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DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF

FLUID FLOW
A: Mathematical Formulation (4.1.1, 4.2,
6.1-6.4)
B: Inviscid Flow: Euler Equation/Some
Basic, Plane Potential Flows (6.5-6.7)
C: Viscous Flow: Navier-Stokes Equation
(6.8-6.10)

Introduction
Differential Analysis
z

z
z

There are situations in which the details of the flow


are important, e.g., pressure and shear stress variation
along the wing.
Therefore, we need to develop relationship that apply
at a point or at least in a very small region
(infinitesimal volume) with a given flow field.
This approach is commonly referred to as differential
analysis.
The solutions of the equations are rather difficult.
Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) can be applied
to complex flow problems.

PART A
Mathematical Formulation
(Sections 4.1.1, 4.2, 6.1-6.4)

Fluid Kinematics (4.1.1, 4.2)


Kinematics involves position, velocity and
acceleration, not forces.
z kinematics of the motion:
velocity and acceleration of the fluid, and the
description and visualization of its motion.
z The analysis of the specific force necessary to
produce the motion - the dynamics of the
motion.
z

4.1 The Velocity Field


A field representation representations of fluid
parameters as functions of spatial coordinate
z

the velocity field

V = u ( x, y, z , t )i + v( x, y, z , t ) j + w( x, y, z , t )k
r uur
drA
= VA
dt

V = V ( x, y , z , t )

V = V = u +v +w
2

A change in velocity results in an acceleration which


may be due to a change in speed and/or direction.

4.1.1 Eulerian and Lagrangian


Flow Descriptions
z

Eulerian method: the fluid motion is given by completely


prescribing the necessary properties as functions of space and time.

From this method, we obtain


information about the flow in terms
of what happens at fixed points in
space as the fluid flows past those
points.

Lagrangian method: following


individual fluid particles as they move
about and determining how the fluid
properties associated with these
particles change as a function of time.

V4.3 Cylinder-velocity vectors


V4.4 Follow the particles
V4.5 Follow the particles

4.1.4 Streamlines, Streaklines and Pathlines


z

A streamline is a line that is everywhere tangent to the


velocity field.
A streakline consists of all particles in a flow that have
previously passed through a common point.
A pathline is a line traced out by a given flowing particle.

V4.9 streamlines
V4.10 streaklines
V4.1 streaklines

4.1.4 Streamlines, Streaklines and Pathlines


z

For steady flows, streamlines, streaklines and pathlines all


coincide. This is not true for unsteady flows.

Unsteady streamlines are difficult to generate


experimentally, but easy to draw in numerical computation.
On the contrary, streaklines are more of a lab tool than an
analytical tool.
How can you determine the unsteady pathline of a moving
particle?

4.2 The Acceleration Field


z

The acceleration of a particle is the time rate


change of its velocity.
For unsteady flows the velocity at a given
point in space may vary with time, giving rise
to a portion of the fluid acceleration.
In addition, a fluid particle may experience an
acceleration because its velocity changes as it
flows from one point to another in space.

4.2.1 The Material Derivative


z

Consider a particle moving along its pathline

uur uur ur
uur
VA = VA rA , t = VA x A ( t ) , y A ( t ) , z A ( t ) , t

( )

The Material Derivative


z

Thus the acceleration of particle A,

uur uur ur
uur
VA = VA rA , t = VA x A ( t ) , y A ( t ) , z A ( t ) , t
uur
uur
uur
uur
uur
dVA VA VA dx A VA dy A
=
+
+
aA (t ) =
t
x dt
y dt
dt
uur
VA dz A
+
z dt
uur
uur
uur
uur
VA
VA
VA
VA
=
+ uA
+ vA
+ wA
t
x
y
z

( )

Acceleration
z

This is valid for any particle

ur
ur
ur
ur
r V
V
V
V
a=
+u
+v
+w
t
x
y
z
u
u
u
u
ax =
+u +v + w
t
x
y
z
v
v
v
v
ay = + u + v + w
t
x
y
z
w
w
w
w
az =
+u
+v
+w
t
x
y
z

