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NEANDERTHAL

Acardgameoftheoriginsofculturefor1to3players.
Design
:PhilEklundVersion:
Dec18,2015
GraphicsandIconography:

KarimChakroun
Copyright2015SierraMadreGames
Playtesters
:ChristopherLeko
MathewTate

mathewtate@hotmail.com
(solitaire),
DrakeImmortalis
<
drakeimmortalis@gmail.com
>,
AndyGraham
<agraham2410@gmail.com>,
ChuckParrott
<
chuckparrott@earthlink.net
>,
JuanCrespo
<
juanma99@hotmail.com
>,
WulfCorbett
<
wulfc@wulf.demon.co.uk
>,
WilliamHutton
<
williamhutton@gmail.com
>,
NicoleMorper,Matt
Eklund
,
SimonSkovHansen(magentafont=activeplaytesterwithsubmissions),
<
chrisleko@gmail.com
>,MichaelTheiss
paperemail11@yahoo.com
,MaurizioPicanza
<
maurizio.picanza@yahoo.com
>,
robert.s.slaughter@gmail.com
,DavidKuznick
<
dkuznick@gmail.com
>,'EricGerber'
cgerber@socal.rr.com
,ColeWehrle<
cwehrle@gmail.com
>,
ThompsonStubbs
thompsonstubbs@gmail.com
,KenSoutherland,<
crowmagnumb@gmail.com
>,Pete
Grey<
petegrey@gmail.com
>,UpkarGataAura<
uppyg@yahoo.co.uk
>,
bhurrel@yahoo.com
,
nicolai_thorning@hotmail.com
,ScottHenshaw<
sahenshaw@gmail.com
>,NigelBuckle
<
n.buckle@hotmail.com
>,
BrettBurleighII

<
brr.rocket@gmail.com
>
,
German

Translation
:
RayHorak
gheire@vorsichtbissig.de
Statistics
:PabloKlinkisch,
Graphics
:KarimChakroun,
RulesEditor:

KyrillMelai
DropboxLinktotheCardsandPlacardsArt:
ox.com/sh/cyfak0kmzd68d3p/AAAlGhttps://www.dropbj75CUy7iPDfoVfQ0ZJBa?dl=0

Logyourplaytestsessionshere:
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1sMP3RZ9bNf4X1dCW8Ysd989LzmtA3ZfwSxOZrIVQ4X
g/edit#gid=0
VassalModule
,
StefanoTin
:
http://www.vassalengine.org/wiki/Module:Neanderthal

PLAYTESTINGSTATUS:
CLOSEDREVC1.2
ThepublishedrulesversionisC1.2(Apr222015)
ThepublishedcardsversionisC1.2(Feb202015)

D1.0

AddedTroubadouroption.
Correctionsin
greenfont
arechangesfromGreenlandsystem.
Changesin
magentafont
areerratatopublishedfirstedition.

C1.2

GraphicsandiconoverhaulbyKarim,allcardsandplacards.SmallchangestoNegotiations.
Maynowcourtyourownmarrieddaughters.Publishedasfirstedition.

C1.1

Addedsultansexception(E4),andmadejealoushusbandsintowarparties.Theminimumbidis
onediskatalltimes.E3andG1changedtoallowcontestsofmarrieddaughters,andalsoallow

I1

thewinnersofsuchconteststobeginmature.Removedrapeasagameterm.Cylinderinstead
offigurine,

C1.0

Wanderlustrevisedtodropthelimboconcept.Removedgroomingandbonemarrowscavenging
fromthegame.RevisedsexualitycardstoremovetheVocalLimits,MPIrating,andFecundity
rating,andtomakepromiscuousagrazingspecies.ThetwotypesofIcardsmergedintoone
Icard.Revisedthespecialabilityofmosteverydaughter.Removedabilitytoavoidpredator
attacksbyassigningonehuntertoitperG4.Changedsolitairegameperjuans
recommendations.Changeplayerorder,thesecondstarnowindicatesthecolorofthesecond
player.InD6,Wanderlustrewrittensoasonlyonepereyeiconislost,anditretainsplayer
coloreveninserviceinforeigntableaus.
Youaresafefromchaosifthenumberofhunters

islessthanorequaltoyourvocabulary(B3).VictoryPoints:HunterCubes:1(PB),1
(HH),2(P),Alpha:2(PB),1(HH),1(P),husbands:3(PB),1(HH),1(P),daughters:
1(PB),2(HH),1(P),trophies2(PB),4(HH),3(P),Dcards:4(allsexualities),
inventions:3(allsexualities),disks:1(allsexualities).
SOPchangedtoaddgathering
totheendofPhase3,andtoimmediatelydiscardingdowntohandsizeratherthan
atendofPhase6.12biomesmodifiedtoaddGathering.Younowneedtwo
hunterstosupporteachdependantduringblizzards.Addedcourtship,rapes,
homosexuality,andeusocialhumanhive.
ConversiontoTribaloccurswith5
insteadof6portalsinthe3playergame.Thefirestartergiventheabilitytocostfree
promoteelders,andthechiefgiventheabilityforcostfreeelderactions.

B1.3

Tribalplayersdisallowedfromparticipatinginthecultureauction!
Exception:Tribalplayers

withharemholdingsexualitycanbid,buttheirbidcountshalf(roundingup).If
promiscuous,Trophies,domesticanimals,andinventionscountas2VP.Husbands,
elders,daughters,anddisksareworthless.Changedbiggameandpredatorbiome
cardstomakeblackdiskslesspreconditionalandmoreaccessible.

B1.2

Changes:A.ThethreeVocalAlphasplayedaselderswith3preconditionalportals.B.AsymmetryinBrain,
startedwithoneportal(red=cromagnon,black=neanderthal,white=archaic)C.Removedcardsfrom
rowsleaveagap,andRowcardsareNOTshifted(G1).D.Require6Portalstogotribal.(i.e.2diskson
eachportal).Require3portals(1ofeachcolor)togainanalphaability.E.AddedVocalActionstoPhase
6,sothatNeolexiaandPortalactionsoccureachturn.ThismeanseliminationofSpeechBalloonEvent.F.
Reducedelderdeathfrequency.G.Portalsdonotcounttowardspreconditions.H.IncreaseMPIinall
sexualitiesonestep.J.Alphaisnotastartingpiece,andcanbebroughtinonlyafteritscorresponding
alphaisinstalled.K.Promiscuousarenotallowedtoplacehusbands,butmayattackforeignhusbandsin
theirtableau.M.Ifyouareharemholding,youneedonly5portalsinsteadofalltoconverttotribalism.
N.NeolexiachangedtoanoptionalPhase6actionthatdoesnotneedadaughter.P.Alldaughtersnow
haveaPortalAction.

B1.1

InD7,perasuggestionofChuckParrot,halfofthewanderlusthuntersofallplayerswanderto
otherplayers.Previouslyitwasonlytheplayerwiththemostlosthunterswhosehunters
wanderedtoothertribes.Asasmallrulechange,IammakingtheVengefulhusbandruleinF2
effectiveonlyforHaremandPairbondingSexualities.Cardchanges:Flintmineschanged,
conjugalwomanreplacedbyflutist,JokingwomanandSheharazadehaveadditionaltextfor
whathappensiftheyaremarried,thefrontsideofbrainmapscorrectedthefliptoTribal
conditionsfromPhase6toPhase1.NewB1.1VassalcreatedbyStefano.

B1.0

RemovedfromgameStartingPortals,FlintRule,SurvivalistGame,SexualArena
Auction,Travois,TravelCosts,SnowflakeIcon,Upkeep,Exchangingdisksforvalue,
homeland.Monogamyreinstituted.
Marrieddaughtersarealwaysfaceup.
I2

WanderlustEventadded.
Vocalplayerscannowattack.
BothPortalsandNeolexiachangedtobeanevent.Neolexiachangedtoallowadisk
fromanydomain.SOPchangedtoremovePortalsfromPhase6,addgatheringto
Phase5.
HandLimitisnow#ofelders.SOPchangedtoadddiscardingdowntohandsizeat
endofPhase6.
AddedMPI(MaleParentalInvestment)tothegameinD5.
Cardsdisplacedduringglobalcoolingorwarmingnowautomaticallyknockoutthe
cardstheydisplaceto.
VocalLimitschanged.
Playersstartwithtwoofeachdisk.
Ifyouarepromiscuous,thenyoucountyourunmarrieddaughtersasunassigned
huntersduringchaos.
Handsize=#ofelders.

CARDCHANGES:MPIeachis3
Changedthebackofthedaughtercards,replaceprocreationwithgathering.
ChangeddaughtercardsfromColdCardstoWarmcards,allowinghighersuccessfor
Sabineraids.
Changeddomesticanimalstoremovethetravois&snowflakeicons,andtoallow
accumulationofdisks.
MarrowScavengingandGroomingaddedtoaboutadozenofeachbiome,as
consolationprizes.
Predatorschangedfrom"biggame"to"club"biomes.
SexualitychangedfromonesidedPublicCardtotwosidedStartingCard.
FireStarternolongerspendswoodforitsantichaosaction.
Predatorshaveincreasedclimax.
Completelychangedsexualitycards&victoryconditionstobesexualitydependant.
A1.0

1.Populationsarerunningtoolow.
Solution1:Iamgoingtotryaddingan"expend1energy,
gain2babies"functiontothefirestarter.
Solution2:Addonemorebabytomostofthe
huntingsuccesses.Solution3:Added2moresmallgame,birds.
Solution4:Reducechaos?
2.Acquisitionofwomenavalanchesto"harem"stylevictories,withthenumberofwomenfar
outnumberingthehunters.
Thebasicproblemisthatwomengrantyouthevocabularytoacquiremorewomen.
Solution1:Changethesnowflakeiconintoadependentsicon,whereuponyoupaydisksifyou
havemoredependentsthanhunters+husbands.(Dependentsareelders,women,anddomestic
animals).
Solution2:Havepopulationcountdoubleatgameendifyouhaveatleastasmany
hunters+husbandsasdependents.
3.Thegameisabittooshort.Thepolytheismisbarelygettingstartedatgamesend.
Solution:
Notsureifshouldstartwith2moreevents,or
addonemoreWrmglacials.
4.Polytheismistoobigofadisadvantageatfirst,becauseitscrubsthediskvictorycondition.
Solution:AllowPolytheismtouseeitherdisksortrophiesasvictory,whichevergreater.
5.ProblemswithorderofplayinPhase6.Solution:Add"Portal"actionrightafterNeolexiaand
beforeElderActions.
6.Predatorsaretooflexible,notallowingstrategiesforavoidingthem.
Solution:Changerulesso
predatorsattacktheclosestonly,orthefirstplayerifmorethanoneequallyclose.Solution2:
Specialrulethatpredatorscan'tcrossglaciers.

I3

7.Assymetricalstarting,eachspeciesgets1portaltostart,
8.Addedhumansexualityevent,andpublicdecktoauction.Theideaistohaveplayershave
moreinterestingdecisionswithdaughterassignment,abitlikethedemographyintheOrigins
Game.SexualityauctionandProcreationaddedtotheSexualityEvent.
9.Thefirestarterseemsweak.Ihavenotdoneanythingaboutthishowever.
10.Increasedtrophypointsby25%.

INTRODUCTION
Thebiggestmysteryinanthropologyiswhatignitedtheculturalrevolution45,000yearsagoinEurope,
whenitsupperhalfwascoveredwithanicesheet.TheArchaics,Neanderthals,andrecentlyarrived
CroMagnons,whohadneverbeforeleftanyrecordofart,religion,ritual,orscience,andwhohadnot
alteredtheirhandaxetechnologyinamillionyears,suddenlyexplodedinaflurryofcavepaintings,
bodyadornments,carvedvenusfigures,intentionalburials,andnewportabletools.Andthisrevolution
spreadfromonehumanspeciestoanother,eachofwhomhadenjoyedlargebrainsforahundred
thousandyearswithoutanypriorculturalactivity.Justwhathadtheybeendoingwithallthat
brainpowerthathadnotmanifesteditselfinasinglenewtoolorbehaviorchangedetectableinthe
archeologicalrecord?Thisgamesuggeststheywereperfectingtheirlanguageskillstoathreshold
pointthatopenedportalsbetweenbraindomainsandenabledlingualfluidity.1

A.SUMMARY
ThethreeplayersrepresenttheArchaicMan2 (green),Neanderthal3 (yellow),andCroMagnon4 (red)
1

Toputthismysteryingamecontext,supposethegametakesplaceover120,000years(150turns)insteadof10,000.Asthe
gamebegins,theEuropeanNeanderthalsarehuntingbiggamewiththeirhaftedthrustingspears,alongsideArchaicshunting
smallergamewiththeirjavelins.MeanwhiletheAfrican
Homosapiens
arespreadingthroughouttherestoftheworld,but
mysteriouslystayingclearoffrostyEurope.Allthreealreadyhadfireandhandaxetechnology,butnotmuchelsehappensfor
thefirst94boringturns.Butthen(45kya)
Homosapiens
CroMagnonfinallyappearsinEurope,andforthenext6game
turnsthereisarevolutionofculturethateitherspreadsfromtheCroMagnonstotheNeanderthals,orviceversa.TheArchaics
mayhavealreadybeenextinctbythistime,andbyturn100theNeanderthalsarealsogone.Byturn135,thePleistoceneis
over,replacedbythewarmHoloceneinterglacial.Menarefarming,settlingincities,throwingpots,andhuntingwitharchery.
Onturn148,Jesusisborn,andturn150isnow.

NotmuchisknownabouttheawkwardlynamedArchaicHomoSapiens(
Homoheidelbergensis
)
.Hecouldbeagarbage

taxon,alabelforthemuseumdrawerwherealltheskullswithabrainsizebetween1100and1400ccarekept.Butheseems
tobeatypeoflargebrainedandrobust
Homoerectus
originatinginAfrica500kya(i.e.500,000yearsago).Heiscorrectly
positionedtobetheancestorofboththeotherspeciesinthegame,andonescenarioisthathetraveledtoEuropeandby150
kyaspawned
H.neanderthalensis
.Meanwhile,thosestillinAfricaspawned
H.sapiens
by120kya.
H.heidelbergensis
was
midwaybetweenNeanderthalsandCroMagnonsinheight,andknowntohavehuntedhorseswithjavelinsinGermany.

TheNeanderthalsareanextinctspeciesofEuropeanandNearEasthominidswholivedfrom150to40kya.Theirbrainsizeof
12001750ccisnotablylargeronaveragethanourown.Theyhaveanatomicalfeaturesadaptedforlivinginglacialclimates,
withstoutmuscularbodies,barrelchests,andshortlegs.Theirremainsseemtohavesufferedahighdegreeofphysical
injuries(similartothosesufferedbyrodeoriders)anddegenerativediseases.Theydiedout5000yearsafterCroMagnons
reachedEurope.

Physically,CroMagnonisjustanothernameforourselves,
Homosapiens
anatomicallymodernhumanswithabrainsizeof

I4

speciesfightingtosurviveinEuropeduringthelastglacialmaximumfrom45,000to35,000yearsago.
Youbeginthegame
vocal
(i.e.wordsforspeechbutnotideas)andwitha
sexuality
(promiscuous,
harem,orpairbonding).

