx

sinp2n 1qx
dx , @ n 1.
sin x
2

7.4

65

sin2 nx sin2 pn 1qx sinp2n 1qx sin x


2
n

2 sinp2k 1qx
sin2 nx

dx

dx n, @ n 1.
2
sin
x
2
sin x
0
0
k1

x3
r0, s , x
sin x x
2
3!

1 2 sin2 nx

1 2 sin2 nx

dx

dx
n 0
x2
2
n 0 sin2 x

2 1
1 2 1`
2 1
1 sin2 nx `

dx
`
1

dx.
n 0
x2
6
n x2
24

t
, n `8,
n

`8
sin2 x
`
2 1 `8 sin2 x
dx 1
dx.
x2
2
6
x2
0
0

0`

`8
0

sin2 x

dx .
x2
2

. ,
`8
sin x

dx .
x
2
0
2
7.4.9. I
ln sin x dx pEuler q.
0

. x 2t,
4
4
4

I2
ln sin 2t dt ln 2 ` 2
ln sin t dt ` 2
ln cos t dt,
2
0
0
0
t 2 s,
4
4
2

I2
ln sin 2t dt ln 2 ` 2
ln sin t dt ` 2
ln sin s ds,

2
0
0
4

ln 2 ` 2I,
2

I 2 ln 2.
Riemann , .
7.4.1. f p0, bs ,
b
n
b k
f pxq dx lim
f p bq;
n8 n
n
0
k1

66

, f r0, bq ,
b
n
b k1
f pxq dx lim
bq;
fp
n8 n
n
0
k1
. f p0, bs , f 0 ( f pxq f pbq).

b k`1
fp
bq
n
n

k`1
n b

f pxq dx
k
nb

b k
f p bq,
n n

b
n
b k
f p bq
f pxq dx
n k1 n
0

b
f pxq dx
b
n

n1
n
b k
b k
f p bq
f p bq,
n k1 n
n k1 n

f pxq dx , lim nb
f p nk bq
n8
k1
0
b
b
n

k
b

f pxq dx. , lim n


f p n bq ,
f pxq dx ,

n8

b
n

k1

, .
f r0, bq , , .

, , ,
.
7.4
1. (n ):
`8
`8
2n1 x2
p1q
x
e
dx; p2q
0

dx
; p3q
2
px ` a2 qn

`8

eax cos bx dx pa 0q.

2. (n , a 0):
1
1
1 n
`8
p1 xqn
x dx
?
p1q
pln xqn dx; p2q
dx; p3q
; p4q
eax sinn xdx.
x
1

x
0
0
0
0
3. :
`8
2
1c
2
1 ex
1 ` sin x x
1
p1q
dx; p2q
e dx; p3q
ln dx.
2
1 ` cos x
x
x
0
0
4
4. :

2
1
arcsin x
p1q
x ln sin xdx; p2q
x cot xdx; p3q
dx;
x
0
0
02

x sin x
x2
x2
p4q
dx; p5q
dx;
p6q
dx.
2
0 1 cos x
0 sin x
0 1 cos x

7.4

67

5. :
`8
0

1 ` x4
dx; p3q
1 ` x6

`8

dx
p P Rq; p2q
2
p1 ` x qp1 ` x q

`8

dx
; p2q
1 ` x3

p1q

1 ` x4
dx.
1 ` x6

6. :
`8
p1q
0

ln x
dx.
1 ` x2

7. ,
`8

b
1 `8
f rpax q2 sdx
f py 2 qdx pa, b 0q.
x
a 0
0
8. f pxq r0, `8q , c 0,

`8
c

`8
0

f pxq
,
x

f pxq f pxq

dx f p0q ln
p, 0q.
x

9. f pxq p0, `8q , b a 0,

b
a

,
lim f pxq L,

x0`

`8
0

f pxq
dx
x

lim f pxq M,

x`8

f pxq f pxq
dx rL M s ln
p, 0q.
x

10. ( a, b 0):
`8
p1q
0

x
1 dx

; p2q
x
x
e e
2 x2

`8
0

11. :

2
ln | sin2 x a|dx p0 a 1q; p2q
p1q
0

(: p2q (9.13) .)

b sin ax a sin bx
dx.
x2

lnpsin2 x ` aqdx pa 0q.

68

Taylor , ,
. , ()
, , .

8.1

a1 , a2 , , an , ,
8

an a1 ` a2 ` ` an `

n1

, an , Sn

ak a1 ` ` an n

k1

.
lim Sn S ,
n8

an , S,

n1
8

an S.

n1
8

an . .

n1

an , an 0 pn 8q.

n1

an Sn Sn1 S S 0 pn 8q.
8

(Cauchy ):
an 0,
n1

N N pq, n N
|an`1 ` an`2 ` ` an`p | , @ p 1.

an`1 ` an`2 ` ` an`p Sn`p Sn ,

tSn u Cauchy .
8

1
.
8.1.1.
n1 npn ` 1q
.
n
n

`1
1
1
1
Sn

1
1 pn 8q,
kpk ` 1q k1 k k ` 1
n`1
k1


.
69

70

8.1.2.
. n 1 ,

1
.
n2
n1

1
1
1
1

. ,
2
n
npn 1q
n1 n

n`p

n`p
1
1
1
1
1
1


0 pn 8q,
2
k
k1 k
n n`p
n
kn`1
kn`1

Cauchy , (, 2 {6).
8 1

( ).
8.1.3.
n1 n
. n 1,
2n

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

`
` `

`
` `
,
k
n`1 n`2
2n
2n 2n
2n
2
kn`1


Cauchy , .
8

8.1.4.
sin n .
n1

. , sin n 0 pn 8q.
sinpn ` 1q sin n cos 1 ` cos n sin 1

, cos n 0 pn 8q.
sin2 n ` cos2 n 1,


, .
8

8.1.5. q 0, q 1 ,

q n ; q 1 ,

n1

).

q n (

n1

. 0 q 1 ,
n

Sn

qk q

k1

q
1 qn

,
1q
1q

; q 1 , q n 0, .

8
8
8

8.1.1. p1q
an
bn ,
pan ` bn q ,
n1
8

n1

pan ` bn q

n1
8

an `

n1

p2q .

n1
8

n1

bn , p, P Rq.

8.1

71


. , .
8.1
1. :
p1q
p4q

n
;
2n 1
n1
8

sin2 n
n1

npn ` 1q

n
;
2n
n1
8

`
1
p5q
;
ln 1 `
n
n1

p2q

1
?
;
n
n2
n1
8

` 1
p1qn
p6q
`
.
2n ` 1 2n ` 2
n1
p3q

2. :
8

1
;
np2n 1q
n1
8

1
;
p3q
npn ` 3q
n1
8

p1qn1
p5q
;
n
n1
p1q

3.

p2q

?
?
?
p n ` 2 2 n ` 1 ` nq;
n1
8

1
?
;
?
pn ` 1q n ` n n ` 1
n1
8

1
p6q
.
npn
`
1qpn
` 2q
n1

p4q

an Sn . S2n S, an 0,

n1

4.

an .

n1

|an`1 an | , tan u . (: Cauchy .)

n1

5. nan ,

npan an1 q ,

n2

6. ,

an .

n1

a2n ,

n1

7.

an
. (: .)
n
n1

sinpn ` q , , .

n1

8.

an ,

n1

mintan , 1u .

n1

9. tan u , r1, `8q f pxq : x P rk, k ` 1q


8

, f pxq ak pk 1, 2, q. ,
an
n1
8

f pxqdx ,
1
8

n1

8
an

f pxqdx.
1

72
10.

a2n

n1

b2n ,

n1

an bn ,

n1
8
8
8

`
1 `
1

an bn
a2n 2
b2n 2 .
n1

11. |an | bn ,

bn ,

n1

n1

n1

an .

n1

8.2

an 0,

an . , Sn

n1

an n

k1

.
()

an tSn u tSn u .

n1

an 0 .
8.2.1.

n1

1
.
n pn ` 1q

.
?

2
1
?
? ?
?
n pn ` 1q
np n ` 1 ` nq n ` 1
?
?
n`1 n
?
2 ?
n n`1
1
1
2 ? ?
,
n
n`1

Sn

k1

1
1
1
1
? ?
2.
2
2 1 ?
n`1
k`1
k pk ` 1q
k
k1

.
8.2.2. q 1 , 0 an q 1 p @ n 1q,
8

an
qn
n1

, 0 1 .

8.2

73

. 0 an q 1 ,
0 Sn

ak
qk
k1

pq 1q

1
k
q
k1

1 q n 1.

0 1 . an , S
Spqq 0.a1 a2 a3 an ,

S P r0, 1s q . q 10 10 .
r0, 1s q , ,

0.999

9 1 10n
9
lim
1.
n
n8 10 1 101
10
n1

q 2 , an 0 1. , 0
1, (,


). , .
8

8.2.1 ().

an

n1

bn ,

n1

M 0,

p1q

bn

n1

an M bn , @ n 1.
8
8

an ; p2q
an
bn .

n1

n1

pq

n1

. .
. p1q pq n .
p2q pq
an
M,
bn
M , ,
lim

n8

an
,
bn

(i) 0 `8,

an

n1

(ii) 0,

n1

bn

n1
8

bn ;

an ; 8,

n1

n1

bn

n1

an

74
p3q

an
,
bn
an`1
bn`1

an
bn

(i)

bn

an ; (ii)

an

bn .

n1

n1

n1

n1

an
q
bn

p4q (Cauchy ) 8.2.1 bn q n (q ),

:
n ,

?
n

an q 1,

an ;

n1

n,

?
n

an 1,

an .

n1

q ? :
lim

?
n

n8
8

1 ,

an .

an ; 1 , ( 1 ).

n1

p5q (dAlembert ) p3q bn q n , :


8

an`1
q 1,
n ,
an ;
an
n1
8

an`1
1( n ),

an .
an
n1
, q .
lim

n8

an`1
,
an

1 , 1 ( 1 ).
8

1
1
8.2.3.
n lnp1 ` n q .
n1

. Taylor ,
0

`
`1
1
1 1 1
ln 1 `

`o 2 .
2
n
n
2n
n

lim

n8

lnp1 `

1 M 1
1
q
,
2
n
n
2

8 1

, .
2
n1 n

8.2.4. p P R,


8 `

n1

2
p n
n

.
`
p n
ep ,
an 1
n
p 0 ; p 0 . , p 0 .
?
n

8.2

8.2.5. x 0,

75
8

n1

n!p nx qn .

.
an`1
x
x

,
an
e
p1 ` n1 qn

0 x e ; x e . x e ,
`
an`1
1 n
e{ 1 `
1,
an
n

8 1
8 1

,
,
. s P R,
2
n1 n
n1 n
8 1

? .
s
n1 n

8.2.2 (). f pxq r1, `8q ,


`8
8

an f pnq pn 1q.
an
f pxqdx
n1

.
x
F pxq

y = f (x)

f ptqdt, @ x 1.
1

f , n x n`1

an`1 f pn ` 1q f pxq f pnq an ,

x
n

n+1

8.1

an`1

n`1

f ptqdt an ,
n

Sn a1 ` F pnq, F pnq Sn1 .

Sn

ak . Sn F pnq n ,
`8
8

,
an
f pxqdx .

k1

n1

8.2.6. s P R,

8 1

.
s
n1 n

76

. s 0 , 0, . s 0 , f pxq xs , f
,
x
F pxq

x
f ptqdt

$
& ln x,
s 1,
ts dt
1
1s
%
px
1q, s 1.
1s

1
0 s 1 , F pxq `8 px `8q; s 1 , F pxq
px `8q.
s1
8 1
8 1

s 1 ,
; s 1
.
s
s
n1 n
n1 n
8 1

. psq
Riemann-Zeta , ,
s
n1 n
.

8.2.7.

1
, s P R.
pn
`
1qplnpn
` 1qqs
n1

. s 0 ,

8 1

1
,
,
n`1
n1 n

. s 0.
f ptq

1
,
p1 ` tqplnp1 ` tqqs

f ,
x
x
dt
F pxq
f ptqdt
p1
`
tqplnp1
` tqqs
1
$1
& ln lnp1 ` xq ln ln 2,
s 1,

1
%
plnp1 ` xqq1s pln 2q1s , s 1.
1s
s 1 ; s 1 .

1
1
,
, bn s
n
n ln n
. , ,
. .
8.2.3 (Kummer).

n1

an ,

bn , n

n1
8

1
an
1

0,
an ;
bn an`1
bn`1
n1
8
8

an
1
1

0
bn ,
an .
p2q
bn an`1
bn`1
n1
n1
p1q

. p1q
an`1

1 an
an`1

, @ n N.
bn
bn`1

8.2

n N

77

n
ak`1
1 ak

kN bk
bk`1

1 aN
an`1
SN `

bN
bn`1
1 aN
,
SN `
bN

Sn`1 SN `

tSn u ,

an .

n1

p2q

1
an
1

0
bn an`1
bn`1

an
an`1

,
bn
bn`1

t abnn u n , an

a1
b1 bn ,

bn

n1

an . 

n1

. p1q , :
1
an
1

,
lim
n8 bn an`1
bn`1
0

n1

an ; 0

bn

n1

an .

n1

p2q bn 1, Kummer dAlembert .


1
p3q (Raabe) bn , ( )
n

a
8

n
1 1
an ;
(i) n
an`1
n1
a

n
(ii) n
1 1
an .
an`1
n1
Raabe ().
1
, : ( )
p4q (Gauss) bn
n ln n
` 1
an

pq
1` `o
,
an`1
n
n ln n

an ; 1 .

n1

, Raabe , 1 ,
1
an
1

lim
n8 bn an`1
bn`1
#
+

` 1
1
lim n ln n 1 ` ` o
pn ` 1q lnpn ` 1q
n8
n
n ln n
n
1 0.
lim pn ` 1q ln
n8
n`1

78

bn , Kummer ,

n1

an .

n1

8.2.8. :
s
8
8

n!
p2n 1q!!
1
p1q
p 0q; p2q

.
p ` 1qp ` 2q p ` nq
p2nq!!
2n ` 1
n1
n1
. p1q
lim n

n8

` an

` ` n ` 1

1 lim n
1 ,
n8
an`1
n`1

Raabe , 1 , 1 . 1 , an
.

1
,
n`1

p2q
2n ` 2 s 2n ` 3 `
an
1 s `
2

1`
1`
an`1
2n ` 1 2n ` 1
2n ` 1
2n ` 1
`
s
1 `
2
1`
` Op 2 q 1 `
2n ` 1
n
2n ` 1
1
s`2
` Op 2 q
1`
2n ` 1
n
ps ` 2q{2
1
1`
` Op 2 q,
n
n
Gauss , s 0 ; s 0 .

, ,
.
8

8.2.9 (Cauchy ). an .

an

n1

2k a2k .

k0

. Sn

an , Tn

k1

2k a2k . 2k n 2k`1 ,

k0

Sn a1 ` a2 ` pa3 ` a4 q ` ` pa2k1 `1 ` ` a2k q


a1 ` a2 ` 2a4 ` ` 2k1 a2k
1
pa1 ` 2a2 ` ` 2k a2k q
2
Tk {2.

Sn , Tn ,

an

n1

2k a2k . ,

k0

Sn a1 ` pa2 ` a3 q ` ` pa2k ` ` a2k`1 1 q


a1 ` 2a2 ` ` 2k a2k
Tk .

8.2

2k a2k

79


an .

n1

k0

, Cauchy .
8.2.10. pp q:
8

1
,
np
n1

1
.
npln nqp
n2

. , p 0 . p 0. an
, Cauchy , :
8

k0

2k

np

2kp1pq ,
2kp
k0

, 21p 1, p 1 ; 21p 1, p 1 .
,
8

2k

k1

1
1
p

pln
2q
,
k
p
2 pk ln 2q
kp
k1

, p 1 , .
8.2
1. :
8

1
;
n ` n2
n1
8

1
1
p4q
tan ;
n
n
n1
p1q

p2q
p5q

n1
8

2n sin
?

n1

;
3n

p3q

p6q

1
n3 ` 1

1 cos

n1
8

1
;
n

ln n
.
np
n1

2. :
p1q

1
;
ln n
pln
nq
n2

p2q

n2

1
;
n ln n

p3q

1
.
ln ln n
pln
nq
n3

3. :
p1q
p3q
p5q

1 3 5 p2n 1q
; p2q
n!
n1
8

?
p n a 1qp pa 1q;
p4q
n1
8

`
1 p
1 n sin
;
n
n1

p6q

n!
;
n
n
n1
8

n2
;
2n
n1
8

` n
n1

2n ` 1

80
4.

an ,

n1

5.

a2n .

n1

an ,

n1

n`1
an .
n
n1

6. an 0, Sn a1 ` a2 ` ` an ,
8

an
;
p1q
2
S
n1 n
8
8

a
? n
p2q
an .
Sn
n1
n1
7.

an ,

n1
8

an`1
, Sn
Sn
n1

an .

n1

8. :
p1q
p3q

n!en
;
nn`p
n1
8

p2n 1q!!
n1

p2nq!!

ppp ` 1q pp ` n 1q 1
q pp 0, q 0q;
n!
n
n1
?
8

n!
?
?
p4q
pa 0q.
?
1qpa ` 2q pa ` nq
n1 pa `

p2q
;

9. an 0, Sn a1 ` a2 ` ` an ,
8

an
p1q 1 ,
;

S
n1 n
8
8

an
p2q 1 ,

an .
S
n1 n
n1
10. an 0 n .
8

` an`1

an

n1
8

11.

`
an

1
an`1
n1

1 .

an ,

n1

1
n
an
1` `
.
an`1
n n ln n

n n 1,

an ; n n 1,

n1
8

n1

an . Bertrand .

8.3

81
8

12. an ,

an ,

n1

13.

1(
min an ,
.
n
n1

an , ank

n1

14. pq

an ,

n1

lim

bn ,

n1

n8

15. pq

1
.
nk

bn
`8.
an

an ,

n1

bn ,

n1

bn
0.
n8 an
lim

16.

an ,

n1

17. pq an 0,

8 1

pan ` an`1 ` ` a2n q .


n1 n

8
8

1
n
.
.
a
a ` a2 ` ` an
n1 n
n1 1

8.3

, Taylor :
8

1 1 1

1
1 ` `
,
p1qn1
4
3 5 7
2n 1
n1

ln 2 1

1 1 1
1
` `
p1qn1 .
2 3 4
n
n1

, .
8

8.3.1 (Leibniz). an 0,
p1qn1 an .
n1

. Cauchy . Sn`p Sn :
Sn`p Sn p1qn an`1 ` p1qn`1 an`2 ` ` p1qn`p1 an`p
p1qn ran`1 an`2 ` an`3 an`4 ` ` p1qp1 an`p s.

p 2k 1 ,
p1qn pSn`p Sn q an`1 pan`2 an`3 q pan`4 an`5 q an`1 ,
p1qn pSn`p Sn q pan`1 an`2 q ` pan`3 an`4 q ` ` an`2k1
0,

82

pq |Sn`p Sn | an`1 0 pn 8q.

p 2k , . .