Material derivative
z

Associated with time variation


Acceleration:
ur
ur
ur
ur
ur
ur
r DV DV V
V
V
V
=
+u
+v
+w
a=
,
Dt
Dt
t
x
y
z
Associated with space variation

Total derivative, material derivative or substantial


derivative
D( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
=
+u
+v
+w
Dt
t
x
y
z
r
( )
=
+ (V ) ( )
t

Material derivative
z

The material derivative of any variable is the


rate at which that variable changes with time
for a given particle (as seen by one moving
along with the fluid the Lagrangian
descriptions)
If velocity is known, the time rate change of
temperature can be expressed as,

T
T
T
DT T
=
+u
+v
+w
t
x
y
z
Dt
r
T
+ (V )T
=
t
Example: the temperature of a passenger experienced on a train
starting from Taipei on 9am and arriving at Kaohsiung on 12.

Acceleration along a
streamline
ur
r

R r
V = u ( x ) i = V0 1 + 3 i,
x

ur
ur
r V
V u
u r
+u
= + u i
a=
t
x t
x

r
r
R3
4
3
a = Vo (1 + 3 )Vo [ R ( 3x )] i
x

4.2.2 Unsteady Effects


For steady flow ( )/t 0, there is no change in flow
parameters at a fixed point in space.
For unsteady flow ( )/t 0.
spatial (convective) derivative
DT T v
DT
T
=
+ V T (for an unstirred cup of coffee

< 0)
Dt
t
Dt
t
time (local) derivative
v
v
v
DV V v
=
+ V V
Dt
t
local acceleration
V4.12 Unsteady flow

4.2.3 Convective Effects

DT T v
=
+ V T
Dt
t
DT
T
= 0 + us
Dt
s
Tout Tin
=0+us
s

4.2.3 Convective Effects


convective acceleration
v
v
v
DV V v
=
+ V V
Dt
t
local acceleration
Du
u
= 0+u
Dt
x

4.2.4 Streamline Coordinates


z

In many flow situations it is convenient to use a coordinate


system defined in terms of the streamlines of the flow.

v
v
V =V s
v
v
Ds
v DV DV v
a=
s +V
=
Dt
Dt
Dt
V V ds V dn v
=
+
+
s
t s dt n dt
v
v
v
s s ds s dn
+V +
+

t
s
dt
n
dt

V4.13 Streamline coordinates

4.2.4 Streamline Coordinates


Steady flow

s
v
v

a = V
s
+
V
V

s
s
V v V 2 v
V
V2
=V
s+
n
or as = V
, an =
s
R
s
R
v
v
v
v v
s s
s 1 s
s n
v
s
Q

,
or
,
lim
=
=
=
=
=

s 0 s

R
s
s
R
s
R

6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics


z

Types of motion and deformation for a


fluid element.

6.1.1 Velocity and Acceleration


Fields Revisited
z

Velocity field representation


ur ur
V = V ( x, y , z , t )

ur r r
r
or V = ui + v j + wk

Acceleration of a particle
V
V
V
V
a=
+w
+v
+u
z
y
x
t
ur
ur
r DV V
ur
ur
a=
=
+ V V
Dt
t
( )r ( ) r ( ) r
j+
k
i+
( ) =
x
y
z

u
u
u
u
ax =
+u
+v
+w
z
t
x
y

ay =

v
v
v
v
+u +v +w
t
x
y
z

az =

w
w
w
w
+u
+v
+w
t
x
y
z

6.1.2 Linear Motion and Deformation


z

variations of the velocity in the direction of


u
v
velocity, x , y , w cause a linear stretching
z
deformation.
Consider the x-component deformation:

Linear Motion and Deformation


The change in the original volume, V = x y z , due to u / x :
u
Change in V = ( x )( y z )( t )
x
Rate change of V per unit volume due to u / x :
( u / x ) t u
1 d ( V )
= lim
=

0
V dt
t

If velocity gradient v / y and w / z are also present, then


uv
1 d ( V ) u v w
=
+ +
= V volumetric dilatation rate
x y z
V dt
z

The volume of a fluid may change


as the element moves from one
location to another in the flow
field.
For incompressible fluid, the
volumetric dilation rate is zero.

