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COVER PAGE

PROJECT TITLE
A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted to
SUNRISE UNIVERSITY
in partial fulfilment for the award of the diploma of

POLYTECHNIC
In
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SUNRISE UNIVERSITY
ALWAR
RAJASTHAN, INDIA

MAY 2014
Annexure1

PROJECT TITLE
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A PROJECT REPORT
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Submitted to
SUNRISE UNIVERSITY
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in partial fulfilment for the award of the diploma of


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POLYTECHNIC
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IN MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


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SUNRISE UNIVERSITY
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ALWAR RAJASTHAN,
INDIA
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MAY 2014
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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report entitled TITLE OF PROJECT WORK

submitted by NAME OF GROUP to the SunRise University Alwar,Rajasthan in partial


fulfilment for the award of Diploma of Polytechnic in Mechanical Engineering is a confide
record of the project work carried out by him under my supervision during the year 20152016.

Submitted to:

Submitted by:

Name of incharge

Name of student(Roll)

Designation

Name (Project Guide)


Designation

SUNRISE UNIVERSITY
Bagad Rajput, ALWAR-301030(Raj.)
INDIA
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep to my mentor Mr.
Vinayak Hemadri for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement
throughout the course of this thesis. The blessing, help and guidance given by him time to
time shall carry me a long way on the journey of life in which I am about to embark. I also
take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to the mentor for his cordial
support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completing this task through
various stages.
Lastly, I thank almighty, my parents, and friends for their constant encouragement
without which this assignment would not be completed.

ABSTRACT
The sheet metal cutting process is a main part of the all industries. Normally the sheet
metal cutting machine is manually hand operated one for medium and small scale industries.
In our project is FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC SHEET METAL CUTTING
MACHINE. Automation in the modern world is inevitable. Any automatic machine aimed
at the economical use of man, machine, and material worth the most. In our project is
solenoid valve and control timing unit is used for automation. The sheet metal cutting
machine works with the help of pneumatic double acting cylinder. The piston is connected to
the moving cutting tool. It is used to cut the small size of sheet metal. The machine is
portable in size, so easy transportable.
We are using scissors for simple sheet metal cutting. It is a manual method so that
sheet metals are to be wasted sometime because of mistakes happened such as wrong
dimensions etc., and also even a simple cutting may take long time. Hydraulic machines are
also available for sheet metal cutting. But this method is used for only heavy metal cutting
and its cost is very high. We are using a pneumatic system for sheet metal cutting in an easy
way. It is operated by a pneumatic hand lever of two ways control valve. Control valve is
operated by a compressor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO

TITLE

PAGE NO

ABSTRACT

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 SHEET METAL:
Sheet metal is simply a metal formed into thin and flat pieces. It is one of the
fundamental forms used in metal working and can be cut and bent into a variety of different
shapes. Countless everyday objects are constructed of the material. Thicknesses can vary
significantly, although extremely thin thicknesses are considered foil or leaf, and pieces
thicker than 6 mm (0.25 in) are considered plate.
Sheet metal is available in flat pieces or as a coiled strip. The coils are formed by running a
continuous sheet of metal through a roll slitter. The thickness of the sheet metal is called its
gauge. Commonly used steel sheet metal ranges from 30 gauge to about 8 gauge. The larger
the gauge number, the thinner the metal. Gauge is measured in ferrous (iron based) metals
while nonferrous metals such as aluminium or copper are designated differently; i.e., Copper
is measured in thickness by Ounce.
There are many different metals that can be made into sheet metal, such as aluminium, brass,
copper, steel, tin, nickel and titanium. For decorative uses, important sheet metals include
silver, gold and platinum (platinum sheet metal is also utilized as a catalyst.)
Sheet metal also has applications in car bodies, airplane wings, medical tables, roofs for
buildings (Architectural) and many other things. Sheet metal of iron and other materials with
high magnetic permeability, also known as laminated steel cores, has applications in
transformers and electric machines. Historically, an important use of sheet metal was in plate
arm or worn by cavalry, and sheet metal continues to have many decorative uses, including in

horse tack. Sheet metal workers are also known as "Tin Bashers" ("Tin Knockers") which is
derived from the hammering of panel seams when installing tin roofs.
There are three primary procedures in Layout
1

Parallel

Radial

Triangulation

1.2. SHEET METAL CUTTING:


Cutting processes are those in which a piece of sheet metal is separated by applying a great
enough force to cause the material to fail. The most common cutting processes are performed
by applying a shear force, and are therefore sometimes referred to as shearing processes.
When a great enough shearing force is applied, the shear stress in the material will
exceed the ultimate shear strength and the material will fail and separate at the cut location.
This shearing force is applied by two tools, one above and one below the sheet. Whether
these tools are a punch and die or upper and lower blades, the tool above the sheet delivers a
quick downward blow to the sheet metal that rests over the lower tool.
A small clearance is present between the edges of the upper and lower tools, which
facilitates the fracture of the material. The size of this clearance is typically 2-10% of the
material thickness and depends upon several factors, such as the specific shearing process,
material, and sheet thickness.
The effects of shearing on the material change as the cut progresses and are visible
on the edge of the sheared material. When the punch or blade impacts the sheet, the clearance

between the tools allows the sheet to plastically deform and rollover the edge. As the tool
penetrates the sheet further, the shearing results in a vertical burnished zone of material.
Finally, the shear stress is too great and the material fractures at an angle with a small burr
formed at the edge. The height of these portions of the cut depends on several factors,
including the sharpness of the tools and the clearance between the tools.
1.3 PNEUMATIC CYLINDER
A pneumatic cylinder simply converts air pressure into linear motion. When selecting
a pneumatic cylinder, you must pay attention to: how far the piston extends when activated,
known as "stroke" surface area of the piston face, known as "bore size" action type pressure
rating, such as "50 PSI" type of connection to each port, such as "1/4" NPT" must be rated for
compressed air use mounting method.

Fig 1.3.1 Pneumatic Gun


1.4 ADVANTAGES
The pneumatically operated multipurpose device has many advantages. They are as follows:

Low cost, so it can be used in small scale industries.


Higher rate and quicker operations
A number of operations like (drilling), screw driving, reaming etc., can be done.
The nuts and bolts can be tightened to a particular pressure by operating the gate

valve placed in the control unit and the pressure gauge.


Both loosening and tightening is possible. Since there is air flow in both directions.
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The weight of the unit is less and can be easily handled. Efficient operation. Since if

does not require any electricity for running.


The weight of the machine is concentrated towards the machining head to facilitate

easy manipulation of the machining.


The design is simple and there is no maintenance required. The control valve for
allowing or restricting air may be placed on handle to make easier to control the speed

of the machine.
The maximum rpm of the unit of the unit is 7000 rpm. The speed provides a torque
which is suitable for machining. The maximum pressure that can be used is 7 kg km.

The rpm and torque can be varied by varying the pressure of the air inlet.
Power can be easily transmission
Less loss in transmission
A single compressor can supply power to many pneumatic Jack.

Low cost

Easy to work and reduces the manual stress

1.5 DISADVANTAGE

Need separate compressor.