Yourrepertoireoforange,black,andwhitedisksrepresentsyour
vocabulary
ofsocial,technical,andnaturewords.Usethemtoestablishimmature
elders
or
husbands
,ortobidon
culturesrepresentedby
Daughter

Cards
.Regainvocabularyby
hunting
IceAgemegafauna,which
alsogivesyoubabiesforthenextgeneration.Yourculturaldaughtersopenupmental
portals
,
eventuallysparkingaculturalrevolutionconvertingyoutoa
tribal
culture.Historically,bytheendof
thegameallthespeciesdiedoutexceptthedescendantsofCroMagnon(thatsus!).
Turns.Eachgame
turn
represents40generations(perhaps800years).Eachturnhassix
phases
(
A1
)
duringwhicheachplayerperformshisactionsforthephasebeforegoingtothenext.
Termsbeingdefinedarelistedin
bold
,or
italicized
ifdefinedelsewhere.
TheGoldenRule.Ifthetextonacardcontradictstheserules,thecardhaspreference.
Youmaycombinethisgamewith
Greenland
,whichusesmanyofthesamerules,mechanisms,and
components(
K1
).
Differenceswiththegame
Greenland
.Besidesintroducingnewconcepts(vocal,sexuality,blizzards,
predators,gathering,portals,neolexia,wanderlust,preconditiontools,andmaturity),
Neanderthal
uses
different
diskmanagement
(
B3
),anew
firestarterelder
(
D4
),andnovelcostingfor
promotion
(
E2
),
marriage
(
E3
),and
elderactions
(
I3
).Becausethereisnorerolling,theturnsshouldgofaster.Youare
allowedtoattemptintermarriageassolitarycourtinghunters,notasapartyofSabineraiders.

A1.NEANDERTHALSEQUENCEOFPLAY(sixphasesperturn)
1.EVENT&CULTUREAUCTION(PartD).RevealaDaughterCardtobegintheturn.Thisindicates
the
firstplayer
(
A2
)andtheturnseventicons(seelastpage),appliedtoptobottomtoallplayers.Then
auctionthedaughtershownonthebottom(
D7
).
2.HUNTERASSIGNMENT(PartE).Allplayersassigntheirhuntercubestohuntbiomes(
E1
),become
elders(
E2
),orperformcourtships(
E3
).
3.NEGOTIATIONS,ATTACKS,&GATHERING(PartF).
Aslongasoneofthenegotiatorshasachief,playerscanbribeotherstopeacefullywithdrawhunters
fromcontestedbiomes,includingmarryingthemtotheirdaughters(
F1
).
Playersmustusetheirhunterstoattackotherhuntersonthesamecard(
F2
).
Gatheringspeciesaddoneunassignedhunterforeachgatheringbiome(
F3
)theyoccupy.
4.ROLLFORHUNT(PartG).AllplayersmakeHuntRolls,rollingonediceforeachoftheirassigned
hunters.Ifthenumberofhitsrolledisatleastequaltothenumberofhitdiceicons,addnewbabies
(i.e.huntercubesforthenextgeneration)and/orfreededicateddisksofthecolorindicatedintoyour
vocabulary.
The1icon=each1rolledisahit.The*icon=each1or2rolledisahit.
HunterAttrition.Thefrostbiteandanimalbiteiconsshowwhichdicerollskilloffhunters,regardlessif
thehuntissuccessfulornot(
G0
).
Successfullycourtingaforeignmaturedaughterplacesahusbandcube(
G1
).
12001700cc.Butcognitivelytheirmindswerenotasinventiveorflexibleasoursuntiltheculturalrevolutionat40kya,
aboutthetimetheyfirstinvadedEurope.BythistimetheyhadalreadybeeninAfricafor80,000years,Asiafor60,000years,
andAustraliafor20,000years.Today,theyaretheonlysurvivingmemberofthe
Homo
lineage.

I5

HavingcertainICards(inventions)allowsdicerollinga3tobecountedas1s(
G2
).
Onacontestedbiome,thefirsttohuntsuccessfullysendsallothershomeemptyhanded(
G3
).
Afterasuccessfulbiggamehunt,movethehunterstotheclosestpredatorintherowforasecondhunt
(
G4
).
Biomeswithtrophiescanbeaddedtoyourtableau(
G5
),andarentreplaced,leavingagapintherow.
Biomeswithinventionsordomesticableanimalscanbetakenintoyourhand(G6),butarereplacedin
therow.
Survivingcubesarereturnedtoyourunassignedhunters(
B0
).
5.DOMESTICANIMALS(PartH).Eachmature
D
Cardinyourtableaugivesyouthebabiesandfrees
thedisksspecified.
6.ELDERACTIONS(PartI).Youmayperformoneaction:
PortalAction(vocalonly)addsoneportaldiskfromyourvocabularytoyourbrainmap(
I1
).Thiscan
flipyourplacardtotribalism.
NeolexiaAction(vocalonly)freesonededicateddisktoyourvocabulary(
I2
).
ElderAction(tribalonly)addone
D
or
I
Card(asspecified)fromyourhandtoyourtableau(
I3
).To
performanElderAction,youneedanelderoftheproperrank(i.e.rowonyourplacard).Youalsomust
dedicateavocabularydiskofthespecifiedcolorbyplacingitonthe
D
or
I
Card.

A2.PLAYERORDERPHASES1&2
Theleftmosticoninthemiddleoftheturn'sDaughterCardshowsthecolorofthe
firstplayer
,andthe
colorofthenextoneshowsthesecondplayer.Forthefirsttwophases,thefirstplayerperformsthephase
first,thenthesecondplayer,andfinallythelastplayer.
CouncilofWar.Ifthisturnscarddesignatesyouasthefirstplayerandyouhavearank4elder
(warrior)atthestartoftheturn,youmaydesignateotherplayersasthefirstandsecondplayerforthe
entireturn.

A3.NEGOTIATE/ATTACKORDERPHASE3
Anyhuntersremainingonacontestedcardafternegotiationsmust
attack
(
F2
)huntersofotherplayers.
Theplayerwiththemostblackvocabularydisksattacksfirst.5Iftiedforthemostblackdisks,goin
playerorder(
A2
).
AttackFirst.Thetotemwomanallowsyoutoattackfirstinanycontestedcard.Iftied,goinmostblack
diskorder.
5

BlackdisksrepresenttheAcheuleanstonetoolindustryincludingtheubiquitoushandaxe.Thispearshapedflinttoolwasused
byallthreespeciesinthegame,andindeedhadbeenthehominidtoolofchoiceforamillionyears.Butnobodyknowswhatit
wasfor.Itcouldhavebeenusedforallsortsofjobs:butcheringanimals,cuttingplants,strippingbark,extractingmarrow,or
alloftheabove.Sincetheyweresharpallaround,perhapstheywereaprojectileforslings.Butwhytheobsessiveattentionto
symmetryandrefinedform?Whyweresomanyneededforthesmallgroups,thousandsinsomesites?Whydoeswear
analysisindicatethatmostwereunused?Whyweresomemuchtoobigortoosmallforanypracticaluse?Whydosomeseem
tohavebeenabandonedstuckintothegroundpointfirst?Thesefactsarguethatthehandaxeformwasdrivennotby
technology,whichrequiresbothaverbalcognitivetemplateandtheabilitytomanipulateverbalcreatedimagesinonesmind.
Rather,itsformwasmorelikelymaintainedbyDarwiniansexualselection,assuminglekbehaviorwherefemalesselected
thetoolmakerwiththemostperfectlymadehandaxe.Ifthehandaxewastheproductoffemaleratherthantechnological
choice,itwouldexplainwhythedesignwassostaticforsolong,byfarthelongestusedtoolinhumanexperience.Whatever
itsfunction,theculturalrevolutionabruptlyendedthereignofthehandaxe.NotasingleonehasbeenuncoveredinAmerica,
forinstance,whichwascolonizedseveralthousandyearsaftertherevolution.

I6


A4.HUNTORDERPHASE4
Huntorcourtbiomesinthisorder:
(1).
Each
playerrollsforeachofhisuncontestedcourtshipsandnonpredatorbiomes,inanorderofhis
choice.
(2).Rollforeachcontestedcourtshipandnonpredatorbiome,inanorderdeterminedbythefirstplayer.
(3).Rollforall
predatorbiomes
(
G4
),inanorderspecifiedbythefirstplayer.
Note:Somehuntersmay
havebeentransferredtothepredatorbiomeper
G4
.Firsthunterrulesapplyifmultiplehuntergroups
onapredator.
LeastHunterOrder.Onacontestedcard,theplayerwiththeleastnumberofhunterstherehuntsfirst.If
tied,goin
playerorder
(
A2
).
HuntFirst.
TheTotemWomanallowsyoutohuntfirst.
Iftied,goinleasthunterorder.

Note:Theremainingphases(5&6)goinanyorder.

B.COMPONENTS
54
PopulationCubes
represent
elders
ifonaPlacard,
husbands
ifonthehusbandspotofadaughter,
and
hunters
ifanywhereelse.Thereare18ineachoftheplayercolors(CroMagnon=red,
Neanderthal=yellow,Archaic=green).Youmustkeepyour
unassignedhunters
separatefromthe
common
deadpile
.
3Cylinders
.Eachplayerhasacylinder,usedforthe
Alpha
(
E5
).
15OrangeDisks
representsocialwords.Usethesetoraisedaughterswithsocialskillsandtopromote
huntersintohusbands,warriors,orchiefs.Alldiskshelpkeepyourtribeunifiedandnotwanderinginto
chaos.6
15WhiteDisks
representnaturewords(includingtheuseofbone,antler,andivory
)
.Usethesetoraise
daughterswithnatureskills,promotehuntersintoshamansandtrappers,toinventbonetools,and
domesticateanimals.
15BlackDisks
representtechnicalwords

(especiallyformakingandusingstonetools).Usethesetoraise
daughterswithtechnicalskills,promotehuntersintofirestartersandknappers,attackfirst,andto
inventflinttools.
60Cards
(Seethesideofthebox).Thereare21DaughterCards,18NorthEuropeBiomes,18South

Whydodisksrepresentwords?Iarguethat(1)wordsarethemostimportanthumaninventionever,and(2)theprimary
functionofwordsisnotcommunicationwithothers,butcommunicationwithoneself,asthebasisforconsciousness.
Introspectonyourownthoughts,astreamofwordswithgrammarandsyntax,runningmoreorlesscontinuously(evenat
night,withratherlesscontex).Animals(andhumansformostoftheirhistory)hadnorunningstream,astheylackedthe
vocabulary.Butatsomepoint(whichIpostulatetobetheeventcalledtheculturalrevolution),thefirstwordwasusedboth
duringspeakingandasaunitofmentalprocessing.Thewordcametobeusedasthemediumbywhichtheleftword
buildinghalfofthebraincommunicatedwiththerightexecutivehalfofthebrain,followingtheideasofJulianJaynes.See
theessayattheendoftherulesbook.

I7

EuropeBiomes,and3SexualityCards.
3Placards
(Eachplayerstartswithone,seethesideofthebox).Youstartonthevocalside,depicting
theBrainMap.DisksplacedonyourBrainMapindicate
portals
betweenyourthreebraindomains.7
Cubesonthevocalsiderepresentupto4kindsofelders,eachwiththeabilitiesshown.Fliptotheother
sideifyouconvertto
tribalism
,allowingtwomoreelders.
10Sixsideddice(10d6)
.UseforAttacks,HuntRolls,andElderDieOff.

B1.BIOMETYPEANDCLIMAX
Theiconintheupperrightcornerofabiomedescribesthebiometype:eitherbiggamehunting,small
gametrapping,orraidingorflintcollecting.
Climax.Thenumbernexttotheiconistheclimax.Thelowerthenumber,themorelikelyitistobe
replacedbyglobalwarmingorcooling(
D1
).
Unfortunately,bothcard26(reddeer)andcard35(chamois)bothhaveaclimaxof16.Therefore,use
dicetodecidewhichhasthelowerclimax,shoulditberequired.

B2.TABLEAUANDHANDMANAGEMENT
YouwillmanageafaceuprowofcardsalongsideyourPlacardcalledyour
tableau
.Yourstartingtableau
willcontainyourplacardandasexualitycard.Duringthegameyouwilladddaughters,trophies,
domesticanimalsandinventions.
Hand.Biomeswiththehandiconcanbetakenintoyourhandper
G6
.Whileinyourhandthey
representunrealizedideas,andsoarenotinplayandtheirabilitiesandVParenotactivateduntilplayed
intoyourtableauasanElderAction(
I3
).DaughterCardsyoupurchaseinauctiongodirectlyintoyour
tableau(alongsideyourPlacard).
HandSize.YourHandSizeisequaltothenumberofyourmatureelders.(Beforetheadventofliteracy,
onlyelderswereabletopassinformationbetweengenerations.)
HandSizeReckoning.IfyouacquireanewHandCardandyourhandisfull,youmustchooseoneto
discard.IfyourHandSizedrops(e.g.youloseanelder),youmustdiscardHandCardsuntilyourHand
Sizeisreached.
DorICards.Biomesthatcanbetakenintoyourhandaremarkedwithapurplebandanda
D

LedaCosmidesandJohnToobydescribethreeancientmentaldomainsofspecializedintelligence:
social
formindreading
andinteractingwithotherindividuals,
naturalhistory
forunderstandingthenaturalworld,and
technical
forthemanufacture,
manipulation,andhurlingofstoneandwoodenartifacts.Evidenceforthesemodulesstemsfromtheinabilityofanimalsand
earlymantobeabletouseinformationobtainedfromprocessinginonedomaininanother.Thischangedwhentheprocessing
unitsinallthreedomainscametobemappedtovocalizationsthathumanscanmake.

I8

(domesticableanimals),orabrownbandandan
I
(inventions).

B3.DISKMANAGEMENT&MATURITY
Youarestrictlylimitedtothe5orange,5white,and5blackdisksyoustartwith.Youwillnevergain,
trade,changecolor,orloseanydisks.Yourdiskswillalwaysbeeitherfree(i.e.inyourvocabulary)or
dedicated
.
Vocabulary.Thisisthenumberofdisksinyourpool.Useyour
vocabulary
forbiddingintheculture
auction,preconditiontoolsforhunting,andestablishingimmatureelders,husbands,anddomestic
animals.Finally,alargevocabularypromotessocialcohesionbypreventingchaos.
Portals.Thesearedisksinyourbrainmap.Useyourportalsforneolexiaandaspreconditionsforelders
ofranks3,4,and5.Portaldisksarenotfreeduntilyouhaveacertainnumber,whereuponyouconvert
totribalism.
ImmatureEldersandHusbands.Adiskdedicatedtoestablishanelderorhusbandisplacedunderhis
cubetoindicateheisnotyet
mature
.Thisdiskmaybefreedby
neolexia
(
I2
),
hunting
(
G3
),or
domesticanimals
(
H1
).
ImmatureDaughters,
D
Cards,and
I
Cards.Disksdedicatedtobidonadaughter,todomesticatean
animal,orcreateaninventionareplacedonthecardtoindicateitisnotyetmature
anditsabilitiesare
inactive
.Thesedisksmaybefreedby
neolexia
(
I2
),
hunting
(
G3
),or
domesticanimals
(
H1
).
Thecard
ismatureonceallthedisksareremoved.

