You are on page 1of 56

MV/LV transformer protection

Power Business Training

Situate the MV protection function


Specify the most suitable solution for todays electrical
networks: circuit breakers

Experts: Guillaume LEBREDONCHEL / Jean-Marc BIASSE


Pedagogy: Martine ALLAGNAT
Production: AMEG
Duration: 52mn

Markets concerned
MV protection devices are used in 4 markets

Energy

Schneider Electric

Industry

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

Infrastructures

Buildings

1 - Medium voltage protection


Contents
Medium Voltage protection
Fuse-type protection
Switch-fuse combination unit
Circuit breaker protection
Discrimination
Devices to be protected: MV/LV
transformers
Coordination of protection
Main points to remember
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection - 04/2010

2 main objectives
while optimising
continuity of service

Contribute to the safety


of people and
equipment...

t
Safe

ity
u
n
i
t
Con vice
r
of s e

ion
t
a
s
imi ts
t
p
O
os
c
f
o

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

This means that


Fault current must be quickly
cleared...

...with tripping taking place at the


right level of the installation

CB1

CB2

Power supply to the other


feeders is still ensured

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

Effects of electrical current


Fault currents mainly create 2 types of effects:
Electromagnetic stress

Heat dissipation
(Joule effect)

Risk of mechanical
damage

Risks linked to
thermal effect

Dangerous
above a certain
threshold

The installation should be


designed to mechanically
withstand the maximum
fault current

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

Increases with
current level and
duration

The installation should be


equipped with devices that limit
the duration of fault currents. The
higher the current, the shorter the
tripping time

Protection curve
Tripping time

2 main rules:
let the device operate
in normal service

sure to trip

avoid risks related to


the passage of overly
high current in the
installation

e
nc
ra
le
to
ne
zo

Operation is possible

tripping zone

no
tripping zone
Current

sure not to trip


Permissible
continuous I1

Schneider Electric

Fault I

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

I / I1

2 - Fuse-type protection
Contents
Medium Voltage protection
Fuse-type protection
Switch-fuse combination unit
Circuit breaker protection
Discrimination
Devices to be protected: MV/LV
transformers
Coordination of protection
Main points to remember
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection - 04/2010

Fuse

The fuse is a device that interrupts current by melting the fuse


element

I1
Breaking
capacity

I3

Ir

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

Min.
breaking
current

Danger

Fuse components
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fuse element
Star core
Insulating tube
Arc-quenching powder
Insulating end-cap
Striker
6

1
3
42

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

10

Fuse melting curve


Depends directly on
the fuses thermal
properties

Time/current characteristic curves


7.2 12 17.5 24 26 kV
Time (s)

Also called
time/current
characteristic
Minimum melting current:
38 A. The fuse melts, but is
not capable of tripping

e.g. I3 = 42 A

Examples of curves for


Solefuse fuses
42 A
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

Current (A)

11

Advantages of fuses
Fast interruption
for high short-circuit values
(but high short-circuit currents are very rare and are
generally preceded by low fault currents)

Current-limiting capacity
capability to limit short-circuit current

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

12

Drawbacks of fuses
Only work once
Fragile
Sensitive to the environment
Dissipate a lot of energy as heat
(cost of Joule losses)
Sensitive to ageing (approximate service life: 10 years)
Have a danger zone (Ir < I < I3)
Possible single-pole breaking
Application limited to small transformers
One rating per application (large stock of spare parts)
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

13

3 - Switch-fuse combination unit


Contents
Medium Voltage protection
Fuse-type protection
Switch-fuse combination unit
Circuit breaker protection
Discrimination
Devices to be protected: MV/LV
transformers
Coordination of protection
Main points to remember
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection - 04/2010

14

Switch-fuse combination unit


Three fuses with strikers

A three-phase switch
is not a protection device on its own
can be tripped by any of the three strikers

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

15

Transfer current
The transfer current is the value above which the fault current will be cleared
by the 3 fuses only, the switch not having had time to react

t (s)

se
u
f
e ted
n
o el
m

y
nt
i
rta ing 2
e
c rd r
un ega the
r eo
th

greater
T

0.9 T0

es
s
fu ed
3 elt
m
2&3
1

low T

I (A)

transfer
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

16

Advantages and drawbacks of switch-fuse


combination units
Main advantage: fuses may be used without any singlepole breaking problems
Main drawback: choosing the right rating is difficult due to
transfer current constraints
Otherwise, they have the same advantages and
drawbacks as fuses