Initial cost is high
Spindle rotation is pneumatic power, so this machine having low torque
Need a separate compressor

1.6 APPLICATIONS
This multipurpose device has a numerous applications in various fields. In industries,
this is used in assembly section. The required pressure is set and the operation is carried out.
In automobile shops various operations are required frequently Drilling, boring, reaming,
grinding etc. It is also used as a screw driver for tightening and loosening nuts and bolts. It
is used.
1. In automobile workshops
2. In small scale industries
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3. In such places where frequent changes in operations are required


4. In welding shops for grinding.
5. For performing operations in huge parts which cannot be done in ordinary
machines, since it is portable.

The project work subject is one, in which actually we are leaning the theoretical concepts in
practical way. Also the practical experience is one of the aims of this subject. For a
developing industry these operating performed and the parts or components produced should
have its minimum possible production cost, then only the industry runs profitably. There are
a number of units having used in industries for various purposes

CHAPTER 2
2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

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Fig 2.1 Automatic Shear Cutter System


This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual
effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The operation remains an
essential part of the system although with changing demands on physical input as the
degree of mechanization is increased. Degrees of automation are of two types, viz.

Full automation.
Semi automation.

In semi automation a combination of manual effort and mechanical power is required


whereas in full automation human participation is very negligible.

2.2 Need For Automation


Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics, etc., of
these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation. The main

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advantages of all pneumatic systems are economy and simplicity. Automation plays an
important role in mass production.
Reduction of lab our and material cost
Reduction of overall cost
Increased production
Increased storage capacity
Increased safety
Reduction in fatigue
Improved personnel comfort
2.3 Action

Types

By "action type", we mean how the cylinder acts when pressure is applied and removed.
A "single-acting" cylinder has a single port for compressed air.

When air pressure is removed, the cylinder does nothing to retract the piston. Whatever the
piston pushed out must push the piston back in.

A cylinder that is "single-acting with spring return" has hook-ups like the "single-acting"
cylinder. When air pressure is removed, the spring pushes the piston back into the resting
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position. In some cases the cylinder is sealed and the trapped air performs as an "air spring".
A single-acting cylinder with spring return requires more air pressure to activate because you
are pushing against both the load and the spring.A "double-acting" cylinder has two ports for
compressed air.

The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is the compressor. A
compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas or vapours at any certain pressure and delivers
the air at a high pressure.
Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered and the
volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions, namely at atmosphere pressure and
normal ambient temperature.
Clean condition of the suction air is one of the factors, which decides the life of the
compressors. Warm and moist air will result in Compressors may be classified into two types,
namely
1. Positive displacement compressors
2. Turbo compressors.

Positive displacement compressors are most frequently employed for compressed air plants
and have proved. Highly successful to supply air for pneumatic control application.
The types of positive Compressors are,
a. Reciprocating type compressors
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b. Rotary type compressors.


Turbo compressors are employed where large capacity of air is required at low discharge
pressures. They cannot attain pressure necessary for pneumatic control applications unless
built in multi stage designs are seldom en counted in pneumatic service. Basically all
activities or anything in our lives, there must be the advantages and disadvantages to be
caused. And so is in the Pneumatic system.
Infinite availability of the source
Air is the most important thing in the pneumatic system, and as we all know, air is available
in the world around us in unlimited quantities at all times and places.

Easy channelled
Air is a substance that is easily passed or move from one place to another through a small
pipe, the long and winding.

Temperature is flexible
Air can be used flexibly at various temperatures are required, through equipment designed for
specific circumstances, even in quite extreme conditions; the air was still able to work.
Safe
The air can be loaded more safely than it is not flammable and does not short circuit occurs
(konsleting) or explode, so protection against both of these things pretty easily, unlike the
electrical system that could lead to fires konsleting.
Clean
The air around us are tend to clean without chemicals that are harmful, and also, it can be
minimized or cleaned with some processes, so it is safe to use pneumatic systems to the
pharmaceutical industry, food and beverages and textiles.
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The transfer of power and the speed is very easy to set up


Air could move at speeds that can be adjusted from low to high or vice versa. When using a
pneumatic cylinder actuator, the piston speed can reach 3 m / s. For pneumatic motors can
spins at 30,000 rpm, while the turbine engine systems can reach 450,000 rpm.
Can be stored
The air can be stored through the seat tube fed excess air pressure. Moreover, it can be
installed so that the pressure boundary or the safety of the system to be safe.
Easy utilized
Easy air either directly utilized to clean surfaces such as metal and machinery, or indirectly, ie
through pneumatic equipment to produce certain movements.

Requires installation of air-producing equipment.


Compressed air should be well prepared to meet the requirements. Meet certain criteria, such
as dry, clean, and contain the necessary lubricant for pneumatic equipment. Therefore require
installation of pneumatic systems is relatively expensive equipment, such as compressors, air
filter, lube tube, dryer, regulators, etc.

Easy to leak
One of the properties of pressurized air is like to always occupy the empty space and the air
pressure is maintained in hard work. Therefore we need a seal so that air does not leak. Seal
leakage can cause energy loss. Pneumatic equipment should be equipped with airtight
equipment that compressed air leaks in the system can be minimized.
Potential noise

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Pneumatic using open system, meaning that the air that has been used will be thrown out of
the system, the air comes out pretty loud and noisy so will cause noise, especially on the
exhaust tract. The fix is to put a silencer on each dump line.

CHAPTER 3
3.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE
The working medium adopted is compressed air. The compressed air is transmitted through
tubes to pneumatic cylinder where power is converted into reciprocating motion. The
reciprocating motion is obtained by using an electrically controlled solenoid valve. The input
to the solenoid valve is given through the control unit. The reciprocating motion transmitted

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to the jack through the piston which moves on the cylinder. The jack is mounted on the
bottom side of the vehicle chassis as shown in the figure. If the vehicle has to be lifted, the
solenoid valve will be actuated. The load plate will be moved towards the ground. As piston
rod keeps on extending the vehicle will be lifted. Thus using a pneumatic jack the vehicle can
be lifted with ease in operation.

Fig.3.1.1 Working Of Pneumatic Jack

3.2 DESCRIPTION OF JACK WORKING PRINICIPLE


Work by way of pressurized gas used to create mechanical motion. Hydraulic jacks,
on the other hand, use liquid to affect motion. Both types of jacks are available to consumers;
however, hydraulic jacks are more popular for a number of reasons, and pneumatic jacks are
less readily available due to the drawbacks of pneumatic mechanics. This doesn't mean that a

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pneumatic jack is a bad choice, but rather that a comparison between the two products is time
well spent.