MPIDisks.IfyouhaveHaremHoldingorPromiscuoussexuality,placedisks,called
MPIdisks
,on
yoursexualitycardwhereindicated.Thesedisksareremovedfromyourvocabularyandarenotfreed
unlessyouchangesexuality.8

B4.CUBEMANAGEMENT
Youarelimitedtothe1cylinderand18cubesofyourcolorprovided.Youmayuseyouralphacylinder
asanordinaryhunter.Hehasnospecialabilitiesunlessyouhaveoneormoreeldersofranks3,4,or5
(
E2
).
AlphaHunterSwap.Duringanyphase,youmayswapyouralphacylinderwithanunassignedhunter,if
youralphaisinthedeadpileorpermanentlyassignedasanelderorhusband.

MPIstandsforMaleParentalInvestment,thetimeandenergythefatheriswillingtoinvestsothathischildrenwillsurviveto
breedingage.Mostmammalianmalesprovidenoparentalcare,andtheirspermistheirsolecontributiontotheiroffspringand
theirtemporarymate.Thisisrepresentedbythe6MPIdisksforthepromiscuoussexuality.Butthebigheadedhumanbabies
arebornprematurelyincomparisontootherprimates,andformanymonthsarehelpless.Humanmaleshunterscouldachieve
aconsiderablegeneticpaybackbysharingthehandy,densepackagesofproteintheybroughtback.

I9

C.SETUP
1.Events.SeparatetheDaughterCards,andrandomlyselect
10
ofthemtogointoashuffledfacedown
stack.Setasidetheremainderforpossibleuselater.

2.DrawDecks.SeparatetheNorthEuropeBiomes(asstatedonthecardback),whichgointoashuffled
facedowndeck.DothesamefortheSouthEuropeBiomes,inadeckjustbelowtheNorthDeck.9

3.EuropeanBiomes.RevealthetopsixcardsoftheNorthEuropeDeckandspreadthemintoarowtothe
rightofthedrawdeck.DothesamefortheSouthEuropeDeck.ThesearetheNorthandSouth
rows
.

4.StartingPlacards.RandomlyassigneachplayertoaPlacard(red,yellow,orgreen).PlaceyourPlacard
infrontofyouonitsvocalside(showingthebrain)tostartyour
tableau
seethesideofthebox.

5.SexualityCards.Distributeeachofthethreedoublesidedcardswithacometiconintheupperright
cornerrandomlytoeachplayer.Eachplayerchoosesa
sexuality
byplacingthiscardeitherfacedown
10
orfaceupintohistableau.

6.StartingCubes.Eachplayergetsthe18cubesandthecylinderofhiscolor.Place6cubesbelowyour
Placardtheseareyour
unassignedhunters
.Putanothercubeintotheelderspotinthelowerleftcorner
(markedwithadownwardarrow)thisisyour
firestarterelder
.Putthecylinderandtheremaining
cubesintoacommunal
deadpile
forallplayers.Itsbesttouseasmallbowltokeepthecommon
deadpileseparatefromthelivinghunters.

7.StartingDisks.Starteachplayerwith5disksofeachcolor.Storethese15disksnexttoyourplacard.
Thisiscalledyour
vocabulary
.
StartingPortal.Fromyourvocabulary,placeonediskofthecolorspecifiedintheportalspotmarked
withadownwardarrowonthebrainmap.
FireStarter.Fromyourvocabulary,placeoneblackdiskunderyoureldercube.Thisindicateshestarts
immature.
MPIDisks.Fromyourvocabulary,placethenumberofdisksindicatedonyoursexualitycard(
B3
).

Europe,thecoldestandmosticeboundcornerofthemegacontinent,wasfirstinvaded800kyaby
Homoerectus
.Subsequent
invasions,likelyacrossthe
Bosphorus
andalongthe
Danubiancorridor
,occurredby500kya(ArchaicMan),by150kya
(Neanderthal),andby45kya(CroMagnon).BythetimeoftheLastGlacialMaximum(20kya),thewholeof
Continental
Europe
(except
Scandinavia
andregionscoveredbyice),hadbeensettled.Thehybridizationofhumansandtheharsh
conditionsofEuropeseemedtohavekindledtheculturalrevolution.

10

Threeofhumanitysclosestlivingrelativespracticethreedifferentmatingstrategies,eachofwhicharepracticedinsome
humansocietiestoday.Chimpsarepromiscuous,gibbonsaremonogamouspairbonders,andgorillasareharemholders.
Judgingfromthesocialhabitsofmanashenowexists,andfrommostsavagesbeingpolygamists,themostprobableviewis
thatprimevalmanaboriginallylivedinsmallcommunities,eachwithasmanywivesashecouldsupportandobtain,whomhe
wouldhavejealouslyguardedagainstallothermen.Orhemayhavelivedwithseveralwivesbyhimself,liketheGorilla.

TheDescentofMan,CharlesDarwin,1871.

I10

C1.THETWOPLAYERGAME
Picktworandomcultures,andthecardsofthethirdculturearenotused.
FirstPlayer.Ifaplayercolorwhoisnotinthegameisassignedtogofirst,thecolorofsecondicon
designateswhichplayeractuallygoesfirst.
Conversiontotribaloccurswith6insteadof5portals.

D.PHASE1,EVENTS&CULTUREAUCTION
(playerorder)
RevealtheDaughterCardanddeterminethe
firstplayer
per
A2
.
Applyfromtoptobottomeachofthecards
eventicons
toallplayers(
D1
to
D6
).
Vocalplayers
auction
thecardasadaughterper
D7
.

D1.GLOBALCOOLINGANDWARMING(sunicon)11
The
globalcoolingicon
meanstotakethetopcardofthenorthernEuropedeckand,withoutrevealingit,
useitasan
icesheet
(i.e.facedown)toreplacethelowest
climax
(
B1
)cardinthenorthrow.Thecard
whichhasbeenreplacedshiftsdirectlysouth,replacingthecardalreadythere,whichisdiscardedfrom
thegame.
Considericesheetstobeveryhighclimax,sotheyarenotaffectedbyclimatechangeotherthan
GlacialMelt(nextbullet).Ifthenorthisentirelyiceduringglobalcooling,shiftoneicesheetdirectly
south(intoagapifany,ordisplacingthelowestclimaxsoutherncardifnogaps)tomakeroomfor
anothernorthernicesheet.

Example
:Globalcoolingoccurs.TheexistingthreecardsintheNorthRowareclimax12,23and27.
Theclimax12cardisdisplacedtothesouthandreplacedwithanewfacedowncarddrawnfromthe
northdeck,representingthegrowthofanorthernicesheet.Thedisplacedcardshiftssouth,and
replacesthecardimmediatelybelow.

The
globalwarmingicon
meanstorevealthetopcardofthesouthernEuropedeckanduseittoreplace
thelowest
climax
(
B1
)cardinthesouthrow.Shiftthereplacedcarddirectlynorth,eitherintoagapif
thereisonethere,ordisplacingthecardtherewhichgoesoutofthegame.However,ifthecardalready
thereisanicesheet,theninsteadflipitovertorevealitsnoniceside,anddiscardtheshiftingcardout
ofthegame.
GlacialMelt.Afterthenewcardisplaced,globalwarmingmeltsanyicesheetsinsouthernEurope.
11

OverthelasttwomillionyearsEarthhasbeeninthegripofanIceAgethatcontinuestoday.TheglacialperiodsofthisIce
Agewereinterruptedoccasionallybywarmer(butstillverycold)periodscalledinterglacials.Weliveinoneofthosebrief
interglacials,andmayconsideritwarmoutside,butshouldnotforgetthatthelasttimeEarthhadseenactualiceatthepoles
oronmountaintopswas250,000kya,longbeforethedinosaurs.Sotodayisabnormallycold.Atthestartofthegame45kya,
itwasatleast5CcolderwithtemperaturesdroppingevenfurtherduringtheWrmglaciation.Asmoreandmorewaterwas
tiedupinthespreadingicesheets,Earthsuffereddesertification,droughts,anddroppingsealevels.Humanswereforcedsouth
astheiceadvanced.

I11

Indicatethisbyflippingthesecardsfaceup.

D2.
WRM
GLACIAL(glaciericon)12
TakeanotherDaughterCardatrandomfromtheunuseddeck,andwithoutlookingatit,placeitonthe
bottomofthegameseventdeck.Thisaddsonemoreturntothegame.

D3.ELDERDIEOFF(diceskullicon)
Eachplayerrollsanumberofdiceequaltothenumberofdiceskullicons,andkillsoffeach
elderoftherankrolled,ifhehasany(
A1.6
).Heconsignsthedeadcubetothedeadpile,
andifit
isimmature,returnsthedisktohisvocabulary.
Ifhehasnoelderoftheaffectedranks,thereis
noeffect.

D4.CHAOS(cometicon)13
Ifthecometiconappears,allplayersremoveatleasthalftheir
unassignedhunters
,i.e.allthe
huntersyouhaveavailableforhunting,includingyourcylinderandforeign
wanderlusthunters
(
D6
).Youalsoloseexactlyoneelder(ofyourchoice,
matureorimmature
)ifyouhaveany.
Placetheremovedcubesintothedeadpile.
ChaosImmunity.Youaresafefromchaosifthenumberofyourhuntersislessthanorequalto
your
vocabulary
(
B3
).Iftribal,youarealsosafefromchaosifyouhaveamaturechiefinthe
rank1spot.Thisantichaosprotectionisshownbytheslashedcometicon.
FireStarter.Ifyouhaveamaturefirestarterintherank6spot,yourchaoslossesarerounded
downinsteadofup,andyoudonotloseanelder.
SexualityDecision.Ifyousufferanylossesduringthischaosevent,youmayflipyour
sexualitycardtoitsotherside,releasingany
MPIdisks
(
B3
)thatwereonit.Ifthenew
sexualityrequiresMPIdisks,thesemustbeaddedorthesexualitychangefails.

Example
:Inachaosevent,Archaichastwohuntercubes,plushisalphamakesthree
unassignedhunters.Heisvocal,andhasthefirestarterelder,allowinghimtoroundlosses
downandignoretheelderloss.Hethereforelosesonehuntertochaos.Ifhedidnothavethefire
starterelder,hewouldlosebothhishuntercubes,leavingonlyhisalpha.Becauseofhishunter
loss,hemayfliphissexuality.
12

Quiz:Whatwastheworstenvironmentaldisasterinallofhumanexperience?Onethatrendered20%30%oftheEarthsland
areaaslifelessasthemoon?Answer:Thelastglacialmaximum,especiallytheWrmGlacialinEuropefrom70to11kya.

13

Chaosreferstothelackofgroupcohesioncausedmainlybytheselfishgene.Itsamyththatindividualanimalsactforthe
goodoftheirspeciestheyactuallyactforthefurtheranceoftheirgenes.Violentstrugglesduringcourtshipforaccessto
femalesleadtothetopplingofthealphamale(athemeexploredinourgame
PaxPorfiriana
).Atopplingleadstomass
infanticide,anothersourceofchaoswhichisthecauseofathirdofgorilladeaths.Thenewdominantmalekillsofftheinfants
thatherealizesdonotsharehisgenes.Althoughmostfemalemammalsknowwhentheyareovulating,humanfemalesdo
not.Concealedovulationmayhaveevolvedinhumanstokeepdaddyathomeatalltimes,protectingthegenesinvestedin
hiskids,whenotherwisehewouldbetemptedtowanderoffinsearchforovulatingfemalestoimpregnatewhenhisown
matewasnotfertile.

I12


D5.BLIZZARD(blizzardicon)14
Theblizzardiconmeansthateachplayerdiscardshischoiceofdependentshecannotsupport.
Youneedtwounassignedhunters(includingalphasandforeignwanderlust)tosupporteach
dependent.
Dependents.Eachelder,unmarrieddaughter,anddomesticanimalinyourtableauisa
dependent
.Unsupportedeldersgotothedeadpile,whileunsupporteddaughtersanddomestic
animalsarediscardedoutofthegame.Husbandsareneitherhuntersnordependents.
ImmatureDependents.Immatureelders,daughters,anddomesticanimalsarealsodependents.
Iflost,thisfreestheirdiskswhicharereturnedtoyour
vocabulary
(
B3
).

Example
:Inablizzard,youhave5hunters,2unmarrieddaughters,2elders,and1domestic
animal.Your5hunterscanonlysupport2dependentsandyouchoosetolosetheanimaland
boththeelderstopreservethedaughters.

D6.WANDERLUST(eyewingicon)
Wanderlusthunters
arehuntercubesofoneplayerscolorcontrolledbyanotherplayer.Ifyou
lostthemosthuntersduringthechaosevent,youwillloseonecubeofyourcolorfromthe
deadpileforeacheyewingiconontheDaughterCard.Iftiedinthenumberofhunterslost,
useplayerordertoseewhosehunterswander.Youmovethesecubes,called
wanderlust
hunters
,toanotherplayers
unassignedhunters
.Inathreeplayergame,youchoosewhich
playerorplayerstheywanderto.Oncethere,thesewanderlusthuntersareinhisservice,yet
retainyourplayercolor.Hetreatsthemexactlylikehisownhunterswiththefollowing
exceptions:
Chaperone.Everyhuntingpartyassignedtoabiomemusthaveatleastonenonwanderlust
hunter.Toavoidconfusion,placethiscubeontopofoneofthewanderlusthunters.
Wanderlusthunterscannotbecomealphas,elders,orhusbands.
Victory.Wanderlusthunterscounttowardvictoryaccordingtotheircolor,nottowardin
whosecamptheyreside.

Example
:Neanderthalhasonlythreeunassignedhuntersleft,andtwoofthemarered
wanderlustcubes.Hesufferschaos(orsomeotherhunterloss),andmustlosetwocubes.He
choosesbothoftheredcubestodie,senttothecommondeadpile.(Whatisbeingsimulated
hereisassimilation,notthatallforeignersareliterallythefirsttodie).

14

Huntergatherersurvivalisallaboutgettingthroughthebadtimes,theblizzardiconrepresentsaparticularlyharshwinter.If
yourenergysuppliesrunlowbeforespringcomes,youmustsacrificeelders,unmarrieddaughters,orfarmanimals.

I13

D7.CULTUREAUCTION(vocalonly)15
Afterthecardseventsareresolved,allvocalplayersmaybidforit.Tribalplayersmaynotbid
(becausetheirtribesculturehasbeenfixedbytheirverbaltaboosandtraditions).Exception:
Tribalplayerswithharemholdingsexualityaretreatedasvocalduringcultureauctions,buttheir
bidcountshalf(withoutrounding).Ifacardisnotbidupon,discarditoutofthegame.
BidMedia.Youmayonlyusedisksinyourvocabularyofthecolor(s)showninthemiddleofthecard
forbidding.Allofthesedisksareofequalvalue.
BidProcedure.Anyvocalplayercaninitiatethebidbyannouncinganumberofdisksandanyother
vocalplayercanmatchthisorincreaseit.Whenbidding,youdonotneedtospecifythediskcolor.
Whennobodyiswillingtogohigher,thehighbidderwinsandthelosersgettheirbidsreturned.
MinimumBid.Theminimumbidisonedisk.
Ties.Ifthebidistied,resolvein
playerorder
(
A2
).Thecaringwomanalsobreaksties.
Ifyouwintheauction,addthecardasa
DaughterCard
toyourtableauoriented180,sohersidereads
upright.Placethedisksyoubidonher,whichindicatesthatsheisinactivedueto
immaturity
(
B3
).