. pq p 8
|S Sn | an`1 ,
8

p1qn1 an , .

n1

8.3.1.

1
p1qn1 ? .
n
n1

1
. ? , Leibniz .

n
, ,

() .
8.3.2 (). tak u, tbk u ,
n1

ak`1 pbk`1 bk q `

km

n1

bk pak`1 ak q an bn am bm .

km

. , :
n1

ak`1 pbk`1 bk q `

km

n1

n1

bk pak`1 ak q

km

rak`1 bk`1 ak`1 bk ` bk ak`1 bk ak s

km

n1

pak`1 bk`1 ak bk q

km

an bn am bm .


.
8.3.2. .
ak bk k, ,
n1

pk ` 1q `

k0

n1

k n2 0,

k0

k1

k n2 ` n,

8.3

83

1 ` 2 ` ` n

1
npn ` 1q.
2

, ak k2 , bk k ,
n1

pk ` 1q2 `

k0

n1

kp2k ` 1q n3 ,

k0

12 ` 22 ` ` n2

1
npn ` 1qp2n ` 1q.
6


.
b0 0,
B0 0, Bk b1 ` b2 ` ` bk pk 1q,

Bk bk ,
8.3.3 (Abel ). ai , bi pi 1q ,
n

ai bi

im`1

n1

pai ai`1 qBi ` an Bn am`1 Bm , @ m 0.

(8.1)

im`1

. ,
n
n
n
n

ai bi
ai pBi Bi1 q
ai Bi
ai Bi1
im`1

im`1

im`1

ai Bi

im`1

n1

n1

im`1

ai`1 Bi

im

pai ai`1 qBi ` an Bn am`1 Bm .

im`1

8.3.4 (Abel ). a1 , a2 , , an , |Bi | M pi 1q,

ai bi 2M p|an | ` |am`1 |q, @ m 0.

im`1

. (8.1)
n

ai bi M

im`1

n1

|ai ai`1 | ` M p|an | ` |am`1 |q

im`1

n1

M
pai ai`1 q ` M p|an | ` |am`1 |q
im`1

M |am`1 an | ` M p|an | ` |am`1 |q


2M p|am`1 | ` |an |q.

84

, tai u .
8.3.5 (Dirichlet). tan u 0,

bn ,

n1

an bn .

n1

. , M 0
n

bi M, @ n 1.

i1

Abel ,
n`p

ai bi 2M p|an`1 | ` |an`p |q 4M |an`1 | 0.

in`1
8

Cauchy

an bn .

n1

. r1, `8q f pxq, gpxq : x P rk, k ` 1q ,


f pxq ak , gpxq bk pk 1, 2, q. f pxq gpxq

Dirichlet , f pxqgpxq r1, `8q ,


8

an bn . Dirichlet Dirichlet
n1

. Abel .
8

8.3.6 (Abel). tan u ,

bn ,

n1

an bn

n1

. tan u lim an a . tan au 0.


n8
8

Dirichlet ,
pan aqbn .
n1
8

n1

an bn

pan aqbn `

n1

a bn

n1

.
8.3.3.
. an

8 1

sin nx .
n1 n

1
0, bn sin nx.
n
x
1
1
2 sin sin kx cospk qx cospk ` qx
2
2
2

$
&0,
x 2k,
bn `
L
1
x
x
% cos cospn ` qx 2 sin , x 2k.
k1
2
2
2
bn . Dirichlet , .
n

8.3

8.3.4.

85

n1

. an

nan ,

an .

n1

1
1
pnan q, 0,
nan , Abel ,
n
n
n1

an .

n1

, , .
8.3.1 ().

|an | ,

n1

an p ,

n1

|an`1 ` ` an`p | |an`1 | ` ` |an`p | 0,

an q.

n1

an

|an | ,

n1

n1

8.3.5.

an .

n1

p1qn1

n1

xn
px P Rq .
n

|x|
?
, n an |x|. |x| 1 ; |x| 1
n
. x 1 ; x 1 .


. an

8.3
1. :
p1q

n1
8

p1qn

1
;
n ln n

sin n
;
ln n
n2
8
a

p5q
sinp n2 ` 1q;

p3q

n1

`
p1qn
;
ln 1 ?
n
n1
8

n`1 1
? ;
p4q
p1qn
n
n
n1
8

` 1
1
p6q
p1qn ? `
.
n ln n
n1
p2q

2. ak k 3 , bk k,

k 3 .

k1

3. Abel ,
n

ai bi M p|a1 | ` 2|an |q.

i1

4. Abel , tai u ,
n

ai bi M a1 .

i1

86

5. , :
8

sinpnxq
;
n!
n1
8

`

p3q
p1qn1 1 cos ? ;
n
n1
8

?
p5q
p1qn p n n 1q;

p2q

p6q

n1

6.

an , tbn u ,

n1

an ,

n1

8.

p1qn1

n1

nx` n

, x P R.

an bn .

a3n ? .

n1

|an`1 an | an ,

n1
8

n1
8

n1

7. pq

ln n
p1qn ? ;
n
n1
8
a

p4q
sinp n2 ` x2 q;

p1q

bn ,

n1

an bn . (: Abel .)

n1

9.

|an`1 an | ,

n1

bn ,

n1

an bn .

n1

10. tan u . :
8

p1qn

n1

11.

a1 ` a2 ` ` an
.
n

an ,

n1

a1 ` 2a2 ` ` nan
0.
n8
n
lim

12. pq an 0, nan 0,

an . n ln n an 0.

n1

13. an bn cn pn 1q.

n1

8.4


an

cn ,

n1

n1

bn .

8.4
8.4.1

87

, .
: , ,
? , i, j pi, j 1, 2, q aij .
8.4.1 ().

aij Ai i

j1

, 0, N , n N ,
n

aij Ai , @ i 1.

(8.2)

j1

8.4.1.

aij Ai i , lim aij aj


i8

j1

pj 1q, lim Ai ,
i8

aj ,

j1

lim Ai

i8

aj ,

j1

lim

i8

j1

aij

j1

lim aij .

i8

. , 0, N0 , n N0 ,
n

aij Ai , @ i 1.

4
j1
, m n N0
m
m
n



1

aij
aij Ai `
aij Ai , @ i 1.

2
jn`1
j1
j1
i 8,

m

1

aj ,

2
jn`1

Cauchy

aj , m 8

j1
8

1

aj , @ n N0 .

2
jn`1

j 1, 2, , N0 , aij aj , N , i N ,
|aij aj |

, j 1, 2, , N0 .
4N0

88

, i N ,
N0
N0
N0
8

aj `
aj Ai
aij `
aij
Ai
j1

i1

j1

j1

aj

jN0 `1

1
` N0
` .
4
4N0
2

tAi u

aj .

j1

. .
8

8.4.2. lim aij aj pj 1q, |aij | bj pi 1q,


bj ,
i8

j1

aj ,

j1
8

aj

j1

lim aij lim

j1

i8

i8

aij .

j1

. aij aj , |aij | bj |aj | bj , j 1, 2, .

bj

j1

aj . 0, N , n N ,

j1

bj .

jn`1

, i 1,
n
8
8
8

aij
aij
aij
bj ,

j1

j1

jn`1

jn`1

aij i . .

j1

. ,

bj .

j1

8.4.3.

|aij | Aj pj 1q,

i1
8

Aj , i 1,

j1

aij ,

j1
8
8

aij

i1 j1

8
8

aij .

j1 i1

. , , |aij | Aj , j 1, 2, . , i 1,
8

aij .

j1
k
k

aij
|aij | Aj , j 1.

i1

i1

8.4

89

,
8
8

k
8

aij lim

k8

i1 j1

lim

k
8

k8

aij

j1 i1

lim

j1

aij

i1 j1

k8

8
8

aij

i1

aij .

j1 i1

.
. .
8.4.1.

|an | , f pxq

an xn , x P r1, 1s.

n2

n2

1
an pnq,
fp q
n
n2
n1
8

psq Riemann-Zeta .
.
8
8

1
|an |

|an |, @ m 1,
mn
m2 n2
n2

m2 , 8.4.3

m1
8
8
8
8

an
an

,
n
n
m
m
n2 m1
m1 n2

an pnq

n2

m1

fp

1
q.
m

, ln 2 . ,
1
lim

n8 0

xn
dx 0
1`x

90

1
1
1 ` p1qn xn`1
dx lim
dx
n8 0
1`x
0 1`x
1
n
lim
pxqk dx

ln 2

n8 0
k0
n 1

lim

n8

pxqk dx

k0 0

p1qk
.

k`1
k0

ln 2

n1

1
1
1

,
2n 1 2n
2np2n
1q
n1

f pxq

x2
1 n
x
,
n
2
2p2 xq
n2

1
n2
ln 2.
fp q
n
2p2 n1 q
n1
n1

, ,
ln 2

1
pnq,
n
2
n2

ln 2 , .
8.4.2

,
. ,
pa0 ` a1 ` ` am qpb0 ` b1 ` ` bn q

m`n

ai bj .

k0 i`jk

, :

n0

an

bn ,

n0

cn ,

n0

cn

i`jn

Cauchy .

ai bj , n 0.

8.4

91

8.4.4 (Cauchy).

an

n0

bn ,

n0

,
8

cn

8
`

n0

an

8
`

n0

bn .

n0

. .

. , tai bj u , ()
, .
Cauchy , .
8.4.5 (Mertens).

an

n0

bn ,

n0

, ,
8

n0

cn

8
`

an

n0

8
`

bn .

n0

an .

n0

An

k0

ak , Bn

bk , Cn

k0

ck .

k0

An A, Bn B,
Cn

ai bj a0 Bn ` a1 Bn1 ` ` an B0 An B ` n ,

i`jn

n a0 pBn Bq ` a1 pBn1 Bq ` ` an pB0 Bq.

n 0 . Bn B, tBn u n , K,

|Bn B| K, @ n 0.

an , 0, N0 , n N0

n0

|aN0 `1 | ` ` |an |

.
2K ` 1

L |a0 | ` |a1 | ` ` |aN0 |. Bn B 0, N1 , n N1


|Bn B|

.
2L ` 1

92

n N0 ` N1 ,
|n |

N0

|ak ||Bnk B| ` p|aN0 `1 | ` ` |an |qK

k0

p|a0 | ` |a1 | ` ` |aN0 |q `


K
2L ` 1
2K ` 1

L`
K

2L ` 1
2K ` 1

.


n 0, Cn An B ` n AB.

. , an bn
1
n1 ?

, . , ,
n
. , .
p1q

8.4.6 (Abel).

cn C ,

n0

f pxq

cn xn , x P r0, 1q,

n0

lim f pxq C.
x1

. tcn u , x P r0, 1q ,

cn xn .

n0

C1 0, Cn

ck , n 0.

k0

ck xk

k0

pCk Ck1 qxk

k0

k0

Ck xk x

n1

Ck xk

k0

Cn xn ` p1 xq

n1

Ck xk

k0

Cn xn ` Cp1 xn q ` p1 xq

n1

pCk Cqxk .

k0

n 8
f pxq C ` p1 xq

k0

pCk Cqxk .

8.4

93

Ck C 0, 0, N , k N
|Ck C|

1
.
2

|Ck C|,

k0

|f pxq C| M p1 xq ` p1 xq

, 0 1 x

1 k
1
x M p1 xq ` .
2
2
kN `1

,
2M ` 1
|f pxq C| M

` .
2M ` 1 2


lim f pxq C.
x1

8.4.7 (Abel).

an ,

n0
8

cn

n0

. x P r0, 1q ,

n0
8
`

8
`

n0
8

cn ,

n0

an

bn .

n0
8

an xn

n0
8

bn

bn xn ,

n0

cn xn . Cauchy ,

n0
8

cn xn

n0

8
`

an xn

n0

8
`

bn xn .

n0

x 1 , Abel .
8.4.2. ln 2 .
ln 2
ln 2

p1qn
,
n`1
n0

Cauchy
8

n0

p1qn

` 1
1
1
1

p1qn
`
pi ` 1qpj ` 1q n0
n ` 2 i`jn i ` 1 j ` 1
i`jn

n0
8

p1qn

1
1
2 `
1 ` ` `
n`2
2
n`1

2p1qn1 `
1
1
1 ` ` `
.
n`1
2
n
n1

94

1 `
1
1
1` ``
,
n`1
2
n
,

cn

1
p1qn1 `
1
1
pln 2q2
1 ` ` `
.
2
n
`
1
2
n
n1

8.4.3. ex .
,
f pxq

xn
, x P R.
n!
n0

f p0q 1,
f pxqf pyq

xi y j
,
i! j!
n0 i`jn

,
n
xi y j
px ` yqn
1 i i ni
Cn x y

,
i! j!
n! i0
n!
i`jn

f pxqf pyq f px ` yq, x, y P R.

f pxq ax , a f p1q e.
ex .
sin x cos x .
8.4.3

, ,
. ,
p1 , p2 , , pn ,

,
8

pn p1 p2 pn

n1

.
Pn

k1

pk , n 1

8.4

95

. tPn u , , ,
,
8

pn lim Pn .
n8

n1

, , .
pn , . pn .
8

pn ,
n1

lim pn lim

n8

n8

Pn
P {P 1,
Pn1

, n , pn 0. ,
pn 0, @ n 1.

Pn

pk ek1

ln pk

k1

, ,
8.4.8. pn 0, @ n 1.
8

p1q
pn
ln pn ,
n1

n1
8

pn en1

ln pn

n1

p2q pn 1 ` an . n an 0 p an 0 q,

pn

n1

p3q

an ;

n1
8

an

n1

n1

a2n ,

p1 ` an q .

n1

. p1q . p2q
lim

n8

lnp1 ` an q
1
an

. p3q (an )
ran lnp1 ` an qs
1

2
n8
an
2
lim

p1q.

96

8.4.4. Wallis .
Wallis
p2nq!! 2 1

lim
,
n8 p2n 1q!!
2
2n ` 1

2n
2n

,
2
2n 1 2n ` 1
n1

2np2n ` 2q

.
4
p2n ` 1q2
n1

8.4.5. Riemann-Zeta .
tpn u ,
1
1
1
1
1 ` s ` 2s ` ` ms `
pn
pn
pn
1 pns

1
1 `
p1 2s q1 p1 3s q1 p1 ps
n q

1
1
1
` s ` ` s `
2s
3
n

psq

n1

1 1
.
psn

8.4.6. sinh x .
,
ex

ex ` ex
ex ex
`
sinh x ` cosh x,
2
2

ep2n`1qx psinh x ` cosh xq2n`1

2n`1

k
C2n`1
pcosh xqk psinh xq2n`1k

k0

2l
C2n`1
pcosh xq2l psinh xq2n`12l `

l0

2l`1
C2n`1
pcosh xq2l`1 psinh xq2n2l ,

l0

cosh2 x sinh2 x 1 ,
sinhp2n ` 1qx sinh x

l0

2l
C2n`1
psinh2 x ` 1ql psinh2 xqnl .

8.4
?

, e

1x

97

cos x `

1 sin x
n

sinp2n ` 1qx sin x

2l
C2n`1
p1 sin2 xql p sin2 xqnl .

l0

, P pyq

2l
C2n`1
py ` 1ql y nl

l0

sin2

` k
, k 1, 2, , n.
2n ` 1

P pyq ,
n

P pyq C

y ` sin2

k1

k
,
2n ` 1

2l
C2n`1

l0

2n`12l
C2n`1

l0

2n`1
1 k
C
22n ,
2 k0 2n`1

2n ` 1 22n

sin2

k1

k
.
2n ` 1

,
sinhp2n ` 1qx 22n sinh x

sinh2 x ` sin2

k1

k
,
2n ` 1

sinh x p2n ` 1q sinh

2
x
n

x sinh 2n`1
`
1
,
k
2n ` 1 k1 sin2 2n`1

n 8,
sinh x x

x2
` 1 , @ x P R.
2
2
n
n1

(8.3)

cosh x

k1

8.4.4

x2
2
p 2k1
2 q

` 1 , @ x P R.

(8.4)

. ,
an , ,
n1

98

, . ,
8

an , , .
n1

an
8

n1
8

a`
n,

n1

an ` |an | |an | an

a`
n an
2
2

a
n .

an , , .

n1

8.4.7. ln 2 .

ln 2 1

1 1 1 1 1
` ` `
2 3 4 5 6

1
1
1 1 `1 1 1 `1

`

`

` ,
2 4
3 6 8
5 10 12

`1
2

1 `1 1 ` 1
1
1
`

` ln 2.
4
6 8
10 12
2

, , .
8.4.9 (Riemann).

an ,

n1

, .
8

. P R,
,
,

an ,

n1
8

n1

Sn . n

an , .

n1
8

a`
n

n1
8

|an | , |an | a`
n ` an , an an an

`
a
n `8, Sn

n1
Sn`

, m1 ,
`
Sm
,
1

`
Sm
a`
m1 .
1
`
n , Sm
Sn , n1 ,
1
`
Sm
Sn1 ,
1

`
Sm
Sn1 ` a
n1 .
1

8.4

99

m2 ,
`
`
Sm
Sn1 Sm
Sn1 a`
m2 ,
2
2

n2 ,
`
`
Sm
Sn2 Sm
Sn2 ` a
n2 .
2
2

, m1 m2 n1 n2 ,
`
`
Sm
Snk1 Sm
Snk1 a`
mk
k
k

`
`
Snk Sm
Snk ` a`
Sm
nk
k
k

k . an 0 ,

`
`

`
a`
1 ` ` am1 a1 an1 ` am1 `1 ` ` am2
`

`
a
n1 `1 an2 ` am2 `1 ` ` am3 an2 `1

. a`
n an ,
8

an .

n1

an , `8 8 ,

n1

.
8.4
1. lim npiq `8, i , |aij | Aj , j 1, 2, , npiq.
i8

j1

, lim aij ,
i8

lim

i8

2.

j1

|aij | Ai ,

npiq

aij

j1

j1

lim aij .

i8

Ai , :

i1
8
8

aij

i1 j1

8
8

aij .

j1 i1

3. Riemann-Zeta
8

n2

rpnq 1s 1,

n1

rp2nq 1s

3
.
4

Aj

100
4.

2n |an | , f pxq

n2

n2

an xn , x P r 12 , 12 s.

