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FLUID FLOW

A: Mathematical Formulation (4.1.1, 4.2,

6.1-6.4)

B: Inviscid Flow: Euler Equation/Some

Basic, Plane Potential Flows (6.5-6.7)

C: Viscous Flow: Navier-Stokes Equation

(6.8-6.10)

Introduction

Differential Analysis

z

z

z

are important, e.g., pressure and shear stress variation

along the wing.

Therefore, we need to develop relationship that apply

at a point or at least in a very small region

(infinitesimal volume) with a given flow field.

This approach is commonly referred to as differential

analysis.

The solutions of the equations are rather difficult.

Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) can be applied

to complex flow problems.

PART A

Mathematical Formulation

(Sections 4.1.1, 4.2, 6.1-6.4)

Kinematics involves position, velocity and

acceleration, not forces.

z kinematics of the motion:

velocity and acceleration of the fluid, and the

description and visualization of its motion.

z The analysis of the specific force necessary to

produce the motion - the dynamics of the

motion.

z

A field representation representations of fluid

parameters as functions of spatial coordinate

z

V = u ( x, y, z , t )i + v( x, y, z , t ) j + w( x, y, z , t )k

r uur

drA

= VA

dt

V = V ( x, y , z , t )

V = V = u +v +w

2

may be due to a change in speed and/or direction.

Flow Descriptions

z

prescribing the necessary properties as functions of space and time.

information about the flow in terms

of what happens at fixed points in

space as the fluid flows past those

points.

individual fluid particles as they move

about and determining how the fluid

properties associated with these

particles change as a function of time.

V4.4 Follow the particles

V4.5 Follow the particles

z

velocity field.

A streakline consists of all particles in a flow that have

previously passed through a common point.

A pathline is a line traced out by a given flowing particle.

V4.9 streamlines

V4.10 streaklines

V4.1 streaklines

z

coincide. This is not true for unsteady flows.

experimentally, but easy to draw in numerical computation.

On the contrary, streaklines are more of a lab tool than an

analytical tool.

How can you determine the unsteady pathline of a moving

particle?

z

change of its velocity.

For unsteady flows the velocity at a given

point in space may vary with time, giving rise

to a portion of the fluid acceleration.

In addition, a fluid particle may experience an

acceleration because its velocity changes as it

flows from one point to another in space.

z

uur uur ur

uur

VA = VA rA , t = VA x A ( t ) , y A ( t ) , z A ( t ) , t

( )

z

uur uur ur

uur

VA = VA rA , t = VA x A ( t ) , y A ( t ) , z A ( t ) , t

uur

uur

uur

uur

uur

dVA VA VA dx A VA dy A

=

+

+

aA (t ) =

t

x dt

y dt

dt

uur

VA dz A

+

z dt

uur

uur

uur

uur

VA

VA

VA

VA

=

+ uA

+ vA

+ wA

t

x

y

z

( )

Acceleration

z

ur

ur

ur

ur

r V

V

V

V

a=

+u

+v

+w

t

x

y

z

u

u

u

u

ax =

+u +v + w

t

x

y

z

v

v

v

v

ay = + u + v + w

t

x

y

z

w

w

w

w

az =

+u

+v

+w

t

x

y

z

Material derivative

z

Acceleration:

ur

ur

ur

ur

ur

ur

r DV DV V

V

V

V

=

+u

+v

+w

a=

,

Dt

Dt

t

x

y

z

Associated with space variation

derivative

D( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

=

+u

+v

+w

Dt

t

x

y

z

r

( )

=

+ (V ) ( )

t

Material derivative

z

rate at which that variable changes with time

for a given particle (as seen by one moving

along with the fluid the Lagrangian

descriptions)

If velocity is known, the time rate change of

temperature can be expressed as,

T

T

T

DT T

=

+u

+v

+w

t

x

y

z

Dt

r

T

+ (V )T

=

t

Example: the temperature of a passenger experienced on a train

starting from Taipei on 9am and arriving at Kaohsiung on 12.

Acceleration along a

streamline

ur

r

R r

V = u ( x ) i = V0 1 + 3 i,

x

ur

ur

r V

V u

u r

+u

= + u i

a=

t

x t

x

r

r

R3

4

3

a = Vo (1 + 3 )Vo [ R ( 3x )] i

x

For steady flow ( )/t 0, there is no change in flow

parameters at a fixed point in space.