Example1:
Thegenerouswomanisupforbid,whorequiresblackororangebidmedia.PlayersRedand
Yelloweachbidoneorangedisk,andneitheriswillingtobidhigher.SincePlayerYellowisthefirst
player,hewinsthebidandplacesthedaughterintohisTableauwithoneorangediskonher.Player
Redgetshisbidreturnedtohisvocabulary.

Example2:
Adaughterwithabidmediaoforangeisupforbid.ButArchaicistheonlyvocalplayer
withanorangedisk,sohecanbuyherforoneorange(theminimumbid).Thisdiskisplacedonthe
DaughterCardinhistableau.Supposeanotherplayeristribalharemholdingandalsocanbid.Ifheis
thefirstplayer,hecanbidtwoorangedisks(eachcountashalf)andwinthebid.Ifheisinsteadthe
lastinplayerorder,hecanbidthreedisksandwinthebid.

E.PHASE2,HUNTERASSIGNMENT
(playerorder)
In
playerorder
(
A2
),eachplayer
assigns
hisunassignedhuntersbyplacingitonacard,eitheraBiome
(hunting),Placard(promotion),oraDaughterCard(
courting
).Youmayassigncubesinanyorder.
Youmayplaceasmanycubesona
Biome
cardasyouwish,orleavesomeunassigned.
Youarelimited
toonehunterperElderslotorDaughterCard.
Youmayaddhuntersonmultiplecards.

E1.HUNTINGBIOMES
Tohuntoneofthebiomesthatarerevealed,placehuntercubesdirectlyonit.
HuntingPreconditionTools.Youmaynotplaceanyhuntersonacardunlessyouhavetheone
15

AccordingtoValrieFridland,ProfessorofLinguisticsattheUniversityofNevada,sincewomenaretheprimarycaregiver,
theyarethevanguardoflinguisticchangewhichtheypassontochildren.

I14

ortwo
preconditiontools
indicatedinthehuntresultsrowofthebiomecard.Forinstance,to
huntthesteppebison,youneedtohaveablackdisk,representingtechnicaljargon.Thisdisk
mustbepartofyour
vocabulary
(
B3
),andisnotexpendedbythehunt.Ifyouhuntmultiple
cardswithpreconditions,youneedenoughdisksforallofthem.16
PlacinghuntersonthecardentitlesyoutomakeahuntrollinPhase4,evenifyouhaveno
longerhavethepreconditiontoolsinyourvocabularybythen.

E2.ELDERSANDPROMOTIONTOELDER
Promoteanunassignedhuntertoelderstatusplacingitscubeononeoftheelderranksonthe
Placard.Thisisa
permanentassignment
(
E4
),andhislistedbenefitsareeffectiveassoonashe
matures
(
B3
).Thereare6elderranks:1=chief(tribalonly),2=shaman(tribalonly),3=
knapper,4=warrior,5=trapper,and6=firestarter.
PromotionCosts.Unlessyouhavefreepromotions,youmustsetavocabularydiskunderthe
cube,ofacolorthesameasthecoloroftheelderrankicon(orange,white,orblack).Thisdisk
indicatesheisimmature.Oncemature(i.e.hisdiskis
freed
per
B3
),allhislistedabilitiesare
activated.
Limits.Youarelimitedto
one
elderperrank,andelderscannotchangeranks.
Phase1(Event)ElderBenefits.Thechiefprotectsyourtribefromchaos.Thewarriorallows
youtodesignateanotherplayertobethefirstplayer,ifyouaretheassignedfirstplayer.
Phase2(HunterAssignment)ElderBenefits.Thefirestartergivesyoucostfreeelder
promotions.17
Phase3(Negotiations/Attacks)ElderBenefits.Thechiefallowsyourhuntersto
negotiate
(
F1
).
Thewarriorallows
warparty
formation(
F2
).
Phase4(Hunting)ElderBenefits.Thefirestarterprotectsyourhuntersfromfrostbite.The
knapper,warrior,andtrappergiveyour
alpha
specialpowers(
E5
).Alleldersincrease
Hand
Size
(
B2
).
Phase6(ElderAction)ElderBenefits.Thechiefletsyouperform
your
ElderActionwithoutcost.The
shaman,knapper,ortrappercanperforman
ElderAction
(
I3
).
PreconditionDisks.IfVocal,youmaynotpromoteanelderofranks3,4,or5unlessyouhavea
portal
(
I1
)ofeachofthe3colorsinthespecifieddomain.Thisissimilarto
PreconditionTools
(
E1
),except
therequireddisksareportalsinsteadofvocabulary.

Example
:Youhaveablackvenusportalandtwoshamanportals(whiteandorange).Thisgivesyou
portalsofallthreecolorsinyoursocialdomain,satisfyingthepreconditionsforawarriorelder(rank
4).DuringPhase2,youpromoteahunterintoawarriorbyputtingitscubeontopofanorangedisk
16

Noticethatpredatorshavenopreconditiontools.Huntingapredatoristobeinterpretedasapproachingitjustafteritmadea
kill,andscaringitawaywithtorchessoyoucanstealitsmeat.Notforthefaintofheart.

17

Althoughearlierhumansseemtohaveusedfireopportunisticallyandrarely,Neanderthalswerethefirsttoregularlyexhibit
fireandhearthsintheircampsitesandshowsignstheyhadmasteredstartingfires,notjusttransportingliveembers.This
happenedverylateintheirtenure,about60kya.

I15

whereindicatedintheupperleftcorneroftheplacard.Theorangediskindicatestheelderisimmature.

E3.HUSBANDSANDPROMOTIONTOHUSBAND
Unlesspromiscuous,youmaypromoteanunassignedhunterto
husband
statusbyplacinghiscubeonthe
husbandspot
ofoneofthe
mature,andunmarried
DaughterCardsinyourtableau.Thisisa
permanent
assignment
(
E4
),andhisbenefitsareeffectiveassoonashe
matures
(
B3
).
PromotionCosts.Unlessyouhavefreehusbandpromotion,whenpromotingahusbandintoyourown
tableauyoumustplaceanorangevocabularydiskunderthehusbandcube.Thisindicatesheis
immature(althoughhehasalimited
attack
abilityper
F2
).Oncemature(i.e.hisdiskis
freed
per
B3
),
allhisabilitiesareactivated.
Benefits.Amaturehusbandmakeshiswifeintoanondependent,defendsherfromsuitors,andis
worthVPatthegamesend.Ifyouarepairbonding,ahusband
(matureorimmature)
isrequiredto
unlockyourdaughtersbenefits.
Endogamous&ExogamousCourtship.Youcanalsoattempttobecomeahusbandof
aforeign
unmarrieddaughter,
oramarrieddaughter,eitherforeignordomestic.
Youmayonlyonlyassignone
courtinghunter
perdaughter.Forcourtshipprocedureandsuccess,see
G1
.18

E3A.TROUBADOURCOURTSHIP
(Optionalalternatecourtship,inspiredbyShakespearesRomeo).
Inthisoption,allcourtersarecalled
troubadours
,whodifferinthattheycannotbecomehusbandsuntil
Phase4.

AssigningTroubadoursinPhase2(Replaces
E3
):Eachplayerisallowedtoassignoneunassignedhunter
asatroubadourperdaughter,placedsomewhereonthedaughterheiswooing.Atroubadourofany
sexualitycanwooanydaughter(matureorimmature,foreignordomestic,marriedorsingle).Since
courtingalwaysfailsifthedaughterisimmature,youshouldnotassignhimtoanimmaturedaughter
unlessyouthinkthedaughterwillmaturebythetimethecourtingrollismade.

MultipleSuitors(replaces4thbulletof
G1
).Ifusingtroubadours,courtshiprollsareperformedinmost
vocabularyorderratherthaninPlayerOrder.(Thisrepresentsaverbalwooing).Onlythevocabulary
colorsshownonthebidmediainthecenterofthedaughtercardcount.Iftied,thedaughtersfather
decidesbetweenthem.The
first
successfulcourtshipmustinstallahusbandifitispossibletodoso,and
mustsendallothersuitorshomeunrequited,whetherornotitinstallsahusband.Ifitisnotpossible
becausehelacksthenecessaryvocabulary,hereturnstotheunassignedpool.

18

Marriagerepresentsprolongedcontactbetweenspecies.Thismayinitiallybelimitedtoexchangeofgoods.At
somepointcontactwillintensifyandexchangeoftechnologyideasandbehaviorwilloccur.Thepinnacleof
interracialcontactinthisgameisexchangeofpeopleandinterracialmarriageandinevitablymating
representedbyboththeplayerofthedaughterandthehusbandtousethespecialabilityofthedaughter.So
courtshipisjustanabstracttorepresentinterracialcontact.Butinterracialcontactdoesnotcomeeasy.The
differencebetweenculturesrepresentedinthegameismuchbiggerthanwhatweseetodayintheworld.They
willnoteasilytrusteachother.Fightingwillbeinevitable.Peoplewhoatsomepointmanagetolivewiththe
otherspecieswillfindthemselvesoustedwhendistrusttakesovertheadvantagesoftrade...Ithinkitiswonderful
howasimpleconceptofmarriageisusedtorepresentsomethingcomplicatedascontactbetweenspecies.
Kyrill
Melai,2015

I16

Example
:ThesingingwomanhasjustmaturedintheNeanderthalstableau,andallthreeplayersassign
ahuntertocourther.Thesingingwomansbidmediaisorange.Assumingtheyallsurvivetheattack
phase,theCroMagnonhasthemostorangedisksandrollsfirst.Hefailstorolla1or2,and
Neanderthalhasthenextmostorangedisks.Hiscourtshiprollautomaticallysucceeds,becausehehasa
daughterinhistableau(theSingingWomanherself)whohasthePoetryabilitytoautosucceed
courtshiprolls.Neanderthalhowever,ispromiscuous,soeventhoughhisrollsucceeds,hecannotplace
ahusband.TheonlyeffectofhissuccessfulcourtshipistosendthetroubadourofArchaicManhome
unrequitted.IfinsteadNeanderthalwasmonogamous,hewouldnothavetheautosuccesscourtship,
becauseSingingWomansabilitiesaredeactivatedifsheisunmarried.Ifherollsa1or2,hemust
intallanimmaturehusband,assuminghehasanorangeimmaturitydisk.

E4.PERMANENTASSIGNMENT
Placingunassignedhuntersonthe
placard
(
E2
)orthe
husbandspot
ondaughters(
E3
)isa
permanent
assignment
.Thismeansthecubesarenotcountedasunassignedhunters(e.g.duringchaos)andarenot
returnedtoyourunassignedhuntersduringPhase4.
SultansException.Ifharemholding,duringPhase2youcanshiftyourhusbandsinyourtableau
amongyourunmarried
mature
daughters.Thiscanbeusefultochallengesuitors.
AlmostExtinctException.Ifyoubeginthisphasewithnounassignedhunters,youmayreassignoneor
twoeldersorhusbandsasunassignedhunters.Ifallyourcubesaredead,youbecomea
LazarusSpecies
(
J1
).

E5.THEALPHA
Your
alpha
cylinderistreatedasanyotherhunter,unlessitacquires
specialpowers
byuseof
elders
(
E2
).Therearethreespecialpowers,biggame,orsmallgameorclub.Youralphamayhaveone,two,or
allthreeofthesepowers.
Youstartwithyouralphainthedeadpile.Ifyouhaveanelderofranks3,4,or5,youmaycreatean
alphawithan
alphahunterswap
(
B4
).
BigGame.Ifyouhaveaknapperelder,youralphaonabiggamebiomemayconsideritsHuntRoll
tobea1,withoutactuallyrollingforit.
SmallGame.Ifyouhaveatrapperelder,youralphaonasmallgamebiomemayconsideritsHunt
Rolltobea1,withoutactuallyrollingforit.
Club.Ifyouhaveawarriorelder,duringPhase3attacks,yourhunterscolocatedwithyouralphaform
warparties
(
F2
).Furthermore,youralphaonaclubbiome(includingdaughters)mayconsiderits
HuntRolltobea1,withoutactuallyrollingforit.Notethatforthe
AttackRoll
(
F2
),thealphamust
rolllikeanyotherhunter.
YoumustdecidetouseaspecialpowerbeforemakingtheHuntRoll.Ifyouchoosenottouseit,thenhe
rollsadicelikeeveryotherhunter.
Ifhehasanyspecialpowersenabled,youralphaisworthVPatthegamesend(
J0
).However,toearn
thealphaVPhemustbeanunassignedhunter,notanelderorhusband.

Example
:Youhaveablack,white,andorangeportalinyournaturedomainonyourbrainmap,and
I17

havepromotedatrapperelder.Aslongasthiselderismatureandhasntdied,heallowsyouralphato
automaticallyrolla1insmallgamehunting.

F.PHASE3:NEGOTIATIONS,ATTACKS,
&
GATHERING
F1.NEGOTIATIONS(disallowedbetweenvocals)
Ifyoueitherhavecubesonthesamecardasanopponent,orhavecubesonanopponents
TableauCard,youmayopen
negotiations
withhim.Oneorbothnegotiatingpartiesmustbe
tribalwitharank1chief.Atribalplayercanmakea
proposal
foronepartytoleaveacard
peacefully:demand,exchange,orofferhandcardsormaturetableaucards(
includingunmarried
daughters
),offerordemandunmarriedmaturedaughtersformarriage(allowingahuntertobe
promotedintoamaturehusbandinaforeigntableauwithan
autosuccesscourtshiproll
(
G 1
)),or
makenonbindingagreementsaboutplaysonfutureturns.
Leaving.Yourhuntersmayleaveduringthisphaseonlyifallotherplayerswithcubespresent
allowyoutoleave.Ifyourhunterleaves,eitherreturnhimtoyourunassignedhunters(sohe
cantdoanythingthisturn),orelsemarryhimtoaforeignbride(
F2
),ifagreedtobytheplayer
holdingtheunmarrieddaughter.
Inatrade,handcardsmustbeexchangedwithhandcardsandtableaucardswithtableaucards.
Divorce.Yourhusbandsmayleavedaughtersduringnegotiations,joiningyourunassigned
hunters.
Duringnegotiations,avocalplayershouldsaynothingotherthanyes(oook!)orno(ook
ook).
Heisalsoallowedtoleavepeacefully(backtounassignedhunters).

F2.ATTACKS19
Your

huntersmust
attack
otherhuntersonthesamecardbyrollinganumberofdiceequaltothenumber
ofyourcubespresent.Eachplayerisallowedoneroundofattackspercard.Exceptfor
warparties
(see
below),each1willkillacubeofthevictimschoice.
MostFlintOrder.Attacksareperformedin
mostblackdisksorder
(
A3
).Thatis,theplayerwiththe
mostblackvocabularydisksrollsfirstandappliesdamage,thenthenextattacker,etc.Youmay
19

Despitethedevelopmentofthrowingspearsandgameambushtactics,thereisnoarcheologicalevidencefororganizedwarfare
until14kya.Therearealsonocavepaintingsdepictingviolencebetweenhumans.Huntergathererswerenomadic,andhadno
permanenthomes,animalsorstoredfoodtoraid,confiningconflictarenastocontestedhuntinggroundsorbigkills.Because
weaponuseisinthenaturalhistorycognitivedomain,andfellowhumansareinthesocialdomain,perhapsweaponsuse
againsthumanswasnotconceivableuntiltheadventofcognitivefluidity.