6.1.3 Angular Motion and Deformation


z

Consider an element under rotation and angular deformation

V6.3 Shear deformation

Angular Motion and Deformation


z

the angular velocity of OA is

OA = lim
t 0 t

For small angles


v
x t v
tan = x
= t
x
x

so that
( v / x) t v
=

t 0
t
x

OA = lim

(if

v
x

is positive then OA will be counterclockwise)

Angular Motion and Deformation


z

the angular velocity of the line OB is


OB

= lim
t 0 t

u
yt
u
y
tan =
t
=
y
y

so that
OB

( if

( u / y ) t u
= lim
=
t 0
t

u
is positive, OB will be clockwise)
y

Angular rotation
V4.6 Flow past a wing
z

The rotation, z , of the element about the z axis is defined


as the average of the angular velocities OA and OB , if
counterclockwise is considered to be positive, then,
1 v

z =
2 x y

similarly

thus

1 w v

x =
2 y z ,

1 u w

2 z x

y =

r 1
r 1
r
r
r
= x i + y j + x k = curl V = V
2
2
r

i
1
1
V =
2
2 x
u

y
v

1 w v 1 u w
1 v u
k
j
+
=
i +

z 2 y z 2 z x
2 x y
w

Definition of vorticity
z

Define vorticity
= 2 = V

The fluid element will rotate about z axis as an undeformed


block ( ie: OA = OB )
only when

u
v
=
x
y

Otherwise the rotation will be associated with an angular


deformation.
z

If

u v
=
y x

or V = 0 , then the rotation (and the vorticity )

are zero, and flow fields are termed irrotational.

Different types of angular motions


z

Solid body rotation


u = r

ur = u z = 0

z = 2

r = = 0

z =

1
(ru ) 1 u r
r r
r

Free vortex
u =

k
r

= 0

z =

ur = u z = 0
r = 0

1
(ru ) = 0
r r

for

r0

Angular Deformation
u
y

Apart form rotation associated with these derivatives


v
and x , these derivatives can cause the element to
undergo an angular deformation, which results in a change
in shape of the element.

The change in the original right angle is termed the shearing


strain ,
= +

where is considered to be positive if the original right


angle is decreasing.

Angular Deformation
z

Rate of shearing strain or rate of angular deformation


u
v

t
+
t

x
y
= lim
& = lim

t 0 t
t 0
t

v u
= +
x y

The rate of angular deformation is related to a corresponding


shearing stress which causes the fluid element to change in shape.
v
u
=
y
x

If
, the rate of angular deformation is zero and this
condition indicates that the element is simply rotating as an
undeformed block.

6.2 Conservation of Mass

Conservation of mass:

DM sys
Dt

=0

In control volume representation (continuity equation):

dV + V ndA = 0

cv
cs
t

(6.19)

To obtain the differential form of the continuity equation,


Eq. 6.19 is applied to an infinitesimal control volume.

6.2.1 Differential Form of Continuity


Equation

d
V
xyz

t
t
u x
u
u x

z
xyz
+

=
Net mass flow in the direction

x 2
x 2

v
Net mass flow in the y direction
xyz
y
Net mass flow in the z direction w xyz
z
u v w
Net rate of mass out of flow
x + y + z xyz

Differential Form of Continuity Equation


z

Thus conservation of mass become


u v w
+
+
+
=0
t
x
y
z

(continuity equation )

In vector form
r

+ V = 0
t

For steady compressible flow


u v w
+
+
=0
x
y
z

r
V = 0

For incompressible flow


u v w
+
+
=0
x y z

r
V = 0

6.2.2 Cylindrical Polar Coordinates


z

The differential form of continuity equation

1 (rv r ) 1 (v ) v z
+
+
+
=0
t r r
r
z

6.2.3 The Stream Function


z

For 2-D incompressible plane flow then,


u v
+
=0
x y

Define a stream function


u=

then
z

( x, y )

such that

v=

x y


+
x y

2 2

=0
=
xy yx

For velocity expressed in forms of the stream


function, the conservation of mass will be satisfied.