Pneumatic systems are mechanical systems that use compressed gasses. They are similar to
hydraulic systems, which are mechanical systems that use liquids in the transfer of forces.
Pneumatic systems are almost everywhere in the modern world. Dentists use pneumatics to
operate drills, carpenters use pneumatics to power air hammers, truckers use pneumatic
brakes and NASA uses pneumatics to control the operation of satellite launch vehicles.
Basic Principles

Pneumatics is basically a method to turn electricity into mechanical motion using


compressed gasses instead of motors or electromagnets. For many applications, this is much
more efficient and practical. Systems typically include an air compressor, which stores
compressed air in a cylinder and release it under electric control. The compressed gas is
almost always ordinary air because it is free and non- toxic. Often the air is slightly modified
by taking out some of the water vapor and adding a small amount of atomized oil to make the
gas more machine friendly.
Applications

Pneumatics systems are widely used for power tools. The power tool that an
automobile mechanic uses to take the lug nuts that hold a tire onto the hub is one example.
The mechanic can easily take off even the toughest nuts in just a few seconds. There are
dozens of other pneumatic power tools in dentistry, carpentry, machine shops and
laboratories. Other applications include jackhammers, the cylinder delivery systems used by
some banks and various launchers and guns designed to propel objects. One interesting
application is a new French automobile that runs on compressed air. Electricity is used
20

overnight to compress air into an on board cylinder and the car runs all day with no fuel and
no pollution emissions.

Pneumatic vs. Hydraulic

Hydraulic systems usually use oil as the control fluid. Hydraulic systems have the
advantage that they can handle bigger loads, and the disadvantage is that if there is a leak it
causes a big mess and is expensive to fix. A leaks in a pneumatic system means that you vent
ordinary air, which can be replaced for free when the leak is fixed. Pneumatic systems are
preferred when there must be a certain amount of "give" or "play" in the system (gasses are
compressible). Hydraulic systems are preferred when high pressures must be maintained with
no fluctuation.
High-Tech Applications

Pneumatics is not a dying technology--far from it. There are at least two high-tech
applications of pneumatics that have a place in our technological future: McKibbens and
pneumatic logic systems. McKibbins are sometimes called "artificial muscles." They are
inflatable rubber tubes surrounded by a wire mesh. When inflated they contract and then
elongate when deflated. They are currently being used to power robotic arms and legs.
Pneumatic logic is the use of complex channels for fluids that act like simple computer
circuits. Pneumatic logic systems have many advantages over electronic systems such as the
fact that radiation does not interfere with them. These systems are currently being used by
NASA to control rocket-stage separation.

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Pneumatic systems compress air or some other gas in order to increase the pressure it
exerts. This high pressure gas is then used to make machine parts move. In the late 19th
century, only wealthy industrialists used pneumatic systems, as only they had the massive
steam engines necessary to run the compression systems of the time. However, in the early
part of the 20th century, smaller and more efficient motors ensured the widespread industrial
usage of pneumatic systems. Even though they have become less widespread since the latter
half of the 20th century, they are still a staple feature of many businesses.

Fig.3.1.2 Interior Parts Of Pneumatic Jack

To understand how pneumatic systems work, it is necessary to understand gases and


compression. The laws of conservation of mass and energy mean that even when a gas is
compressed, it still contains the same amount of energy and number of molecules. Because
they are held in a smaller space, the surface of the gas container experiences more collisions
with the gas molecules. This means that the pressure and volume are inversely proportional to
each other, according to Brian S. Elliott, author of the "Compressed Air Operations Manual."
If the air is compressed to one-tenth its original volume, it exerts ten times the pressure.

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3.3 Advantages of Pneumatic Systems


Pneumatic systems have several advantages. Because they use air to transmit power,
they produce few pollutants. Leaks will not cause spills of toxic chemicals. Pneumatic
machines tend to be very simple. Because they are simple, there are few parts to break and
they need less maintenance than other types of machinery. Because compressed air can be
stored in containers, it is always available, even when the electricity goes out. They also
present very little fire hazard.

3.4 REVIEWs
Pneumatic systems utilize the power of air to do work. Many tools that utilize
pneumatic systems are used in the construction industry because they are so efficient.
3.4.1 Features
Pneumatic systems operate under the compressed air provided by an air source. The
most common and efficient air source utilized by consumers is an air compressor.
3.4.2 Tools
Nearly every traditional power tool is available in a version utilizing compressed air
instead of electricity. Consumers can purchase pneumatic nail guns, staple guns, buffers,
jackhammers and wrenches.
3.4.3 Components
Along with the actual pneumatic tool and the air compressor, pneumatic systems require
some level of hosing to transfer the compressed air to the tool. The Canada Center for
Occupational Health and Safety recommends only using abrasion-resistant hosing in
pneumatic systems.

3.5 Function

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Air compressors are powered by electricity. Air is compressed in a tank to a specific


pressure per square inch (PSI). Tools can tap into this compressed air via specially designed
hoses and drive nails or pound a hammer for example.

3.5.1 Safety
The Tool Hut recommends employing hearing protection near or while operating
pneumatic equipment. All components of the pneumatic system should be maintained
regularly according to American Pneumatic Tools.
3.5.2 The Reservoir
The reservoir is used to hold the fuel for the compressor. Air is used most often in
construction and other applications where pneumatics features prominently, but other gases
may also be used. From the reservoir, fuel is pumped into the compressor, and then the
reservoir receives "waste" fuel back from the compressor to be used again in a repeating
cycle.

3.6 The Compressor


A compressor consists of a piston inside a cylinder. When it receives the gas from the
reservoir, the piston presses on the fuel to compress it beyond the 100 lbs. per square inch
(psi) that it was originally put into the reservoir at (fpef.org). Once the piston compresses the
gas enough, a door leading into the piping system opens and the fuel heads on its way to the
point of power generation.
3.6.1 The Pipes
The pipes leading from the compressor to the point of power generation are where the
most leakage in pressure occurs, according to S.R. Majumdar, author of "Pneumatic Systems:
Principles and Maintenance," so it is imperative that your pipes be equipped with valves to
monitor and regulate the pressure, flow and direction of the fuel gas.
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3.7 How it flows


The compressor receives air from the reservoir and increases it from 100 psi until a
door leading into the pipes opens. Compressed air is pushed through a limiting valve and past
a second reservoir, where excess air is stored and pressure relieved, while enough air to elicit
mechanical motion at the end of the circuit moves on through the rest of the pipes.
Pneumatic systems are mechanical systems that use compressed gasses. They are similar to
hydraulic systems, which are mechanical systems that use liquids in the transfer of forces.
Pneumatic systems are almost everywhere in the modern world. Dentists use pneumatics to
operate drills, carpenters use pneumatics to power air hammers, truckers use pneumatic
brakes and NASA uses pneumatics to control the operation of satellite launch vehicles.

3.8 Basic Principle:


Pneumatics is basically a method to turn electricity into mechanical motion using
compressed gasses instead of motors or electromagnets. For many applications, this is much
more efficient and practical. Systems typically include an air compressor, which stores
compressed air in a cylinder and release it under electric control. The compressed gas is
almost always ordinary air because it is free and non- toxic. Often the air is slightly modified
by taking out some of the water vapour and adding a small amount of atomized oil to make
the gas more machines friendly.