I18

distributeyourkillsamongmultipledefenders.
WarParty.Ifyouhavea
WarriorElder
(
E2
),thegroupofhuntersthatincludesyourAlphaiscalleda
warparty
.Ifyouhaveaninventionmarkedasa
weapon
,allyourhuntersformwarparties.Allthe
huntersinawarparty,includingtheAlpha,achieveahitiftheyrolla1or2.
JealousHusbands.
Ahusbandcanattackandbeattackedbycourtinghuntersofotherplayers.
In
combatbetweenahusbandanda
courtinghunter
(
E3
),amaturehusbandisconsideredawarparty
whileanimmaturehusbandcanattackbutnotasawarparty.20

Example:
Neanderthalispromiscuousandhasawarriorelder.Hesendshisalphatocourtamarried
CroMagnondaughter.Thehusbandhasmoreblackdisksandattacksfirst,butfailstorolla1or
2.Thealphaisawarparty,andherollsa2andsucceedsinkillingthehusband.Sincethealpha
isonaclubbiome,inthenextphaseheisautomaticallysuccessfulinhishuntrollandleavesababy
per
G1.

F3.GATHERING21
Ifyouareagatheringculture(i.e.youareeitherpromiscuousorhavedaughterswiththe
gatheringability),youcollect1baby(
A1.4
)foreach
gatheringbiome
youoccupywithoneor
morehunters.Thesebiomesaremarkedwiththebasketicon.

Example
:Aftercombat,youhavehuntersremainingonthetyrantseabear(agatheringbiome).
Becauseyouarepromiscuous(soarespendingmoretimecollectingnutsthaninchildcare),you
gainonebabyingathering.Thisbabyisobtainedeveniftheseabearlaterkillsoffallyour
hunters.

20

OurdistantancestorstheAustralopithecineswereharemholders,judgingbytheirsexualdimorphism(i.e.greatdifferencein
sizebetweenmalesandfemales).Theirsocietywouldhavebeenquitesexist,withpromiscuitystronglyprohibited.But
Homo
erectus
and
heidelbergensis
havelittlesexualdimorphism,andwerelikelyfarmorelibertine.Suchsocietieswouldbedriven
byhumanspermcompetition,withgeneticvictorygoingtothemalesproducinganddeliveringthemostsperm.Thisis
perhapswhenpeopleinheritedtheirrelativelylargemalegenitals.Onewaytoavoidthespermcompetitionissafari
honeymooning,whereamalewouldwhiskhisestrouspartnerofftothewoodstobealone.Thiselopement,aberrantina
promiscuoussociety,couldhaveledtothefirstmarriagelikepairbonding.Thedarkersideisthatthisincreasesmalejealousy
andviolence.

21

Ihypothesizethatmenopause(thenaturalprogrammedcessationofthefemalemenstrualcycle)evolvedinhumans(and
possiblyNeanderthals)sometimeinthehundredsofthousandsofyearsbetweenthedevelopmentofhugebrainsandthe
culturalrevolution.Itisapuzzlewhytheselfishgenewouldeverselectforaprocessthatprematurelyshutsdownthe
possibilityofspreadingitself(andmenopauseinnaturalconditionsisknownonlyinhumansandpilotwhales).Thisgame
followstheGrandmotherhypothesis,thatmenopausepromotesthesurvivalofawomansgrandchildren.Thiswouldbe
especiallytrueinpromiscuoussocieties,whereonlymothersandgrandmotherscareforchildren.Studiesbythe
anthropologistKristenHawkesontheHazdahuntergatherersofTanzaniashowsthatpostmenopausalgrandmothersdevoted
themosttimetogathering(7hoursaday,comparedto4.5hoursforyoungmothersand3hoursforyoungbrides).Further,the
experiencedgrandmothersbroughthomemorekilogramsofforageperhourthanwomenintheirprime.Indeed,ascrazyasit
sounds,inthisgamemostoftheextrahuntersdoingtheforaginginapromiscuoussocietyareactuallygrandmothers.Without
thenaturalbirthcontrolofmenopause,awomanwouldbepregnantorlactatingherentireadultlife,andwouldbeathighrisk
fromdeathfromchildbirth(alegacyofbearingbabieswithhugebrains).

I19

G.PHASE4,ROLLFORHUNT
(leasthunterorder)

Cubesorcylindersonabiomerepresent
hunters
.Whenitisyourturntohunt(
A4
),makea
HuntRoll
by
rollinganumberofdiceequaltothenumberofhuntersyoucontrolonthecard.Ifyourrollshowsa
numberofhitsgreaterthanorequaltothenumberof
hitdice
shown(1or*),thenitissuccessfully
hunted(see
G3
forresults).Ifthehitdiceisthe1icon,each1isone
hit
.Ifitsthe*icon,each1
or2isone
hit
.Afterhunting,returnallofyoursurvivinghunterstoyour
unassignedhunterpool.
BiomeResolutionOrder.Forwhichcardsarehuntedfirst,see
A4
.
MandatoryHunt.Onyourturntohunt,allyourassignedhuntersmustmakeaHuntRoll(exception,see
G7
).Ifan
alpha
hashispowersactivated(
E5
),youmayconsiderhisrolltobea1withoutactually
rollingforhim.
TheHuntRollmaybemodified(
G2
).
FerocityAttrition.Hunting
andCourting
isdangerous.Ifthebiomeshowsan
animalbitedice
,any
hunterrollingthatresulthasbeenkilled(eatenbyapreyanimalconfusedaboutthehunterprey
relationship).
Inthecaseofcourting,sincethedeathisfrominterracialjealousy,ahunterinhisown
tableauissafefromthisattrition.
FrostbiteAttrition.Huntingisdangerous.Ifthebiomedepictsa
frostbitedice
,anyhunterrollingthat
resulthasbeenkilledbytheelements.Ifyouhavea
firestarterelder
(
D4
),allyourhuntersaresafe
fromfrostbitelosses.

G1.
COURTSHIPS22
Youmayhunta
mature
daughtercardina
foreignordomestictableau
justasforaclubbiome,except:
Youmayassignonlyonehunterperdaughter.Heiscalleda
courtinghunter
.
CourtshipSuccess.
Tosucceed,acourtinghuntermustbothsurvivecombatduringPhase3(fromany
rivalcourtinghuntersorajealoushusband(
F2
)),andmustachieveahitbyrollinga1or2inhis
courtshiproll
(i.e.specialHuntRoll).
AutoSuccessCourtshipRolls.Awarrioralphaalwayssucceeds.Ahuntercourtingan
uncontestedand
unmarrieddaughterinhisowntableaualwayssucceedsbutstartsimmature.
Ifthecourtshipis
contested,ahunterinhisowntableaumustcompeteforherhandlikeeveryoneelse,withnohome
courtadvantage.Ifsuccessful,hestartsimmature.
MultipleSuitors.Iftherearemultiplecourtinghunters,eachrollsforsuccessinplayerorder,withthe
lastsuccessfulsuitorasthenewhusbandandtheothersgoinghomeunrequited
aftereveryonehas
finishedcourtingher.
SuccessfulCourtship.Asuccessreturnstheformerhusband(ifany)totheunassignedhuntersof
22

Thepracticeofleavingonesclantomarryelsewhere,perhapseventoanothersubspecies,iscalled
exogamy
.
Ingeneral,
humansocietiesarefemaleexogamous,i.e.itisthefemaleswholeavehometomarry,keepingboththegenepoolandtheidea
pooldiverseandhealthy.Inthis,humansaresimilartotheothersocialapes(chimpsandgorillas),butdissimilartomost
monkeyswhicharemaleexogamous.
GeneticanalysisprovesthatSapiensNeanderthalinterbreedinghadoccurredby55kya,
whenNeanderthalgenesconstitutedasmuchas14%oftheCroMagnongenome.tzitheiceman,Europe'soldestpreserved
mummyat5.3kya,wasfoundtopossessanevenhigherpercentageofNeanderthalancestry.Evenmoretellingthangenesis
thefactthattheculturalrevolutionoccurredinbothCroMagnonandNeanderthalpopulations.

I20

whicheverplayerownsthetableau,andplacesthecourtinghunterinthehusbandspotasthenew
husband.Thisisapermanentassignment(
E4
),sohusbandsarenolongerunassignedhunters.Ifina
foreigntableau,thenewhusbandstartsmatureandimmediatelygainsthedaughtersabilitiesand
portal
actions
(
I2
),withherfathersharingthesebenefits.
Monogamy.Onlyonehusband(matureorimmature)isallowedperdaughter.
PromiscuousCourting.23Ifyouarepromiscuous,youarenotallowedtoplacehusbands,(although
husbandsalreadyplacedareallowed).Yetyoucanstillassignacourtinghuntertoamatureforeign
daughterandmakeacourtshiproll.Followalltherulesforcourtinghunters,exceptahitinthe
courtshiprollreplacesoneofthevictimshunterswithawanderlusthunterofyourcolor
fromthe
deadpile
,representingyourgeneticlegacy.Thisdoesnotimpacthermaritalstatus.Thenyoureturn
home.
Ifyouralphabecomesahusband,see
B4
.
Example
:AnArchaicdaughtermarriedtoaNeanderthalisbeingcourtedbyArchaicandCroMagnon.
AllthreeplayersunsuccessfullyrollforcombatinPhase3.Then,inplayerordertheyeachmakea
courtshiprollinPhase4.Archaicgoesfirst,androllsa2whichknockstheyellowhusbandcube
intogreensunassignedhunters(asawanderlusthunter).ButCroMagnonalsorollssuccessfully,
becomingthenewhusbandwhichsendsthefrustratedArchaicnewlywedintogreensbachelorpoolof
unassignedhuntersaswell.

G2.HUNTMODIFICATIONSDUETOINVENTIONS
Ifyouhavean
I
CardinyourtableauwithaPhase4dicemodifierforthe
biometype
(
B1
)beinghunted,
thendiceshowing3become1instead.

Example
:YouhaveplayedandmaturedtheCordageSnareinyourtableau.Thishasaphase4dice
modifierwiththejavelinpointicon,indicatingthatall3srolledinsmallgamehuntsbecome1s
instead.

G3.RESULTSOFASUCCESSFULHUNT
IfyourHuntRollissuccessful,addtheindicatednumberof
babies
(newhuntercubesoryourcylinder
takenfromthedeadpile)toyourunassignedhunters.Youmustaddthesecubesifyouhaveanyavailable
(
B3
).Youalsomayfreethenumberandcolordisksspecifiedper
B3
.
Unlessyouclaimitasa
trophy
(
G5
)ortakeitintoyour
hand
(
G6
),thehuntedcardremainsintherow.
Limits.Youmaygainthebenefitsofahuntedcardonlyonceperturn,evenifyourollmultiple
successes.Forinstance,ifyouroll111whenhuntingrabbitsyougetonebaby,notthree.
23

Thiswascalledrapeintheprototypegame,butthisfourletterwordprovedfartooemotionalatermtobethenameofa
gamemechanic.Bymyuseofeuphemisms,Iamregrettablyperpetratingthetaboosassociatedwithrape,whichcauseittobe
themostunderreportedviolentcrime.Iapologizetoitsvictims(oneofwhomIknowpersonally)whohavetosuffernotonly
thecrime,butthesocialstigmaassociatedwithit.RapehasDarwiniansignificanceinprimatology,whereitisdelicatelycalled
coercedcopulations.Itisestimatedthathalftheorangutanbabiesareconceivedfrommatingsbetweenyoungmalesand
unwillingfemaleswhoarepartofaflangedmalesharem.Thispercentageofrapebabiesmeansthegenesforaggressivemale
rapistsarebeingselectedfor.Thisdrivestheorangsocietytobeevermoresolitary,whichisharmfulbecauselikehuman
infantstheorangyoungarealtricial.Inchimpanzees,apromiscuousspecies,pairbondingisthecrimeandrapethenorm.
Chimpswillmobfemaleswhoresistpromiscuousmatingsorshowfavoritismforonemaleoveranother.

I21

Asuccessfulhunt(
includingtrophies
)returnsyourhunterstoyourunassignedhunterpool,unlessthere
are
predators
(
G4
).
CompetitiveHunt.Ifacardiscontested,see
A4
forthehuntsequence.Thefirstplayertosucceedinthe
HuntRollgainsthebenefits,andalltheotherplayersgohomeunsuccessful(i.e.winnertakeall).
AttainingAuthority.Ifthedisksfreedbyasuccessfulhuntareusedtomatureanelder,thepowersof
thateldercanbeappliedtothenexthunt,butnotretroactivelytothishunt.

Example
:ThreeCroMagnonandtwoArchaicsarehuntingwolves.TheArchaics,withfewerhunters,go
firstandaresuccessfulwithonehit.TheCroMagnonautomaticallygohomeindisgrace(withno
attrition).Theycannotattempttodomesticatethewolves,forinstance.

G4.PREDATORATTACK
IfyourHuntRollsucceedsinabiggamehunt,youattract
predators
,i.e.cardswithaiconintheupper
rightcorner.Tofindoutwhichpredatorattacks,lookatallthecardsinthesamerowtoseewhichoneis
theclosesttothebiomebeinghunted.Donotconsiderapredatorontheothersideofanicesheetinthe
row,i.e.predatorscanhopgapsbutnotice.Iftwoareequallyclose,bothattack,startingwiththelower
climax.
Procedure.Ifthebiggamehuntissuccessful,movethesurvivinghuntersontothecardoftheattacking
predator,andmakeasecondHuntRoll.Thishuntisresolvedthesamewayasthefirst,andsomay
causeadditionalcasualtiesorifsuccessfulmaygivethehuntersmoreresourcesorbabies.
PredatorPiracy.IfyourhuntersdonotgetatleastonehitonthesecondHuntRollagainstanattacking
predator,thenthepredatorstealsthebiggameyousuccessfullyhunted,sothatyouloseallthebabies,
disks,trophies,anddomesticanimalsyougainedinthehunt.
Somepredatorsmaybetakenas
trophies
(
G5
),whileothersmaybe
domesticated
(
G6
).

Example
:InSouthEurope,youhave7huntersonthehorse,and1hunter(actuallyagatherer)onthe
scimitarcat.Youopponenthas19cubesontheelephant.Bothbiggamehuntssucceed,whichputsall
yourhuntersandallhishuntersonthescimitarcat,joiningtheonecubealreadythere.Your8cubes
huntfirst.Ifyourollatleastone1,thecatdoesnotstealyourhorse.Ifyourolltwo1s,you
successfullyhuntthecat,andyouropponentmustgohomewithoutrollingforthecat,andaretherefore
notatriskforlosingtheirelephant.Regardlessofthesuccessofthehuntorthepiracy,ifyouroll
quadruplesyoutakethecatcardasatrophy.

