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Chapter 9 Endocrine SystemControlling System

Works with nervous system


Hormones chemical messengers
released into the blood to be
transported leisurely throughout the
body.
**Major processes controlled by
hormones:
1. reproduction
2. growth and development
3. body defense against stress
4. maintenance of electrolytes,
water
5. nutrient balance in blood.
6. Regulates metabolism energy
balance

** Classification of hormones
chemically
1. Amino-acid based
2. steroid
** Mechanisms of hormone action
- target cell/target hormone organ or
tissue affected by the hormones.
target cells has specific receptors for
hormones to attach.
- changes that usually occur when a
hormone bind to a target cell:
1. change in membrane
permeability
2. proteins or enzymes made in
cell.
3. enzymes are activated or
inactivated.
4. Mitosis ( cell division) begin.
- two mechanisms

1. steroid hormones enter cells,


enter nucleus, through a series of
steps, causes proteins to be made
from DNA/RNA
2. nonsteroidal hormones does
not enter cell- binds to outer
surface where causes a reaction,
another messenger is formed,
causes intracellular (inside the
cell) changes.
- Control of hormone release
Triggered by internal or external
stimuli
- Stimuli that activate endocrine
organs:
1. Hormonal endocrine organs
be stimulated by hormones from
other organs.

2. Humoral changing levels of


ions/nutrients stimulated hormone
release.
3. Neural nerve fibers stimulate
hormone release.
Major Endocrine Organs
1. pituitary
2. thyroid
3. parathyroid
4. adrenal
5. pineal
6. thymus
7. pancreas
8. gonads ovaries (female),
testes (male)
Pituitary Gland size of a grape
inferior surface of hypothalamus of
brain.
1. anterior pituitary gland
2. posterior pituitary gland

anterior pituitary hormones:


1. (GH) growth hormonestimulates growth in bones and
muscles
2. (PRL) prolactin-stimulates milk
production
3. (FSH) follicle stimulating
hormone- stimulates production
of ova and sperm
4. (LH) luteinizing hormonestimulates ovaries and testes
5. (TSH) thyroid stimulating
hormone- stimulates thyroid
6. (ACTH) Adrenocorticotropic
hormone- stimulates the adrenal
cortex
posterior pituitary hormone:

oxytocin stimulates contraction


of the uterus
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)promotes retention of water by
kidneys.
Thyroid Gland- located at base of the
throat. Pg 308 Fig 9.6
- secretes two hormones
1. thyroid hormone
2. calcitonin
Thyroid hormone bodys major
metabolic hormone- controlled the
rate in which glucose is burned.
Every cell in the body is the target.
- Also be important for normal
tissue development and growth.
Hypothyroidism under active
thyroid. signs are: fatigue,
poor muscle tone, obesity, dry
skin, always cold.
1.

2.

Hyperthyroidism over active


thyroid.
Signs are: rapid heart beat,
weight loss, high metabolic
rate, nervous behavior.
Calcitonin decreases blood
calcium levels by causing calcium
to deposit in bones.
Parathyroid Glands tiny masses of
tissue on
posterior surface of thyroid gland.
- usually 2 on each lobe of thyroid. (4
total)
- parathyroid hormone- (PTH) most
important regulator of calcium in
blood. When calcium levels in
blood drops, PTH is released which
stimulates osteoclasts to breaks

down bone matrix to release


calcium.
Adrenal Glands curve over top of
kidneys
- consists of two parts:
- 1. Glandular (cortex)
- 2. Neural tissue (medulla)
Adrenal cortex produces 3 major
groups of hormones. One regulates
the salt content in blood. Target
the kidney tubules where salt is
reabsorbed. (allows salts to be
flushed out in urine.) Also helps to
regulate water and electrolyte
balance.
-Glucocoriticoids Increase blood
sugar levels (Stimulated by
ACTH)
Middle Cortical layer of adrenal
gland

- produce hormones which promote


normal cell metabolism help body
resist long-term stress by increasing
glucose levels in blood.
- Also inhibits some pain-causing
molecules.
- Also helps suppress inflammation.
**Both male and female hormones
are produced by adrenal cortex.
- Androgens male sex hormonestestes- Estrogens female sex hormonesovary- stimulates uterine lining
Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal Medulla develops from
nervous tissue.
Hormones released:

1. epinephrine also called


adrenaline- increase
metabolism.
2. norepinephrine
increases heart rate, blood
pressure and blood
glucose levels.
- body better able to deal
w/short term stressor
w/more oxygen in
blood.
Pancreas Islets
Pancreas locates close to the
stomach in abdominal cavity.
Pancreatic islets glands scattered in
the pancreas. (Pancreas also involved
in digestion.)
Islets produce two major
hormones:

1. Insulin regulates sugar in


blood. lowers the amount of
sugar in blood. Aides in cells
uptake of sugar.
2. Glucagon targets liver- breaks
down glycogen stores in the
liver into glucose to be released
in blood. helps increase the
sugar levels in blood.
Hypoglycemic effects of insulin
lowering of blood glucose levels.
Hyperglycemic glucagonincreasing of blood glucose levels.
Diabetes mellitus not producing
enough insulin therefore, sugar
is not available to cells.
Pineal Gland small cone-shaped
gland found in roof of 3rd ventricle in

brain. secretes melatonin


establishes the bodys day-night cycle.
Thymus located in upper thorax,
posterior to sternum. Decreases in
size throughout life. secretes
Thymosin helps in maturation of
immune cells. Promotes T
lymphocytes.