For unsteady flow ( )/t 0.

spatial (convective) derivative

DT T v

DT

T

=

+ V T (for an unstirred cup of coffee

< 0)

Dt

t

Dt

t

time (local) derivative

v

v

v

DV V v

=

+ V V

Dt

t

local acceleration

V4.12 Unsteady flow

DT T v

=

+ V T

Dt

t

DT

T

= 0 + us

Dt

s

Tout Tin

=0+us

s

convective acceleration

v

v

v

DV V v

=

+ V V

Dt

t

local acceleration

Du

u

= 0+u

Dt

x

z

system defined in terms of the streamlines of the flow.

v

v

V =V s

v

v

Ds

v DV DV v

a=

s +V

=

Dt

Dt

Dt

V V ds V dn v

=

+

+

s

t s dt n dt

v

v

v

s s ds s dn

+V +

+

t

s

dt

n

dt

Steady flow

s

v

v

a = V

s

+

V

V

s

s

V v V 2 v

V

V2

=V

s+

n

or as = V

, an =

s

R

s

R

v

v

v

v v

s s

s 1 s

s n

v

s

Q

,

or

,

lim

=

=

=

=

=

s 0 s

R

s

s

R

s

R

z

fluid element.

Fields Revisited

z

ur ur

V = V ( x, y , z , t )

ur r r

r

or V = ui + v j + wk

Acceleration of a particle

V

V

V

V

a=

+w

+v

+u

z

y

x

t

ur

ur

r DV V

ur

ur

a=

=

+ V V

Dt

t

( )r ( ) r ( ) r

j+

k

i+

( ) =

x

y

z

u

u

u

u

ax =

+u

+v

+w

z

t

x

y

ay =

v

v

v

v

+u +v +w

t

x

y

z

az =

w

w

w

w

+u

+v

+w

t

x

y

z

z

u

v

velocity, x , y , w cause a linear stretching

z

deformation.

Consider the x-component deformation:

The change in the original volume, V = x y z , due to u / x :

u

Change in V = ( x )( y z )( t )

x

Rate change of V per unit volume due to u / x :

( u / x ) t u

1 d ( V )

= lim

=

0

V dt

t

uv

1 d ( V ) u v w

=

+ +

= V volumetric dilatation rate

x y z

V dt

z

as the element moves from one

location to another in the flow

field.

For incompressible fluid, the

volumetric dilation rate is zero.

z

z

OA = lim

t 0 t

v

x t v

tan = x

= t

x

x

so that

( v / x) t v

=

t 0

t

x

OA = lim

(if

v

x

z

OB

= lim

t 0 t

u

yt

u

y

tan =

t

=

y

y

so that

OB

( if

( u / y ) t u

= lim

=

t 0

t

u

is positive, OB will be clockwise)

y

Angular rotation

V4.6 Flow past a wing

z

as the average of the angular velocities OA and OB , if

counterclockwise is considered to be positive, then,

1 v

z =

2 x y

similarly

thus

1 w v

x =

2 y z ,

1 u w

2 z x

y =

r 1

r 1

r

r

r

= x i + y j + x k = curl V = V

2

2

r

i

1

1

V =

2

2 x

u

y

v

1 w v 1 u w

1 v u

k

j

+

=

i +

z 2 y z 2 z x

2 x y

w

Definition of vorticity

z

Define vorticity

= 2 = V

block ( ie: OA = OB )

only when

u

v

=

x

y

deformation.

z

If

u v

=

y x

z

u = r

ur = u z = 0

z = 2

r = = 0

z =

1

(ru ) 1 u r

r r

r

Free vortex

u =

k

r

= 0

z =

ur = u z = 0

r = 0

1

(ru ) = 0

r r

for

r0

Angular Deformation

u

y

v

and x , these derivatives can cause the element to

undergo an angular deformation, which results in a change

in shape of the element.

strain ,

= +

angle is decreasing.

Angular Deformation

z

u

v

t

+

t

x

y

= lim

& = lim

t 0 t

t 0

t

v u

= +

x y

shearing stress which causes the fluid element to change in shape.

v

u

=

y

x

If

, the rate of angular deformation is zero and this

condition indicates that the element is simply rotating as an

undeformed block.

Conservation of mass:

DM sys

Dt

=0

dV + V ndA = 0

cv

cs

t

(6.19)

Eq. 6.19 is applied to an infinitesimal control volume.

Equation

d

V

xyz

t

t

u x

u

u x

z

xyz

+

=

Net mass flow in the direction

x 2

x 2

v

Net mass flow in the y direction

xyz

y

Net mass flow in the z direction w xyz

z

u v w

Net rate of mass out of flow

x + y + z xyz

z

u v w

+

+

+

=0

t

x

y

z

(continuity equation )

In vector form

r

+ V = 0

t

u v w

+

+

=0

x

y

z

r

V = 0

u v w

+

+

=0

x y z

r

V = 0

z

1 (rv r ) 1 (v ) v z

+

+

+

=0

t r r

r

z

z

u v

+

=0

x y

u=

then

z

( x, y )

such that

v=

x y

+

x y

2 2

=0

=

xy yx

function, the conservation of mass will be satisfied.

z

Definition of stream line dy = v

dx

d =

dx +

dy = vdx + udy

x

y

vdx + udy = 0

dy v

=

dx u

z

z

The actual numerical value of a stream line is not important but

the change in the value of is related to the volume flow rate.