1
fp q
an rpnq 1s.
n
n2
n2

5.
n
8
8

`
1
1
1
p1qn
ln n
ln 1 `

pnq.
n8
k
n
n
n
n1
n2
k1

lim

6.
n
8
8

`
1
1
1
ppnq 1q
ln n 1 `
` ln 1
.
1
n8
k
n
n
n
n2
n2
k1

lim

7. Cauchy .
8. , |x| 1 ,
8

pn ` 1qxn .
p1 xq2
n0

9.
` 2
4

1
1
p1qn `
1 ` ` `
.
n`1
3
2n ` 1
n0

10.
p1q

n1

p2q

1
2
;
2
4n

p1 ` x2

n1

n1

p3q

cos

n1

sin x
x

;
n
2
x

1
p|x| 1q.
1x

11. , 0 ,
lim

n8

p ` 1q p ` n 1q
0.
p ` 1q p ` n 1q

12. 2 p1 p2 pn ,

8 1

.
n1 pn

Taylor , ,
,
. ,
, .

9.1

I , tgn pxqu I . I gpxq


lim gn px0 q gpx0 q, @ x0 P I,

n8

tgn u g, lim gn g gn g (n 8).


n8

9.1.1. gn pxq xn , x P p0, 1q. x0 P p0, 1q,


lim xn0 0,

n8

lim gn 0.
n8

9.1.1 (). 0, x P I N
N pq, n N
|gn pxq gpxq| , @ x P I,

pq

tgn u I g, gn g.
y
g(x) +

gn (x)

g(x)

x
0

9.1
, . pq n
x . 9.1.1 tgn u (?).
9.1.2. gn pxq

x
, x P r1, 1s. tgn u .
1 ` n 2 x2
101

102

. 0 |x| 1
|gn pxq 0|

|x|
|x|
1

,
|1 ` n2 x2 |
2n|x|
2n

x 0 . tgn u r1, 1s 0.

9.1.1. tgn u I g. gn , g
.
. x0 P I, g x0 . 0, ,
N N pq, n N
|gn pxq gpxq|

, @ x P I.
3

n0 N ` 1, gn0 I , pq 0
|gn0 pxq gn0 px0 q|

, @ x P px0 , x0 ` q X I.
3

|gpxq gpx0 q| |gpxq gn0 pxq| ` |gn0 pxq gn0 px0 q|


` |gn0 px0 q gpx0 q|

` ` , @ x P px0 , x0 ` q X I.
3 3 3


g x0 .

. , tgn u g, gn x0
, g x0 ,
lim lim gn pxq lim lim gn pxq,

xx0 n8

n8 xx0

. ,
9.1.2. pq tgn u x0 P I g.
lim gn pxq an , @ n 1,

xx0

lim an lim gpxq , ,


n8

xx0

lim lim gn pxq lim lim gn pxq.

xx0 n8

n8 xx0

. tgn u g , 0, N0 , n N0
|gn pxq gpxq| , @ x x0 .

9.1

103

m, n N0
|gm pxq gn pxq| |gm pxq gpxq| ` |gpxq gn pxq| 2,

x x0 ,
|am an | 2, @ m, n N0 .

Cauchy lim an A .
n8

lim gpxq A. 0, , N ,
xx0

|aN A|

, |gpxq gN pxq| , @ x x0 .
3
3

lim gN pxq aN , 0, 0 |x x0 |
xx0

|gN pxq aN |

.
3

, 0 |x x0 |
|gpxq A| |gpxq gN pxq| ` |gN pxq aN | ` |aN A|


` ` ,
3 3 3

. - ,
3
.

lim gpxq A.
xx0

, g :
(Cauchy ) I tgn u 0,

N N pq, m, n N
|gm pxq gn pxq| , @ x P I.

, tgn u , x0 P I, tgn px0 qu Cauchy ,


, gpx0 q. g, tgn u g
(?).

, tfn pxqu ,
. Sn pxq

fn pxq,

n1

fk pxq , ; Sn pxq

k1

, . , :
8

p1q fn ,
fn pxq Spxq, Spxq ;
n1

p2q

fn pxq 0, N N pq, n N

n1

|fn`1 pxq ` ` fn`p pxq| , @ x P I, @ p 1.

104
8

9.1.3.

r0, 2s .

sin nx
n

n1

. Dirichlet x P r0, 2s,

. . , xn
,
4n

sinpn ` 1q 4n
sin 2

` `
|S2n pxn q Sn pxn q|
n`1
2n

sin 4
1
n
? .
2n
2 2

n1

sin nx
n

Cauchy .


, .

9.1.3. tfmn pxqu m, n , n 1,


8

lim fmn pxq fn pxq, m 1, |fmn pxq| Fn pxq,


Fn pxq
m8

n1
8

fn pxq ,

n1
8

fn pxq

n1

9.1.4.

n1

lim fmn pxq lim

m8

m8

|fmn pxq| Fn pxq pn 1q,

m1

fmn pxq.

n1

Fn pxq ,

n1
8
8

fmn pxq

m1 n1

8
8

fmn pxq.

n1 m1

. :
8
8

p1q (Weierstrass) |fn pxq| Mn ,


Mn ,
fn pxq
n1

n1

.
|fn`1 pxq ` ` fn`p pxq| Mn`1 ` ` Mn`p ,

Cauchy .
p2q (Dirichlet)

bn pxq Bn pxq

n1

bk pxq ,

k1

M 0,
|Bn pxq| M, @ x P I, @ n 1.

x P I, tan pxqu n , an pxq 0,

n1

. .

an pxqbn pxq I

9.1

105
8

p3q (Abel)

bn pxq I , x P I, tan pxqu n

n1
8

, I ,

an pxqbn pxq I .

n1

Abel , Cauchy :
|an`1 pxqbn`1 pxq ` ` an`p pxqbn`p pxq| 3 sup |an | sup |bn`1 pxq ` ` bn`k pxq|.
1kp
8

9.1.4.

p1qn1

n1

xn
x P r0, 1s .
n

8
8

1
1
. an pxq xn , bn pxq p1qn1 .
bn pxq
p1qn1 x
n n1
n
n1
. |an pxq| 1, @ x P r0, 1s. x, an pxq xn n .

Abel .

9.1.5.

fn pxq

n1
8

gn pxq , , P R.

n1

pfn pxq ` gn pxqq ,

n1
8

pfn pxq ` gn pxqq

n1

fn pxq `

n1

gn pxq.

n1

. .

9.1.6 (Dini). gn pxq ra, bs , x P ra, bs,


gn pxq n 0, gn 0.

. 0, N , n N
0 gn pxq , @ x P ra, bs.

n An tx P ra, bs | gn pxq u . gn n
,
A1 A2 An An`1 ,

(9.1)

An .
() An , xn P An , txn u ra, bs ,

txni u, x0 P ra, bs. (9.1) Ak Ank


txnk , xnk`1 , u. gk x0 ,
gk px0 q lim gk pxni q .
ki8

k 1 , gn px0 q 0 (n 8) .

106

9.1.7. fn pxq ,

fn pxq

n1

f , f .
. Sn pxq f pxq Sn pxq, Dini . 
. , f . , r0, 1s
f1 pxq 1 x, fn pxq xn1 xn pn 2q .
9.1.5. Riemann-Zeta .
8 1

s 1 ,
, psq p1, `8q .
s
n1 n
8
1

p1, `8q , I p1, `8q


s
n1 n
, psq I , p1, `8q


.
9.1
1. r0, 1s tfn u :
a
f1 pxq 1, fn`1 pxq xfn pxq, n 1.

tfn u r0, 1s .
2. f1 pxq r0, as , tfn u :
x
fn`1 pxq
fn ptqdt, n 1.
0

tfn u 0.
8
8

3. |fn pxq| gn pxq,


gn pxq ,
fn pxq .
n1

n1

4. :
8

p1q

nenx , x P p0, `8q;

n1
8

1
p3q
, x P p8, `8q;
2
x ` n2
n1
8

1
p5q
, x P p0, `8q;
p1
`
nxq2
n1
5.

p2q

2n sin

n1
8

sin x sin nx
?
, x P r0, `8q;
n`x
n1
8

nx
p6q
, x P p8, `8q.
1
`
n3 x2
n1
p4q

an . ,

n1
8

an
, x P r0, `8q,
nx
n1

` 1
, x P p0, `8q;
3n x

9.1

107

6. f pxq ra, bs . n 1,
fn pxq

rnf pxqs
, x P ra, bs.
n

fn pxq f pxq.
7. fn pxq I f pxq. fn pxq I , f pxq

I .
8. fn pxq I f pxq. gpxq I , fn pxqgpxq

I f pxqgpxq.
9. f pxq

x2
, x P p8, `8q. lim f pxq.
x8
1 ` n 2 x2
n1

10. fn pxq ra, bs . fn pxq f pxq,


1
1

.
N , n N fn pxq ,
fn pxq
f pxq
ra, bs pa, bq, ?
11. fn pxq, gn pxq hn pxq I ,
fn pxq gn pxq hn pxq, x P I.

fn pxq hn pxq f pxq, gn pxq f pxq.


12. fn pxq, gn pxq I f pxq, gpxq. fn pxq, gn pxq

, f pxq, gpxq , fn pxqgn pxq I


f pxqgpxq.
13. tPn pxqu , , Pn pxq p8, `8q
f pxq, f pxq . (: .)
14. pq

an pxq ra, bs , Sn pxq.

n1

M ,
|Sn1 pxq| M,

n1

an pxq ra, bs .

@ x P ra, bs, n 1,

108

9.2

fn pxq f pxq,

n1

, .
9.2.1. p1q tgn u ra, bs g. gn Riemann
, g Riemann ,
b
b
b
gn pxqdx
lim gn pxqdx
gpxqdx.
lim
a n8

n8 a

p2q

fn pxq ra, bs f . fn Riemann ,

n1

f Riemann ,
b
b
8 b
8

fn pxqdx
fn pxqdx
f pxqdx.
n1 a

a n1

. p1q . g . 0, N N pq,
n N
|gn pxq gpxq|

, @ x P ra, bs.
4pb aq

gN , ra, bs ,

i pgN qxi .
2

rxi1 , xi s,
i pgq i pgN q `

,
2pb aq

i pgqxi

i pgN qxi `

pb aq ` ,
2pb aq
2 2

g ra, bs .
, n N ,
b
b
b `


gpxqdx
gn pxq gpxq dx
gn pxqdx
a
a
a
b

|gn pxq gpxq|dx


a

b
lim

n8 a

b
gn pxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

9.2

109


. (i) . ,
. ,
: gn pxq, gpxq ra, bs , lim gn pxq gpxq. M ,
n8

|gn pxq| M, @ x P ra, bs, n 1,

b
lim

n8 a

b
gn pxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

(ii) , p2q
x
8 x

fn ptqdt
f ptqdt.
n1 a

9.2.2. tfn pxqu ra, bs ,


8

p1q
fn paq ;
p2q

n1
8

n1

fn1 pxq gpxq;

fn pxq ra, bs , ,

n1
8

8
1

fn pxq
fn1 pxq gpxq.

n1

n1

. ,
x
fn pxq fn paq `

fn1 ptqdt.

p2q (ii),
8 x

fn1 ptqdt

n1 a

x
gptqdt.
a

p1q
8

n1

fn pxq

n1

x
fn paq `

gptqdt.
a

fn pxq ra, bs , , gpxq.

n1

. p1q a ,
, .
9.2.3. pq tfn pxqu ra, bs , c P ra, bs. tfn pcqu
, fn1 pxq gpxq, fn pxq f pxq, f 1 pxq g.

110

. , ,
|rfn pxq fn pcqs rfm pxq fm pcqs| |rfn pxq fm pxqs rfn pcq fm pcqs|
1
|rfn1 pq fm
pqs||x c| 0,

tfn pxq fn pcqu , fn pxq f pxq.


, x0 P ra, bs,
$

& fn pxq fn px0 q , x x0 ,


x x0
gn pxq

%f 1 px0 q,
x x0 .
n

gn pxq ra, bs , , ,
1
|gn pxq gm pxq| |fn1 pq fm
pq| 0,

gn pxq
$

& f pxq f px0 q , x x0 ,


x x0
gpxq

%gpx0 q,
x x0 .


, f pxq x0 , gpx0 q.
.
cos2 x2 ` sin2 x2
1
1 1

4 sin2
sin2 x
4 sin2 x2 cos2 x2

x
2

1
sin2

`x
2

1
1 1
1

`
2
2
2
x
`x
4 sin 2
sin x
sin 2

1
1
1
1
1
2
`
`
`
2
2
2
2
x
2`x
`x
3`x
4 sin 4
sin
sin 4
sin
4
4

n

2 1
1
1
2n
.
2 k0 sin2 k`x
2n

2n1 k 2n 1
sin2

n
k ` x
pk 2n q ` x
2 k ` x 2

sin
`

sin2
n
n
2
2
2n

1
1
2n
2
sin2 x

2n1
1
k2n1

En `

1
sin2

2n1
1
k2n1

x`k
2n

1
,
px ` kq2

9.2

111

1
En 2n
2

2n1
1
k2n1

sin2

x`k
2n

.
2
p x`k
2n q

1
1
1
cos2 x

2 1, @ x P r , s

1
`
2
2
2
x
2 2
sin x x
sin x

0 En

1 n
1

2 n , @ x P r0, s,
2n
2
2
2

n 8

1
1

, @ x k.
2
sin x kPZ px ` kq2

(9.2)

tku ,
8

1
1
1
1
`
`
, x k.

x2 n1 px ` nq2
px nq2
sin2 x

(9.3)

,
8
1

1
1
1
lim

2
,
2
2
3 x0 sin x x
pnq2
n1

p2q

2
1

.
n2
6
n1

x P p, q , (9.3) ,
x
1 cos t x
1
1
1 cos x

dt


2
2
t
t
sin
t
x
sin x
0
sin t
0

` 1
1
cos x 1

`
, @ x P p, q.
sin x
x n1 x ` n x n

(9.4)

` x 2
sin x

1
, @ x P r, s.
x
n
n1

sin x . , x
8

2
1

1 2 ,
n1
4n

(9.5)

112

Wallis .
(9.4) ,
tan x cot

`
2

x ,

1
x
cot cot x
sin x
2

1
1
sin x

,
cos x n1 p2n 1q 2 x p2n 1q 2 ` x

(9.6)

` 1
1
1
1
`
p1qn
`
.
sin x
x n1
x ` n x n

(9.7)

8
0

8
0

sin x
dx :
x

8 pn`1q

sin x
sin x
dx
dx
x
x
n0 n
8 pn`1q
8 n`

2 sin x
sin x
dx `
dx

1
x
x
n0 n` 2
n0 n
8
8

2
2
sin t
n sin t

p1q
dt `
p1qn
dt
n ` t
pn ` 1q t
n0 0
n0 0
2
8

2
` 1
sin t
1

dt `
p1qn
`
sin t dt
t
t ` n t n
0
n1 0
2
2
8
` 1
sin t
1
dt `
`
sin t dt

p1qn
t
t ` n t n
0
0 n1
2
2
` 1
sin t
1

dt `

sin t dt
t
sin t
t
0
0
2

dt .
2
0

, .

9.2
1.
f pxq

sin nx
n3
n1

p8, `8q .
2.

nan , f pxq

n1

an cos nx p8, `8q ,

n1

f 1 pxq

n1

nan sin nx, x P p8, `8q.

9.2

113

3.
pxq

1
x
n
n1

p1, `8q .
4. tfn pxqu ra, bs f pxq, ra, bs

txn u,
lim fn pxn q f p lim xn q.

n8

n8

5.
p1q

ln 5
8

nenx dx,

p2q

ln 2 n1

6. f pxq

2
8
cos2 nx
dx.
0 n1 npn ` 1q

|x|
.
2 ` x2
n
n1

7. tfn pxqu ra, bs ,


8

p1q c P ra, bs,


fn pcq ;
n1

p2q

n1

fn1 pxq gpxq;

fn pxq ra, bs ,

n1
8

8
1

fn pxq
fn1 pxq gpxq.

n1

n1

8. fn pxq ra, bs f pxq. fn pxq , f pxq

.
9. pq (9.2) x

, p2q .
2

10. pq (9.5) x ,
cos x

1
n1

x2
2
p 2n1
2 q

11. pq , nan 0 ,

n1

p8, 8q .

an sin nx

114

9.3

an px x0 qn pan P Rq , Taylor

n0

. , x0 0 ,
t x x0 .
9.3.1

9.3.1 (Abel).

an xn x x1 px1 0q ,

n0

|x| |x1 | ; , x x2 |x| |x2 |


.
.

n0

an xn1 , M 0
|an xn1 | M, @ n 1,

|an xn |

n0

|x| |x1 | ,

x n

x n

|an xn1 | M
,
x1
x1
n0
n0
8

an xn .

n0

. ,

an xn x x1 px1 0q ,

n0

I p|x1 |, |x1 |q,

an xn I .

n0
8

9.3.2 (Cauchy-Hadamard).

an xn ,

n0

lim

n8

a
n
|an |,

p1q 0 , p8, 8q ;
p2q `8 , x 0 ;
` 1 1
1 1
p3q 0 `8 , ,
, ,
.


1
, .

.
lim

n8

a
n
|an xn | |x|,

Cauchy . p3q (
8
1 1
an xn1 , M 0
): x1 R , ,
n1
|an xn1 | M, @ n 1.

9.3

115

lim

n8

a
a
n
|an | lim n M |x1 |n |x1 |1 .
n8

!
. p1q x

p2q 0 `8 , I p1 , 1 q, I .

9.3.1.

xn .

n0

an 1, 1. x 1 .
n

9.3.2.

8 x

.
n1 n

an n1 , lim

n8

1
n

1. x 1 ; x 1


().
9.3.3.

nan xn1

n1

an xn .

n0

,
lim

n8

a
n
|an | ,

lim

n8

a
a
n
pn ` 1q|an`1 | lim n |an`1 | ,
n8

.
9.3.3.

an xn R, Spxq

n0

an xn pR, Rq

n0

,
S pkq pxq

npn 1q pn k ` 1qan xnk .

nk

. k 1 . ,

pan xn q1

n0

nan xn1

n1

R, I pR, Rq . 9.2.2,

an xn I ,

n0
8

an xn

n0

pan xn q1

n0

Spxq .

, S

pnq

nan xn1 .

n1

p0q n!an , Spxq Taylor .

9.3.4.

8 xn

.
n1 n

116

. p1, 1q ,
8
8

xn 1
1

xn1
,
n
1x
n1
n1

Newton-Leibniz ,
x
8

xn
1

dt lnp1 xq, @ x P p1, 1q.


n
0 1t
n1
x 1 , ,
, ,
.
8

9.3.4 (Abel ).

an xn R p0 R

n0

`8q.

an Rn ,

n0

lim

xR

an xn

n0

an Rn ;

n0

an pRqn ,

n0

lim

xR`
8

an xn

n0

an pRqn .

n0

an Rn ,

n0
8

an xn

n0

an Rn

n0

` x n
R

8
x
` x n

r0, Rs , p qn 1,
n . Abel
an xn r0, Rs
R
R
n0
, Spxq r0, Rs ,
8

an Rn SpRq lim Spxq lim


xR

n0

xR

an xn .

n0

R ( an p1q an q.
8 n

9.3.5.
.
n
n1 2
n

nxn , 1, p1, 1q

n1
8

n1

nxn x

n1

nxn1 x

1
`
pxn q1 x
xn x

n1

n0

x
1 1

,
1x
p1 xq2

9.3

117

n
x

2.

n
2
2
p1 xq x 12
n1

9.3.6.