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

17

4 - Circuit breaker protection


Contents
Medium Voltage protection
Fuse-type protection
Switch-fuse combination unit
Circuit breaker protection
Discrimination
Devices to be protected: MV/LV
transformers
Coordination of protection
Main points to remember
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection - 04/2010

18

Circuit breaker
The circuit breaker is a device capable of
making, withstanding and interrupting currents
under normal and abnormal conditions (up to
short-circuit current)

It is defined by its:
voltage (Ur)
rated current (Ir)
breaking capacity (Isc)

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

19

Circuit breaker protection chain


To create a protection chain, the circuit breaker must be
connected to:
current sensors (CTs)
a protection relay

circuit breaker

3 The circuit breaker trips and breaks the


fault current

Sepam
2 The protection device analyzes the fault
current and transmits a tripping order

Protection
relay

1 The current sensor (CT) detects the fault


current and transmits the information to
the protection device
current sensor
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

20

Protection relays
Variety
Numerous and varied
Flexibility
Designed to fit all applications
User-adjustable: installation upgrading possible

with auxiliary power


supply

Sepam

Upgrading capability

selfpowered

VIP

energy
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

21

VIP 30 relay
Just one adjustment
dial for just one
setting! (Is)
Protection tripping curve

The simplest protection relay: set


the adjustment dial to Is
Self-powered protection
Optimal transformer protection,
with one setting of just one
parameter
Operating tests with or without
tripping (VAP6 module)
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

22

VIP 35 relay
VIP 35 phase-tophase protection

VIP 35 earth fault


protection

Same characteristics as the VIP 30 relay, plus definite-time


earth fault protection
2 settings for earth fault protection: T0> - I0>
Self-powered protection
Operating tests with or without tripping (VAP6 module)
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

23

VIP 300 relay

VIP 300 phase-tophase and earth


fault protection

Self-powered protection relay with multiple configurations


Phase and earth fault protection
May be configured for each type of standardized curve:
Is current
an intermediate characteristic point
a high set point

Possibility of placing the VIP 300 upstream of VIP 30/35 relays and ensuring
good discrimination
Discrimination with complex LV switchboards
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

24

Sepam protection relay

Sepam series 10:


For simple
applications

Sepam series 20:


For usual
applications

Sepam series 40:


Fpr demanding
applications

Sepam series 80:


For critical
applications

Range of protection relays offering possibilities for protection, metering,


indication, monitoring-control, communication and diagnostic assistance
Phase-to-phase overcurrent, earth fault and sensitive earth protection
Thermal overload protection
Wide choice of standardized curves can be set
Possibility of integration in a supervisory system via a communication network
or remote control system
Ensures good discrimination, including with LV panels
Auxiliary power supply
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

25

Advantages of circuit breaker protection


10 to 100 times less dissipated power than with fuses
Simple choice of equipment
Capable of withstanding inrush current
Variety of relays available:
phase-to-phase fault protection
earth fault protection
overload protection
etc...

Possibility of adjusting protection relays (upgrading capability)


Possibility of testing operating capability (with or without tripping)

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

26

Cost comparison over time


Costs
1 spare set of fuses +
logistics and labor
100 / 10 years

Switch / fuse solution

Joule losses
0.22 / year

Joule losses
110 / year

2 sets of fuses

Circuit breaker solution


Circuit breaker

Combination unit

1 year

10 years

Acquisition

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

20 years

30 years

Time

Operation

27

5 - Discrimination
Contents
Medium Voltage protection
Fuse-type protection
Switch-fuse combination unit
Circuit breaker protection
Discrimination
Devices to be protected: MV/LV
transformers
Coordination of protection
Main points to remember
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection - 04/2010

28

What is discrimination?
Discrimination
Continuity
of service

No discrimination

CB1

CB1

CB2

Only CB2
trips

The power supply to


the other feeders is
still ensured

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

CB1 and
CB2 trip

CB2

The power supply to


the other feeders is no
longer ensured

29

What is the purpose?