NoteFlow never crosses streamline, since by definition the

velocity is tangent to the streamlines.

z

plane)

dq = udy vdx

=

dy +

dx = d

y

x

2

q = d = 2 1

1

In cylindrical coordinates the incompressible continuity

1 (rv r ) 1 v

equation becomes,

+

=0

Then,

vr =

1

r

v =

z

or

z

CV

r

V dV +

CS

r r r

V V n dA

then

z

D

F=

V dm

sys

Dt

r

Fcontents of the =

t

control volume

( )

D Vm

F =

Dt

DV

F = m

= ma

Dt

Differential Element

z

surface forceswhich action the surfaces of the

differential element.

body forceswhich are distributed throughout the

element.

weight of the element,

ur

ur

F b = mg

or

Fbx = mg x

Fby = mg y

Fbz = mg z

interaction with its surroundings (the components depend

on the area orientation)

to the area and orthogonal to each other.

is

n defined as,

Fn

A0 A

n = lim

F1

A0 A

1 = lim

F2

A0 A

2 = lim

z

Sign of stresses

Positive sign for the stress as

positive coordinate direction

on the surfaces for which the

outward normal is in the

positive coordinate direction.

NotePositive normal stresses are tensile stresses, ie, they tend to stretch the material.

Thus

xx yx zx

+

+

x y z

y

z

x

Fsy = xy + yy + zy x y z

y

z

x

Fsx =

xz yx zz

+

+

y

z

x

Fsz =

x y z

ur

r

r

r

F s = Fsx i + Fsy j + Fsz k

ur

uur

uur

F = Fs + Fb

r

r

r

Fx = m a x , Fy = m a y , Fz = m a z

m = x y z

Thus

yx

u

xx

zx

u

u

u

gx +

+

+

=

+ u

+ v

+ w

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

xy

yy

zy

v

v

v

v

+

+

=

+ u

+ v

+ w

gy +

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

yz

w

xz

zz

w

w

w

+

+

=

+ u

+ v

+ w

gz +

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

(6.50)

PART B

Inviscid Flow:

Euler Equation/Some Basic, Plane

Potential Flows

(Sections 6.5-6.7)

6.4.1 Eulers Equation of Motion

z

zero, and the normal stresses are replaced by -p, thus the

equation of motion becomes

u

p

u

u

u

= + u

+

+w

x

x

y

z

t

p

gy = + u

+

+w

t

x

y

z

y

gx

w

p

w

w

w

=

+u

+

+w

t

x

y

z

z

or

uv

uv

V uv

v

g p = + (V )V

t

gz

terms which appear in the convective acceleration.

z

uv

uv

v

g p = V V

uv

g = g z (up being positive)

uv

uv 1 uv uv uv

uv

V V = V V V V

2

g z p =

uv uv

uv

uv

V V V V

or

uv

uv

p 1

2

+ V + g z = V V

2

( )

ds along a streamline

v 1

v

v uv

uv

v

2

d s + V d s + g z d s = V V d s

( )

uv

v

Since d s and V are parallel, therefore

uv

v

V ( V ) dsv = 0

Since

v

v

v

v

d s = dx i + dy j + dz k

v p

p

p

p d s =

dx + dy + dz = dp

x

y

z

dp

( )

1

+ d V 2 + g dz = 0

2

uv

where the change in p, V , and z is along the streamline

dp V 2

+ 2 + gz = constant

which indicates that the sum of the three terms on the left side of

the equation must remain a constant along a given streamline.

For inviscid, incompressible flow, the equation become,

p

V2

+

+ gz = const

2

or

p1

V12

p2 V22

+

+z =

+

+z

2g 1 2g 2

(2) steady flow

(3) incompressible flow

(4) flow along a streamline

z

inviscid flow problem is further simplified.

r

The rotation of the fluid element is equal

r

1

to V , and for irrotational flow field,

2

uv

V = 0

uv

uv

flow field, the vorticity is zero.

z

among these velocity gradients.

For example,

1 u

=0

z =

2 x y

u

w

x

u w

=

z x

fluid?

According to the 2-D vorticity transport equation (cf.

Problem 6.81)

D z

= 2 z

Dt

z

motion as long as is positive. So, an initially

irrotatioal flow will eventually turn into rotational flow

in a viscous fluid.