8 p1qn

.
n0 3n ` 1
8

. Spxq

p1qn

n0

x3n`1
, 1, x 1
3n ` 1

,
8

p1qn
lim Spxq.
3n ` 1 x1
n0

p1, 1q ,
8

S 1 pxq

p1qn

` x3n`1 1

n0

3n ` 1

p1qn x3n

n0

1
.
1 ` x3

,
x
1
8

p1qn
dt
dt
1`

lim Spxq lim

ln 2 ` ? .
3
3
3n ` 1 x1
3
x1 0 1 ` t
3
0 1`t
n0

9.3.5 ().

an xn R 0,

n0

x
8
0

8 x
8

an tn dt
an tn dt

an n`1
x
, @ x P pR, Rq.
n`1
n0

n0 0

n0

. x 0, ,

an tn t P r0, xs ,

n0

.

8

n
.
an R , x R . R .
n0

, .
9.3.6. lim amn an , |amn | An .
m8

m8

9.3.7.

amn xn

n0

|aij | sj ,

i0
8
8

i0 j0

An xn pR, Rq

n0

,
lim

an xn , x P pR, Rq.

n0
8

sj xj pR, Rq ,

j0

aij xj

8
8

`
j0

i0

aij xj , x P pR, Rq.

118

`
, tan x . (9.6) , x P ,
2 2
,
8

2x
tan x
rp2n 1q 2 s2 x2
n1
8
8

2m

1
x
2x
rp2n 1q 2 s2 p2n 1q 2
n1 m0
8
8
2m

1
x
2x
.
rp2n 1q 2 s2 p2n 1q 2
m0 n1

p2kq

8
8

1
1
1
`

` 22k p2kq
2k
2k
2k
p2n

1q
p2nq
p2n

1q
n1
n1
n1

tan x
9.3.2

p2kq

2p22k 1qx2k1 , @ x P p , q.
2k

2 2
k1

(9.8)

Taylor

Taylor . f x0 , f Taylor

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn ,
n!
n0

, x0 , ,
f pxq. .

9.3.8 (Bernstein). pq f ra, bs , .


x, x0 P pa, bq, |x x0 | b x0
f pxq

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn .
n!
n0

. M f pbqf paq, f 1 , f 2 0 f, f 1 . x P pa, bq,


,
M f pbq f paq f pbq f pxq pb xqf 1 pq pb xqf 1 pxq.

,
1
1
M f pbq f pxq f 1 pxqpb xq ` f 2 pqpb xq2 f 2 pxqpb xq2 .
2
2

9.3

119

,
0 f pnq pxq

n!M
, @ x P pa, bq.
pb xqn

f x0 Taylor Rn pxq.
p1q x x0 .
x

f pn`1q ptq
px tqn dt
n!
x0
x
px tqn
dt

pn ` 1qM
pb tqn`1
x0

pn ` 1qM x ` x t n
dt

bx
x0 b t

pn ` 1qM ` x x0 n

q px x0 0 pn 8q.
bx
b x0

0 Rn pxq

p2q x x0 . , x0 x b x0 ,
x f pn`1q ptq

|Rn pxq|
px tqn dt
n!
x0
x0 pn`1q
f
ptq
pt xqn dt

n!
x
x0
1
f pn`1q px0 q
pt xqn dt
n!
x
1 pn ` 1q!M px0 xqn`1

n! pb x0 qn`1
n`1
` x0 x n`1
M
0 pn 8q,
b x0

1
px0 xqn`1 f pn`1q pq
pn ` 1q!
1

px0 xqn`1 f pn`1q px0 q


pn ` 1q!
` x0 x n`1
0 pn 8q.
M
b x0

|Rn pxq|

, .

, f pxq e p8, 8q , Bernstein


x

,
x2
xn
` `
` , @ x P p8, `8q.
2!
n!
(9.3) . x P p, q , ,
1
1
2 , ()

2
x
sin x
8

1
a2m 2m
1

x , @ x P p, q,
p2mq!
sin2 x x2
m0
ex 1 ` x `

120

a2m

1
1 p2mq
p2m ` 1q!
p2m ` 2q

p0q

2
2p2m ` 1q!
,
2
2
2m`2
pnq
2m`2
sin x x
n1

1
1
p2m ` 2q

p4m ` 2qx2m , @ x P p, q.
2m`2

sin2 x x2
m0

(9.9)

9.3.9. R 0, f px0 R, x0 ` Rq . M 0

|f pnq pxq| M n , @ x P px0 R, x0 ` Rq, @ n 1.

f pxq

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn , @ x P px0 R, x0 ` Rq.
n!
n0

. x P px0 R, x0 ` Rq , Taylor Lagrange ,


n

f pkq px0 q

px x0 qk |Rn pxq|
f pxq
k!
k0

f pn`1q pq

px x0 qn`1

pn ` 1q!
M n`1 Rn`1
0 pn 8q.

pn ` 1q!

f pxq

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn .
n!
n0

f x0 Taylor f .
8 `

9.3.7.

n0

xn , P RzZ,

p 1q p n ` 1q
. ()
an

n!
n

a
n`1 n

1, n |an | 1 pn 8q,
an
n`1

1.

9.3

121

f pxq

8 `

n
n x , x P p1, 1q. p1, 1q ,

n0

nxn1
n
n1


8
8

n1
n

n
x
`
n
x
n
n
n1
n1

`
pn ` 1q
`n
xn
1
n
`
1
n
n1

8

n
`

x f pxq,
n
n1

p1 ` xqf 1 pxq p1 ` xq

rp1 ` xq f pxqs1 p1 ` xq1 f pxq ` p1 ` xq f 1 pxq 0,

p1 ` xq f pxq c.

f p0q 1 f pxq p1 ` xq , x P p1, 1q.


8

p1 ` xq
x , @ x P p1, 1q.
n
n0
1
, , x2 x
2
8

1
p2n 1q!! 2n
?

1
`
x , @ x P p1, 1q.
2
p2nq!!
1x
n1

, ( p1q!! 1, 0!! 1)
8

p2n 1q!! x2n`1


arcsin x
, @ x P p1, 1q.
p2nq!! 2n ` 1
n0
x 1 ( 8.2 ), r1, 1s ,
r1, 1s . x sin t,
t

p2n 1q!! sin2n`1 t



, @ t P r , s,
p2nq!!
2n ` 1
2 2
n0

(?). ,
2
2
8

p2n 1q!! 1
2

t dt
sin2n`1 tdt
8
p2nq!!
2n
`
1
0
0
n0

p2n 1q!! 1
p2nq!!
p2nq!! 2n ` 1 p2n ` 1q!!
n0
8

1
p2n
`
1q2
n0

122

2
1

p2q.
2
6
n
n1

9.3.8. I

1
0

lnp1 ` xq
dx.
x

. lnp1 ` xq Taylor
8

lnp1 ` xq
p1qn1 xn1

, x P p1, 1s.
x
n
n1

r0, 1s , :

1
8
8

p1qn1 1 n1
p1qn1
2
lnp1 ` xq
I
dx
x
dx

.
2
x
n
n
12
0
0
n1
n1
9.3.3


.
9.3.10.

an xn

n0
8
`

an xn

8
`

n0

bn xn pR, Rq ,

n0

8
8

bn xn
cn xn
ai bj xn , @ x P pR, Rq.

n0

n0

n0

i`jn

. I pR, Rq . I ,
8
8

an xn
bn xn , , Cauchy
n0

n0

,
8
`

an xn

8
`

n0

8
8

`
bn xn
pai xi qpbj xj q
ai bj xn .

n0

n0 i`jn

n0

i`jn

.
9.3.9.

1
.
p1 xq2

, x P p1, 1q ,
8

xn 1 ` x ` x2 ` ` xn ` ,
1 x n0

(9.10)

,
8
8
8
8

`
`

`
n
1
n
n

x
x

1
x

pn ` 1qxn .
p1 xq2
n0
n0
n0 i`jn
n0

(9.10) .

9.3

123

9.3.10. r P p1, 1q, x P R, :


1`

rn cos nx.

n1

. :
`

1 2r cos x ` r2 1 `
rn cos nx
n1

1 2r cos x ` r2 `
1 2r cos x ` r2 `

rn cos nx 2r

n1
8

rn cos nx r

n1

rn cos x cos nx `

n1
8

rn`2 cos nx

n1

rn cospn 1qx ` cospn ` 1qx

n1

rn`2 cos nx

n1

1 r cos x.

1 r cos x

1
`
rn cos nx, r P p1, 1q.
1 2r cos x ` r2
n1

(9.11)

1 , r, r ,
lnp1 2r cos x ` r2 q 2

rn
cos nx, r P p1, 1q.
n
n1

x , Poisson

lnp1 2r cos x ` r2 qdx 0, |r| 1.

(9.12)

(9.13)

, .
9.3.11.

an xn pR, Rq pR 0q , a0 0.

n0

r 0,

bn xn pr, rq ,

n0
8
`
n0

an xn

8
`

bn xn 1, @ x P pr, rq,

n0

1
b0 ` b1 x ` ` bn xn ` .
a0 ` a1 x ` ` an xn `

124

. a0 1. , bn : b0 1, b0 , , bn1
,
bn

n1

ani bi , n 1.

i0
8

bn xn . ,

an xn pR, Rq

n0

n0

, M 0,
`R
n

an
M, @ n 0.
2

n1
` R n1

` R i
` R ni ` R i
n

M
bn

ani
bi

bi
,
2
2
2
2
i0
i0

`R
n

bn
p1 ` M qn , @ n 0.
2
8

bn xn r

n0

R
. tbn u ,
2p1 ` M q

( a0 1)
8
`

an xn

8
`

n0

`
bn xn
ai bj xn 1.

n0

n0

i`jn

.
9.3.11. Bernoulli .

ex

x
:
1
8

x
Bn n

x ,
ex 1 n0 n!

Bn n Bernoulli .
8
ex 1 1
x
xn 1

ex 1
x
pn ` 1q!
n0

x x2
x4
x6
x8
`

`
2
12 720 30240 1209600

n 1 B2n`1 0,
ex

x
x
x ex ` 1
x
x
`
coth ,
1 2
2 ex 1
2
2

(9.14)

9.3

125

x
x
` .
ex 1 2
, Bn :
B0 1, Bn

n1
1 k
C
Bk .
n ` 1 k0 n`1

, Bernoulli
1
1
1
1
1
B0 1, B1 , B2 , B3 B5 B7 0, B4 , B6
, B8 .
2
6
30
42
30
Bernoulli () .
Riemann-Zeta . , (9.14)
8

22n B2n 2n
x .
p2nq!
n0

x coth x

(9.15)

, (8.3) ,
ln

` sinh x
x

` x2
`1 ,
2
2
n

ln

n1

,
x coth x 1 ` 2x2
1 ` 2x2
1 ` 2x2
1`

x2

1
` n2 2

n1
8
8

p1qm ` x 2m
pnq2 n
n1 m0
8
8

p1qm x2m
pnq2m`2
m0 n1

2p1qm p2m ` 2q 2m`2


x
.
2m`2
m0

(9.15) ,
p2nq p1qn1

22n B2n 2n
, @ n 1.
2p2nq!

,
8

1
24 B4 4
4

p4q

,
n4
2 4!
90
n1

1
26 B6 6
6
p6q

,
6
n
2 6!
945
n1

; (9.16) (9.14) 2.

(9.16)

126

9.3.12. Euler .

2ex

`1

e2x

2ex
En n

x ,
2x
e ` 1 n0 n!

En Euler .

2ex
1

,
2x
e `1
cosh x

E2n 2n
1

x .
cosh x n0 p2nq!

cosh x

(9.17)

8 x2n

,
n0 p2nq!

E0 1, E2n1 0, E2n

n1

2l
E2l , n 1.
C2n

l0

9.3.4


. tan u ,
8

n0

an xn

`
an n

x
n!
n0

`
tan u . , t n u p1 ` xq ,
x
Bernoulli x
.
e 1
,

, tan u , . .
9.3.13. , P R,

, @ n 1.
k
nk
n
k0
.
p1 ` xq p1 ` xq p1 ` xq` , |x| 1.

8
8
8

n n
` n
x
x
x ,
n
n
n
n0
n0
n0
, xn .

9.3

127

9.3.14. P R,

p1qk
p1qn
, @ n 1.
k
2n

k
n
k0
.
p1 ` xq p1 xq p1 x2 q , |x| 1.

,


8
8
8

n
n
2n
x
p1qn
x
p1qn
x ,
n
n
n
n0
n0
n0
, x2n .
9.3.15. Fibonacci .
tan u :
a0 a1 1, an an1 ` an2 , n 2.
an n Fibonacci . an .
f pxq

an xn ,

n0

p1 x x2 qf pxq 1 `

pan an1 an2 qxn 1,

n2

f pxq

1
.
1 x x2

x1 , x2 1 x x2 0 :
?
?
1 ` 5
1 5
x1
, x2
,
2
2

f pxq

8
1
1

1
1
1
1 n

x ,
x2 x1 x x1
x x2
x x1 xn`1
xn`1
2
1
n0 2

1
1
1
1
xn`1
xn`1
1
2

n`1
n`1
x2 x1 xn`1
px
x
q
x

x
x
1
2
2
1
2
1
?
?

1 1 ` 5 n`1 1 5 n`1

, @ n 0.
?
2
2
5

an

128

9.3.16. Bernoulli .
xetx
t , x
x
e 1
8

xetx
Bn ptq n

x ,
ex 1 n0 n!

Bn ptq n Bernoulli . Bn ptq t


, .
8
8
8

Bn ptq n
x
Bn n tn n
x x
etx
x
x
n!
e 1
n!
n!
n0
n0
n0
xn ,
Bn ptq

Cnk Bnk tk , n 0.

(9.18)

k0

Bn ptq t n , Bn p0q Bn . ,
8
8

xetx
Bn ptq n xept`1qx
Bn pt ` 1q n

x
,

x
x
x
e 1 n0 n!
e 1
n!
n0

,
8
8

Bn pt ` 1q Bn ptq n
tn n`1
x xetx
x
,
n!
n!
n0
n0

xk`1 ,
Bk`1 pt ` 1q Bk`1 ptq pk ` 1qtk , @ k 1.

(9.19)

t 1, 2, , n, ,
1k ` 2k ` ` nk

Bk`1 pn ` 1q Bk`1 p1q


.
k`1

(9.19) t 0 Bk`1 p1q Bk`1 p0q Bk`1 , (9.18),


1k ` 2k ` ` nk

k`1
1 l
Bk`1l pn ` 1ql .
C
k ` 1 l1 k`1

(9.20)

, k 2
12 ` 22 ` ` n2

1
11
3
pn ` 1q pn ` 1q2 ` pn ` 1q3 npn ` 1qp2n ` 1q;
3 2
2
6

k 3
13 ` 23 ` ` n3

1
1
rpn ` 1q2 2pn ` 1q3 ` pn ` 1q4 s n2 pn ` 1q2 .
4
4

.
9.3

9.3
1.

129

an xn x R 0 ,

n1

2.

an xn r0, Rs .

n1
8

p1qn1 an 2n ,

n1

an .

n1

3. , :
8

xn
;
npn ` 1q
n1
8

pn!q2 n
x ;
p3q
p2nq!
n1
8

xn
p5q
, P R;
n
n1
p1q

p2q
p4q
p6q

n1
8

n1
8

p1 `

1 n2 n
q x ;
n

p1 `

1
1
` ` qxn ;
2
n

pln

n1

n2 ` 2 n
qx , P R.
n2

4.
8

sin n n
x
n
n1

, .
5.

p1qn x2n

n0

1
, x P p1, 1q
1 ` x2

arctan x

p1qn

n0

6.

x2n`1
, x P r1, 1s.
2n ` 1

8
8

p1qn 4n`1
p1qn
x

.
4n ` 1
4n ` 1
n0
n0

7. :
p1q

n2 ` 1 n
x ,
n
n1

p2q

n1

n3 xn ,

p3q

1
pn ` 1qpn ` 2qpn ` 3qxn .
3!
n0

8. pq (x P p, q):
8
8

1
2p2kq 2k1
1
1 p2kq
cot x
x
,

p2 222k qx2k1 .
2k
2k
x

sin
x
x

k1
k1

9.
lnpx `

8
a

p2n 1q!! x2n`1


1 ` x2 q
p1qn
, x P r1, 1s.
p2nq!! 2n ` 1
n0

130
10.
1`
8

11. Spxq

p2n 1q!!
1

ln 2.
2
p2nq!! p2n ` 1q
2
n1

an xn R 0,

n0

p1q

an Rn`1
,
n`1
n0

R
Spxqdx
0

p2q

an Rn`1
;
n`1
n0

nan Rn1 ,

n1

S 1 pRq

nan Rn1 .

n1

12.

an xn pR, Rq , rR, Rs

n0

.
13. an 0,

an xn R.

n1

lim

xR

an xn

n1

an Rn .

n1

, `8.
14. pq
x cot x

n0

p1qn

22n B2n 2n
x , x P p, q.
p2nq!

15. pq
8

E2n 2n

1

p1qn
x , x P p , q.
cos x n0
p2nq!
2 2

9.4


9.4
9.4.1

131

(1)

9.4.1. .
arctan x
arctan x x

x5
x7
x3
`

`
3
5
7

.
tanpu ` vq

tan u ` tan v
,
1 tan u tan v

u arctanp1{5q ,
tanp2uq

2{5
10{12
5{12, tanp4uq
120{119.
1 p1{5q2
1 p5{12q2

`
120{119 1
tan 4u

1{239,
4
1 ` 120{119

1
1

4 arctan arctan
,
4
5
239

(9.21)

Machin
16

p1qn
p1qn

4
,
2n`1
p2n ` 1q5
p2n ` 1q2392n`1
n0
n0

(9.22)

(1706 , Machin
100 ). ,
2 arctan

1
1
1
arctan ` arctan
,
10
5
515

1
1
1
4 arctan
16 arctan
10
239
515
`1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
32

` 1
10 3 103
5 105
7 107
9 109
11 1011
` 1
` 1
1 1
1 1
4

2 16

3 ,
239 3 2393
515 3 5153

32 arctan

32
32
32
1013
1015 1
1013 ,
13
15
13

0.24 1012 1 0.25 1012 ,

132

,
1.02 1012 2 1.03 1012 , 0.08 1012 3 0.09 1012 ,

0.88 1012 1 2 3 0.85 1012 .