Improve power supply continuity

Discrimination

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

No discrimination

30

Discrimination on more than two levels


CB1

CB2

CB3

CB4

CB5

CB6

CB7

Only CB7 trips

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

31

Discrimination and protection curves


CB3 CB2 CB1

CB1
CB2

CB3

Tripping times get longer towards the source

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

32

Total and partial discrimination


Total discrimination
CB3 CB2 CB1

CB1

Partial discrimination
CB3 CB2 CB1

no
overlapping

CB2

CB3

overlapping

Threshold I
CB2 and CB3
trip

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

33

Main points to remember about


discrimination
Discrimination consists of ensuring the best continuity of service by isolating
only the faulty part of the network
The most commonly-used discrimination consists of ensuring that the curves of
the different protection levels never overlap
There are other more elaborate types of discrimination for specific applications
example: logic discrimination, differential discrimination, and so on
to learn more, a special e-learning module is available (Discover discrimination Basic knowledge tab in Pl@net Training)

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

34

6 - Devices to be protected: MV/LV transformers


Contents
Medium Voltage protection
Fuse-type protection
Switch-fuse combination unit
Circuit breaker protection
Discrimination
Devices to be protected: MV/LV
transformers
Coordination of protection
Main points to remember
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection - 04/2010

35

Situate MV/LV transformers


Secondary distribution substations
HV/MV substation
protection device:
(e.g. circuit breaker, fuses, etc.)

MV/LV transformer
protection

Main low voltage


switchboard (MLVSB)

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

zone concerned:
MV/LV transformer

36

MV/LV transformer
Transforms one voltage and current system
into another one, at the same frequency
It is defined by:

rated power (e.g. 630 kVA)


primary rated voltage (e.g. 20 kV)
secondary voltage (e.g. 400 V)
primary short-circuit voltage (Usc) as a %
(e.g. 5%)

Standard: 2 s
IEC 60076-5 standard

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

37

An example of a transformer
P = 630 kVA
primary voltage U = 20 kV
calculation of primary current: I1 = 630 / (3 x 20) = 18 A

On the secondary circuit:


calculation of secondary current: I2 = 630 / (3 x 0.4) = 909 A

In case of short-circuit on secondary circuit:

P =630 kV
U1 =20 kV

calculation of primary current:


Isc1 = 630 x (U x 5% x 3) = 20 I1 = 360 A
secondary current: Isc2 = Isc1 x 20/0.4 = 18000 A
Usc

U2 =400 V

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

38

Transformer energizing
Starting: high current = inrush current

No-load transformer transient energizing current

The peak current can reach values of up to a dozen times the peak rated
current
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

39

Basic constraints of upstream transformer


protection
Transformer thermal withstand limit
t (s)

Rated operating I

Short-circuit on secondary
(16 to 25 Ir - 2s)

Reference point for


inrush current
~12 Ir 0.1s

Transient
currents
0

I (A)

Ir
MV or LV fault

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

MV fault

40

Transformer protection by switch-fuse


combination unit
According to the standard (62271-105 annex A), the switch-fuse combination
unit must:
withstand inrush current without thermal ageing
ensure breaking of secondary short-circuits by fuses
t (s)

Rated I

Short-circuit withstand

0.1s

Inrush current

0.9 T0

0
Schneider Electric

Ir

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

12 Ir

17 to 25 Ir
(Usc 6 to 4%)
transfer current

I (A)
41

Iir
t0

= 277 A

250 A

= 20 kV
= 23.1 A
=6%

160 A
200 A

U
Ir
uk
Isc

31,5 A
40 A
50 A
63 A
80 A
100 A

800 kVA transformer

125 A

A theoretical example of difficult coordination

= 385 A
= 35 ms

There is no
solution that
complies with the
standard

t0

Current (Amps)
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

42

Circuit breaker protection: a flexible solution


Circuit breakers capability to break all currents below its
breaking capacity
No difficulty withstanding inrush currents and other
overloads
Multiple choice of protection relays
No complex coordination calculations
Capable of accommodating intelligent network
management
Possibility of remote reclosing after a fault (remote control)
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

43

Comparison of phase protection curves of


VIP 30/35 relays and fuses
Phase protection tripping curve

+ fault clearance curve


Overload and
low fault
protection

Risk of premature aging


with repeated starting

No protection when
overloads and low faults
occur (uncertainty zone)

Fuse

VIP 30/35
Faster breaking with
high currents (rare)

No tripping with
inrush currents

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

Clearing of major faults


within less than 100 ms

44

Transformer internal faults


The most frequent internal fault is a
short-circuit between the turns of the MV
winding
the fault may evolve slowly, and the initial
current may be low (in the range of 1 to 6
times the rated current)

Equivalent diagram of a
faulty turn

This means that correct


protection is needed even for low
levels of fault current
the fuse is blind in this case, and
unable to ensure protection