On the other hand, an initially irrotatioal flow remains

irrotational in an inviscid fluid, if without external

excitement.

z

uv

uv

V V ds = 0

uv

In an irrotational flow, V = 0 , so the equation is zero

z

Consequently, for irrotational flow the Bernoulli equation is

valid throughout the flow field. Therefore, between any flow

points in the flow field,

dp V 2

+ 2 + gz = constant

or

p1

V12

p2 V22

+

+ z1 =

+

+ z2

2g

2g

(3) Incompressible flow (4) Irrotational flow

z

uv

uv

V = 0 thus V =

u=

, =

, w=

x

y

z

the gradient of a scalar function .

z

of the flow field (only valid for inviscid flow), whereas the

stream function is a consequence of conservation of mass

(valid for inviscid or viscous flow).

Velocity potential can be defined for a general threedimensional flow, whereas the stream function is restricted

to two-dimensional flows.

uv

uv

r

V = 0 V = , further with V = 0 for incomp. flow,

2 = 0

2 2 2

+ 2 + 2 =0

2

In Cartesian coordinates,

x

y

z

Thus, inviscid, incompressible, irrotational flow fields are

governed by Laplaces equation.

Cylindrical coordinate

(

) ev

1 ( ) v ( ) v

e +

ez

( ) =

r +

r

r

z

v 1 v v

er +

e +

ez

=

r

r

z

where = ( r , , z )

uv

v

v

v

Since V = r er + e + z ez

uv

V

=

Thus for an irrotational flow with

1 1 2 2

+ 2 =0

r

+ 2

2

z

r r r r

Example 6.4

= 2r 2 sin 2

1

= 4r cos 2 =

= 2r 2 cos 2 + f1 ( )

r

r

1

=

= 4r sin 2 =

= 2r 2 cos 2 + f 2 ( r )

r

r

Thus = 2r 2 cos 2 + C

r =

= 2r 2 cos 2

V 2 = ( 4r cos 2 ) + ( 4r sin 2 ) = 16r 2

2

p1

V12 p2 V22

+

=

+

2g 2g

z

various solutions can be added to obtain other solutions.

i.e.

= 1 + 2

can combine them to obtain more complicated and interesting

solutions.

In this section several basic velocity potentials, which describe

some relatively simple flows, will be determined.

considered.

velocity potential : u =

, v=

x

y

stream function : u =

z

, v=

y

x

vr =

,

r

or

or

vr =

1

v =

r

1

,

r

conservation of mass is identically satisfied.

Now impose the condition of irrotationality,

u v

=

y x

Thus

y y

x x

or

2 2

+ 2 =0

2

x

y

v =

potential and the stream function both satisfy Laplace

equation.

It is apparent from these results that the velocity potential

and the stream function are somehow related.

Along a line of constant , d =0

d =

dx +

dy = vdx + udy

x

y

dy v

udy = vdx,

=

dx u

d =

dx +

dy = udx + vdy = 0

x

y

dy

u

udx = vdy,

=

dx

v

(equipotential lines) are orthogonal to lines of constant

(stream line) at all points where they intersect.

How about p1 and p2?

z

The simplest plane flow is one for which the streamlines are

all straight and parallel, and the magnitude of the velocity is

constant uniform flow.

u =U v = 0

=U,

=0

x

y

= Ux + C

z

= Ux

z

similar manner,

=U,

= 0 = Uy

y

x

uniform flow at an angle with the x axis,

= U ( x cos + y sin )

= U ( y cos x sin )

flow

z

the origin perpendicular to the x-y plane.

Let m be the volume rate of flow emanating from the line (per

unit length).

Conservation of mass

2 r ( vr ) = m or vr =

m

2 r

velocity potential becomes, v = 0

m

1

=

,

=0

r 2 r

r

m

=

ln r

2

z

z

z

flow is considered to be a source flow.

If m is negative, the flow is toward the origin, and the

flow is considered to be a sink flow.

The flow rate, m, is the strength of the source or sink.

The stream function for the source:

1

m

=

,

r 2r

=0 =

r

2

course physically impossible and is a singular point.

concentric circles (vr=0)

z

circles. i.e. we interchange the velocity potential and stream

function for the source.

Thus, let

= K and = K ln r

where K is a constant.

v =

K

1

=

=

r

r

r

(free vortex)

z

the path followed by the element.

Free vortex

z

z

z

Forced vortex

this type of vortex motion is rotational and can not be

described by a velocity potential.

Free vortex: bathtub flow. V6.4 Vortex in a beaker

Forced vortex: liquid contained in a tank rotating about its axis.