G5.TAKINGTROPHYCARDSINTOYOURTABLEAU24
The
antlericon
indicatesacardthatcanbeaddedtoyourtableauasa
trophy
.Ifithastwosetsofantlers,
itcountsastwotrophies.Ifithas2,3,or4blankdiceonit,yourHuntRollmustincludedoubles,triples
orquadruplestooptionallyaddittoyourtableau.Placeitinyourtableaurotatedsotheantlersareatthe
top.
24

Theoverkillhypothesis,championedbyDr.PaulMartin,proposesthattrophytakinghunterscausedtheLatePleistocene
massextinctionsintheAmericasandperhapsinEuropeandAustraliaaswell.

I22

Toclaimatrophy,neithersurvivinghuntersnorasuccessfulhuntarenecessary.Forinstance,ifthe
trophyindicatesdoubles,adoublesixisanunsuccessfulhuntyetclaimsthecardasatrophy.
Extinct.Theremovedcardhasbeenoverhuntedandis
not
replacedintherow(
G7
).Unlessfilledby
shiftingbiomesinclimatechange,thisgapremainsthewholegame,sothatthereisonelessbiomefor
therestofthegame.

Remember
:Thealphaisassumedtohaverolleda1,whichcancausesnakeeyes,tripleeyes,or
quadrupleeyestohavebeenrolled.Alsoweaponscancause3stobe1s.

Example
:Fivefallowdeerhuntersrolla2andthree3s.Thisisahuntingfailurebecausethedeer
requires2hits,butneverthelesstakesthecardasatrophybecauseofthetriples.Iftheyhaveanatlatl
allowing3stobeconvertedinto1s,thenthehuntisasuccessaswellasatrophy.

G6.TAKINGDORICARDSINTOYOURHAND25
Ifyouhaveatleastone
mature
elder,the
handicon
indicatesabiomethatcanbetakenintoyourhand.If
ithas2,3,or4blankdiceshowninthebluefield,yourHuntRollmustincludedoubles,triplesor
quadruplesrespectivelytotakeitintoyourhand.
Ifyourollthedoubles,triples,etc.,youmaytakethecardintoyourhandevenifyourHuntRollwas
unsuccessful.
Cardscanbetakenintoyourhandevenifyourhandisfull.Butthenyoumustimmediatelydiscard
downtoyour
HandSize
(
B2
).
Ifahunt(includingpredatorattack)leavesnosurvivinghunters,youcannottakeanycardsintoyour
hand.
Example:
Atrapperalphaandtwohuntersarehuntinghoneybees.Bothhuntersroll1s,and,since
thisisasmallgamehunt,thealphaautomaticallyrollsa1.Thehuntisasuccess,andfurthermore
thetriplesallowthemtotakethebeesintotheirhand.TheymaylateruseanElderAction(
I3
)to
domesticateit.Thehoneybeecardisreplacedperthebiodiversityrule
(G7).

G7.THEBIODIVERSITYRULE26
25

AquarterofamillionyearsagoinPleistoceneEurope,theawesome
bermensch
calledNeanderthalappeared.Oneofthe

biggest,strongest,higheststamina,andsmartestcreatureswhoeverlived.Withabrainnotablylargerthanourown,hehad
masteredaknappingtechniquesodifficultlessthanadozenpersonsalivetodaycanduplicateit.Hismulticomponent
thrustingspear,themostadvancedintheworld,couldbringdownarhinoceros.Hecouldtamefire,buildshelters,andsurvive
intheharshestcornerofthesupercontinent.TogetherwithhisAsiansubspeciestheDenisovans,heshouldbeabletoinvade
thewholeworldincludingancestralAfrica.Inafewtensofthousandsofyears,heshouldbeinventingthemicrochipand
flying747's.Butitdidn'thappen.Hundredsofthousandsofyearspass,andheisstillchasingdeerinEuropewithhis
Levalloisspearsandhandaxes.True,suchbehavioralconservatismisthenormforEarth'smillionsofspecies.Butwhatis
thathugebrainfor,ifnotforart,culture,orinnovation?AndwhenCroMagnonfinallyinvades,45,000yearsago,hetoohad
spentthelast100,000yearswithabigbrainandastoneagetoolsetbutnoart,culture,orimprovements.Thetwosuperpowers
werebehaviorallyequivalent,withallthecultureandinventivenessofastone.Butsomehow,theirmomentousmeeting
producedeverythingthatwenowregardashuman.

26

RomanticnotionsabouttheNeanderthalsengaginginreligiousritualsinvolvingthesacrificeorworshipofthenowextinct
cavebearhaveprovenhardtoverify.Manythousandsofcavebearremainswhichdiedduringhibernationmayaccumulatein
acave,andarrangementsofbonesclaimedtobeartificialmayinfactbenatural.Nevertheless,bothspeciesfrequentedcaves,

I23

Ifacardistakenasa
trophy
(
G5
),itis
not
replacedsotherownowhasonelesscardwithagap.Ifacard
istakenintoyour
hand
(
G6
),replaceitinthesamepositionwiththetopcarddrawnfromthedrawdeck
ofthatrow,sothatthenumberofcardsintherowisunchanged.Ifthisintroducesapredator,itisinactive
untilnextturn.
Ifacardistakenintoyourhandbutthehuntwasunsuccessful,huntersofothertribesthatwereonthis
cardmayattempttohuntthereplacementcardiftheyhavetheproper
preconditiontools
(
E2
).

G8.HUNTEXAMPLE27

CroMagnon(tribal)triestohuntthehorsebiomeinsouthernEurope.Thisbiggameanimalrequirestwo
1sor2stobesuccessful.Heisunopposed.
Phase2(HunterAssignment).Bydedicating1blackdisk,hepromotesahuntertothe3rdrank
(knapper).Thenheplaceshisremaining4
unassignedcubes,plushisalpha,ontothe
horsecardasshown.
Phase4(HuntRoll).
Letsassumethat
CroMagnonfirstmakesasuccessfulhunt
somewhereallowinghimtoliberatethe
blackdiskunderhisknapper,makingit
mature.Thisisnecessarytoenablethealpha
powersforhisalphahunter.
Herolls4d6for
hisfive
horse
hunters:3,4,5,6.
Sinceonlyhisalphasucceedsandheneeds2
successes,thehuntfails.
Weapon.Ifhehasatlatlspearthrowing
technology,the3actsasa1,resultingin
huntsuccess.Hegains3babiesandan
orangeandablackdisk.Sincehedidnotroll
quadruples,hedoesnttakethehorseintohis
hand.
Predators.Sincethehuntwassuccessful,the
closestpredator,thegraywolves,attack.
Thewolvesare
aclubbiome
,andthe
alphaisnolongeranautomaticsuccesssince
thereisnorank5elder.Allfivehuntersroll
5.5,6,6,6.Twohuntersare
killedoffbywolves,andtherestdiefrom
andonediscoveredbearvertebratewithanembeddedstonetipindicatesthegiantbearswereoccasionallyhuntedorfought.
Thisgameassumesthathunterswhobringbackbiggametrophiesarerewardedbyfemalechoicetohavetheirgenes
immortalizedinsubsequentgenerations.

27

Humansareoneofthefewcreaturesabletokillatrange,andthehandeyecoordinationrequiredmayhavebeenthereasonfor
theevolutionofourlargebrains.Thefirstevidenceofprojectileweaponsarethemiraculouslypreservedsetofthrowing
javelinsfoundinSchningen,Germany.Datedto300kya,theywerebalancedforthrowingwithsharpenedwoodenpoints.
Evidenceindicatesthat
Homoheidelbergensis
usedthemtohunthorses.

I24

frostbite.Becauseeveryonedies,CroMagnonlosesthebabiesanddisksgainedfromthehorsehunt,
andfurthermorecannottakethewolvesintohishandfordomestication.
FireStarter.IfCroMagnonhadamaturerank6elder(firestarter),allthreehuntersthatrolledthe6
aresavedfromfrostbite.Sincenohitswerescored,thewolvesstillstealthehorsecarcass,sonobabies
ordisksaregained.However,thetriplesrolledwithsurvivinghuntersmeansthatthewolfcardistaken
intohishandforpossibledomesticationlater.

H.PHASE5,DOMESTICANIMALS
(anyorder)
H1.DOMESTICANIMALS(tribalonly)

Ifyouhaveamature
D
Card(
B2
)inyourtableau,collectthebabiesandfreethedisksindicated.

I.PHASE6,
PORTAL,NEOLEXIA,&
ELDERACTIONS
(anyorder)

Inthisphase,choose
one
action,either
Portal
,
Neolexia
,or
Elder
.Onceyouconverttotribalism,you
cannolongerperformeitherPortalorNeolexiaactions!

I1.PORTALACTION(vocalsonly)
EachDaughterCarddepictsoneortwo
portals
,i.e.disksrepresentingmetaphoricwordsthatbridgetwo
braindomains.Ifvocal,foryouractionyoumayperforma
portal

action
usingadaughtereitherinyour
tableauorwithwhomyouaremarried.Thisactionallowsyoutotake
one
diskofaspecifiedcolorfrom
your
vocabulary
andaddittoaspecified
portal

spot
onyourbrainmap.Thisportaldisksimulateshow
metaphoricvocabularycanbroachadjacentbraindomains.28
DomainsandDomainColors.Eachbrainmaphasthreebrain
domains
,fortechnical(black),nature
29
(white),andsocial(orange)knowledge.
PortalSpots.Thethree
portalspots
arethe
venus
,
shaman
,and
bison
spots. 30Eachportalspotcan
28

Thetechnical,social,andnaturaldomainsaredepictedonthePlacardsasbeingintheneocortex,limbic,andrhombencephalon
respectively.Theselocationsaresuggestiveratherthanfactual.Therhombencephalonisthemostancientpartofthebrain,
sharedbyvertebratesandinsectsalike.Thelimbicsystemgovernsemotions,behavior,andlongtermmemory.Theneocortex
isgreatlyexpandedinhumans,andcontainstheBrocasandWernickeslanguagecenters.

29

Thebrainmaps,followingtheideasofStevenMithen,hypothesizethatthePleistocenehuntergathererbrainswere
compartmentalizedintothreedomains:technical,nature,andsocialknowledge.Thebarriersbetweenthesedomainsprevented,
forinstance,anearlymanfromcarvingbonetools.Whynot?Becausestonesandstonetoolswereprocessedinhistechnical
domain,asartifactstobeknapped,whilebonesandantlerswereprocessedinhisnaturedomain,ascluesforgameanimal
behavior.Theseprocesseswereinflexible,likeaSwissarmyknifewithspecializedbladesorcomputerprogramming.Portals
werefinallyopenedwhenwordswereusedinmultipledomains,suchasthewordbonebeingusedinatechnicalsetting
(evidencedbythefirstboneartifacts).Othercrossovers:peopleasobjectstobemanipulated(thefirstdeceptions),
animalsaspeople(anthropomorphismsandtotemism),objectsaspeople(venusstatuettes,gravegoods).Thefluidityof
wordstriggeredtheculturalrevolution.Theculturecardsdenotingswearwords,jokes,poetry,andotherstrangequirksof
languageareincludedbecauseofmytheorythatthelingualfeaturesthataretheleastexplicablearethemostlikelytobe
primalincognitivefluidity.

30

Cavepaintings,theearliestsymbolicart,seemtohavespreadquicklyaroundtheworld.Thesubjects,eerilysimilarfrom
SpaintoIndonesia,arealmostalwaysanimalsrenderedwithastonishingskill.Peopleareseldomdepicted,whynot?
Handprintstencilsareacommonsignature,why?Thelocationsareuninhabitedportionsofcaves,visitedonlytomakethe
paintingsintorchlitdarkness,why?Andmostremarkableofall,theartshowssignsofbeingretouchedoveraperiodofa
thousandyearsormore.Itheorizethatthepaintingslubricatedtherecreationofimagesfromtheartistsverbalmemory,while

I25

holdtwoportals,oneofeachofthetwocolorsshown.Forinstance,thevenusportalcanholdatmost
oneorangeandoneblackdisk. 31
Eachportalisbetweentwodomains,forinstancetheshamanportalis
alwaysbetweenthesocialandnaturedomains.
Portalscanbeusedfor
precondition

disks
(
E2
).Theycantbeusedforbidding,preconditiontools,or
victory.Theycanbefreedonlybyconvertingtotribalism.
Conversion.32 Abrainmapwith5portaldisksinstantlybecomeslinguallyfluid(all6portalsinthe
solitaireor2playergame).Flipittoits
tribal
side,andaddtheportaldiskstoyour
vocabulary
.
Transfereldercubes
(aswellasanydisksunderthem)
totheequivalentrankonthetribalside.

inculcatingtheconcepts.Theexerciseofspecificpathwaysintheneuralnetworkisknowntoreinforcethem,akintofuzzy
logic,whichcouldhavemadethebrainconducivetothisvitalstepintheroadtoconsciousness.Aprocessrepeatedtoday
everytimeaninfantmasterslanguage.

31

HundredsofmysteriousVenusfigurines,exaggeratedfemalefeatures,butwithreducedorabsentfaces,arms,andfeet,have
beenfoundinEurope.Theoldest,carvedfrommammothivory,datebacktotheculturalrevolution.Theystrangelyhaveno
analogsincavepaintings.JulianJaynesspeculatesthattheyactedasportablemnemonicdevices,reminderstoanonconscious
peoplewhocouldnotvoluntarilyretrieveadmonitorylessonsgiventothembytheirmothers.Shadowsofthisancientutility
arepresumablywhywestillplacefigurinesonourdesks,churches,andkeychains,forreasonsweoftencantourselves
explain.

32

WedonotknowwhichEuropeanspeciesstartedtheculturalrevolution,alsocalledtheChatelperronianculture.Perhapsitwas
ahybrid,assuggestedbytheboxcover.Butremarkably,oncestarted,itspreadtoboththeNeanderthalandCroMagnon
peoplesbetween4540kya,asevidencedbysophisticatedstonework,multicomponenttools,prismcorebladefactories,
adornmentnecklacesofintentionallypiercedfoxandmarmotteeth,andringsandpendantsmadeofivory.Eachgreatly
expandedtheirexistingancienttechnologyintheirownfashion,withoutcopyingtheother.Thisarguesthatwhatwasbeing
spreadwaslanguage,andsymbolicartsuchasearlypaintingsandsculptureswerethefirstschoolsupplies.

I26

Example
:Youhavebothvenusportals(orangeandblack),andoneportal(white)onyourshaman.
Becauseyoursocialdomaincontainsdisksofallthreecolors,youmaypromoteawarriorelder.

I2.NEOLEXIAACTION(vocalsonly)33
Neolexia
(i.e.creatingnewconcepts)isanactionthatfreesonediskmatchingthecolorofaportalyou

33

Neolexiaisthecreationofnewwords,bothforcommunicatingwithandthinkingwith.Externalcommunicationswerelikely
pioneeredbymalesinthedominancegamesorinorganizedhunts.Thisisrepresentedinthegamebyscavenging,flintmine,
andsocialdisks,amongothers.Butperhapsthefirstuseofwordsforbothexternalandinternalcommunications(i.e.unitsof
thought)waspioneeredbyfemales,whotaughtthisskilltotheirbabies.

I27

haveinyourbrain.Itcanbefromadaughter,husband,orelder.Thefreeddiskgoestoyourvocabulary.
Ifyouaremarriedtoaforeigndaughter,youmayperformneolexiausingoneofthecolorsalready
installed
onapreviousturninthe
brainmapoftheplayerwhoownsthedaughter.Ifheistribal,you
34
haveaccesstoallthreecolors.