The Stream Function


z

Lines along constant are stream lines.


Definition of stream line dy = v
dx

Thus change of , from ( x, y ) to ( x + dx, y + dy )


d =

dx +
dy = vdx + udy
x
y

Along a line of constant of we have d = 0


vdx + udy = 0

dy v
=
dx u

which is the defining equation for a streamline.


z
z

Thus we can use to plot streamline.


The actual numerical value of a stream line is not important but
the change in the value of is related to the volume flow rate.

The Stream Function


NoteFlow never crosses streamline, since by definition the
velocity is tangent to the streamlines.
z

Volume rate of flow (per unit width perpendicular to the x-y


plane)
dq = udy vdx

=
dy +
dx = d
y
x
2

q = d = 2 1
1

If 2 > 1 then q is positive and vice versa.


In cylindrical coordinates the incompressible continuity
1 (rv r ) 1 v
equation becomes,
+
=0
Then,

vr =

1
r

v =

Ex 6.3 Stream function

6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum


z

Linear momentum equation

or
z

CV

r
V dV +

CS

r r r
V V n dA

Consider a differential system with m and V

then
z

D
F=
V dm

sys
Dt
r

Fcontents of the =
t
control volume

( )

D Vm
F =
Dt

Using the system approach then


DV
F = m
= ma
Dt

6.3.1 Descriptions of Force Acting on the


Differential Element
z

Two types of forces need to be considered


surface forceswhich action the surfaces of the
differential element.
body forceswhich are distributed throughout the
element.

For simplicity, the only body force considered is the


weight of the element,
ur
ur
F b = mg

or

Fbx = mg x

Fby = mg y

Fbz = mg z

Surface force act on the element as a result of its


interaction with its surroundings (the components depend
on the area orientation)

Where Fn is normal to the area A and F1 and F2 are parallel


to the area and orthogonal to each other.

The normal stress

is
n defined as,

Fn
A0 A

n = lim

and the shearing stresses are define as


F1
A0 A

1 = lim

F2
A0 A

2 = lim

we use for normal stresses and for shear stresses.


z

Sign of stresses
Positive sign for the stress as
positive coordinate direction
on the surfaces for which the
outward normal is in the
positive coordinate direction.

NotePositive normal stresses are tensile stresses, ie, they tend to stretch the material.

Thus

xx yx zx
+
+
x y z
y
z
x



Fsy = xy + yy + zy x y z
y
z
x

Fsx =

xz yx zz
+
+
y
z
x

Fsz =

x y z

ur
r
r
r
F s = Fsx i + Fsy j + Fsz k
ur
uur
uur
F = Fs + Fb

6.3.2 Equation of Motion


r
r
r
Fx = m a x , Fy = m a y , Fz = m a z
m = x y z
Thus
yx
u
xx
zx
u
u
u
gx +
+
+
=
+ u
+ v
+ w
x
y
z
x
y
z
t
xy
yy
zy
v
v
v
v
+
+
=
+ u
+ v
+ w
gy +
x
y
z
x
y
z
t
yz
w
xz
zz
w
w
w
+
+
=
+ u
+ v
+ w
gz +
x
y
z
x
y
z
t

(6.50)

PART B
Inviscid Flow:
Euler Equation/Some Basic, Plane
Potential Flows
(Sections 6.5-6.7)

6.4 Inviscid Flow


6.4.1 Eulers Equation of Motion
z

For an inviscid flow in which the shearing stresses are all


zero, and the normal stresses are replaced by -p, thus the
equation of motion becomes
u
p
u
u
u
= + u
+
+w
x
x
y
z
t

p


gy = + u
+
+w

t
x
y
z
y

gx

w
p
w
w
w
=
+u
+
+w

t
x
y
z
z

or
uv
uv
V uv
v
g p = + (V )V
t

gz

The main difficulty in solving the equation is the nonlinear


terms which appear in the convective acceleration.