Combined vortex

z

vortex outside the core.

v = r r r0

K

v =

r

r > r0

central core.

Circulation

z

motion is that of circulation.

r r

= V ds

(6.89)

C

The integral is taken around curve, C, in the counterclockwise

direction.

Note: Greens rtheorem in the rplane dictates

r

(

V

)

k

dxdy

=

V

ds

C

R

r

r r

r

V = V ds = ds = d

therefore,

d = 0

C

However, if there are singularities enclosed within the curve,

the circulation may not be zero.

z

K

For example, the free vortex with v = r

K

( rd ) = 2 K

r

K=

2

Note: However along any path which does not include the

singular point at the origin will be zero.

z

The velocity potential and stream function for the free vortex

are commonly expressed in terms of circulation as,

= ln r

2

(6.90)

(6.91)

Example 6.6

Determine an expression relating the surface shape to the

strength of the vortex as specified by circulation .

=

2

z For irrotational flow, the Bernoulli equation

p1

V12

p2 V2 2

+

+ z1 =

+

+ z2

2g

2g

V12

V22

= zs +

2g

2g

1

v =

=

r 2 r

2

zs = 2 2

8 r g

p1 = p2 = 0

z1 = 0

V1 0

6.5.4 Doublet

z

formed by combining a source

and a sink in a special way.

Consider a source-sink pair

m

= (1 2 )

2

tan 1 tan 2

2

tan

= tan(1 2 ) =

1 + tan 1 tan 2

m

r sin

Since tan 1 =

r cos a

2

Thus tan

m

r sin

and tan 2 =

r cos + a

2ar sin

= 2

2

r a

m

1 2ar sin

tan 2

=

2

2

r a

Doublet

For small values of a

m 2ar sin

mar sin

=

=

2

2

2 r a

(r 2 a 2 )

(6.94)

another ( a 0 ) while increasing the strength m ( m ) so

that the product ma/ remains constant.

As a 0, r /( r 2 a 2 ) 1 / r

K sin

=

r

where K = ma/ is called the strength of the doublet.

The corresponding velocity potential is

K cos

=

r

Eq. 6.94 reduces to:

(6.95)

(6.96)

Doublet-streamlines

1 K cos

Vr =

=

=

r r

r2

1

K sin

V =

=

=

2

r

r

r

Potential Flows

Method of superposition

z

considered as a solid boundary, since the conditions

along a solid boundary and a streamline are the sameno flow through the boundary or the streamline.

Therefore, some basic velocity potential or stream

function can be combined to yield a streamline that

corresponds to a particular body shape of interest.

This method is called the method of superposition.

z

z

The resulting stream function is

= uniform flow + source

m

= Ur sin +

2

m

ln r

= Ur cos +

V6.5 Half-body

2

(6.97)

m

vr =

2r

Let the stagnation point occur at x=b, where U = m

2b

m

so

b=

2U

The value of the stream function at the stagnation point can be

obtained by evaluating x at r=b and =, which yields from

Eq. 6.97

m

stagnation = = bU

2

Thus the equation of the streamline passing through the

stagnation point is,

b( )

r=

bU = Ur sin + bU

or

(6.100)

sin

This follows from Eq. 6.100, which can be written as

y = b( )

so that as 0 or 2, the half-width approaches b.

velocity components at any point can be obtained.

1

m

vr =

= U cos +

r

2r

v =

= U sin

r

point is,

Um cos

m 2

2

2

2

2

V = vr + v = U +

)

+(

2 r

r

m

since b =

2 U

2

b

b

2

2

V = U 1 + 2 cos + 2

(6.101)

r

r

determined from the Bernoulli equation,

1

1

2

p0 + U = p + V 2

2

2

(6.102)

Note: the velocity tangent to the surface of the body is not zero;

that is, the fluid slips by the boundary.

Example 6.7

2

b

b

V 2 = U 2 1 + 2 cos + 2

r

r

on the surface = / 2

b ( ) b

=

r=

sin

2

Thus V = U 1 + 2

b

y2 =

2

2

p1

V12

p2 V2 2

+

+ y1 =

+

+ y2

2g

2g

p1 p2 =

2

2

V

V

( 2 1 ) + ( y2 y1 )

z

with a uniform flow to form the flow around a closed body.

The stream function and velocity potential for this

combination are,

m

= Ur sin

(1 2 )

2

= Ur cos

m

(ln r1 ln r2 )

2

As in Section 6.5.4

m

2ar sin

tan 1 2

2

2

r a

m

2ay

1

tan 2

= Uy

2

2

2

x + y a

= Ur sin

or

Since the body is closed, all of the flow emanating from the source

flows into the sink.

These bodies have an oval shape and are termed Rankine ovals.