,
`1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
32

3
5
7
9
10 3 10
5 10
7 10
9 10
11 1011
` 1
` 1
1 1
1 1
4

16

239 3 2393
515 3 5153
3.14159265359066...

3.14159265358978 3.14159265358982,

12 .
. 1914 ,
Ramanujan ,
? 8
2 2 p4kq! p1103 ` 26390kq
1

9801 k0 pk!q4 44k


994k

(9.23)

8 . 1988 , Chudnovsky

p6kq! p13591409 ` 545140134kq


1
12
p1qk
,

p3k!qpk!q3
6403203k`3{2
k0

(9.24)

15 . ,
. , 1996 , Baily, Borwein Ploue

`
k0

2
1
1 1
4

,
8k ` 1 8k ` 4 8k ` 5 8k ` 6 16k

(9.25)

, 2 n
n 1 . ,
, .
9.4.2. ln 2 .
,
arctanh x

x2k`1
1 1`x
ln

, |x| 1
2 1 x k0 2k ` 1

9.4

133

ln 2. x 1{3,
ln 2

8
2
1
,
3 k0 p2k ` 1q9k

(9.26)

. Machin ,
` 27 9 ` 4800 ` 8750 4
25

4802

8748

1
1
1
2arctanh
` 8arctanh
26
4801
8749
`1
1
1
1
1
`
18
`
`
`
26 3 263
5 265
7 267
9 269
` 1

` 1

1
1
2
`
`8
`
` ,
3
3
4801 3 4801
8749 3 8749

ln 2 18arctanh

`
18

1
1
1
1
`
` 2
` ` 8
` ,
11 2611
13 2613
3 48015
5 87495

18 `
1
1
18
18

1 ` 2 ` 4 `
,
11
11
11 26
11 26
26
26
11 25 27 269

0.44 1015 0.45 1015 .

,
`1
1
1
1
1
ln 2 18
`
`
`
`
3
5
7
26 3 26
5 26
7 26
9 269
` 1

1
1
1
2
`
` 8p
`
3
3
4801 3 4801
8749 3 8749
0.6931471805599485...

0.6931471805599529 ln 2 0.6931471805599531,

ln 2 14 .
9.4.3.

2 .

p1 xq 2 1 `

p2n 1q!! n
x , |x| 1
p2nq!!
n1

134

2. p0 q0 1 , pk , qk :
p0 q0 1, pk 3pk1 ` 4qk1 , qk 2pk1 ` 3qk1 , k 1.

, pk , qk
2qk2 p2k 1, @ k 0.

pk 2qk2 12
pk
1 12

,
qk p2k
qk
p2k ` 1

, k 1, p1 7, q1 5,
?

7`
1 12
7`
1 1
3 1
35 1
1
1`
`
`
` ,
3
4
5
50
5
2 50 8 50
128 50

. k 3, p3 239, qk 169,
?

239 `
1 1
3 1
5
1
1`
`
`
` ,
2
169
2 57122 8 57122
16 571223

1
63
1
239 ` 35
`
` ,
4
5
169 128 57122
256 57122

239 35
1
239 35
1 `
1
1
1

1`
`
`
`
4
4
2
3
169 128 57122
169 128 57122
57122 57122
57122
239 35
1

,
169 128 57121 571223

0.36 1019 0.37 1019 .

239 `
1 1
3 1
5
1
1`
`
`
169
2 57122 8 571222
16 571223
1.414213562373095048765...

1.414213562373095048801

2 1.414213562373095048803,

2 20 .

(2) Euler-Maclaurin

, Bernoulli Bn ptq:
8

xn
xetx

Bn ptq ,
x
e 1 n0
n!

(9.27)

9.4

135

Bernoulli :
1
B0 1, B1 ptq t , Bn p0q Bn p1q Bn , @ n 2.
2

.
(i) Bn1 ptq nBn1 ptq, @ n 1.

, (9.27) t ,
8

x2 etx
xn
1

,
B
ptq
n
ex 1 n0
n!

Bn ptq

n0

xn`1
xn

Bn1 ptq ,
n!
n!
n1

x Bn1 ptq nBn1 ptq.


1
1 1
Bn`1 ptq
Bn`1 p1q Bn`1 p0q
Bn ptqdt
dt
0, @ n 1.
n`1
n`1
0
0
n

Bn ptq ,
.
1
3
1
B2 ptq t2 t ` , B3 ptq t3 t2 ` t.
6
2
2
(ii) Bn p1 tq p1qn Bn ptq, @ n 0.

,
8

n0

Bn p1 tq

xep1tqx
xetx
xn
pxqn
x
x

,
Bn ptq
n!
e 1
e 1 n0
n!

xn .
(iii) B2n ptq B2n t P r0, 1s , @ n 0.

. : (ii) B2n1 p 21 q 0,
1
B2n1 ptq r0, 1s 0, 1 . B2n1
2
. () B2n1 ptq r0, 1s ,
B1
ptq
, B2n2 ptq 2n1
p0, 1q .
2n 1
B1
ptq
p0, 1q , r0, 1s
, B2n3 ptq 2n2
2n 2
. , : B1 ptq p0, 1q
1
, . , n , Bn ptq r0, s
2
1
1
1
r , 1s , n , Bn ptq r0, s r , 1s .
2
2
2
Bn p0q Bn p1q Bn ptq Bn p0q r0, 1s .

136

Bernoulli . f ptq r0, 1s


2m ` 2 . ,
1
1
f ptq dt
f ptqdB1 ptq
0
0
1 1

f ptqB1 ptq
B1 ptqf 1 ptqdt
0
0

1 1 1
1
f ptqdB2 ptq
rf p0q ` f p1qs
2
2 0
1 1 1
1
1

rf p0q ` f p1qs f 1 ptqB2 ptq `


B2 ptqf 2 ptqdt,
2
2
2 0
0
B31 ptq 3B2 ptq, B3 p0q B3 p1q 0 B41 ptq 4B3 ptq, :
1

1
1 1 2
1
f ptqdB3 ptq
f ptq dt rf p0q ` f p1qs B2 rf 1 p1q f 1 p0qs `
2
2!
3! 0
0
1
1
1
1

rf p0q ` f p1qs B2 rf 1 p1q f 1 p0qs ` f 2 ptqB3 ptq


2
2!
3!
0
1
1
B3 ptqf 3 ptqdt

3! 0

1
1
1 1 3
rf p0q ` f p1qs B2 rf 1 p1q f 1 p0qs
f ptqdB4 ptq
2
2!
4! 0
1
1
1
rf p0q ` f p1qs B2 rf 1 p1q f 1 p0qs B4 rf 3 p1q f 3 p0qs
2
2!
4!

1 1
B4 ptqf p4q ptqdt,
`
4! 0
,
1
m`1
B2k
1
f ptq dt rf p0q ` f p1qs
rf p2k1q p1q f p2k1q p0qs
2
p2kq!
0
k1
1
1
B2m`2 ptqf p2m`2q ptqdt,
`
p2m ` 2q! 0

(9.28)

Euler-Maclaurin . B2m`2 ptq B2m`2 r0, 1s ,

1
1
p2m`2q
p2m`2q
pB2m`2 ptq B2m`2 qf
ptqdt f
pq pB2m`2 ptq B2m`2 qdt
0

p2m`2q

pqB2m`2 , P r0, 1s.

(9.28)
1
m

1
B2k p2k1q
f ptq dt rf p0q ` f p1qs
rf
p1q f p2k1q p0qs
2
p2kq!
0
k1

B2m`2 p2m`2q
f
pq, P r0, 1s.
p2m ` 2q!

(9.29)

9.4

137

r0, 1s f . ra, bs,


x pb aqt ` a
b
m

B2k
1
f pxq dx pb aqrf paq ` f pbqs
pb aq2k rf p2k1q pbq f p2k1q paqs
2
p2kq!
a
k1

B2m`2
pb aq2m`2 f p2m`2q pqpb aq, P ra, bs.
p2m ` 2q!

(9.30)

ra, bs n , ,

b
n
m

ba
B2k ` b a 2k p2k1q
f pxqdx
rf pxi1 q ` f pxi qs
rf
pbq f p2k1q paqs
2n
p2kq!
n
a
i1
k1

n
B2m`2 ` b a 2m`2 p2m`2q
ba
, i P r0, 1s.
f
pi q
p2m ` 2q! n
n
i1

(9.31)

xi a ` ni pb aq, i P rxi1 , xi s. , P ra, bs,

n
1 p2m`2q
f
pi q f p2m`2q pq,
n i1

(9.31)
b
n
m

B2k ` b a 2k p2k1q
ba
rf pxi1 q ` f pxi qs
rf
pbq f p2k1q paqs
f pxqdx
2n i1
p2kq!
n
a
k1
B2m`2 ` b a 2m`2 p2m`2q

f
pqpb aq, P r0, 1s.
(9.32)
p2m ` 2q! n
Euler-Maclaurin .
(3) Stirling

Euler-Maclaurin ln x r1, ns
. Bernoulli .
(iv) Bn p 21 q r1 21n sBn , @ n 0.

,
8

n0

Bn

1 xepx{2q ` x
px{2qn
x{2

px{2q
n!
2 ex 1
e
1

8
8
1
1
1 xn
xn
`
Bn p q
Bn .
2 n0
2 n!
2 n0
n!

xn .
(v) r0, 1s , B2n ptqB2n B2n , B2n ptqB2n B2n`2 ptq
B2n`2 .

138

(iii) B2n ptq B2n , B2n p 21 q B2n


. (iv) Bernoulli B2n B2n`2 .
r1, `8q f ptq.
pq f p2kq , f p2k`1q 0 pt 8q.

f ptq r1, ns . r1, ns n 1 , 1


(9.28) ,
n
n
m

1
B2k p2k1q
f ptqdt
f
f piq f pnq
pnq ` Rn ,
2
p2kq!
1
i1
k1

B2k p2k1q
1
f
p1q
Rn f p1q
2
p2kq!
k1
n1
1
1
`
pB2m`2 ptq B2m`2 qf p2m`2q pi ` tqdt,
p2m ` 2q! i1 0

pq lim Rn , R.
n8

Rn R

8 1

1
pB2m`2 ptq B2m`2 qf p2m`2q pi ` tqdt.
p2m ` 2q! in 0

,
8 1

pB2m`4 ptq B2m`4 qf p2m`4q pi ` tqdt


p2m ` 4q! in 0
pRn Rq `

B2m`2 2m`1
f
pnq,
p2m ` 2q!

(v), , , n P p0, 1q,

Rn R n

B2m`2 p2m`1q
f
pnq,
p2m ` 2q!

n
n
m

1
B2k p2k1q
f ptqdt
f piq f pnq
f
pnq
2
p2kq!
1
i1
k1
`R n

B2m`2 p2m`1q
f
pnq, n P p0, 1q.
p2m ` 2q!

f ptq ln t ,
n ln n n C ` lnpn!q
n

1
B2k
1
ln n
2k1
2
2kp2k

1q
n
k1

B2m`2
1
, n P p0, 1q.
2k`1
p2m ` 2qp2m ` 1q n

(9.33)

9.4

139

5.8 7.1.5 Stirling


n!

2n

` n n
e

en

(9.34)

1
n 8 C lnp2q, n
2
n

B2k
1
B2m`2
1
` n
, n P p0, 1q.
2k1
2m`1
2kp2k

1q
n
p2m
`
2qp2m
`
1q
n
k1

, m 1
n

B2 1
B4 1
1
n
` n

, n P p0, 1q;
2 n
12 n3
12n 360n3

m 2
n

1
1
n

`
, n P p0, 1q;
3
12n 360n
1260n5

. (9.34)
?
`

1
1
139
571
n! nn en 2n 1 `
`

` .
2
3
4
12n 288n
51480n
2488320n

7.1.5 .
9.4.2

(1)

, :
. 1872 , Weierstrass :
f pxq

an sinpbn xq, p0 a 1, ab 1q

n0

! 1930 , Van Der Waerden ,


.
pxq x , 1 ,
$
1

&x,
0x ,
2
pxq
1

%1 x,
x 1.
2

f pxq

p4n xq
, x P R.
4n
n0

1
, p8, 8q , f
2
p8, 8q .

140
y
(x)
x
2

9.2
f . f , f pxq f px ` 1q,
@ x P R. f r0, 1q . x0 0 .
hm 4m , n m 1 , p4n hm q 4n hm ; n m , p4n hm q 0.
m1
p4n hm q m1

f phm q f p0q

1 m, @ m 1.
n
hm
4 hm
n0
n0

hm 0 pm 8q, f 0 .
x0 P p0, 1q, . x0 4 (,
0): x0 0 x1 x2 x3 xm , xm 0, 1, 2, 3.
hm :
hm

$
&4m ,
xm 0 2;

%4m , x 1 3.
m

4 , 4n x0 x1 xn xn`1 xm ,
4n px0 ` hm q x1 xn xn`1 pxm 1q .

n m 1 , hm , 4n x0 4n px0 ` hm q
. p4n px0 ` hm qq p4n x0 q 4n hm ,
m1
m1
p4n px0 ` hm q p4n x0 qq

f px0 ` hm q f px0 q

`
0

1.
hm
4n hm
n0
n0

, m , , , hm 0 pm
f px0 ` hm q f px0 q
. f x0 .
8q, lim
m8
hm
. Weierstrass ab 1 ` 32 , Hardy 1916 .
: !
(2) (Peano )
1890 , Peano : I I 2 , I r0, 1s, pIq I 2 .

. , 1938 Schoenberg
.

9.4

141

ptq

0,

&

t P r0, 13 s,

3t 1, t P r 13 , 23 s,

%1,
t P r 23 , 1s.

R 2 :
ptq pt ` 2q, ptq ptq, t P R.
y
(t)
1
x
2

9.3

$
8 p32n tq

,
&xptq
n`1
n0 2
8 p32n`1 tq

,
%yptq
2n`1
n0

t P r0, 1s.

0 1, , xptq, yptq ,
ptq pxptq, yptqq : I I I

. :
p1q pIq I I; p2q xptq, yptq .

. (i) I 3 .
(ii) () C 1 , I 2 ?
(3) Taylor
n

an P R pn 0q, n n `
|ai |,
i0

f pxq

an
pn xqxn ,
n!
n0

: R R , 0 1,
1 1
pxq 1, @ x P r , s; pxq 0, @ |x| 1.
2 2

n 1, |x| n1 , ,
|a |
a
|an | 1
1

n
n
|x|n
,
pn xqxn
n
n!
n!
n! pn q
n!

142

|x| n1 , f , f , f p0q a0 .
, f ,
f pnq p0q an , @ n 1.
pq , :
$
&e x1 , x 0,
gpxq
%0,
x 0.

g .
y
1

g(x)
x

9.4

hpxq

gpxq
, x P R,
gpxq ` gp1 xq

h . ,

pxq

$
&hp2x ` 2q,

x 0,

%hp2x ` 2q,

x 0.

y
h(x)

(x)
x

x
1

9.5

Fourier

, , .
. ,
, ,
? , Fourier ,
.

10.1

Fourier

1, cos x, sin x, cos 2x, sin 2x, , cos nx, sin nx,

, ti pxqu,

i pxqj pxqdx 0, @ i j,

.
a0 `

pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq

k1

,
a0 `

pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq

k1

, a0 , ak , bk .
2 . , f 2
, ? , f
Riemann ().

10.1.1 (Fourier ). f .

1
1
f pxqdx, ak
f pxq cos kxdx,
a0

1
bk
f pxq sin kxdx, k 1, 2, .

a0 , ak , bk f Fourier ,
8

a0
`
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq
2
k1

143

Fourier

144

f Fourier Fourier ,
f pxq

. p1q f pxq

a0
`
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq.
2
k1

a0
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq ,
`
2
k1

f pxqdx a0 `

ak

cos kxdx ` bk

k1

sin kxdx a0 .

a0
cos kxdx `
am
cos kx cos mxdx
2

m1

` bm
cos kx sin mxdx

0 ` ak
cos2 kxdx ` 0 ak ,

f pxq cos kxdx

bk , Fourier .
p2q 2 , Fourier 2

. , f , ak 0, Fourier
; f , bk 0, Fourier .
10.1.1. f 2 ,
$

0 x ,

& 1{2,
f pxq
0,
x 0, ,

% 1{2, x 0.
f Fourier .
y
1
2
2

1
2

10.1

10.1 Fourier

145

. f , ak 0.

0
11
1
f pxq sin kxdx
bk
sin kxdx
sin kxdx

2 0

1
k
r1 p1q s.

k
f Fourier :
f pxq

8
2 sinp2k ` 1qx
.
k0
2k ` 1

10.1.2. f 2 , f pxq x2 , x . f Fourier


.
y

x
2

10.2
. f , bk 0,

2 2
2 2
ak
x cos kxdx
x sin kxdx
0
0 k
4
p1qk 2 , pk 0q
k
2
1 2
x dx 2 ,
a0

3
f Fourier :
x2

p1qk
2
`4
cos kx.
3
k2
k1

Fourier , ak , bk .
, .
10.1.1 (Riemann-Lebesgue). f ra, bs Riemann
,
b

b
lim

8 a

f pxq cos xdx lim

`8 a

f pxq sin xdx 0.

Fourier

146

. 0, Riemann f ,
g,
b
|f pxq gpxq|dx .
a

,
b
b
b

gpxq cos xdx


|f pxq gpxq|dx .
f pxq cos xdx
a

, , rc, ds ra, bs
: f ,
1

cos xdx psin d sin cq

c
2||

0 p `8q.

sin x .

10.1.2. f r, s Riemann , Fourier


ak 0, bk 0 pk `8q.
f , . , f P C 1 r, s,
f pq f pq,

1
bn
f pxq sin nxdx

1
1
1 1

f pxq

cos nx `
f pxq cos nxdx

n
n

`1
11 1

f pxq cos nxdx o


, pRiemann Lebesgueq
n
n
`1
an o
. , f P C k pr, sq, f piq pq f piq pq p0 i k 1q,
n

` 1
` 1
an o k , bn o k .
n
n

10.1
1. , Fourier .
2. p, q Fourier :
p1q |x|;

p2q cos4 x;

p3q sin4 x;

p4q x sin x.

10.1 Fourier

147

3. f 2 ,
$
& x , x P r0, 2q;
2
f pxq
%,
x 2.
2

f Fourier .
4. f Fourier an , bn . f pxq sin x, f px ` hq ph P Rq Fourier

.
5. f 2 , an , bn Fourier .
p1q n 1 ,

an
rf pxq f px ` qs cos nxdx, bn
rf pxq f px ` qs sin nxdx.
2
n
2
n
p2q f Holder , p1q
an O

` 1
` 1
, bn O pn 8q.

n
n

6. f pxq r, s , f pq f pq, f 1 pq f 1 pq,


Fourier
`1
`1
an o 2 , bn o 2 pn 8q.
n
n
7. :
`8
p1q

lim

`8 0

cos2 x
dx;
1 ` x2

p2q

lim

`8

sin2 xdx.