Inrush current
Low initial curent
Gets worse after 5 s

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

Example of oscillogram of
energizing of a previously
damaged transformer

45

Other types of fault


Fault current values may be low for other reasons
power supply in backup mode with generators
micro-generation: wind power, fuel cells, etc.
fault impedance also limits current value
Backup mode (generator)
Normal
mode
(mains)

Be careful of the quality of


protection for all operating
situations
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

n:
o
i
t
u
l
So
ker
a
e
r
b
it
circu
46

7 - Coordination of protection
Contents
Medium Voltage protection
Fuse-type protection
Switch-fuse combination unit
Circuit breaker protection
Discrimination
Devices to be protected: MV/LV
transformers
Coordination of protection
Main points to remember
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection - 04/2010

47

Coordination with upstream protection


Ensure transformer protection
compatibility with upstream
protection devices

HV/MV substation

MV/LV transformer
protection

Main low voltage


switchboard (MLVSB)

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

Upstream circuit breaker

Fuse or
feeder circuit
breaker

LV switchboard

48

Discrimination with upstream network


Loop protection

The upstream protection devices are


circuit breakers (due to current limitations
of fuses, need for earth fault protection,
etc.)

Sometimes numerous levels,


e.g. MV consumer substations
The transformer protection
device must be coordinated
with the upstream network,
which is more difficult for a fuse

MV consumer
substation

Transformer feeders

Phase protection tripping curve


T (s)

Case 2: Fuse

100

No discrimination
with low current

10

Upstream circuit breaker:


loop protection
1

Case 1: Feeder circuit breaker


0,1

It is difficult to ensure discrimination


with a fuse for low currents
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

0,01

I/Is
0
1,2 Is

10

15

20

25

30

35

49

Ex of coordination with VIP 300 and VIP 30/35


Phase protection tripping curve

Degree of freedom
in setting the
discrimination distance

Is (or I> with DT)

VIP 300 relay

t>
VIP 300

Supply of the loop


(open ring network)

I>>
VIP 30/35
t>>

VIP 30 or 35 relays
Feeders on MV/LV
transformers

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

50

Coordination with downstream installation


Ensure transformer protection
compatibility with downstream
protection devices

HV/MV substation

MV/LV transformer
protection

Main low voltage


switchboard (MLVSB)

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

Upstream circuit breaker

Fuse or
feeder circuit
breaker

LV switchboard

51

Discrimination with downstream installation


(case of a LV switchboard)
The low voltage installation is often made up of LV switchboards
with different levels of protection
discrimination constraints
considerably delayed tripping of incoming circuit breaker

In this case, it may become difficult for the fuse melting curve
to be compatible with the downstream circuit breaker
solution in a particularly complex case: VIP 300 relay or Sepam relay
Sepam
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

52

An example of discrimination with the


downstream installation
1000

Fuse solution: no discrimination


loss of continuity of service
difficulty of fault location

100

no discrimination with the fuse

10

t>

VIP 300 relay with setting:


EI mode
t>: 0.6 (x 10) = 6s
I>>: 20 Ir
t>>: 0.03

t (s)

Circuit breaker solution:

0,1

t>>
VIP300
0,01
1

10

Transf. energizing I
LV relay

I/In

I>>

100

Fusarc CF 63 A
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

53

8 - Main points to remember


Contents
Medium Voltage protection
Fuse-type protection
Switch-fuse combination unit
Circuit breaker protection
Discrimination
Devices to be protected: MV/LV
transformers
Coordination of protection
Main points to remember
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection - 04/2010

54

Main points to remember


Switch-fuse
combination unit

Circuit breaker

For very high I (rare)

For very high I (rare)

current-limiting effect
fast breaking

For lower I

danger zone: Irf - I3


no overload protection
slow with low current close to I3
choice of fuse difficult or impossible in
combination unit
discrimination problems

More generally speaking


Joule losses (environment, losses of
110 /year with combination unit)
need to change fuses, need for spare
stock (with many different ratings)
risk of thermal aging (service life: about
10 years)
fragility, sensitivity to environment
Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection 04/2010

no current-limiting effect
but reaction time: 70 to 100 ms

For lower I
no use limitations
discrimination easily ensured

More generally speaking


very low Joule losses
possibility of remote reclosing (remote
control)
30-year service life, no maintenance
flexibility: upgrading capability (change
of settings), earth fault protection, etc..
the best protection solution
55

Power Business training

Thanks !
Make the most of your energy
Please take 5 minutes to answer this survey

Schneider Electric

Power Business training - MV/LV transformer protection - 04/2010


04/2010

Survey

56