3.9 Applications
Pneumatics systems are widely used for power tools. The power tool that an
automobile mechanic uses to take the lug nuts that hold a tire onto the hub is one example.
The mechanic can easily take off even the toughest nuts in just a few seconds. There are

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dozens of other pneumatic power tools in dentistry, carpentry, machine shops and
laboratories.
Other applications include jackhammers, the cylinder delivery systems used by some
banks and various launchers and guns designed to propel objects. One interesting application
is a new French automobile that runs on compressed air. Electricity is used overnight to
compress air into an on board cylinder and the car runs all day with no fuel and no pollution
emissions.
Easy condenses
Pressurized air is easily condensed, so before entering the system must be processed first in
order to meet certain requirements, such as dry, have enough pressure, and contains a small
amount of lubricant to reduce friction in the valves and actuators.
Expected after knowing the advantages and disadvantages of the use of compressed
air we can make the anticipation that these losses can be avoided.
Despite the immense capabilities of hydraulics presented in terms of moving higher
loads and in other industrial utilization, pneumatics are still in wide use today. The article
discusses some applications and advantages of pneumatics in industry.
Pneumatics is study of mechanical motion caused by pressurized gases and how this
motion can be used to perform engineering tasks. Pneumatics is used mainly in mining and
general construction works. Pneumatic devices are used frequently in the dentistry industry
across the world. On the other hand, hydraulics means use of pressurized fluids to execute a
mechanical task. Hydraulics is frequently used in the concepts of turbines, dams, and rivers.
Air brakes in buses, air compressors, compressed air engines, jackhammers, and vacuum
pumps are some of the most commonly used types of mechanical equipment that are based on
pneumatics technology. Commonly seen hydraulics based equipment types are hydraulic

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presses, hydraulic hoppers, hydraulic cylinders, and hydraulic rams. In the subsequent
sections of this article, you will learn how a pneumatic system works, what its best features
are, and its major advantages over hydraulic systems.
In order to affect mechanical motion, pneumatics employs compression of gases,
based on the working principles of fluid dynamics in the concept of pressure. Any equipment
employing pneumatics uses an interconnecting set of components: a pneumatic circuit
consisting of active components such as gas compressor, transition lines, air tanks, hoses,
open atmosphere, and passive components. Compressed air is supplied by the compressor and
is transmitted through a series of hoses. Air flows are regulated by valves and the pneumatic
cylinder transfers the energy provided by the compressed gas to mechanical energy. Aside
from compressed air, inert gases are also applied particularly for self-contained systems.
Pneumatics is applied in a wide range in industries, even in mining and dentistry. The
majority of industries use gas pressures of about 80 to 100 pounds per square inch.
Over pneumatics, hydraulics is capable of moving heavier loads and having greater
force, and since its working fluids are incompressible, it minimum spring actions. But at the
same time pneumatics are cleaner; the system uses no return lines and gases are exhausted to
the atmosphere. Thus leaks will be of less concern since the working fluid of pneumatics is
air, unlike oil in hydraulics. Its working fluid is also widely available and most factories are
pre-plumbed for compressed air distribution, hence pneumatic equipment is easier to set-up.
To control the system, only ON and OFF are used and the system consists only of standard
cylinders

and

other

components,

making

it

simpler

than hydraulics.

Pneumatic

systems require low maintenance and have long operating lives. Lastly the working fluid of
the pneumatic system absorbs excessive force, leading to less frequent damage to equipment.

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Compressible gases are also easy to store and safer; no fire hazard is presented and machines
could be made to be overload safe.

Advantages of Pneumatics over Hydraulics


Like hydraulics, pneumatics is a type of fluid power application where instead of an
incompressible liquid, pneumatics employ gas in their system. Hydraulics present
certain advantages over pneumatics, but in a given application, pneumatic powered
equipment is more suitable, particularly in industries where the factory units are plumbed for
compressed air.
The air used in pneumatic devices is dried and free from moisture so that it does not create
any problem to the internal parts of the system. Moreover, to avoid corrosive actions, oil or
lubricants are added so that friction effects can be reduced. Compressed air is used in most of
the machines and in some cases compressed carbon dioxide is used. As most of the pneumatic
devices are air based, they have a less complicated design and can be made of inexpensive
material. Mass production techniques can be adopted to produce pneumatic systems, which
not only save money but save time too.
Other major advantages are listed below.
1.

Initial cost is less; hydraulics equipment cost as much as twice the price of
pneumatic equipment.

2.

A pneumatic water treatment automation system reduces the costs of


installation and operation compared with conventional electrical installations. For
opening and closing of underwater valves, pneumatic systems work well because they
can sustain overload pressure conditions.

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3.

Pneumatic actuators also have long life and perform well with negligible
maintenance requirement throughout their life cycle.

4.

Very suitable for power transmission when distance of transmission is more.

The major disadvantage of pneumatic systems is that they cannot be employed for tasks
that require working under high pressures. However, modern technology is working on
finding better solutions to this address this problem so that heavy engineering tasks can be
executed using pneumatic devices. In a nutshell, in order to execute low scale engineering
and mechanical tasks, pneumatic devices would be the best suited and a viable alternative
over hydraulic systems.

3.10 Pneumatic vs. Hydraulic


Hydraulic systems usually use oil as the control fluid. Hydraulic systems have the advantage
that they can handle bigger loads, and the disadvantage is that if there is a leak it causes a big
mess and is expensive to fix.. Pneumatic systems are preferred when there must be a certain
amount of "give" or "play" in the system (gasses are compressible). Hydraulic systems are
preferred when high pressures must be maintained with no fluctuation.

3.11 High-Tech Applications


Pneumatics is not a dying technology--far from it. There are at least two high-tech
applications of pneumatics that have a place in our technological future: McKibbens and
pneumatic logic systems. They are currently being used to power robotic arms and legs.
Pneumatic logic is the use of complex channels for fluids that act like simple computer
circuits. Pneumatic logic systems have many advantages over electronic systems such as the
fact that radiation does not interfere with them. These systems are currently being used by
NASA to control rocket-stage separation.
The different number of rays by means the number of controlled connection of the
valve. Inlet connection to the compressed air supplies outlet connections to the air consumer
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and exhaust connection to the atmosphere. The solenoid valve is used to control the air flow
direction. This is the direction control valve in our project.
Pneumatic systems require air to operate successfully. As a result of air being extremely
abundant, and free, it is easy to restock the system. Safety: As a result of pneumatic systems
running on air, safety hazards are significantly reduced. There are limited occurrences of fires
because air is non-flammable, and leakages in the system do not negatively effect the outside
environment
Cost effectiveness: The initial cost of manufacturing a pneumatic device is minimal as a
result of the low cost design materials. Plastics, zinc, and aluminium are all relatively
affordable materials that are commonly found in pneumatic designs.
Cleanliness- As a result of the system being powered solely by air, the pneumatic device
typically requires limited cleaning. Pressurized air constantly pushes out dirt or debris that
get stuck in the system. If there is a blockage, the simplicity of the design also helps. Due to
the limited amounts of tubes, the system can be easily disassembled and cleaned.
Maintenance- In order for the system to properly operate it must be lubricated with oil
consistently but they have less plumbing than hydraulic systems. Control and Speed- Air is a
compressible gas, which makes control and speed in a pneumatic system more difficult, in
comparison to electric or hydraulic systems. When specific speeds are needed, additional
devices have to be attached to the pneumatic system in order to procure the desired result.
Maintenance- Pneumatic systems are less durable that hydraulic counterparts. Due to
moisture accumulation the system can freeze up. Safety: Pipes that feed the system air have
the ability to move on uncontrollably on their own, which could cause serious injuries to
those nearby