The stagnation points correspond to the points where the uniform

velocity, the source velocity, and the sink velocity all combine to

give a zero velocity.

The location of the stagnation points depend on the value of a, m ,

and U.

ma

l =

+ a2

U

source:

l m

or

=

+ 1

a Ua

m

vr =

2 r

Therefore

m

m

U

+

=0

2 ( r a ) 2 ( r + a )

m 2a

U

=0

2

2

2 r a

m

1

m

2

2

1

= 0 or r a =

2

2

U r a

U

m

+ a2

l =r =

U

the value of y where the y axis intersects the =0

streamline. Thus, from Eq. 6.105 with =0, x=0, and y=h,

It follows that

2ay

m

m

1

1 2ah

= Uy

tan

tan 2

0

Uh

2

2

2

2

2

2

h a

x + y a

2ah Uh 2

tan 2

=

2

m

h a

2ah

2 Uh

= tan

2

2

h a

m

2 Uh

h2 a 2

tan

h=

2a

m

2

2

Ua h

2 Uh 1 h

h 1 h

= 1 tan

= 1 tan 2

2

a 2 a

m

a

m

a

z

z

z

z

parameter Ua/m.

As l/h becomes large, flow around a long slender body is

described, whereas for small value of parameter, flow

around a more blunt shape is obtained.

Downstream from the point of maximum body width the

surface pressure increase with distance along the surface.

In actual viscous flow, an adverse pressure gradient will

lead to separation of the flow from the surface and result

in a large low pressure wake on the downstream side of

the body.

However, separation is not predicted by potential theory.

Rankine ovals will give a reasonable approximation of

the velocity outside the thin, viscous boundary layer and

the pressure distribution on the front part of the body.

V6.8 Circular cylinder with separation

V6.9 Potential and viscous flow

z

zero, the shape of the Rankine oval becomes more blunt and

approach a circular shape.

A combination of doublet and uniform flow will represent

flow around a circular cylinder.

K sin

K

= U 2 r sin

r

r

K cos

velocity potential : = Ur cos +

r

U

K

2

=

=

0

K

Ua

a2

around a circular cylinder are

a2

= Ur 1 2 sin

r

a2

= Ur 1 + 2 cos

r

a2

1

=

= U 1 2 sin

vr =

r r

r

a2

1

=

= U 1 + 2 sin

v =

r

r

r

vr = 0 and v = 2U sin

a circular cylinder

and bottom of the cylinder = /2 and has a

magnitude of twice the upstream velocity U.

The pressure distribution on the cylinder surface is

obtained from the Bernoulli equation,

1

1

2

p0 + U = ps + v s 2

2

2

1

ps = p0 + U 2 1 4sin 2

2

velocity for point far from the

cylinder.

only on the upstream part

of the cylinder is there

approximate agreement

between the potential

flow and the

experimental results.

cylinder can be determined by integrating the pressure over

the surface.

2

Fx = ps cos ad = 0

0

Fy = ps sin ad = 0

0

fixed cylinder in a uniform stream are zero. since the pressure

distribution is symmetrical around the cylinder.

In reality, there is a significant drag developed on a cylinder

when it is placed in a moving fluid. (dAlembert paradox)

potential for the flow around a cylinder, then

a2

= Ur 1 2 sin

ln r

2

r

a2

= Ur 1 + 2 cos +

2

r

Tangential velocity on the surface (r=a):

vs =

r

r =a

= 2U sin +

2a

(6.119)

(6.120)

(6.121)

rotating cylinder in a uniform stream. Because the presence of

viscosity in any real fluid, the fluid in contact with the rotating

cylinder would rotate with the same velocity as the cylinder, and

the resulting flow field would resemble that developed by the

combination of a uniform flow past a cylinder and a free vortex.

sin stag =

2a

4Ua

= 0 or

vs = 0 = 2U sin +

if = 0 stag

if / 4Ua > 1 stag is located away from the cylinder

1

1

p0 + U 2 = ps + 2U sin +

2

2

2 a

1

2 sin

2

2

2

ps = p0 + U 1 4sin +

2 2 2

2

4 a U

aU

Fx = ps cos ad = 0

0

U 2 2

sin d = U

Fy = ps sin ad =

0

0

z

product of the fluid density, the upstream velocity, and the

circulation.

Fy = U

U (+) ( +, counterclockwise ) the Fy is downward

Magnus effect.

Analysis

z

z

best approximate solutions to real fluid problems.

Potential theory will usually provide a reasonable approximation

in those circumstances when we are dealing with a low viscosity

fluid moving at a relatively high velocity, in regions of the flow

field in which the flow is accelerating.