8. f 2 . f p0, 2q , Fourier

bn 0, n 1, 2, . (: .)
9. f p, q ,
an O

`1
`1
, bn O
pn 8q.
n
n

`8
10. f r0, `8q
f pxqdx ,
0

`8
f pxq sin xdx 0.
lim

`8 0

Fourier

148

10.2

Fourier

, f P C 2 r, s, f pq f pq, f 1 pq f 1 pq,
Fourier an opn2 q, bn opn2 q, Fourier .
Fourier .

n pxq

1
` cos x ` cos 2x ` ` cos nx,
2

Dirichlet .
1
1
1
1
sin x cos kx
sinpk ` qx sinpk qx
2
2
2
2

Dirichlet
n pxq

sinpn ` 21 qx
, @ x 2k.
2 sin 12 x

(10.1)

1
x 2k , n pxq n ` , n ,
2

sinpn ` 12 qx
1

dx

p ` cos x ` cos 2x ` ` cos nxqdx .


1
2
2
2 sin 2 x
0
0
`8

sin x

dx .
x
2
0
, :

`8
0

sin x
dx lim
A`8
x

A
0

sin x
dx
x

pn` 12 q

sin x
dx
x
sinpn ` 12 qt
1
lim
dt
px pn ` qtq
n`8 0
t
2

1
1
1

sinpn ` qt dt
` lim
2 n`8 0 t
2
2 sin 2t

. pRiemann Lebesgueq
2
lim

n`8 0

,
lim

t0

`1
t

2 sin 2t t
1

lim
0,
t0 2t sin t
2 sin 2t
2

1
1

r0, s , Riemann-Lebesgue . 
t 2 sin 2t

10.2 Fourier

149

f Fourier Sn pxq,
Sn pxq

a0
`
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq
2
k1

1
1
f ptqdt `
f ptq cos kt cos kxdt `
f ptq sin kt sin kxdt
2
k1

1
1
pcos kt cos kx ` sin kt sin kxq dt
f ptq `

2 k1

1
f ptq `
cos kpt xq dt

2 k1

1
f px ` uqn puqdu,

u t x, ,
r x, xs r, s . (10.1), n

1 f px ` uq ` f px uq sinpn ` 12 qu
du.
Sn pxq
0
2
sin u2
0, Riemann-Lebesgue ,

1
f px ` uq ` f px uq sinpn ` 21 qu
lim Sn pxq
lim
du
n8
n8 0
2
sin u2

1 f px ` uq ` f px uq
1
` lim
sinpn ` qudu
n8
2 sin u2
2

1
f px ` uq ` f px uq sinpn ` 21 qu

lim
du,
n8 0
2
sin u2
, Sn pxq f x , Riemann ,
Riemann .
10.2.1 (Dini ). f . 0,
p1q f x f px ` 0q f px 0q ;
p2q

f px ` uq f px ` 0q
du,
u

f px uq f px 0q
du,
u

f px ` 0q ` f px 0q
.
2
1
1
Riemann-Lebesgue ,

u
2 sin u2
r0, s . ,

, f Fourier x

Fourier

150

10.2.1. f ra, bs , ra, bs


a t0 t1 tm b,

rti1 , ti s pi 1, 2, , mq
$

f pt
` 0q, x ti1 ,

& i1
fi pxq f pxq,
x P pti1 , ti q,

%f pt 0q,
xt,
i

rti1 , ti s , f .
10.2.2 (Dirichlet). f 2 ,
1
x P r, s, f Fourier x rf px ` 0q ` f px 0qs.
2
. Riemann-Lebesgue ,

1 f px ` uq ` f px uq sinpn ` 21 qu
lim Sn pxq lim
du
n8
n8 0
2
sin u2

1 f px ` uq f px ` 0q
1
1
lim
sinpn ` qu du ` f px ` 0q
n8 0
2 sin u2
2
2

1
1
1 f px uq f px 0q
` lim
sinpn ` qu du ` f px 0q
n8 0
2 sin u2
2
2
1
rf px ` 0q ` f px 0qs.
2
, f ,
f px ` uq f px ` 0q
f px uq f px 0q

2 sin u2
2 sin u2

u () , Riemann-Lebesgue .

. Riemann-Lebesgue .
, f x p0 1q Holder ,
.
10.1.1 10.1.2 , , 10.1.1 x 1

sinp2k ` 1q

,
4
2k ` 1
k0

10.1.2 x
p2q

1
2

.
2
k
6
k1

10.2 Fourier

151

10.2.1. f pxq cos x, x P r, s Fourier ( ).


. f R 2 , , bk 0.

2
ak
cos x cos kxdx
0

rcosp kqx ` cosp ` kqxsdx


0

1 sinp kq sinp ` kq
2p1qk sin

k
`k

2 k 2
Dirichlet
cos x

2 sin 1
p1qn
`
cos
nx
, @ x P r, s.

22 n1 2 n2

x
cos

2 sin 1
1
`
,

22 n1 2 n2

cot

8
1
1
2

.
2

n1 n2

0 x 1 , , :
x
8
`
1
1 `
x2
cot
d
ln 1 2 ,

n1
n
0
sin x :
`
x2 `
x2 `
x2
sin x x 1 2 1 2 1 2 .
1
2
n

(10.2)

, (9.5) .
10.2.2. ,
sin x

8
2 sin p1qn n
sin nx, @ x P p, q.

2 n2
n1

p0, q , 2
, Fourier . ,
.
10.2.3.
f pxq x, x P p0, q

, Fourier .

Fourier

152

. : f pxq x, x P p, 0q, 0 f 0.
y

10.3
Fourier

2
ak 0, bk
x sin kxdx
0

2 1
2 1

cos kx `
cos kxdx
x
k
0 k
0
2
p1qk1 .
k

x2

p1qn1

n1

sin nx
, 0 x .
n

: f pxq x, x P p, 0q, 0 f p0q 0, f .


y

x
2

10.4
Fourier

2
xdx
0

2
2
ak
x cos kxdx 2 rp1qk 1s.
0
k

bk 0, a0

4 cosp2k ` 1qx

, 0 x .
2
k0 p2k ` 1q2

10.2 Fourier

153

, 2l, 2 ,
1
an
l

1
bn
l

f pxq cos

n
xdx, n 0, 1, 2, ,
l

f pxq sin

n
xdx, n 1, 2, .
l

f Fourier
8

a0
n
n
`
an cos
x ` bn sin
x .
2
l
l
n1

x
2l 2 , ,
l
Dirichlet 2l .

10.2.4. f pxq 2 ,
f pxq x2 , x P r1, 1s

Fourier .
y
1
x
2

10.5
. f , bk 0.
1
2
a0
x2 dx ,
3
1
1
an 2
x2 cos nxdx
0

4
p1qn ,
n2 2

()

x2

8
1
4 p1qn
` 2
cos nx, x P r1, 1s.
3 n1 n2

t x, 10.1.2 . x 1 px
q, :
pq

8
x2

2 cos nx

, 0 x 2.
2
3
n1 n2

Fourier

154

f pxq x
.

x2
(0 x 2) Fourier ,
2

10.2
1.
x
x
n
n

sinpn ` 12 qt
sin kx
x
dt

cos ktdt `
k
2
2 sin 2t
0 k1
0
k1

8 sin nx

.
n
n1

2.
n1

sin2 nx
1
2
sinpk ` qx
x , @ n 1,
2
sin
2
k0

sin2 nx
2
dx n, @ n 1.
sin2 x2

3. | sin x| | cos x| Fourier , Fourier p8, `8q

.
4. ( R Z):
8

1
1
2p1qn

`
.
sin
n1 pq2 pnq2

5. Fourier :
p1q f pxq eax , x P p, q; p2q f pxq x2 sin2 x, x P p, q;
p3q f pxq sin ax, x P p, q, a .
6. Fourier :
p1q f pxq x, x P r0, 1s; f pxq 2 x, x P r1, 2s.
p2q f pxq 1, x P r0, as; f pxq 0, x P ra, s.
7. Fourier :
p1q f pxq cos 2x, x P r0, s;

p2q f pxq x

8. pl, lq Fourier :
p1q x,

p2q x ` |x|.

x2
, x P r0, 1s.
2

10.3 Parseval

155

9.
$

x,
0 x 1,

&
f pxq 1,
1 x 2,

%3 x, 2 x 3.

3 Fourier .
10. f ra, bs Riemann , g R , T r0, T s

.
b
lim

8 a

1
f pxqgpxqdx
T

T
f pxqdx

gpxqdx.
0

11. pq f pxq r0, as (0 a ) ,


1
`8

lim

10.3

f pxq
0

sin2 x

dx f p0q.
2
sin2 x

Parseval

Fourier .
, .
ra, bs , R2 ra, bs : R2 ra, bs f
Riemann , f f 2 . , R2 ra, bs , f ,
g P R2 ra, bs, Cauchy-Schwarz
b
|f pxqgpxq|dx
a

f 2 pxqdx

12
21 b

g 2 pxqdx .
a

10.3.1 (Parseval ). f P R2 r, s, f Fourier


f

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq,
2
n1

f 2 pxqdx

a20
`
pa2n ` b2n q.
2
n1

(10.3)

, f Riemann ,
.
p1q
Sn pf q

a0
`
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq,
2
k1

Fourier

156

,
1

Sn2 pf qdx

` a0 2
2

dx `

1 2
ak cos2 kxdx `
b2k sin2 kxdx
k1

a20
`
pa2k ` b2k q.
2
k1

(10.4)

2
1 2
f dx
f Sn pf qdx `
S pf qdx

n

`
1 2
2 a0

f dx
f dx `
ak
f pxq cos kxdx

2

k1

1 2
f pxq sin kxdx `
S pf qdx
` bk
n

n
a2
1

1 2

f dx 2 0 `
pa2k ` b2k q `
Sn2 pf qdx

2

k1

1 2
1 2
(10.5)

f dx
S pf qdx,

n

1
rf Sn pf qs dx

Sn2 pf qdx

f 2 dx.

(10.6)

, (10.3)

Sn2 pf qdx

f dx

rf Sn pf qs2 dx 0.

(10.7)

p2q (10.3) f , g P R2 ra, bs , , P R ,

rf ` g Sn pf ` gqs2 dx

rpf Sn pf qq ` pg Sn pgqqs2 dx

rg Sn pgqs2 dx.
rf Sn pf qs2 dx ` 22
22

(10.7) , (10.3) f ` g .
p3q , (10.3) .

pxq

& 0, x a,
1, a x b,

% 0, b x .

10.3 Parseval

157

R 2 , Fourier

1
1
a0
pxqdx pb aq,

1
1 b
11
ak
pxq cos kxdx
cos kxdx
psin kb sin kaq,

a
k

1
1 b
11
bk
pxq sin kxdx
sin kxdx
pcos ka cos kbq.

a
k

a20
`
pa2k ` b2k q
2
n1

1
1 1
2
pb

aq
`
psin kb sin kaq2 ` pcos kb cos kaq2
2
2
2
2
k1 k

8
1
2 1
2
pb

aq
`
r1 cos kpb aqs
2 2
2 n1 k 2

8
1
2 cos kpb aq
1
2
pb

aq
`

2 2
3 2 k1
k2

ba
ppqq

1 2
pxqdx.

p4q p2q, p3q (10.3) .


p5q f , 0, g

pf gq2 dx .

(10.3) g , n

rg Sn pgqs2 dx ,

*
"

rSn pg f qs2 dx
rg Sn pgqs2 dx `
pf gq2 dx `
rf Sn pf qs2 dx 3

"
*

2
3 ``
pg f q dx
p (10.3)q

9.

rf Sn pf qs2 dx 0 pn 8q.

(10.3) f .

Fourier

158

10.3.2 ( Parseval ). f , g P R2 r, s,

1
a0 0
f pxqgpxqdx
`
pan n ` bn n q,

2
n1
an , bn f Fourier , n , n g Fourier .
. f ` g f g Parseval , .

10.3.3 (). f , g r, s , f g
Fourier , f g.

. f g, Fourier 0, Parseval ,

pf gq2 dx 0.

f g f g.

10.3.4. f r, s , Fourier ,
f .
. Fourier
Spxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq,
2
n1

, , Spxq Fourier
f Fourier . Spxq f pxq.

10.3.1. 10.1.2 Parseval

8
1 ` 2 2 ` 4 2
1 4
x dx
`

2 3
n2
n1

p4q

1
4

.
n4
90
n1

10.3
n

A0
`
pAk cos kx ` Bk sin kxq ,
2
k1
, Riemann f ,

|f pxq Tn pxq|2 dx
|f pxq Sn pxq|2 dx,

1. Tn pxq

Sn pxq f pxq Fourier , A0 a0 ,


Ak ak , Bk bk pk 1q.

10.3 Parseval

159

2. Riemann Fourier :
p1q

sin nx
? ;
n
n1

p2q

sin nx
pp 1q.
np
n1

3. :
p1q

p1qn1

2
x2
cos nx

, x P r, s,
2
n
12
4

p1qn1

sin nx
2
x3

, x P r, s.
n3
12
12

n1

p2q

n1

4. f pxq x3 Fourier Parseval

1
.
n6
n1

5.
$
& 1 x, 0 x 1,
2
f pxq
% x ,
1 x .
2

Fourier
8

sin n
,
n
n1

sin2 n
,
n2
n1

sin2 n
.
n4
n1

6. f r, s ,

f pq f pq,

f pxqdx 0.

f 1 ,

` 1 2
`
2
f pxq dx
f pxq dx,

.
7.

1
p1q
0

ln x
2
dx ,
1x
6

1
p2q
0

2
ln x
dx .
1`x
12

8. pq :
p1q

n1

p2q

p1qn1

`
x
cos nx
ln 2 cos , x P p, q,
n
2

`
cos nx
x
ln 2 sin , x P p0, 2q.
n
2
n1

Fourier

160

10.4

Fourier

, , Fourier .
10.4.1 (Reymond). f r, s Riemann , Fourier

f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq.
2
n1

ra, bs r, s,
b
b
8 b

a0
f pxqdx
dx `
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxqdx.
a
a 2
n1 a
. 10.3
#
1, x P ra, bs,
pxq
0, x P r, aq Y pb, s,
Fourier n , n , Parseval ,

a0
1
f pxqpxqdx 0 `
pan n ` bn n q,

2
n1

1
0

1
pb aq,

1 b
pxq cos nxdx
cos nxdx,
a

1 b
pxq sin nxdx
sin nxdx,
a

pxqdx

.
Fourier , .

10.4.2. f r, s , f pq f pq. f r, s
, f 1 Riemann , f pxq Fourier r, s
f pxq:
f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq, @ x P r, s.
2
n1

. 10.3.4, . ,
f 1 Fourier a1n , b1n , ( f pq f pq)

1 1
1
1
an
f pxq cos nxdx
f pxqn sin nxdx nbn ,

1
1
b1n
f 1 pxq sin nxdx
f pxqn cos nxdx nan .

10.4 Fourier

161

f 1 Parseval

8
1 1 2 1 2
1 1 2
pa0 q `
rpan q ` pb1n q2 s
pf q dx.
2

n1

,
|an cos nx ` bn sin nx| |an | ` |bn |
1
1 1
|a | ` |b1n |
n n
n
1` 1

1` 1

` |a1n |2 `
` |b1n |2 ,
2
2
2 n
2 n

Weierstrass f Fourier .

, , f Fourier
1

f 1 pxq

pnbn cos nx nan sin nxq,

n1

, .
10.4.3. f 2 . f 1 r, s
, f Fourier
f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq
2
n1

r, s :
f 1 pxq

pnbn cos nx nan sin nxq,

n1

f 2 Riemann , .
. Dirichlet 10.4.2 .

10.4.2 .
10.4.4 (Weierstrass). f r, s , f pq f pq.
0, T pxq,
|f pxq T pxq| , @ x P r, s.

. , f . 2
g,
|f pxq gpxq|

, @ x P r, s.
2

Fourier

162
y
f (x)
g(x)

10.6

, g 10.4.2 , Fourier g. n

|gpxq Sn pgqpxq|

, @ x P r, s.
2

|f pxq Sn pgqpxq| |f pxq gpxq| ` |gpxq Sn pgqpxq| .




10.4.5. f r, s , f pq f pq. 0,
P pxq,
|f pxq P pxq| , @ x P r, s.

. Weierstrass , T pxq
|f pxq T pxq|

, @ x P r, s.
2

Taylor , P pxq
|T pxq P pxq|

, @ x P r, s.
2


` .
2 2
10.4.6. f ra, bs , 0, P pxq,
|f pxq P pxq| |f pxq T pxq| ` |T pxq P pxq|

|f pxq P pxq| , @ x P ra, bs.

px aq ra, bs r0, s .
ba
2 , ,

. t

.
10.4

10.4 Fourier

163

1.
8

cosp2n 1qx

p 2xqp ` 2x 2x2 q, x P r0, s.


4
p2n

1q
96
n1

(: .)
8

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq Riemann
2
n1
8

bn
.
Fourier
n
n1

2. ,

3. f pxq r0, s . , 0,

P pxq,
|f pxq P pxq| , @ x P r0, s.
4. f pxq r0, s , f p0q f pq 0. , 0,

P pxq,
|f pxq P pxq| , @ x P r0, s.
5. f pxq ra, bs ,
b
xn f pxqdx 0, n 0, 1, 2, ,
a

f pxq 0. (: f .)
6. f pxq ra, bs , n 1,
b
xn f pxqdx 0,
a

f pxq 0.
7. f pxq r0, s ,

f pxq cos nxdx 0, n 0, 1, 2, ,


0

f pxq 0.
8. f pxq r0, s ,

f pxq cos nxdx 0, n 1, 2, ,


0

f pxq . (: f pxq c.)

Fourier

164

9. f pxq r, s Riemann ,
f pxqdx 0. ,

x
F pxq
f ptqdt Fourier r, s .
0

10. pq Bernoulli n pxq :


0 pxq 1, 1n pxq nn1 pxq,

1
n pxqdx 1,
0

, r0, 1s , k 0 ,
k pxq p1q1`k{2

8
2pk!q 1
cos 2nx,
p2qk n1 nk

k 1 ,
k pxq p1qpk`1q{2

10.5


8
2pk!q 1
sin 2nx.
p2qk n1 nk

Fourier

10.5.1

Fourier . f pxq 2 ,
Fourier Sn pxq, Sn pxq
Sn pxq

f px ` uq

sinpn ` 12 qu
du.
2 sin u2

n pf qpxq

n1
1
Sk pxq,
n k0

n1

sin2 nu
1
2
sinpk ` qu
u
2
sin
2
k0

n pf qpxq

1
2

n1
f px ` uq 1
1
sinpk ` qudu
2 sin u2 n k0
2

f px ` uq

1 sin2 nu
2
du.
n sin2 u2

10.5 Fourier

165

f pxq 1
1
2

1 sin2 nu
2
du 1,
n sin2 u2

1
n pf qpxq f pxq
2

rf px ` uq f pxqs

1 sin2 nu
2
du.
n sin2 u2

10.5.1 (Fejer). f pxq 2 , n pf q


f.
. 0, f , 0, |u|
|f px ` uq f pxq| , @ x P R.