30

The word pneumatics is a derivative of the Greek word pneuma, which means air,
wind, or breath. Pneumatics can be defined as that branch of engineering science that pertains
to gaseous pressure and flow. As used in this manual, pneumatics is the portion of fluid power
in which compressed air, or other gas, is used to transmit and control power to actuating
mechanisms. This section discusses the basic principles of pneumatics, characteristics of
gases, heavy-duty air compressors, and air compressor maintenance. It also discusses the
hazards of pneumatics, methods of controlling contamination, and safety precautions
associated with compressed gases.
Basic Principles of Pneumatics Gases differ from liquids in that they have no definite
volume, that is, regardless of the size or shape of a vessel, a gas will completely fill it. Gases
are highly compressible, while liquids are only slightly so. Also, gases are lighter than equal
volumes of liquids, making gases less dense than liquids.
Boyles Law When the automobile tire is initially inflated, air that normally occupies
a specific volume is compressed into a smaller volume inside the tire. This increases the
pressure on the inside of the tire. Charles Boyle, an English scientist, was among the first to
experiment with the pressure-volume relationship of gas. During an experiment when he
compressed a volume of air, he found that the volume decreased as pressure increased, and by
doubling the force exerted on the air, he could decrease the volume of the air by half
Temperature is a dominant factor affecting the physical properties of gases. It is of particular
concern in calculating changes in the state of gases. Therefore, the experiment must be
performed at a constant temperature. The relationship between pressure and volume is known
as Boyle's law. Boyle's law states when the temperature of a gas is constant, the volume of an
enclosed gas varies inversely with pressure. Boyle's law assumes conditions of constant
temperature. In actual situations this is rarely the case. Temperature changes continually and
affects the volume of a given mass of gas.
31

Charles Law Jacques Charles, a French physicist, provided much of the foundation
for modem kinetic theory of gases. Through experiments, he found that all gases expand and
contract proportionally to the change in absolute temperature, providing the pressure remains
constant. The relationship between volume and temperature is known as Charles's law.
Charles's law states that the volume of a gas is proportional to its absolute temperature if
constant pressure is maintained.
Kinetic Theory of Gases In an attempt to explain the compressibility of gases,
consider the container shown in as containing a gas. At any given time, some molecules are
moving in one direction, some are travelling. Gas compressed to half its original size by a
doubled force. Figure 9-36 Molecular bombardment that creates pressure. NAVEDTRA
14264A 9-32 directions, and some may be in a state of rest. The average effect of the
molecules bombarding each container wall corresponds to the pressure of the gas. As more
gas is pumped into the container, more molecules are available to bombard the walls, thus the
pressure in the container increases. Increasing the speed with which the molecules hit the
walls can also increase the gas pressure in a container. If the temperature of the gas is raised,
the molecules move faster, causing an increase in pressure. This can be shown by considering
the automobile tire. When you take a long drive on a hot day, the pressure in the tires
increases, and a tire that appeared to be soft in cool morning temperature may appear normal
at a higher midday temperature.
Compressibility and Expansion of Gases Gases can be readily compressed and are
assumed to be perfectly elastic. This combination of properties gives gas the ability to yield
to a force and return promptly to its original condition when the force is removed. These are
the properties of air that are used in pneumatic tires, tennis balls, and other deformable
objects whose shapes are maintained by compressed air.

32

Pneumatic Gases serve the same purpose in pneumatic systems as liquids serve in
hydraulic systems. Therefore, many of the same qualities that are considered when selecting a
liquid for a hydraulic system must be considered when selecting a gas for a pneumatic
system.
Qualities The ideal fluid medium for a pneumatic system must be a readily available
gas that is non-poisonous, chemically stable, non-flammable, and free from any acids that can
cause corrosion of system components. It should be a gas that will not support combustion of
other elements. Gases that have these desired qualities may not have the required lubricating
power. Therefore, lubrication of the components must be arranged by other means. For
example, some air compressors are provided with a lubricating system, some components are
lubricated upon installation, or in some cases lubrication is introduced into the air supply line
(inline oilers). Two gases that meet these qualities and are most commonly used in pneumatic
systems are compressed air and nitrogen. Since nitrogen is used very little except in gascharged accumulators, we will discuss only compressed air.
Compressed Air Compressed air is a mixture of all gases contained in the atmosphere.
However, in this manual it is referred to as one of the gases used as a fluid medium for
pneumatic systems. The unlimited supply of air and the ease of compression make
compressed air the most widely used fluid for pneumatic systems. Although moisture and
solid particles must be removed from the air, a pneumatic system does not require the
extensive distillation or separation process required in the production of other gases.
Compressed air has most of the desired characteristics of a gas for pneumatic systems. It is
non-poisonous and non-flammable but does contain oxygen, which supports combustion. The
most undesirable quality of compressed air as a fluid medium for a pneumatic system is
moisture content. The atmosphere contains varying amounts of moisture in vapour form.
Changes in the temperature of compressed air will cause condensation of moisture in the
33

system. This condensed moisture can be very harmful to the system and may freeze the line
and components during cold weather. Moisture separators and hair dryers are installed in the
lines to minimize or eliminate moisture in systems where moisture would deteriorate system
performance. An air compressor provides the supply of compressed air at the required volume
and pressure. In most systems the compressor is part of the system with distribution lines
leading from the compressor to the devices to be operated. Compressed air systems are
categorized by their operating pressure as follows:
High-pressure (HP)3,000 to 5,000 psi
Medium-pressure (MP )151 to 1,000 psi
Low-pressure (LP)150 psi and below
Heavy-Duty Air Compressors are used in pneumatic systems to provide requirements
similar to those required by pumps in hydraulic systems. They furnish compressed air as
required to operate the units of the pneumatic systems. Even though manufactured by
different companies, most compressors are quite similar. They are governed by a pressure
control system that can be adjusted to compress air to the maximum pressure. Rotary the
rotary compressor has a number of vanes held captive in slots in the rotor. These vanes slide
in and out of the slots, as the rotor rotates an end view of the vanes in the slots. The rotor
revolves about the centre of the shaft that is offset from the centre of the pumping casing.
Centrifugal force acting on the rotating vanes maintains contact Rotary compressor operation.
This feature causes the vanes to slide in and out of the slots as the rotor turns. Notice in the
variation in the clearance between the vanes and the bottom of the slots, as the rotor revolves.
The vanes divide the crescent-shaped space between the offset rotor and the pump casing into
compartments that increase in size and then decrease in size as the rotor rotates. Free air
enters each compartment as successive vanes pass across the air intake. This air is carried
34