Outside the boundary layer the velocity distribution and the

pressure distribution are closely approximated by the potential

flow solution.

In situation when the flow is decelerating (in the rearward

portion of the bluff body expanding region of a conduit), and

adverse pressure gradient is reduced leading to flow separation,

a phenomenon that are not accounted for by potential theory.

PART C

Viscous Flow:

Navier-Stokes Equation

(Sections 6.8-6.10)

Equation of Motion

F x = ma x F

m = x y z

= ma y

F z = ma z

Thus

u

xx yx zx

u

u

u

gx +

+

+

=

+u

+v

+w

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

xy yy zy

v

v

v

v

gy +

+

+

=

+u

+v

+w

t

x

y

z

x

y

z

w

xz yz zz

w

w

w

gz +

+

+

=

+u

+v

+w

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

When a shear stress is applied on a fluid:

Fluids continuously deform (stress ~ rate of strain)

Solids deform or bend (stress ~ strain)

d = du

dt dy

from Fox, McDonald and Pritchard, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.

z

the stresses are linearly related to the rate of

deformation.

visc,ij

xx,visc xy

yx yy,visc

zx

zy

vx vy

vx

vz vx

+ +

2

x

x z

y x

xz

vy

vy vz

vx vy

2

yz +

y

y x

z y

zz,visc

vz

vz + vx vy + vz

2

x z

z

y

z

But in normal stresses, there is additional

contribution of pressure p, where

p =

1

xx + yy + zz )

(

3

Consequently,

for normal stresses

u

x

yy = p + 2

y

w

zz = p + 2

z

xx = p + 2

u

xy = yx = +

y x

w

yz = zy = +

z y

w u

zx = xz = +

x z

Can you figure out why the normal viscous stress xx,visc can be

expressed as 2 u x ?

z

not necessarily the same in different directions, thus,

the need to define the pressure as the average of the

three normal stresses.

Stress-strain relationship in cylindrical coordinate

1 r

r

=

=

rr = p + 2

r

r

r +

r

r

r

r

1 r

= p + 2

+ z = z = + 1 z

r

r

z r

z

r z

zz = p + 2

=

=

+

rz

zr

z

z

r

Note: Notation xy

y: direction

z

the governing differential equations of motion for

incompressible Newtonian fluids

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

+ u + + w = + gx + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

x

2 2 2

p

+u

+

+w

= + gy + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

y

y

z

t

x

2w 2w 2w

w

w

w

w

p

+u

+

+w

= + gz + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

z

y

z

t

x

z

r

r r 2

+ r

+

+ z r

r

z

r r

t

1 r r 1 2r 2 2r

p

= + gr +

2

+ 2

r

2 + 2

2

r

r z

r r r r r

+ r + + r + z

r

z

r

r

t

1

1 p

=

+ g +

r

r

r r r

z z

z

+ r

+

+ z z

r

z

r

t

2

2

1 2 r

2 + 2 2 2 + 2

r

z

r r

1 z 1 2z 2z

p

= + gz +

+ 2

r

+ 2

2

z

z

r r r r

Viscous, Incompressible Fluids

z

nonlinear partial differential equations, and each

problem must be considered individually.

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

+ u + + w = + gx + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

x

2 2 2

p

+u

+

+w

= + gy + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

y

y

z

t

x

2w 2w 2w

w

w

w

w

p

+u

+

+w

= + gz + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

z

y

z

t

x

Nonlinear terms

Fixed Parallel plates

umax

= 0, w = 0

Thus continuity indicates that

u

=0

x

g x = 0 , g y = g and g z = o

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

+ u + + w = + gx + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

x

2 2 2

p

+u

+

+ w = + gy + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

y

y

z

t

x

2w 2w 2w

w

w

w

w

p

+u

+

+ w = + gz + 2 + 2 + 2

x

y

z

z

y

z

t

x

Parallel plates

Thus

p

2u

0= + 2

x

y

p

0 = g p = gy + f1 ( x )

y

p

0=

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

+ u + + w = + gx + 2 + 2 + 2

z

x

y

z

x

y

z

t

x

2

d u 1 p

2 2 2

p

=

+

+w

+u

= + gy + 2 + 2 + 2

dy 2 x

y

y

z

t

x

y

z

x

du 1 p

= y + C1

dy x

1 p 2

u=

y + C1 y + C2

2 x

2w 2w 2w

w

w

w

w

p

+

+w

+u

= + gz + 2 + 2 + 2

z

y

z

t

x

y

z

Parallel plates

the constants are determined from the boundary

conditions. V6.11 No-slip boundary conditions

BCs : u = 0 for y = h

Thus C1 = 0

1 p 2

C2 =

h

2 x

Thus the velocity distribution becomes,

1 p 2

2

y

h

u=

2 x

the two fixed plates is parabolic.