M max |f pxq|, n M 1 sin2


|n pf qpxq f pxq|

1
2

|f px ` uq f pxq|

1 sin2 nu
2
du
n sin2 u2

1
1 sin2 nu
2
`
du
|f px ` uq f pxq|
2 |u|
n sin2 u2

1 1 sin2 nu
1 1
2
3,

du ` 2M
2
u
2 n sin 2
n sin2 2

n pf q p8, `8q f pxq.

. (1)
Fn puq

1 sin2 nu
2
,
2n sin2 u2

Fejer , :

Fn puqdu 1, lim
Fn puqdu 0, 0.

n8 |u|

(2) .
(3) , Fourier ,

. , g, g, g f
. Ces`aro .
, 1873 , du Bois-Reymond , Fourier
. Fourier .

Fourier

166
10.5.2

Fourier .
10.5.2 (Dirichlet). g r0, hs ,
h
sin u

gpuq
lim
du gp0 ` 0q.
`8 0
u
2
. g ,
h
h
h
sin u
sin u
sin u
gpuq
du
rgpuq gp0 ` 0qs
du ` gp0 ` 0q
du,
u
u
u
0
0
0

`8 , gp0 ` 0q,
2
.
0, 0, 0 u 0 gpuq gp0 ` 0q .
h

sin u
sin u
du rgpuq gp0 ` 0qs
du
rgpuq gp0 ` 0qs
u
u
0
0
h
sin u
` rgpuq gp0 ` 0qs
du
u

I1 ` I2 ,

I1 rgpq gp0 ` 0qs

sin u
du rgpq gp0 ` 0qs
u

sin u
du,
u

|I1 | 2L,

sin u

du L, @ x 0.

u
0

Riemann-Lebesgue , `8 I2 0, .

:
10.5.3 (Dirichlet-Jordan). f pxq , f pxq x0
1
rx0 h, x0 `hs , Fourier x0 rf px0 `0q`f px0 0qs.
2
, Fourier
. .
10.5.4. f pxq p, q , Fourier an , bn

|nan |

1
|f p 0q f p ` 0q|,

|nbn |

2
|f p 0q f p ` 0q|, @ n 1.

10.5 Fourier

167

. f . an , ,

1
1
an
f pxq cos nxdx
rf pxq f p ` 0qs cos nxdx

1
rf p 0q f p ` 0qs
cos nxdx

1
1
rf p 0q f p ` 0qs
sin n,

n


10.5.5. f pxq r, s Lipschitz , M


Fourier an , bn |nan | M , |nbn | M , @ n 1.

. |f pxq f pyq| L|x y|,


f pxq Lx pLx f pxqq,

gpxq Lx f pxq . , y x,
gpyq gpxq Lpy xq rf pyq f pxqs Lpy xq |f pyq f pxq| 0.


f pxq , .
Tauber .
10.5.6 (Hardy).

fn pxq Sn pxq,

n1

n pxq

n
1
Sk pxq,
n k1

n pxq f pxq, tnfn pxqu ,

fn pxq f .

n1

. , M , |nfn pxq| M x n .
0 1, N0 , n N0
|n pxq f pxq| 2 , @ x.

m n N0 ,
mm pxq nn pxq pm nqSm pxq

pk 1 nqfk pxq

kn`2

mpm pxq f pxqq npn pxq f pxqq pm nqpSm pxq f pxqq

kn`2

pk 1 nqfk pxq,

Fourier

168

|Sm pxq f pxq|

n
m
|m pxq f pxq| `
|n pxq f pxq|
mn
mn
m

1
`
pk 1 nq|fk pxq|
m n kn`2
m

m`n 2
1
M
`
pk 1 nq
mn
m n kn`2
k
mn1

m`n 2
1 M
`
k
mn
m n n k1
`m

m`n 2

`M
1 .
mn
n

N maxt6{, p1 ` 2qN0 u, m N ,
m
m
m

1,
1 ` 1 ` 2
p1 ` qp1 ` 2q

n,
m
m
n
N0 ,
1`
1 ` 2

1``1 2
` M p1 ` 2 1q p3 ` 2M q,
1`1
Sm pxq f pxq.
|Sm pxq f pxq|

Fourier ,
Fourier , :
10.5.7. f pxq 2 , f pxq
, Fourier f pxq . , Lipschitz
Fourier .
. ,
.
10.5.3

Parseval , :
L , ? ,
.
10.5.8 (). L
, A
A

L2
,
4

10.5 Fourier

169

L
.
2

. ,
ptq pxptq, yptqq, t P r0, Ls.

a
px1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 1. ,
L

L
xptqdt

yptqdt 0,
0

,
.
y
(t) = (x(t), y(t))

x
0

10.7
, xp0q xpLq, yp0q ypLq. Wirtinger
L

L
` L 2 L 1
` L 2 L 1
2
2
2
x ptqdt
rx ptqs dt,
ry ptqs2 dt.
y ptqdt
2
2
0
0
0
0

L
0

rxptqy 1 ptq x1 ptqyptqsdt

Cauchy-Schwarz ,

2
1 L
pxptqy 1 ptq x1 ptqyptqqdt
A2
4 0

L
1 L 2
2

rx ptq ` y ptqsdt
rpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 sdt
4 0
0

2
1 ` L 2 L 1

rpx ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 sdt


4 2
0
1 ` L 2 2

L ,
4 2
A L2 {4, Cauchy-Schwarz Wirtinger
.

Fourier

170

10.5.9 (Wirtinger ). f pxq r, s ,


f pq f pq.

f pxqdx 0,

f pxqdx

rf 1 pxqs2 dx,

f pxq a cos x ` b sin x.


. f p8, `8q , 2. f Fourier
f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq,
2
n1

a0

f pxqdx 0.

f 1 pxq Fourier
8

f 1 pxq

pnbn cos nx nan sin nxq.

n1

Parseval ,

f 2 pxqdx

n1
8

pa2n ` b2n q
pn2 a2n ` n2 b2n q

rf 1 pxqs2 dx,

n1

an bn 0, @ n 2.
10.5.10. f pxq ra, bs , f paq f pbq,
b
f pxqdx 0,
a

f 2 pxqdx

f pxq c cos

2
ba x

` b a 2
2
` d sin

rf 1 pxqs2 dx,

a
2
ba x.

ba
pt ` q ` a ra, bs r, s
2
, Wirtinger .


. x

10.5 Fourier

171

10.5.11 (Poincare ). f pxq r0, s ,


f p0q f pq 0,

f 2 pxqdx

rf 1 pxqs2 dx,

f pxq c sin x.
. f pxq p8, `8q 2 , Wirtinger


.
10.5.4

Fourier

1,
ei cos ` i sin , P R.

, pei qn ein cos n ` i sin n.


cos nx

1 inx
1
pe
` einx q, sin nx peinx einx q.
2
2i

, :
n

eik

k0

pei qk

k0

ei

n`1
2

ei

1 eipn`1q
1 ei

n`1
2

ei

n`1
2

ei 2
ei 2 ei 2
n`1
n p2iq sin
2
ei 2
p2iq sin 2

sin pn`1q
2
sin

ei 2 ,

cos k

k0

sin n`1
2
sin

cos

n
1

rsinpn ` q ` sin s

2
2
2
2 sin 2

k1

sin k

sin n`1
2
sin 2

sin

n
1

rcos cospn ` qs.


2
2
2
2 sin 2

f pxq Fourier
f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq,
2
n1

Fourier

172

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq
2
n1

` an ibn inx an ` ibn inx


a0
`
e
`
e
2
2
2
n1
8

cn einx ,

n8

cn :
1
cn
2

f pxqeinx dx, n P Z.

. , k 1, 2, , k
tku, p0, 1q
x1 tu, x2 t2u, , xk tku, .

p0, 1q . ,
a b P r0, 1s, n ra, bq n pa, bq,
ra,bq ra, bq ,
n pa, bq

ra,bq pxk q.

k1

:
n pa, bq
b a.
n8
n
p1q , e2intku e2ink . , m ,
lim

n
n

e2imxk
e2imk

k0

k0

1
,
| sin m|

n
1 2imxk
e
0,
n8 n
k1

lim

P a0 {2 `

pak cos 2kx ` bk sin 2kxq, :

k1

1
n
1
lim
P pxk q
P pxqdx.
n8 n
0
k1
p2q , 0, r0, 1s P1 , P2 ,
1
P1 ra,bq P2 ,
pP2 P1 qdx .
0

10.5 Fourier

173

p1q, N , n N
1
n
1

Pi pxk q
Pi pxqdx , i 1, 2.

n k1
0

n
n
1
1
P2 pxk q
P1 pxk q 3.
n k1
n k1

n
n
n
1

1
1
ra,bq pxk q P
P1 pxk q,
P2 pxk q
n k1
n k1
n k1

1
ra,bq pxqdx P

1
P1 pxqdx,

P2 pxqdx ,

, n N (),
1
n
1

ra,bq pxk q
ra,bq pxqdx

n k1
0
1
n
n

1 1

1
1 1
P2 pxk q
P1 pxk q `
P2 pxqdx

P1 pxqdx
2 n k1
n k1
2 0
0

1
n
n

1 1
1 1

P1 pxk q
P2 pxk q
P1 pxqdx `
P2 pxqdx
`
2 n k1
2
n
0
0
k1

1
1
1
3
` ` ` 3,
2
2
2
2
1
n
1
lim
ra,bq pxk q
ra,bq pxqdx b a.
n8 n
0
k1


, txk u p0, 1q .

10.5.12. f r0, 1s Riemann , 0,


P1 , P2 , P1 f P2 ,
1
rP2 pxq P1 pxqsdx .
0

. , f1 , f2 ,
1
f1 f f2 ,
rf2 pxq f1 pxqsdx {2,
0

Weierstrass P1 , P2 ,
0 f1 P1 {4, 0 P2 f2 {4,

P1 , P2 .

Fourier

174
10.5.5

Fourier

: p8, `8q
?
f , rl, ls , f Fourier :
8

`
n
a0
n
an cos
`
x ` bn sin
x ,
2
l
l
n1

f pxq

1
l

1
bn
l

an

f pxq cos

n
xdx pn 0, 1, 2, q,
l

f pxq sin

n
xdx pn 1, 2, q.
l

1
f pxq
2l

n
1 l
f ptqdt `
f ptq cos
px tqdt.
l l
l
l
n1

f p8, `8q , l `8,


1
f pxq

`8 `8

f ptq cos px tqdt d,

, ,
1
f pxq

`8 8

f ptq cos px tqdt d,

(10.8)

`8
f pxq

rapq cos x ` bpq sin xs d,

(10.9)

1
apq

`8
f ptq cos tdt,
8

1
bpq

`8
f ptq sin tdt.
8

(10.8) (10.9) f Fourier , Fourier , apq, bpq

Fourier .
, (10.8) (10.9) . Fourier , (10.8)
, . ,
().
10.5.13. f p8, `8q , apq, bpq
P R , 8 , apq 0, bpq 0.

10.5 Fourier

175

. f , 0, A 0,
A
`8
|f ptq|dt `
|f ptq|dt .
A

|f ptq|dt ` 1, cos x x P p8, `8q , 0,

A
2

|x1 x |
| cos x1 cos x2 |

|1 2 |

.
M

,
A
1

`8

|ap1 q ap2 q|

|f ptq|| cos 1 t cos 2 t|dt

1
2|f ptq|dt `

8
A

`8
2|f ptq|dt
A

|f ptq|| cos 1 t cos 2 t|dt

2
1
`

A
|f ptq|dt
A

3
.

gpq . ,
1
lim sup |apq| ` lim
8
8

A
A

f ptq cos t dt ,


apq 0 p 8q. , bpq 0 p 8q.


10.5.14.
SpA, xq

`8
d

f ptq cos px tqdt,


8

f ,
1
SpA, xq

`8
rf px ` tq ` f px tqs
0

sin At
dt.
t

. , ,

1
SpA, xq

8
d

0
8

f ptq cos px tqdt


8
A

1
dt
f ptq cos px tqd
8
0

sin Apx tq
1 8
f ptq
dt

8
xt

1 `8
sin At

rf px ` tq ` f px tqs
dt.
0
t

Fourier

176

10.5.15. 0,
`8
sin At
lim
rf px ` tq ` f px tqs
dt 0.
A`8
t
. 10.5.13 apq 0 , .

, lim SpA, xq f x . , Fourier


A`8

, Dini , :
10.5.16. f p8, `8q , f ,

`8
1 `8
f px ` 0q ` f px 0q

d
f ptq cos px tqdt
2
0
8
`8

rapq cos x ` bpq cos xsd,


0

apq

`8
f ptq cos t dt, bpq
8

`8
f ptq sin t dt.
8

Fourier .

. ,
. , ,
. ,
, .

11.1

11.1.1 (). X R ,
g x, y : X X R
px, yq gpx, yq xx, yy

p1q xx, xy 0, xx, xy 0 x 0 p q;


p2q xx, yy xy, xy, @ x, y P X p q;
p3q xx ` y, zy xx, zy ` xy, zy, @ , P R, x, y, z P X p q.

g x, y X , pX, x, yq , xx, yy x y
a
, }x} xx, xy x .
11.1.1. R .
x, y P R, xx, yy xy, x, y R . , x
|x|.
11.1.2. Rn .
Rn tpx1 , , xn q|xi P Ru n , , Rn
R , n . Rn x, y:
xx, yy

xi yi , @ x px1 , , xn q, y py1 , , yn q P Rn .

i1

x px1 , , xn q P Rn ,
}x} px21 ` x22 ` ` x2n q1{2 .

11.1.3. .
177

178

C 0 ra, bs ra, bs . x, y
:
b
xf, gy

f pxqgpxqdx.
a

, : ,


.
11.1.1 (Schwarz ). pX, x, yq ,
|xx, yy| }x} }y},

x y .
. x 0( y 0q ,
x0, yy x0 0, yy 0x0, yy 0,

Schwarz . x 0, y 0, t P R,
xx, xy 2txx, yy ` t2 xy, yy xx ty, x tyy 0,

t , :
4xx, yy2 4xx, xyxy, yy 0,


. , x, y , Schwarz
.
Schwarz , x, y , px, yq P r0, s,
cos px, yq

xx, yy
,
}x} }y}

px, yq x, y , px, yq.

11.1.2. pX, x, yq , x, y P X,
}x ` y} }x} ` }y}.

. Schwarz ,
}x ` y}2 xx ` y, x ` yy xx, xy ` 2xx, yy ` xy, yy
}x}2 ` 2}x} }y} ` }y}2
p}x} ` }y}q2 ,

11.1

179

11.1.2 (). X , : X X R

p1q px, yq 0 px, yq 0 x y;


p2q px, yq py, xq;
p3q px, zq px, yq ` py, zq.

p q

X p q, pX, q p q, px, yq
x, y .
11.1.4. R .
x, y P R, px, yq |x y|, R .
11.1.5 (). pX, x, yq ,
px, yq }x y}, @ x, y P X.

p1q, p2q, :
px, zq }x z} }px yq ` py zq}
}x y} ` }y z}
px, yq ` py, zq.


X , .
11.1.6. .

, . , X
, d : X X R :
$
&1, x y,
dpx, yq
%0, x y.


d X , .
11.1
1.

(
l2 x px1 , x2 , , xn , q xn P R,
x2n 8 .
n1

l ,
2

x, y l2 :
xx, yy

n1

xn yn .

180

2. Rra, bs ra, bs Riemann . f, g P Rra, bs,


b
f pxqgpxq dx,

xf, gy
a

: x, y ? (: .)
3. x, y X , x, y P X, y 0.
xx ty, x tyy 0

xx, yy
Schwarz .
xy, yy

4. 11.1.2 .
5. X :
}x ` y}2 ` }x y}2 2p}x}2 ` }y}2 q, @ x, y P X.
6. C 0 ra, bs
dpf, gq max |f pxq gpxq|, @ f, g P C 0 ra, bs.
xPra,bs

d C 0 ra, bs , .
7. x px1 , , xn q, y py1 , , yn q P Rn ,
d1 px, yq max |xi , yi |, d2 px, yq
1in

|xi yi |,

i1

d1 d2 Rn .
8. A pX, q , A A A :
A pa1 , a2 q pa1 , a2 q,

A A , , pA, A q X .
9. , X ,

X .
1`

10. pq f p0q 0, f : Rn Rn ,
}f pxq f pyq} }x y}, @ x, y P Rn ,

f .

11.2

181

11.2

pX, q . x P X, r 0,
r

Br pxq ty P X | py, xq ru,

x , r .
11.2.1. .

x
X

11.1

R , x0 , r px0 r, x0 ` rq. R2 ,
px0 , y0 q , r
tpx, yq P R2 | px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 r2 u.

Rn , px10 , , xn0 q , r
tpx1 , , xn q P Rn | px1 x10 q2 ` ` pxn xn0 q2 r2 u.
y

r
(x0 , y0 )
x
0

11.2
11.2.2. .
X . X 0 1,
Br pxq txu, @ r 1; Br pxq X, @ r 1.

182

11.2.1 (). U X ,
x P U , 0, B pxq U , U ;

. p q ,
.

U
X

, X , . x

11.3

x .

11.2.3. .
pa, bq, pa, `8q p8, bq R ; ra, bs
ra, `8q p8, bs R .

tpx, yq P R2 | y 0u R2 , tx2 ` y 2 r2 u R2
.
, , , R
ra, bq. , .

11.2.4. .
x , 1{2 txu,
, .
11.2.5. .
x P Br px0 q, px, x0 q r. r px, x0 q, y P B pxq ,
,
py, x0 q py, xq ` px, x0 q ` px, x0 q r,

y P Br px0 q, B pxq Br px0 q, Br px0 q .




ty P X | py, x0 q ru , , .
.

11.2.1. p1q ; ;
p2q ; .

. p1q U1 , , Uk , x P

Ui , , i 0,

i1

Bi pxq Ui , i 1, , k. minti |i 1, , ku, B pxq

i1

, .

Ui ,

i1

Ui

11.2

183

p2q
pA1 Y Y Ak qc Ac1 X X Ack

p A qc Ac

p1q .
, , .

11.2.2 (). txn u8


n1 X , x0 P X,
0, N N pq, n N , xn P B px0 q, txn u x0 ,

lim xn x0 xn x0 pn 8q.

n8

. p1q xn P B px0 q pxn , x0 q ,


lim xn x0 lim pxn , x0 q 0.

n8

n8

p2q p1q , , .