around in each compartment and is discharged at a higher pressure due to the decreasing
compartment size (volume) of the moving compartments as they progress from one end to the
other of the crescent-shaped space. The compressor is lubricated by oil circulating throughout
the unit. All oil is removed from the air by an oil separator before the compressed air leaves
the service valves
Screw The screw compressors used in the NCF are direct drive, two-stage machines
with two precisely matched spiral-grooved rotors The rotors provide positive displacement
internal compression smoothly and without surging. Oil is injected into the compressor unit
and mixes directly with the air as the rotors turn, compressing the air. The oil has three
primary functions:
As a coolant, it controls the rise in air temperature normally associated with the heat
of compression.
It seals the leakage paths between the rotors and the stator and also between the
rotors themselves.
It acts as lubricating film between the rotors, allowing one rotor to directly drive the
other, which is an idler. After the air/oil mixture is discharged from the compressor unit, the
oil is separated from the air. The oil that mixes with the air during compression passes into
the receiver-separator where it is removed and returned to the oil cooler in preparation for reinjection. All large volume compressors have protection devices that shut them down
automatically when any of the following conditions develop
: The engine oil pressure drops below a certain point.
The engine coolant rises above a predetermined temperature.
The compressor discharge rises above a certain temperature.
35

Any of the protective safety circuits develop a malfunction. Other features that may
be observed in the operation of the air compressors is a governor system whereby the engine
speed is reduced when less than full air delivery is used.
An engine- and compression-control system prevents excessive build-up in the
receiver Screw compressor. When air is compressed, heat is generated. This heat causes the
air to expand, thus requiring an increase in power for further compression. If this heat is
successfully removed between stages of compression, the total power required for additional
compression may be reduced by as much as 15 percent. In multistage reciprocating
compressors, this heat is removed by means of intercoolers that are heat exchangers placed
between each compression stage. Rotary air compressors are cooled by oil and do not use
intercoolers After coolers It is obvious that the presence of water or moisture in an air line is
not desirable. The water is carried along through the line into the tool where the water washes
away the lubricating oil, causing the tool to run sluggishly and increases maintenance.
The effect is particularly pronounced in the case of high-speed tools where the
wearing surfaces are limited in size, and excessive wear reduces efficiency by creating
internal air leakage. Further problems may result from the decrease in temperature caused by
the sudden expansion of air at the tool. This low temperature creates condensation that
freezes around the valves, ports, and outlets. This condition obviously impairs the operational
efficiency of the tool and cannot be allowed. The most satisfactory means of minimizing
these conditions is the removal of the moisture from the air immediately after compression
and before the air enters the distribution system. This may be accomplished in reciprocating
compressors through the use of an after cooler that is an air radiator that transfers heat from
the compressed air to the atmosphere. The after cooler reduces the temperature of the
compressed air to the condensation point where most of the moisture is removed. Cooling the

36

air not only eliminates the difficulties which moisture causes at points where air is used but
also ensures better distribution
Receiver Tank The receiver tank is of welded steel construction and is installed on the
discharge side of the compressor. It acts as a surge tank as well as a condensation chamber for
the removal of oil and water vapours. It stores enough air during operation to actuate the
pressure control system and is fitted with at least one service valve, a drain or blow-by valve,
and a safety valve. Pressure-Control System All portable air compressors are governed by a
pressure-control system. The control system is designed to balance the compressor's air
delivery and engine speed with varied demands for compressed air. The rotary compressor
output is governed by varying the engine speed. The engine will operate at the speed required
to compress enough air to supply the demand at a fairly constant pressure. When the engine
has slowed to idling speed as a result of low demand, a valve controls the amount of free air
that may enter the compressor. A screw compressor output is governed by automatic control
that provides smooth, steeples capacity regulation from full load to no load in response to the
demand for air. From a full load down to no load is accomplished by a floating-speed engine
control in combination with the variable-inlet compressor.
Air Compressor Maintenance A number of built-in features make portable
compressors easy to maintain:
An automatic blow down valve for releasing air pressure when the engine is stopped.
A valve for draining moisture that accumulates in the receiver tank.
A drain cock at the bottom of the piping at the bottom of the oil storage tank.
An air filter service indicator to show when the filter needs servicing.

37

A demister, or special filter, that separates lubricating oil from compressed air.
Remember: a good maintenance program is the key to a long machine life. So it is up to both
the operator and the mechanic to ensure that the maintenance is performed on time, every
time.
Air Cleaner Servicing The air cleaner contains a primary and secondary dry filter
element An air filter restriction indicator is located at the rear of the air filter housing to alert
the operator of the need to service the filters. When a red band appears in the air filter
restriction indicator, secure the compressor and service the filters. Use compressed air to
clean the primary element; however, never let the air pressure exceed 30 psi. The secondary
filter is not cleanable and should be replaced when necessary. Reverse flush the primary
element by directing compressed air up from the inside out. Continue reverse flushing until
all dust is removed. Should any oil or greasy dirt remain on the filter surface, replace the
element.

3.8 Basic Principle:


Pneumatics is basically a method to turn electricity into mechanical motion using
compressed gasses instead of motors or electromagnets. For many applications, this is much
more efficient and practical. Systems typically include an air compressor, which stores
compressed air in a cylinder and release it under electric control. The compressed gas is
almost always ordinary air because it is free and non- toxic. Often the air is slightly modified
by taking out some of the water vapour and adding a small amount of atomized oil to make
the gas more machines friendly.

38

3.9 Applications
Pneumatics systems are widely used for power tools. The power tool that an
automobile mechanic uses to take the lug nuts that hold a tire onto the hub is one example.
The mechanic can easily take off even the toughest nuts in just a few seconds. There are
dozens of other pneumatic power tools in dentistry, carpentry, machine shops and
laboratories.
Other applications include jackhammers, the cylinder delivery systems used by some
banks and various launchers and guns designed to propel objects. One interesting application
is a new French automobile that runs on compressed air. Electricity is used overnight to
compress air into an on board cylinder and the car runs all day with no fuel and no pollution
emissions.
Easy condenses
Pressurized air is easily condensed, so before entering the system must be processed first in
order to meet certain requirements, such as dry, have enough pressure, and contains a small
amount of lubricant to reduce friction in the valves and actuators.
Expected after knowing the advantages and disadvantages of the use of compressed
air we can make the anticipation that these losses can be avoided.
Despite the immense capabilities of hydraulics presented in terms of moving higher
loads and in other industrial utilization, pneumatics are still in wide use today. The article
discusses some applications and advantages of pneumatics in industry.
Pneumatics is study of mechanical motion caused by pressurized gases and how this
motion can be used to perform engineering tasks. Pneumatics is used mainly in mining and
general construction works. Pneumatic devices are used frequently in the dentistry industry
across the world. On the other hand, hydraulics means use of pressurized fluids to execute a
39