6.4.2 The Bernoulli Equation


z

For steady flow

uv
uv
v
g p = V V
uv
g = g z (up being positive)
uv
uv 1 uv uv uv
uv
V V = V V V V
2

thus the equation can be written as,


g z p =

uv uv
uv
uv
V V V V

or
uv
uv
p 1
2
+ V + g z = V V
2

( )

Take the dot product of each term with a differential length


ds along a streamline
v 1
v
v uv
uv
v
2
d s + V d s + g z d s = V V d s

( )

uv
v
Since d s and V are parallel, therefore
uv
v
V ( V ) dsv = 0

Since

v
v
v
v
d s = dx i + dy j + dz k
v p
p
p
p d s =
dx + dy + dz = dp
x
y
z

Thus the equation becomes


dp

( )

1
+ d V 2 + g dz = 0
2

uv
where the change in p, V , and z is along the streamline

Equation after integration become


dp V 2
+ 2 + gz = constant

which indicates that the sum of the three terms on the left side of
the equation must remain a constant along a given streamline.
For inviscid, incompressible flow, the equation become,
p

V2
+
+ gz = const
2
or
p1

V12
p2 V22
+
+z =
+
+z
2g 1 2g 2

For (1) inviscid flow


(2) steady flow
(3) incompressible flow
(4) flow along a streamline

6.4.3 Irrotational Flow


z

If the flow is irrotational, the analysis of


inviscid flow problem is further simplified.
r
The rotation of the fluid element is equal
r
1
to V , and for irrotational flow field,
2

uv
V = 0
uv

uv

Since V = , therefore for an irrotational


flow field, the vorticity is zero.
z

The condition of irrotationality imposes specific relationships


among these velocity gradients.
For example,
1 u
=0
z =
2 x y
u
w
x

u w
=
z x

A general flow field would not satisfy these three equations.

Can irrotational flow hold in a viscous

fluid?
According to the 2-D vorticity transport equation (cf.
Problem 6.81)
D z
= 2 z
Dt
z

Vorticity of an fluid element grows along with its


motion as long as is positive. So, an initially
irrotatioal flow will eventually turn into rotational flow
in a viscous fluid.
On the other hand, an initially irrotatioal flow remains
irrotational in an inviscid fluid, if without external
excitement.

6.4.4 The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow


z

In Section 6.4.2, we have obtained along a streamline that,


uv
uv
V V ds = 0

uv
In an irrotational flow, V = 0 , so the equation is zero
z

regardless of the direction of d sv .


Consequently, for irrotational flow the Bernoulli equation is
valid throughout the flow field. Therefore, between any flow
points in the flow field,
dp V 2
+ 2 + gz = constant
or
p1

V12
p2 V22
+
+ z1 =
+
+ z2
2g
2g

For (1) Inviscid flow (2) Stead flow


(3) Incompressible flow (4) Irrotational flow

6.4.5 The Velocity Potential


z

For irrotational flow since

uv
uv
V = 0 thus V =

u=
, =
, w=
x
y
z

so that for an irrotational flow the velocity is expressible as


the gradient of a scalar function .
z

The velocity potential is a consequence of the irrotationality


of the flow field (only valid for inviscid flow), whereas the
stream function is a consequence of conservation of mass
(valid for inviscid or viscous flow).

Velocity potential can be defined for a general threedimensional flow, whereas the stream function is restricted
to two-dimensional flows.

Thus for irrotational flow


uv
uv
r
V = 0 V = , further with V = 0 for incomp. flow,
2 = 0
2 2 2
+ 2 + 2 =0
2
In Cartesian coordinates,
x
y
z
Thus, inviscid, incompressible, irrotational flow fields are
governed by Laplaces equation.
Cylindrical coordinate
(

) ev

1 ( ) v ( ) v
e +
ez
( ) =
r +
r
r
z
v 1 v v
er +
e +
ez
=
r
r
z
where = ( r , , z )
uv
v
v
v
Since V = r er + e + z ez
uv
V
=
Thus for an irrotational flow with