Example
:CroMagnonhasbothshamanportals(white&orange),andanimmaturedaughterwitha
whiteandorangediskonher.Onphase6,heperformsneolexiaandfreestheorangedisk.Duringthe
nextphase6,hedoesthesamewiththewhitedisk,whichmaturesthedaughter.

I3.ELDERACTIONS(tribalonly)
Eachplayermayperform
oneof
thefollowing
ElderActions
ifhehasaneldercubeinthespecifiedrank
anddedicatesthevocabularydiskindicated.Anelderisnotexpendedbyperforminganaction.

ShamanDomestication(rank2):Playone
D
cardinyourhandintoyourtableau,rotated180
sothepurpletextreadsupright.Placeawhitediskonthedomesticanimaltoindicateitis
immature(unlessyouareallowedcostfreeelderactions).35
KnapperToolMaking(rank3):Playone
I
cardinyourhandintoyourtableau,rotated180.
Placeablackdiskontheinventiontoindicateitisimmature.36
TrapperToolMaking(rank5):Playone
I
cardinyourhandintoyourtableau,rotated180.
Placeawhitediskontheinventiontoindicateitisimmature.37

Archeologists

andanthropologistsseemremarkablyincuriousastowhymankinddevelopedart.Nootheranimalreads

34

literature,contemplatespaintings,carvesstatues,setsmusictocomposition,recitespoetry.Thesamecanbesaidofdeliberate
burialswithgravegoods,whichlikeartseemstohavenegativesurvivalvalue.Whyburytoolsrequiringmanmonthsto
construct?Theseareusuallyexplainedbyreferringtoabeliefinreligionandtheafterlife,twoconceptsthatrequireahuge
repertoireofabstractconceptsunlikelytohavebeenarticulateduntiltensofmillennialater.Ratherthanabstractslikedeath
andtime,theappearanceofgravegoodslikelysignalledthefirstremembranceofindividualswithnames,whenphysical
mnemonicsofthewordsofanelderwasalifeordeathmatter.Handheldvenusfigurinescouldalsohaveservedamnemonic
purpose.Thiswasthefirsttimethatmemorieswerestoredverballyandrecalledashallucinatedvoices,theprototypeofthe
universalstreamofverbalthoughtseachofusisimmersedinassoonaswelearnlanguage.Verbalthoughtscouldbe
reconstructedasimages,thefirstimaginationsandfantasies,suchasimaginingafigurineisyourmotherspeakingtoyou.
Thisledtodramaticchangesinattentiontothingsandpersons,indicatedinthearcheologicalrecordbytheappearanceofthe
celebratedcavepaintingsandboneflutes.Thusbothartandcultureareexplainedasartifactsofconsciousness.

Botharcheologicalandgeneticevidenceindicatethatanimaldomesticationsdidnotoccuruntiltheneolithic,withthedogas

35

thefirsttobetamedby15kya.Ifso,theirinclusioninthegameisratheranachronistic.However,36kyadogs,withDNA
morecloselyalliedwithmoderndomesticsthanwolves,havebeendiscoveredinBelgiumandRussia.Conceivably,they
mighthavetakenadvantageofcarcassesleftonsitebyearlyhunters,assistedinthecaptureofprey,orprovideddefensefrom
largecompetingpredatorsatkills.Domesticationofmegafaunawasaccomplishedsoonaftertheweatherturnedwarminthe
Holocene,butinthefrigidPleistoceneitwashamperedbythelackofhaytechnologytokeeptheanimalsaliveoverthe
winter.Hadtheweatherturnedwarmerearlier,itspossibledomesticationscouldhaveoccurredasdepictedinthisgame.
However,domesticanimalswouldhavebeenutilizedfortheirmeatandhides.Thesecondaryproductrevolution,using
domesticanimalsforworkormilk,wasnotuntilthelateneolithic.

36

ThedistinctivestoneknappingtechniqueduringthisperiodistheLevallois,commonlyassociatedwiththeNeanderthal
Mousterianindustries.Thisisincrediblydifficulttomaster.Itwasreplacedbythevastlysimplerandmoreflexibleprismcore
knappingtechniqueduringtheculturalrevolution.

37

NeolithicreferstostoneagetoolsandtechniquesthatwerenotdevelopeduntiltheHolocene(when
H.sapiens
wastheonly
humanleftstanding).Suchtechnology,includingpolishedtools,pottery,farming,towns,andwalls,arenotincludedinthe
gamebecauseat12kyatheyaremuchtoomodern.

I28


Tip:Itisnotnecessarytoconverttotribalismtowin.Eventomaketheattemptinvestsalotof
vocabulary,anditspossibleyouwillnevergetaccesstotherightportalsforconversion.
TribalismgivesaccesstomanyVPindomesticsandinventions,butalsosolidifiesyourculture.

J.GAMEEND&VICTORY
Thegameends
attheendofthelastturnoftheEventDeck,orwhenEuropeiscompletelyicefilled(no
huntablecardsremaining).
CountupVictoryPoints(VP)aslistedonyourSexualityCard,whichmaybe
modifiedbycertaindaughters.Allcubesofyourcolorcounttowardyourvictory,evenifinthecampof
anotherplayer.Thealphacountsforalphavictoryonlyifempoweredper
E5
.Daughters,elders,
husbands,domesticanimals,andinventionscountVPonlyif
mature
.
SelfishGenePromiscuousVictory.Elders,husbands,daughters,andvocabularycountas1VPeach.
Eachunassignedhuntercubecountsas2VP.Trophiesandinventionscountas3VP.Thealphaand
domesticanimalscountas4VP.
FamilyValuesPairBondingVictory.Eachunassignedhuntercube,daughter(marriedorunmarried),
andvocabularycountsas1VP.Eachelderortrophycountsas2VP.Thealpha,husbands,and
inventionscountas3VP.Domesticanimalscountas4VP.
BigManHaremVictory.Eachunassignedhuntercube,elder,husband,andvocabularycountsas1
VP.Eachdaughtercountsas2VP.Thealphaandinventionscountas3VP.Trophiesanddomestic
animalscountas4VP.
Example
:Attheendofthegame,youarePairBonding.Inyourcampyouhave9hunters,anempowered
alphacylinder,1trophy,2daughters,and12vocabularydisksfor28VP.Youhave1wanderlust
hunterand1husbandinanotherplayerscamp,for4VP.Yourtotalscoreis32VP.

J1.
LAZARUS
SPECIES38
Ifallyourcubesaredead,youcannolongerhuntoracceptwanderlusthunters,butcanstillbidin
auctionsandcountvictory.Youmaybeabletorecovermorecubesifyouhavedomesticanimals.See
E4
.

K.VARIANTS
K1.COMBINATIONNEANDERTHALGREENLANDGAME
Youcanstarta
Greenland
gameusingthecubesleftoverattheendofa
Neanderthal
game.Ifso,theVPs
youattainedin
Neanderthal
arerecordedandaddedtoyourfinal
Greenland
scoretodeterminethe
38

NoNeanderthalfossilyoungerthan40kyahasbeenunearthed.Afterlivingfor250,000yearswithlittleinnovationorculture,
intheirfinal5000yearsofcohabitationwith
Homosapiens
,theymaderemarkableadvancesintooluse,art,andlanguage
fluidity.Andyetitwasnotenough.Theydidnotentirelygoextinct,astheentireNeanderthalgenomehasbeensequenced
andithasbeenfoundallnonAfricanhumanstodaycontaintheirgenes.

I29

overallwinner.Setupisper
PartC(
Greenland
)
,except:
StartingCubesAndDisks.Youarelimitedtothecubesanddisksyouhadattheendof
Neanderthal
.
Youmayallocateyourcubeseitherashunters,polytheistelders,or(Tunitonly)colonists.Thismay
giveyoumoreorfewerthanindicatedin
PartC.
Elders.Exchangeyour
Neanderthal
placardforthe
Greenland
one.Eldercubestransfertothe
equivalentrank.
DomesticAnimals.Exchangeeachofyour
Neanderthal
domesticanimalswitha
Greenland
domestic
animalchosenatrandomfromthe
D
biomes.TheNorsechoosefromtheunusedNorseanimals.
Inventions.Exchangeeachofyour
Neanderthal
inventionswitha
Greenland
inventionchosenat
randomfromthe
I
biomes.
Daughters.Exchangeeach
two
ofyour
Neanderthal
daughterswitha
Greenland
daughterchosenat
randomfromyourside.
Vocal.Ifyouendedthe
Neanderthal
gameasavocal,youarenotallowedtostartthe
Greenland
game
withanyelders,andarenotallowedpromotionforthefirstturn.
Ice.ForeachicesheetinNorthorSouthEurope,startoneofthebiomesinNorthorSouthGreenland
respectivelyonitscoldside.

K2.SOLITAIREORCOOPERATIVEGAME
Inthisvariant,eitheroneplayerplaysasallthreespecies,orthreeplayersplaythethreecultures
asusual.Ineithercase,theplayersareequallyvictoriousonlyifatleasttwospeciessurvivewith
oneormoredomesticanimalsattheendofthegame.
SetupandGameLength.Setupisper
PartC
.
Negotiation.EachturnduringPhase3,one
free
diskor
mature

I
cardfromonespeciescanbeswapped
withone
free
diskor
mature

I
cardfromanotherspecies,aslongasatleastonespeciesistribal.No
swappingofpopulation,DaughterCards,or
D
Cards.
TheNegotiationRule(
F1
)remainineffect.
Inthisvariant,takingatrophyper
G5
isnolongeroptionalifyourolldoubles,etc.

K3.SOLITAIRESINGLESPECIESVARIANT,CourtesyTheSpurge.
Inthisscenarioyourchosenspecieswillattempttosurviveitsisolationperiodandthusreturnto
interbreeding.Toaccomplishthisyourchosenspecieswillbeisolatedfromtheothertwo,mostly.One
otherspecieswillhavelimitedaccesstoyourspecies,duringperiodsofchaos,andpossiblytoyour
speciesdaughters.Playingtime:1/2hourto1.5hours
Setupandgameplayarethesamefora3playergamewiththeseexceptions,modifications,reminders:
1)

Setup:8Hunters,1immatureFireStarterElder(Rank6onspeciescard)

2)
Setup:8Event/Daughtercards (gameplay:additionallyacquiredEventcardscanbeused
optionallymakethedecisionaftereachRoundend,afterthe8thround)
3)

5VocabularydisksrequiredforTribal(speciescardflip)

4)

5Daughterlimit

(YoumayloosedependentDaughtersandthenregainupto5)

I30

5)

WhenswitchingMPIcards(i.e.duringchaos)useeitheroftheothertwopossibilities

6)
Chaos/Wanderlust:
IfyourspeciesdoesnotsufferunassignedHunterloss(donotcount
Elderloss),thenyoumayacquireanotherplayers(foreign)colorcubesintoyourunassignedpool(1or2
asdesignated).Allwanderlusthunterslostfromyourspeciesgotothedeadpile.
7)
Optionalchoice:
Onceyourspecieshasamaturedaughter,theotherspeciescomesa
callingsetachallengerhuntercubenexttoyourmaturedaughter(everyroundasinglecourtshipforeign
hunterwillbeassigneduntilforeignhusbandstatusisachieved).Duringphase3attack(regularrules
yourspeciesisalwaysthefirstplayer).Phase4successon1or2.Ifyourspecieshunterenterscourtship
withaforeignhusband/domesticwifepair,theforeignhusbandrollsdiefirst(phase3).
Yourspecieshassuccessfullyreturnedtointerbreedingif(choose1ormore):
1)

50+points

(makethis
X
0+dependingonthedifficultyleveldesired)

2)

Tribal

1domesticatedspeciesand/or1invention

3)

Hunter

AlphaWarrior,2+daughtersaremarriedtoyourspeciesand4+Trophies(dots)

4)Yourgoalhere
Personalnote(opinion):Teachessomeoftheinteractionsofthecardsandmechanicsofthegame.Greatly
simplifiesthegame.Allowsforthemorecomplexinteractionsfromtheregulargametobecomeapparent
(whenyounextplayamultiplayergame).Greatlyreducesgameplaytime.Retainsenoughoftheoriginal
game.Betterpreparedmetoteachthegameandplaythegamewithothers.Apowerfulandengaging
aspectoftheoriginalgame,theinteraction,ismostlylostinthisvariant.

************************

TEXTONBACKOFBOX:
Thefirstwords.Thefirstart.Thefirstbadjokes.
Its43,000BCinIceAgeEurope.Youareoneofthreespecies:Archaic,Neanderthal,orCroMagnon.
AssignyourmalestohuntPleistocenemegafaunawhileavoidingpredators.Assignwomentogatheror
teachchildrennewwords.Specializeeldersforfire,inventions,oranimaldomestications.Choose
betweenpromiscuous,harems,orpairbondingmatingsystems.Youmaymergethisgameintoagame
of
Greenland
.

CoverartbyPhilEklund(foreground)andMauricioAntn(background).ANeanderthalfatherteaches
hismulattosontohunt.GeneticstudiesindicatethatNeanderthalsinterbredwithmodernhumans
freshlyarrivedfromAfrica45kya.Thishybridizationsomehowsparkedtheinventionofartand
cultureinbothspecies.Wavesofinnovationobsoletedtoolsusedwithoutchangefor200,000years
suchasthehandaxesandLevalloisthrustingspearsshown.