mechanical task. Hydraulics is frequently used in the concepts of turbines, dams, and rivers.
Air brakes in buses, air compressors, compressed air engines, jackhammers, and vacuum
pumps are some of the most commonly used types of mechanical equipment that are based on
pneumatics technology. Commonly seen hydraulics based equipment types are hydraulic
presses, hydraulic hoppers, hydraulic cylinders, and hydraulic rams. In the subsequent
sections of this article, you will learn how a pneumatic system works, what its best features
are, and its major advantages over hydraulic systems.
In order to affect mechanical motion, pneumatics employs compression of gases,
based on the working principles of fluid dynamics in the concept of pressure. Any equipment
employing pneumatics uses an interconnecting set of components: a pneumatic circuit
consisting of active components such as gas compressor, transition lines, air tanks, hoses,
open atmosphere, and passive components. Compressed air is supplied by the compressor and
is transmitted through a series of hoses. Air flows are regulated by valves and the pneumatic
cylinder transfers the energy provided by the compressed gas to mechanical energy. Aside
from compressed air, inert gases are also applied particularly for self-contained systems.
Pneumatics is applied in a wide range in industries, even in mining and dentistry. The
majority of industries use gas pressures of about 80 to 100 pounds per square inch.
Over pneumatics, hydraulics is capable of moving heavier loads and having greater
force, and since its working fluids are incompressible, it minimum spring actions. But at the
same time pneumatics are cleaner; the system uses no return lines and gases are exhausted to
the atmosphere. Thus leaks will be of less concern since the working fluid of pneumatics is
air, unlike oil in hydraulics. Its working fluid is also widely available and most factories are
pre-plumbed for compressed air distribution, hence pneumatic equipment is easier to set-up.
To control the system, only ON and OFF are used and the system consists only of standard

40

cylinders

and

other

components,

making

it

simpler

than hydraulics.

Pneumatic

systems require low maintenance and have long operating lives. Lastly the working fluid of
the pneumatic system absorbs excessive force, leading to less frequent damage to equipment.
Compressible gases are also easy to store and safer; no fire hazard is presented and machines
could be made to be overload safe.

Advantages of Pneumatics over Hydraulics


Like hydraulics, pneumatics is a type of fluid power application where instead of an
incompressible liquid, pneumatics employ gas in their system. Hydraulics present
certain advantages over pneumatics, but in a given application, pneumatic powered
equipment is more suitable, particularly in industries where the factory units are plumbed for
compressed air.
The air used in pneumatic devices is dried and free from moisture so that it does not create
any problem to the internal parts of the system. Moreover, to avoid corrosive actions, oil or
lubricants are added so that friction effects can be reduced. Compressed air is used in most of
the machines and in some cases compressed carbon dioxide is used. As most of the pneumatic
devices are air based, they have a less complicated design and can be made of inexpensive
material. Mass production techniques can be adopted to produce pneumatic systems, which
not only save money but save time too.
Other major advantages are listed below.
1.

Initial cost is less; hydraulics equipment cost as much as twice the price of
pneumatic equipment.

2.

A pneumatic water treatment automation system reduces the costs of


installation and operation compared with conventional electrical installations. For
41

opening and closing of underwater valves, pneumatic systems work well because they
can sustain overload pressure conditions.
3.

Pneumatic actuators also have long life and perform well with negligible
maintenance requirement throughout their life cycle.

4.

Very suitable for power transmission when distance of transmission is more.

The major disadvantage of pneumatic systems is that they cannot be employed for tasks
that require working under high pressures. However, modern technology is working on
finding better solutions to this address this problem so that heavy engineering tasks can be
executed using pneumatic devices. In a nutshell, in order to execute low scale engineering
and mechanical tasks, pneumatic devices would be the best suited and a viable alternative
over hydraulic systems.

3.10 Pneumatic vs. Hydraulic


Hydraulic systems usually use oil as the control fluid. Hydraulic systems have the advantage
that they can handle bigger loads, and the disadvantage is that if there is a leak it causes a big
mess and is expensive to fix.. Pneumatic systems are preferred when there must be a certain
amount of "give" or "play" in the system (gasses are compressible). Hydraulic systems are
preferred when high pressures must be maintained with no fluctuation.

3.11 High-Tech Applications


Pneumatics is not a dying technology--far from it. There are at least two high-tech
applications of pneumatics that have a place in our technological future: McKibbens and
pneumatic logic systems. They are currently being used to power robotic arms and legs.
Pneumatic logic is the use of complex channels for fluids that act like simple computer
circuits. Pneumatic logic systems have many advantages over electronic systems such as the
fact that radiation does not interfere with them. These systems are currently being used by
NASA to control rocket-stage separation.
42

The different number of rays by means the number of controlled connection of the
valve. Inlet connection to the compressed air supplies outlet connections to the air consumer
and exhaust connection to the atmosphere. The solenoid valve is used to control the air flow
direction. This is the direction control valve in our project.
Pneumatic systems require air to operate successfully. As a result of air being extremely
abundant, and free, it is easy to restock the system. Safety: As a result of pneumatic systems
running on air, safety hazards are significantly reduced. There are limited occurrences of fires
because air is non-flammable, and leakages in the system do not negatively effect the outside
environment
Cost effectiveness: The initial cost of manufacturing a pneumatic device is minimal as a
result of the low cost design materials. Plastics, zinc, and aluminium are all relatively
affordable materials that are commonly found in pneumatic designs.
Cleanliness- As a result of the system being powered solely by air, the pneumatic device
typically requires limited cleaning. Pressurized air constantly pushes out dirt or debris that
get stuck in the system. If there is a blockage, the simplicity of the design also helps. Due to
the limited amounts of tubes, the system can be easily disassembled and cleaned.
Maintenance- In order for the system to properly operate it must be lubricated with oil
consistently but they have less plumbing than hydraulic systems. Control and Speed- Air is a
compressible gas, which makes control and speed in a pneumatic system more difficult, in
comparison to electric or hydraulic systems. When specific speeds are needed, additional
devices have to be attached to the pneumatic system in order to procure the desired result.
Maintenance- Pneumatic systems are less durable that hydraulic counterparts. Due to
moisture accumulation the system can freeze up. Safety: Pipes that feed the system air have

43

the ability to move on uncontrollably on their own, which could cause serious injuries to
those nearby

3.12 COMPONENTS USED


Double acting cylinder
Pneumatic hand operated valve
High speed steel blade

3.13 PNEUMATIC CYLINDER


Pneumatic cylinders (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices which use
the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion. Like
hydraulic cylinders, pneumatic cylinders use the stored potential energy of a fluid, in this case
compressed air, and convert it into kinetic energy as the air expands in an attempt to reach
atmospheric pressure. This air expansion forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The
piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to
be moved. Engineers prefer to use pneumatics sometime because they are quieter, cleaner,
and do not require large amounts or space for fluid storage.

44

Fig.3.13.1 Pneumatic cylinder two way

Because the operating fluid is a gas, leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out and
contaminate the surroundings, making pneumatics more desirable where cleanliness is a
requirement. For example, in the mechanical puppets of the DisneyTiki Room, pneumatics
are used to prevent fluid from dripping onto people below the puppet.
3.14 DOUBLE-ACTING CYLINDER
Double-acting cylinders (DAC) use the force of air to move in both extends and retract
strokes. They have two ports to allow air in, one for out-stroke and one for in-stroke. Stroke
length for this design is not limited; however, the piston rod is more vulnerable to buckling
and bending. Addition calculations should be performed as well by using design data hand
book using some relations between cylinder and pressure we can accurately find out bending
and buckling of tie rod.
3.15 TWO WAY DIRECTIONAL VALVE
A two-way directional valve consists of two ports connected to each other with passages,
which are connected and disconnected. In one extreme spool position, port A is open to port
B; the flow path through the valve is open. In the other extreme, the large diameter of the

45

spool closes the path between A and B; the flow path is blocked. A two-way directional valve
gives an on-off function. (Flow path open and Flow path closed).