, ,
.
11.2.2. txn u pX, q , txn u x0
x0 U , N , n N xn P U .
. () lim xn x0 , U x0 . 0,
n8

B px0 q U . , N N pq, n N
xn P B px0 q U.


() U .

11.2.3. A A A .
. A , txn u A, lim xn x0 . x0 R A, 0 0,
n8

B0 px0 q Ac , lim xn x0 , N N p0 q n N
n8

xn P B0 px0 q, xn P A ! x0 P A.

, A A , x0 R A,
n0 0 B1{n0 px0 q Ac , Ac . () , n 1,

B1{n px0 q X A H. xn P B1{n px0 q X A, lim xn x0 , . 


n8

. : .

184

11.2.3 (, , ). A

X , x0 P X. x0 U ,

intA

U A, x0 A , intA

A, A ; x0 U ,
U Ac , x0 A ; x0

A , A , x0
A , BA, A .

11.4

A , A Ac
, A

, X
X intA Y BA Y intpAc q,

. :
BA , BA pintA Y intpAc qqc .
A . A pintpAc qqc .
intAYBA , A,
, A A Y BA . , A A Y BA. ,

a P A Y BA, a P A a P BA, a A , a P A,
A Y BA A .
,
A BA A, A A.

. , A , Ac , Ac A ,

A pintpAc qqc pAc qc A.


, Ac B c , intpAc q intpB c q, A B

A B , A B.

.
, .
11.2.6. R , Q , . Q
R.
11.2.7. Rn .
x0 P Rn , r 0. t}x x0 } ru t}x x0 } ru ,
BBr px0 q t|x x0 | ru,

n 1 ( x0 , r ).
11.2

11.2

185

1. a pa1 , a2 , , an q P Rn , r 0.

Irn paq tx px1 , x2 , , xn q P Rn |xi ai | r, 1 i nu,

n . .
, .
r pxq ty P X | py, xq ru .
2. B
3. R , ,

.
4. X Y . , A X X

Y U , A X X U ; , B X Y
V , B X X V .
5. Q R . , p, q X Q Q , Q

.
6. , txn u8
n1 , .
7. , :
p1q

1
(
n 1, 2, R; p2q tpx, yq P R2 |x| ` |y| 1u R2 .
n

8. , Rn , r r .

, ?
B.

9. A B, A
10. A txn | n 1, 2, u. , x0 P A A , A x0 .
11. R2 Q Q tpx, yq P R | x, y P Qu (A X
A X).
12. pq f : ra, bs R , graphpf q
graphpf q tpx, f pxqq P R2 | x P ra, bsu.

, f graphpf q R2 .

186

11.3

pX, q . txn u8
n1 X . 0,
N N pq, m, n N
pxm , xn q ,

txn u Cauchy ().


11.3.1 (). X Cauchy , pX, q
.
. p1q Cauchy ;
p2q Cauchy , ().

11.3.1. R .
R . , Q

,
an 1 `

1
1
1
` ` `
1! 2!
n!

Q , Q . Q R Q
, .
Rn .

11.3.1. pRn , } }) .
n
. txm u8
m1 R ,

xm px1m , x2m , , xnm q,

i 1, 2, , n,
|xik xil |

pxjk xjl q2

12

}xk xl },

j1

, txm u Cauchy , txim u8


m1 i 1, 2, , n Cauchy ,
. lim xim xi0 , x0 px10 , x20 , , xn0 q,
m8

}xm x0 }

}xim xi0 }

i1

lim xm x0 .

m8

11.3

187


A X , suptpx, yq | x, y P Au A , diamA dpAq.


.
11.3.2. .
R ra, bs b a, ; , Rn r

() 2r. , ,
r (), 2r. Rn , . ,

, 1{2 , 0.
R .
11.3.2. pX, q , :
p1q pX, q ;
p2q pCantorq : F1 F2 Fn ,

lim diamFn 0, a P 8
n1 Fn .
n`8

p3q : p2q Fn 0 .

. p1qp2q: an P Fn , Fn Fn`1 tan , an`1 , u Fn .


, m n
pam , an q diamFn 0 pn 8q,

tan u Cauchy , a, Fn
a lim am P Fn , @ n 1,
m8

aP

Fn . b P

n1

Fn ,

n1

pa, bq diamFn 0 pn 8q,

a b.
p2qp3q: .
p3qp1q: pq tan u X Cauchy , ,

. Cauchy , n1 n2 ,
m, n nk
pam , an q

1
2k`1

X Fk B2k pank q, k 1, 2, . x P Fk`1 ,


px, ank q px, ank`1 q ` pank`1 , ank q

1
1
1
` k`1 k
2k`1
2
2

188

x P Fk . F1 F2 Fk Fk`1 . ,
diam Fk 2 2k 0 pk `8q,

, a P

Fk .

k1

0 pa, ank q 2k 0 pk `8q,




tank u a.

Rn , Rn .
, .
11.3.2 (). A X , f : A A
:
pq 0 q 1, pf pa1 q, f pa2 qq q pa1 , a2 q, @ a1 , a2 P A.

.
11.3.3 (). A X , f : A A
, a P A, f paq a p q.
. a0 P A, A tan u :
an f pan1 q, n 1, 2, .

pan`1 , an q pf pan q, f pan1 qq q pan , an1 q, @ n 1.

pan`1 , an q q pan , an1 q q 2 pan1 , an2 q q n pa1 , a0 q,


pam , an q pam , am1 q ` pam1 , am2 q ` ` pan`1 , an q
pq m1 ` q m2 ` ` q n q pa1 , a0 q

qn
pa1 , a0 q 0, pm n, n 8q.
1q

tan u Cauchy . a, a P A.
pf paq, aq pf paq, f pan qq ` pf pan q, f pan1 qq ` pan , aq
q pa, an q ` q n1 pa1 , a0 q ` pan , aq 0

f paq a.

pn 8q,

11.3

189

: f pbq b,
pa, bq pf paq, f pbqq q pa, bq,


pa, bq 0, a b.
11.3.3. pq .
C 0 r0, 1s, :
pf, gq max |f pxq gpxq|,
r0,1s

pC 0 r0, 1s, q .
A tf P C 0 r0, 1s | f p0q 0, f p1q 1u,

A pC 0 r0, 1s, q .
:A
f

A,
pf q,

pf q :
$
3

f p3xq,
x P r0, 13 s,

&4
pf qpxq 41 ` 12 f p2 3xq, x P r 13 , 23 s,

% 1 ` 3 f p3x 2q, x P r 2 , 1s.


4
4
3
, h, h ,
hp0q 0, hp1q 1, phq h. h , ,

Baire R Baire ,
, , .
11.3.4 (Baire). An pn 1q X .

An , 8
n1 An .
11.3
1. Cauchy , .
2. pq l2 .
3. C 0 ra, bs . (:

.)

190

4. pq , C 0 ra, bs .
5. Dra, bs ra, bs . f, g P
Dra, bs,
dpf, gq max |f pxq gpxq| ` sup |f 1 pxq g 1 pxq|,
ra,bs

ra,bs

pDra, bs, dq .
6. , A X A .
7. Baire .
8. A X . A X, A X , A

X . , ,
. (: , Baire .)
9. pq l2 , ten u l2 ,
l2 ten u . (:

, Baire .)
10. pq , Rn .

11.4

S pX, q , S

G , tG u S .

G , tG u ; G ,
tG u .

11.4.1. x0 P X. y x0 , py, x0 q 0, n 1,
py, x0 q

1
n.

y P tx P X | px, x0 q n1 u.
X tx0 u

1(
,
x P X px, x0 q
n
n1

X tx0 u .
11.4.1 (). S , S
.
, ra, bs R .
, .
11.4.1. .

11.4

191

. A . A . a P A,
8

Bn paq,
AX
n1

A , n1 , , nk ,
A

Bni paq BN paq,

i1

N maxtn1 , , nk u. A .
A . b P Ac ,
8

1(
A X tbu
x P X px, bq
,
n
n1
A , N ,

1(
A x P X | px, bq
,
N
B1{N pbq Ac , Ac , A .

11.4.2. A Rn , :
p1q A ;
p2q A , A ,

A ;
p3q A .

. p1q p2q. (). tbn u A , A


. 11.2.3 , a P A, Brpaq paq, Brpaq paq

Brpaq paq, , a1 , , ak
tbn u . , A
aPA

Brpai q pai q, , tbn u A , !

i1

p2q p3q. A , (). an P A, pa0 , an q 8


pn 8q, tan u , . A ,

. 11.2.3, an P A, lim an a R A. tan u


n8

a R A, A !

I1

192

11.5
p3q p1q (). A , A tU u,

U A. I1 A, I1 2n , I2 I1 ,
I2 X A U . , I1 I2 ,
diam Im 0 pm 8q. , a P Im X A, @ m 1.
tU u A , 0 a P U0 . m Im U0 .


Im X A U !

. Rn , ,
; , , , ,
.
11.4.3. Rn .
. , ,
, , , .

Lebesgue R Lebesgue .
11.4.4 (Lebesgue). A X , tU u A
. 0, A B diampBq , B
U .
. () , n 1, A Bn ,
Bn 1{n, Bn U . bn P Bn , A
tbn u. tbn u , A tbn u
, tbn u b0 P A. tU u A , 0 ,
b0 P U0 . U0 , 0,
B pb0 q U0 ,

lim bn b0 , n 2{, pbn , b0 q {2,


n8

pb, b0 q pb, bn q ` pbn , b0 q diampBn q `

` , @ b P Bn .
2
n 2

Bn B pb0 q U0 , Bn .

. tU u Lebesgue . Lebesgue

11.4
1. , .

11.5

193

2. A , B A , B .
3. X , X .
4. (: ).
5. ra, bs X Q Q ? .
6. C 0 ra, bs , A

(
A f P C 0 ra, bs |f pxq| 1, @ x P ra, bs .
7. Lebesgue .
8. X , tA u X . tA u

, A . (: .)

9. pq A X , 0,
A.
10. pq Lebesgue ,

11.5
11.5.1

: f : R R x0 , 0,
0, |x x0 | |f pxq f px0 q| . :

11.5.1 (). f : X Y pX, 1 q, pY, 2 q


, x0 P X. 0, 0 f pBX px0 qq BY pf px0 qq, f
x0 . f , f . Y R ,
.
f

x0

f (x0 )

11.6

194

, BX px0 q X x0 , , BY pf px0 qq
Y f px0 q , .
11.5.1. .
a pX, q , f pxq px, aq :
x0 P X, 0, , x P B px0 q
|f pxq f px0 q| |px, aq px0 , aq| px, x0 q ,

f x0 .
11.5.1 (). f : X Y , x0
X .
p1q f x0 x0 txn u,
lim f pxn q f px0 q;

n8

p2q f V Y , f 1 pV q X ;
p3q f B Y , f 1 pBq X .

. p1q f x0 , 0, 0
f pBX px0 qq BY pf px0 qq.

lim xn x0 , n xn P BX px0 q, f pxn q P BY pf px0 qq,


n8

f pxn q f px0 q pn 8q.


() f x0 , 0 0, 1{n,
X
xn P B1{n
px0 q, f pxn q R BY0 pf px0 qq. xn x0 , f pxn q f px0 q, !

p2q f , V Y . x0 P f 1 pV q, y0 f px0 q P
V , V , 0, BY py0 q V . , 0,
f pBX px0 qq BY py0 q V , BX px0 q f 1 pV q, f 1 pV q .
, x0 P X 0, y0 f px0 q.

pBY py0 qq X x0 , 0,
BX px0 q f 1 pBY py0 qq,

f pBX px0 qq BY py0 q, f x0 .


p3q: .

11.5

195

. p1q A X , f : A Y , X A,
A (), f , .
p2q f : A Y , 0, 0, 1 pa1 , a2 q
2 pf pa1 q, f pa2 qq , f .

11.5.2. Lipschitz .
f : X Y , L,
2 pf px1 q, f px2 qq L1 px1 , x2 q, @ x1 , x2 P X,

f Lipschitz , L Lipschitz . Lipschitz .


, Lipschitz , .
11.5.2 (). f : X Y ,
p1q f X Y ;
p2q f .

. p1q A X , f pAq tV u, tf 1 pV qu A
k
k

, 1 , , k A
f 1 pVi q. f pAq
Vi .
i1

i1

p2q A . f A , 0 0,
1{n, an , bn P A,
1 pan , bn q

1
, 2 pf pan q, f pbn qq 0 .
n

tan u tbn u , , a0 , b0 ,
1 pa0 , b0 q 1 pa0 , an q ` 1 pan , bn q ` 1 pbn , b0 q

1
` 1 pa0 , an q ` 1 pbn , b0 q 0,
n

a0 b0 .
0 2 pf pan q, f pbn qq 2 pf pan q, f pa0 qq ` 2 pf pb0 q, f pbn qq 0.

11.5.3 (). f : X R
.
. A X , f pAq R , R
. f pAq , f A
.

196

11.5.2 (). G X ,
x2

x1 , x2 P G, p q : I r0, 1s X
G

p0q x1 , p1q x2 , pIq G, G .

x1

, Rn ,
X

.
11.5.4. R (

11.7

).
. G R , a b P G. ra, bs G. , ,
f : r0, 1s R, f p0q a, f p1q b, f pr0, 1sq G. f
, , ra, bs f pr0, 1sq G.

11.5.5 ().
.
. G X , f : X Y . y1 , y2 P f pGq,
x1 , x2 P G f px1 q y1 , f px2 q y2 . , : r0, 1s X

p0q x1 , p1q x2 , pr0, 1sq G. f : r0, 1s Y ,


f p0q f px1 q y1 , f p1q f px2 q y2 , f pr0, 1sq f pGq. f f pGq


y1 , y2 .
11.5.6 (). f : X R , G X .

p1q x1 , x2 P G, f px1 qf px2 q 0, x0 P G f px0 q 0;


p2q f px1 q y f px2 q y, x P G y f pxq.

. p2q . f , G , f pGq R ,
f pGq . f px1 q, f px2 q P f pGq rf px1 q, f px2 qs f pGq, , y P f pGq,


x P G y f pxq.
11.5.3. f : S 1 R , x0 P S 1 ,
f px0 q f px0 q.

. g : S 1 R,
gpxq f pxq f pxq, @ x P S 1 .

g ,
gpxqgpxq rf pxq f pxqsrf pxq f pxqs rf pxq f pxqs2 0,

, x0 P S 1 , gpx0 q 0, f px0 q f px0 q.

11.5
11.5.2

197

, . ,
. R R ; n 1 ,
Rn R ; , Rn Rm .

, .
11.5.7. f, g : Rn R ,
p1q , P R , f ` g ;
p2q f g ;
p3q g 0 , f {g .

f : Rn Rm ,
f pxq pf1 pxq, , fm pxqq, x px1 , , xn q P Rm .

11.5.8. f : Rn Rm fi ,
i 1, , m.

. , f x0 lim f pxq f px0 q,


xx0

lim f pxq f px0 q lim fi pxq fi px0 q, i 1, , m.

xx0

xx0

f x0 fi p1 i nq x0 .

11.5.4. .
f : Rn Rm . x, y P Rn ,
f px ` yq f pxq ` f pyq, @ , P R,

f . m 1 .
ei Rn i 1, , te1 , , en u Rn
. Rn x
x px1 , , xn q x1 e1 ` ` xn en ,

, f pxq
f pxq f px1 e1 ` ` xn en q x1 f pe1 q ` ` xn f pen q,

198

. f pei q pa1i , , ami q, ,

a11

a12

a1n

a21

f pxq .
..

am1

a22
..
.

..
.

am2



a2n
x2
,

..
..

.
.
amn
xn

x1

, f A paij qmn .
f : Rn Rm , g : Rm Rs , g f Rn
Rs . f, g , A, B, g f

, BA. ,
, .
11.5.3

f : R2 R . R2 px, yq . px0 , y0 q P R2 ,
A P R, 0, 0
0 }px, yq px0 , y0 q}

a
px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2

, |f px, yq A| , f px0 , y0 q (),


lim
px,yqpx0 ,y0 q

f px, yq A

lim f px, yq A.

xx0
yy0

y, lim f px, yq pyq ,


xx0

lim lim f px, yq lim pyq.

yy0 xx0

yy0

lim lim f px, yq, .


xx0 yy0

11.5.5. p1q

x2 y 2
0,
px,yqp0,0q x2 ` y 2
lim

x2 y 2
1
1
|xy| px2 ` y 2 q.
2
2
x `y
2
4

xy
p0, 0q p y x y x2 .q
` y2
1
p3q f px, yq x sin . |f px, yq| x
lim
f px, yq 0, lim f px, yq
y0
y
px,yqp0,0q
.
xy
xy
p4q lim lim 2
lim lim 2
0, p2q .
y0 x0 x ` y 2
x0 y0 x ` y 2
p2q

x2

11.5

199

11.5.9.

lim
px,yqpa,bq

f px, yq A, y b, lim f px, yq pyq


xa

,
lim lim f px, yq lim pyq A;

yb xa

yb

x a, lim f px, yq ,
yb

lim lim f px, yq A lim lim f px, yq.

xa yb

yb xa

. A . , 0, 0,
0

a
px aq2 ` py bq2

|f px, yq A| . y, x a,
2

lim f px, yq A , @ 0 |y b| .
xa
2
2

lim lim f px, yq A.

yb xa

.
11.5
1. .

2. f : X Y . , f

.
3. , R2 R (:

f pxq

1
x

, x ).

4. A pX, dq ,
dA : X R, dA pxq inf dpa, xq.
aPA

dA , dA px0 q 0 x0 P A.
5. v, w P R2 , f : R2 R
f px ` vq f pxq, f px ` wq f pxq, @ x P R2 ,

f . , .
6. , Rn . (: .)

200

7. f : R2 R , p, q P R2 , f ppq f pqq.
8. , :
p1q
p3q

sin xy
a
;
px,yqp0,0q
x2 ` y 2
lim

lim
px,yqp0,0q

x2 lnpx2 ` y 2 q;

p2q

x2 y 2
;
px,yqp0,0q x2 ` y 2

p4q

x3 ` y 3
.
px,yqp0,0q x2 ` y

lim
lim

9. , :
x2 ` y 2
x2 ` y 2
xy
;
p2q
lim
lim
;
p3q
lim
lim
;
y8 x8 x2 ` y 4
x`8 y0 1 ` xy
x8 y8 x2 ` y 4
xy
x
x
p4q lim lim
; p5q lim lim sin
; p6q lim lim sin
.
x8 y8
y8 x8
y0 x`8 1 ` xy
2x ` y
2x ` y

p1q lim lim

10. pq Rn`1

n`1

(
S n px1 , x2 , , xn`1 q P Rn`1
x2i 1
i1

.
11. pq f : Rn R . f

graphpf q ,
graphpf q tpx, f pxqq P Rn`1 | x P Rn u.
12. pq Rn m , Rn ,

; 3 , .