I31

AWORDISWORTHATHOUSANDPICTURES
Anessayusingwords,notpictures,byPhilEklund

Areyouavisualperson,oraphoneticone?Doyouthinkbetterinimagesorwords?Mostwouldinsisttheformer.
Butmostarewrong.
AMODERNHUNTERGATHERER.Introspectononeofyourthoughts.Pickasimpleone,perhapsIshouldgo
tothemarkettoday.Astringof7words,withgrammarandsyntax.Forphoneticperson,thisisafewbytesin
temporarymemory,enablingalifesustainingdecisionwithinafractionofasecond.Howwouldavisualperson
expressthisthoughtandcometoadecisionwithoutwords?Perhapswithavideoofherselfwalkingtothe
market.Thiswouldtakemegabytesofmemoryandaminuteoftime.
THEPRONOUNPROBLEM.Butthisisonlythebeginningofdifficultiesforthevisualperson.Asimplevideoof
awalkingpersoninnowayexpressesthepronounIasananalogforoneself.Animalsdonotrecognizeor
identifywithpicturesormoviesmadeofthemselves.Theveryconceptofapronouncantbeexpressedinimages,
perhapsthereasonwhyprimitivetongues,forinstanceinthepreColumbianNewWorld,donothavethepronoun
concept.
UNITFORMATION.Otherwordsinoursamplethoughtthatcannotbetranslatedintopicturesincludethemodal
verbshould,theprepositionto,andtheadverbtoday.Yetallarevitalfortheproperdecisionmaking
enactmentofthisthought.Theverbgocanbeexpressedinamovie,butonlyinanexcessivelyconcretebound
fashion.Forinstance,asequenceshowingawalkingpersonexcludesthepossibilityofalternativessuchasabike
orcar.Butforaphoneticperson,theverbgoexpressestheaction
withoutspecifyingthemeans
.This
unitformationisverymuchlikealgebra,whereXisa
unit
ofanyunspecifiedvalue.
Uniteconomy
enables
humancognitiontoreduceavastamountofsenseinformationtoaminimalnumberofunits,andtheunitbecomes
thelinkbetweenmathematicsandreality.
MEASUREMENT.Astandardnamedasawordautomaticallybecomesaunitappropriateforthefirst
measurementsoftimeordistancebeyondtheperceptuallevel.Forinstance,Xdays,orXfeet.Thefirst
archeologicalevidenceformeasurementsaretallysticksdatingtomorethan20,000yearsago(20kya).
WORDSVERSUSCONCRETES.Thisalgebraicflexibilityofawordencapsulatestheessenceofsomething,
whileleavingunnecessaryconcretesout.Aphotoisntandcant.Further,awordhasenormousflexibilityin
input/output.Itcanbespoken,thought,gestured(asinsignlanguage),written,grammaticallycombinedwith
otherwords,orstoredwithverylittlememory.Aphotocant.Wordsarealteredbysyntaxandgrammatical
endings.Aphotocant,otherthanthetemporalsequenceinwhichaseriesofphotosareviewed.AsAristotle
provedinthe
Organon
,wordscanbelogicallycombinedintopropositions,arguments,premises,andconclusions.
Finally,awordcanbemetaphoric,thusopeningupmentalportalsandintegratingelementsthroughinduction.
Aphotocant.
Forinstance,thephoneticpersonusesthenounmarketasaplaceholderforanymarket,leavingthedecisionfor

I32

which
marketforalaterthought.Buttheconcreteboundvisualpersonmustpictureaspecificmarket.Imagine
whatthismeansifsheactuallytriedtocometoadecisionwithoutusinganywords.Shewouldhavetoruna
videoinherheadofeverypossiblemeansoftransportgoingtoeachpossibledestination.Iftherearethreeways
totravel,andthreepossibledestinations,shewouldhavetowatchninefilms,recallthedetailsofeachone,and
thenchooseamongthem.Makingallthedecisions
atthesametime.
Addjustafewmorevariables,andthe
humanheadwouldrunoutofmemoryspace(videoisamemoryhog).Butaphoneticpersonwouldthink:I
shouldgotothemarkettoday.MaybethatnewoneIhaventtriedyet.ButIlltakethecar,sincetheforecastis
forsnow.Thisleadstothreereasoneddecisions,made
oneaftertheother
,withalmostunlimitedsyntactic
variability!Thisisbecauseeverywordisaneconomyofthoughtworthathousandpictures.
Aristotlerealizedthatwordsforqualitiesoressencesratherthanconcretes,suchasmarketandgo,werethe
commongroundbetweentheobjectiveandsubjectiveworlds.Betweenrealityandourmetaphorsforreality.In
thishedisagreedwithhisteacherPlato,whomaintainedthatqualitieswereinahigherplaneofreality,ofwhich
weonlyexperiencetheshadows.TodayneoPlatonismisthedominantphilosophy,althoughtherearestillafew
Aristotelianssuchasmyself.
SELFCOMMUNICATION.Noticethattheprimaryuseofwordsis
communicatingwithyourself
,
notwithothers!
Thekeyisthataphoneticpersoniscapableofunitformation,definingunitasaconcreteregardedasa
separatememberofagroupofmultiplesimilarmembers.Forinstance,variousspecificmarketsareunits
subsumedundertheconceptmarket.Theabilitytoregardentitiesasunitsisdistinctivetomodernlingual
humans.Thisiswhyanimalsandprelingualbabiesareunabletocountbeyondthenumberofconcreteobjects
theycansubitize(i.emetaphysicallyperceive,uptoaboutsevenobjects).
THEVERBPROBLEM.KokoandKanzi,thefamedprimatesabletocommunicateusingAmericanSignLanguage,
arequiteadeptwithadjectivesandnouns,butseemunabletoformulateverbsorsentences.Whatistheproblem
withverbs?Becauseeveryactionneedsanactor,averbcannotbepictoriallyvisualizedwithoutanoun.Andthis
bondstheverbtoaspecificactor:Igotothemarket.Butunlikeapicture,thewordgodivorcestheaction
fromtheactor,aswellasfromspecificmeansofgoing.KokoandKanziseemtobeabletousegesturalwords
withothers,butnotasaunitofthought.
VERBALHALLUCINATIONS.99%ofyourthoughtsare
verbal
hallucinations.Youimaginehearingthespoken
wordratherthanseeingthewrittenword.Trycountinginyourheadfrom,say,10to20.Introspect.Youmentally
heard
thewordsten,eleven,twelve,etc.inyourpreferredlanguage.Nowtryagain,appendingimagesof
theArabicnumbers10,11,12,etc.tothespokenwords.Thisslowsdownyourcounting,butwithpractice
itcanbedone.Nowtryimagingthe10,11,12,etc.
without
hearingthewords.Youwillfinditimpossible.
PurelynotationaliconssuchasArabicnumerals,punctuationmarks,arrows,stopsigns,etc.areusefulonlyin
theirwrittenform.Onlyiconsyoucanhearcanberetrievedandprocessedasverbalhallucinations,whichis
whyyoucanspeakbeforeyoucanread.
Muchofthisahacognitiontakesplacebelowourverbalstreamofconsciousness,includingjudgments,reasoning,
induction,patternrecognition,andlearning.Oceansofinformationareautomaticallyprocessedthiswayusing
ancientpathways,asrevealedintheMarbeexperimentsattheWrzburgschool.Idonotcallthesecognitions
subconscious,reservingthistermforthedailyroutinesweconsciouslyprogramourselvestoperform
automatically.
THEBIGUSELESSBRAINMYSTERY.ThehumanandNeanderthalbrainsreachedtheirmodernsize200kya,
yetthearcheologicalrecordshowsnoadvancesintoolsorbehavioruntil45kya.Whatweretheydoinginallthat
timewiththeirhugebrains?Perhapsbuildingupasocialvocabulary,usedforcourtship,dominance,andstatus
games.Perhapstoverballyexpresswhodominateswho,andwhobelongstowho.Thesevocalisms,likeall

I33

animalcommunicationsuchaswarningcries,birdsong,andsnarls,areexpressionsofbehavior,butplayno
internalroleonhowbehaviorisdecided.Butoneday,thefirst
word
wasuttered,definingwordasa
vocalizationthatcanbebothspokenandusedasacognitiveunit.
THEFIRSTWORD.Whatwasthisfirstword?Perhapssomeonesname!Namesassociatedwithrankorclass
mayhavebeenusedformillennia,andimitatedthroughthegenerations.Butononefertiledayaround45kya,
someoneusedaverbalhallucinationofanameasacognitiveplaceholder,perhapstountangleasocialproblem.
Thiswasthefirstword,andthefirstverbalthought,aswellasthemostmomentousinventioninhuman
experience.Shewasnotconsciousofherthought,asconsciousnesswasstillthousandsofyearsinthefuture.But
sharingspokenandmentalconceptswasaneffectivemeanstomentallymanipulatethenamedperson.Andthe
spreadofwordsfromthesocialdomaintothebraindomainsassociatedwithtechnicalandnaturalhistory
knowledgeallowedexplosiveprogressintoolsandfoodstorage.
Manyyoungbirdsandmammalsuseanimprintingalgorithmtorecognizetheirmotherandothersoftheirspecies.
Thismechanism,quitedistinctfromassociativelearning,occursinthebriefperiodafterthebeginningof
locomotionandbeforetheonsetoffear.Itsveryspeculative,butperhapsthecommunicativesoundoftheword
mamainaprehistoricfamilybecameimprintedonachild,whowasabletousethissoundinherthoughtsasan
iconforhermother.Ifso,theveryfirstwordmayhavebeenthefirstwordofmostchildren:mama.
VERBALMEMORIES.Theuseofwordsallowedhumanmemoriestobestoredinthenewverbalformat.Thefew
exceptionsseemtobesensationssuchastastes,smells,andtouch.Butwhataboutrememberedandimagined
imagesanyonecanforminoneshead?Todaysbrainhastheremarkableabilitytoretrievestringsofwordsoutof
storage,andusethemtocreateamanipulatableimageinaspecialmindspace,sometimescalledthe
tabularasa
(blankslate).Bymakingtheseverballyformedimagesdanceinthismindspace,wecanusenarratizationto
comparealternativesandcometoadecision.
Ifapersonisaskedtogivedetailsonaparticularlyvividmemory,itbecomesquicklyclearheisnotexamininga
mentalphotographaccuratelyretrievedpixelbypixel.Asimplequestion:Whatistheshapeoftheframeofyour
memory?turnsouttohavenoanswer.Theimagehasnoframe,noboundary,exactlyasifitselementswere
conjuredupfromwordsratherthanacertainnumberofrowsofpixels.Ifthememoryisadynamicone,andthe
personisaskedatwhatpointdoesthefilmstopandreplay,againthereisnobasisforananswer.Norcanthe
persongiveaconsistentresponsetothespatialrelationshipbetweenrememberedelements.Everypoliceman
knowsthateyewitnessaccountsarevalidonlyforcertainnotableelements.Asiftheywerereconstructingthe
visualcrimescenefromadescriptioninabook.Thegapsarefilledlogically,usinggeneraldatathebrainhas
storedaboutthecategory.Whyofcoursetheperphadfivefingersonhishandofficer,everyhandhasfive
fingers.Ifmemorywaslikeasurveillancetape,onecouldintheoryrunthetapebackwardstoacertaindaywhen
onewaslookingoutawindow,stopthefilm,thenwritedownthelicensenumberofacargoingby.Butthe
verbaldatacompressionofmemoryisfarmoreparsimoniousthanthat.
Memoriesstoredassentencesexplainwhyyoucantrecallscenesfrominfancy,beforeyouhadthevocabularyto
reconstructimages.Infantsareabletolearn,justasaflatworminaTmazecanlearn.Butlearningtoturnleftina
Tmazeisdistinctfromrememberingtostraightleftstraight,aprocessthatrequiresmasteringtheverbal
conceptsofstraightandrightandleft.
Memoryartistsavants,suchasFrancoMagnaniandStephenWiltshire,havetheremarkablecapacitytopaint
detailedscenesfromchildhoodmemories,orfromseeingalandscapejustonce.Comparingtheirworkto
photographsisstunning.Butthedistortionsarerevealing:depictingscenesfromaperspectivethepaintercould
nothaveattained,combiningelementsfromdifferentpointsofview,shiftingspatialrelationships,exaggerating
somefeatures,andintroducinganachronisms.Exactlythedistortionsyouwouldexpectiftheimagewas

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constructedfromarichsetofverbalinstructions.Thisisnotphotographicmemory.
Arememoriesverbalorvisual?Asimpleexperimentanyonecanperformgetstothetruthofthematter.Gotoyour
library,andopenanybooktoarandompage.Lookatitforafewseconds,enoughtogetamentalimage.Now
trytoreconstructthepagefrommemory.Ifthepagewerestoredasapicture,youshouldhaveablurred
photographinyourmindseye.Maybeafewletterswouldberecognizable,andyoushouldbeabletocountthe
linesoftext,eveniftooblurrytoread.Andyoushouldbeabletoseeonthisphotowhichlineoftexteachofthe
lettersyoucanrecognizearelocated.Ofcourse,arealrememberedreconstructionisvastlydifferent.Afew
snippetsofphrasesareremembered.Buttheirpositiononthepageisunknown.Thisisbecausethememoryis
storedverbally.
Incidentally,inthisexperiment,for999timesoutof1000,therandompageyouopenwillcontainfarmore
informationinverbalformatthaninpictureformat.Thisisbecauseallbookwritersknowthatitisfareasierto
expressanysignificantideawithwordsthanpictures,andeachwordisworthathousandpictures.Andbecause
theprintedwordresonateswiththehallucinatedspokenwordsweallthinkwith,itsunlikelythehumblebookwill
everbesupplantedbyaudiovisualgizmos.
Avariationofthisexperimentwasperformedin2013attheKyotoUniversitysPrimateResearchCenter.The
Arabicnumbers1to9arrayedinarandompatternwereflashedforlessthanonesecondonamonitor.
Chimpanzeesperformedfarbetterthanhumansinpointingtowherethenumeralshadbeenonthescreeninthe
correctnumericalsequence.Thisisstrongevidencethatthechimpshorttermmemoryisfarmorevisualthan
humanmemory.Seethevideohere
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/videochimpanzeeshavefasterworkingmemorythanhumansaccor
dingtostudy8496034.html
PERCEPTS.Itisunknownhowanimalsandprelingualhumansprocesspercepts,whichisthenameforconcepts
formedbydirectperception,withouttheuseofwordsorunitformation.Ababoon,forinstance,mightseeonly
thetailofalion,promptinganintegrationplunkingtheperceptlionintoitsflightorfightalgorithm.Thereis
evidencethatperceptsareformedintheprocessingrightsideoftheanimalbrain,andenactedinthe
executivelefthalf.Communicationbetweenthehalvesencryptstheseperceptsinaprotowordformat,butis
unabletocategorizethemintounits.Butthenewverbalformatsurmountedthislimitation.
COGNITIVEFLUIDITY.Foralmosttheirentirehistory,neitherNeanderthalsormodernhumansshowedanytrace
ofwhatwewouldcallculture,suchasartorreligion.AccordingtoLedaCosmidesandJohnTooby,thiswas
becausetheancienthumanbrainwascompartmentalizedintosocial,technical,andnaturalhistorydomains.
Informationfromonedomainseemedunabletobeutilizedinotherdomains.Forinstance,ahumanadeptwith
knappingwaspuzzlinglyunwillingtowhittleantlerorbone,perhapsbecausestonewasmentallyprocessedinthe
technologydomain,whileboneswereprocessedinthenaturalhistorydomain.Cognitivefluidityin
selfcommunicationwasachievedonlywhenthenewverbalformatsurmountedthissoftwareincompatibility.
Aswordsfromonedomaingotentrainedinthecontextofanother,thecrosstalksparkedtheculturalrevolutionof
40kya,whenthefirstcarvedboneandantlerspoints,cavepaintings,figurines,flutes,burials,andothercultural
artifactsappear.Bymixingdomains,humansforthefirsttimecouldexpressmulticomponenttoolsmadefrom
materialsotherthansticksandstones(thefirsttechnology),eldersabletobereferredtoaftertheydied(thefirst
propernamesandgravegoods),femalestatuesactingastheauthorityforactions(thefirstidols),and
anthropomorphicanimalsthatcouldwalkandtalk(thefirstjokes).
THECRUCIALPRONOUN.Thediscoverythatthefamouscavepaintingshadbeencontinuallyretouchedfor
thousandsofyearssuggeststheywereusedasblackboards,perhapstoreinforcetheneuralpathwaysusedin

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blankslateformation,visuallyandtactilelyreinforcingtheneuralpathwaysusedtoformpicturesfromwords
andtoregardanimalsasunits.Thisdidacticpurposeexplainswhythepaintingsweresoeerilysimilarthroughout
theinhabitedworld.Thehandprintstencilsfoundonsomanymayhavebeenthefirstattemptstoarticulatethe
pronounI,acrucialconceptontheroadtoconsciousness.
PhilEklund,Dec2014

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Related Interests