Fig.3.15.1 Two Way Directional Valve

3.16. SHEARED EDGE


A variety of cutting processes that utilize shearing forces exist to separate or remove material
from a piece of sheet stock in different ways. Each process is capable of forming a specific
type of cut, some with an open path to separate portion of material and some with a closed
path to cut out and remove that material. By using many of these processes together, sheet
metal parts can be fabricated with cut outs and profiles of any 2D geometry. Such cutting
process include the following
Shearing Separating material into two parts
Blanking Removing material to use for parts
Conventional blanking
Fine blanking
Punching Removing material as scrap
Piercing
Slotting

46

Perforating
Notching
Nibbling
Lancing
Slitting
Parting
Cutoff
Trimming
Shaving
Dinking

Fig.3.16.1 Shearing Model


Most commonly, shearing is used to cut a sheet parallel to an existing edge which is held
square, but angled cuts can be made as well. For this reason, shearing is primarily used to cut
sheet stock into smaller sizes in preparation for other processes. Shearing has the following
capabilities the shearing is performed on a shear machine, often called a squaring shear or
47

power shear, that can be operated manually or by hydraulic, pneumatic, or electric power. A
typical shear machine includes a table with support arms to hold the sheet, stops or guides to
secure the sheet, upper and lower straight - edge blades, a gauging device to precisely
position the sheet. The sheet is placed between the upper and the lower blade, which are then
forced together against the sheet, cutting the material. In most devices, the lower blades
remain stationary while the upper blade is forced downward. The upper blade is slightly
offset from the lower blade, approximately 5 10% of the sheet thickness. Also the upper
blade is usually angled so that the cut progresses from one end to the other, thus reducing the
required force. The knife edge and are available in different materials, such as low alloy steel
and high carbon steel.
CHAPTER 4
4.1 PNEUMATIC TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY:
The reason for using pneumatics, or any other type of energy transmission on a machine, is to
perform work. The accomplishment of work requires the application of kinetic energy to a
resisting object resulting in the object moving through distance. In a pneumatic system,
energy is stored in a potential state under the form of compressed air. Working energy (kinetic
energy and pressure) results in pneumatic system when the compressed air is allowed to
expand. For example, a tank is charged to 100 PSIA with compressed air. When the valve at
the tank outlet is opened, the air inside the tank expands until the pressure inside the tank
equals the atmospheric pressure. Air expansion takes the form of airflow. To perform any
applicable amount of work then, a device is needed which can supply an air tank with a
sufficient amount of air at a desired pressure. This device is positive displacement
compressor.
What a Positive Displacement Compressor Consists of

48

A positive displacement compressor basically consists of movable member inside housing.


The compressor has a piston for a movable member. The piston disconnected to a crankshaft,
which is in turn connected to a prime mover (electric motor, internal combustion engine). At
inlet and outlet ports, valves allow air to enter and exit the chamber.
How a Positive Displacement Compressor Works:
As the crankshaft pulls the piston down, an increasing volume is formed within the housing.
This action causes the trapped air in the piston bore to expand, reducing its pressure. When
pressure differential becomes high enough, the inlet valve opens, allowing atmospheric air to
flow in. With the piston at the bottom of its stroke, inlet valve closes. The piston starts its
upward movement to reduce the air volume which consequently increases its pressure and
temperature. When pressure differential between the compressor chamber and discharge line
is high enough, the discharge valve opens, allowing air to pass into an air receiver tank for
storage.
4.2 Control of Pneumatic Energy:
Working energy transmitted pneumatically must be directed and under complete control at all
times. If not under control, useful work will not be done and machinery or machine operators
might be harmed. One of the advantages of transmitting energy pneumatically is that energy
can be controlled relatively easily by using valves.
4.3 Control of Pressure:
Pressure in a pneumatic system must be controlled at two points - after the compressor and
after the air receiver tank. Control of pressure is required after the compressor as a safety for
the system. Control of pressure after an air receiver tanks necessary so that an actuator
receives a steady pressure source without wasting energy.
4.4 Control of Pressure after a Compressor:

49

In a pneumatic system, energy delivered by a compressor is not generally used immediately,


but is stored as potential energy in air receiver tank in the form of compressed air.
In most instances, a compressor is designed into a system so that it operates intermittently. A
compressor usually delivers compressed air to a receiver tank until high pressure is reached,
and then it is shut down. When air pressure in the tank decreases, the compressor cuts in and
recharges the tank. Intermittent compressor operation in this manner is a power saving benefit
for the system.
A common way of sensing tank pressure and controlling actuation and de-actuation of
relatively small (2-15 HP) compressors is with a pressure switch.

50

4.5 WORKING
The pneumatic machine includes a table with support arms to hold the sheet, stops or guides
to secure the sheet, upper and lower straight - edge blades, a gauging device to precisely
position the sheet. The table also includes the two way directional valve. The two way
directional valve is connected to the compressor. The compressor has a piston for a movable
member. The piston is connected to a crankshaft, which is in turn connected to a prime mover
(electric motor, internal combustion engine). At inlet and outlet ports, valves allow air to
enter and exit the chamber. When the compressor is switched ON, the compressed air is flow
to inlet of the pneumatic cylinder.
The sheet is placed between the upper and the lower blade. The lower blade remains
stationary while the upper blade is forced downward. The upper blade is slightly offset from
the lower blade, approximately 5 10% of the sheet thickness. Also the upper blade is
usually angled so that the cut progresses from one end to the other, thus reducing the required
force.
When the pneumatic hand operated lever is moved forward, the piston starts moving in the
forward direction. The upper blade which are then forced against the sheet, cutting the
material. When the pneumatic hand operated lever is moved backward, the upper blade will
come to the original position (i.e., the upper blade will move upwards).
After the material is cut, adjust the pneumatic hand lever to the mid position (i.e., normal
position) and then the compressor is switched OFF.

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CHAPTER 5

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CHAPTER 6

REFERENCE
hydraulic and pneumatic system written by srinivasan,

total automotive technology written by anthony e schwaller,

industrial engineering and the engineering digest written by robert thurston kent, charles
maccaugheysomes
text book
r.s khurmi
website
production technology - r.b. gupta
manufacturing process - r.b. gupta b.k. gupta
pneumatic control - werner deepest, kust stoll
a text book on machine design - r.s. khurmi
press working shecklos, s.elanger
psg design data - psg mech. dept
catalogue of janatics pneumatic product,
janatics private limited coimbatore
p.s.g. college of technology, coimbatore
design data book complied by faculty of mechanical engineering
www.pumpwork.in
www.wikipedia.com
www.howstuffworks,com
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