V6.13 Laminar flow

Parallel plates

z

h

1

h 2

q = u dy =

h

p 2

2

y

h

dy

x

1 p y 3

2

q=

h y

2 x 3

h

3

h

1 p y 3

3

3

=

h + h

2 x 3

3

2 h3 p

=

3 x

decreases in the direction of the flow.

Parallel plates

If p represents the pressure drop between two

points a distance l apart, then

p

p

=

x

l

2 h 3 p 2h 3p

q=

=

,

3 x

3 l

q h 2 p

V=

=

2h 3 l

the two plates, thus

h2 p

umax =

2 x

or

3

umax = V

2

Parallel plates

z

p = gy + f ( x )

p

f1 ( x ) = x + p0

x

where p0 is a reference pressure at x=y=0

the fluid can be obtained from

p

p = gy + x + p0

x

z

V 2h

z

Therefore

1 p 2

u=

y + C1 y + C2

2 x

boundary conditions

u=o at y=0, u=U at y=b

u =U

b 1 p 2

+

y by

y 2 x

or in dimensionless form

u y

b 2 p y y

=

1

U b 2U x b b

dimensionless parameter

b 2 p

P=

2U x

Couette flow

z

pressure gradient is zero i.e. the fluid motion is caused

by the fluid being dragged along by the moving

p

boundary.

x

=0

y

b

which indicates that the velocity varies linearly

between the two plates.

Thus

u =U

ro-ri << ri

The flow in an unloaded

journal bearing might be

approximated by this simple

Couette flow.

Example 6.9

u=w=0

=0

y

= ( x)

p p

=

=0

x z

x = h p = atmospheric pressure

dp

=0

dx

dp

=0

dz

Therefore

d 2

0 = g + 2

dx

d 2

=

2

dx

d

= x + C1

dx

zero

d

xy = xy = 0 at x = h

dx

C1 =

2nd integration

2 h

x

x + C2

2

x = 0 = V0 C2 = V0

2 h

=

x

x + V0

2

=

2 h

q = dx =

x

x + V0 dx

0

0

h3

q = V0 h

3

h

h2

q

V = = V0

h

3

Only if

h2

V0 >

3

Circular Tubes

z

steady, laminar flow through a straight circular tube

of constant cross section

Consider the flow through a horizontal circular tube

of radius R

Assume the flow is parallel

vr = v = 0

vz

=0

z

vz = vz ( r )

Thus

1 p

r

p

0 = g sin

r

0 = g cos

0=

1 v z

p

+

r

z

r r r

g r = g sin

g = g cos

p = gr sin + f1 ( z )

= gy + f1 ( z )

distributed at any particular cross section and the z

component of the pressure gradient, p / z , is not a

function of r or .

z

1 vz

r

r r r

1 p

=

z

v

1 p 2

r z =

r + C1

r 2 z

vz =

z

1 p 2

r + C1 ln r + C2

4 z

Boundary conditions

1 p 2

At r=R, vz =0, then

C2 = R

4 z

Thus the velocity distribution becomes,

1 p 2

2

r R

4 z

That is, at any cross section, the velocity distribution is parabolic.

vz =

z

dQ = v z (2r )dr

Q = 2

v rdr = 2

0

1 p 2

R 4 p

2

(r R )rdr =

4 z

8 z

Let p = p , then

l

z

z

Poiseuilles law

mean velocity

Q

R 2 P

V =

=

2

8l

R

maximum velocity

vmax

R 4 p

Q=

8l

R 2 p R 2 p

=

=

4 z 4 l

so

vz

r

= 1

v max

R

vmax = 2V

an Annulus

vz =

z

1 p 2

r + C1 ln r + C 2

4 z

thus

ri2 r02

1 p 2 2

vz =

ln ( r0 / ri )

r r0 +

4 z

ln ( r0 / ri )

2

2

2

r

r

p 4 4

o

i

Q = vz 2 rdr =

r

r

o i

8 z

ln ( r0 / ri )

ri

2

2

2

p 4 4 ro ri

ro ri

=

8 l

ln ( r0 / ri )

r0

ro2 ri2

rm =

2 ln ( r0 / ri )

The maximum velocity does not occur at the mid point of the

annulus space, but rather it occurs nearer the inner cylinder.

z

effective diameter hydraulic diameter for on circular tubes.

Dh =

wetted perimeter

Thus the flow will remain laminar if Re =

DhV

remains below 2100.

Analysis

V = 0

+ V V = p + g + 2 V

z

z

z

Finite element ( or finite volume ) method

Boundary element method

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