1 1 2 2
+ 2 =0
r
+ 2
2
z
r r r r

Example 6.4

= 2r 2 sin 2
1

= 4r cos 2 =
= 2r 2 cos 2 + f1 ( )
r
r

1
=
= 4r sin 2 =
= 2r 2 cos 2 + f 2 ( r )
r
r
Thus = 2r 2 cos 2 + C

r =

The specific value of C is not important, therefore

= 2r 2 cos 2
V 2 = ( 4r cos 2 ) + ( 4r sin 2 ) = 16r 2
2

p1

V12 p2 V22
+
=
+
2g 2g

6.5 Some basic, plane potential flows


z

Since the Laplace equation is a linear differential equation,


various solutions can be added to obtain other solutions.
i.e.

= 1 + 2

The practical implication is that if we have basic solutions, we


can combine them to obtain more complicated and interesting
solutions.
In this section several basic velocity potentials, which describe
some relatively simple flows, will be determined.

For simplicity, only two-dimensional flows will be


considered.

velocity potential : u =
, v=
x
y

stream function : u =
z

, v=
y
x

vr =
,
r

or

or

vr =

1
v =
r

1
,
r

Defining the velocities in terms of the stream function,


conservation of mass is identically satisfied.
Now impose the condition of irrotationality,
u v
=
y x
Thus

y y

x x

or

2 2
+ 2 =0
2
x
y

v =

Thus for a two-dimensional irrotational flow, the velocity


potential and the stream function both satisfy Laplace
equation.
It is apparent from these results that the velocity potential
and the stream function are somehow related.
Along a line of constant , d =0

d =
dx +
dy = vdx + udy
x
y
dy v
udy = vdx,
=
dx u

Along a line of constant , d =0

d =
dx +
dy = udx + vdy = 0
x
y
dy
u
udx = vdy,
=
dx
v

Therefore, the equations indicate that lines of constant


(equipotential lines) are orthogonal to lines of constant
(stream line) at all points where they intersect.

Q: Why V2 > V1?


How about p1 and p2?

6.5.1 Uniform Flow


z

The simplest plane flow is one for which the streamlines are
all straight and parallel, and the magnitude of the velocity is
constant uniform flow.

u =U v = 0

=U,
=0
x
y
= Ux + C
z

Thus, for a uniform flow in the positive x direction,

= Ux
z

The corresponding stream function can be obtained in a


similar manner,

=U,
= 0 = Uy
y
x

The velocity potential and stream function for a


uniform flow at an angle with the x axis,

= U ( x cos + y sin )
= U ( y cos x sin )

6.5.2 Source and Sink- purely radial


flow
z

Consider a fluid flowing radially outward from a line through


the origin perpendicular to the x-y plane.
Let m be the volume rate of flow emanating from the line (per
unit length).
Conservation of mass
2 r ( vr ) = m or vr =

m
2 r

Also, since the flow is purely radial,


velocity potential becomes, v = 0

m
1
=
,
=0
r 2 r
r
m
=
ln r
2

Source and Sink flows


z

z
z

If m is positive, the flow is radially outward, and the


flow is considered to be a source flow.
If m is negative, the flow is toward the origin, and the
flow is considered to be a sink flow.
The flow rate, m, is the strength of the source or sink.
The stream function for the source:
1
m
=
,
r 2r

=0 =
r
2

Note: At r=0, the velocity becomes infinite, which is of


course physically impossible and is a singular point.

6.5.3 Vortex-streamlines are


concentric circles (vr=0)
z

Consider a flow field in which the streamlines are concentric


circles. i.e. we interchange the velocity potential and stream
function for the source.
Thus, let

= K and = K ln r
where K is a constant.
v =

K
1
=
=
r
r
r

(free vortex)

Free and Forced vortex


z

Rotation refers to the orientation of a fluid element and not


the path followed by the element.

Free vortex
z

z
z

Forced vortex

If the fluid were rotating as a rigid body, such that v = Kr ,


this type of vortex motion is rotational and can not be
described by a velocity potential.
Free vortex: bathtub flow. V6.4 Vortex in a beaker
Forced vortex: liquid contained in a tank rotating about its axis.

Combined vortex
z

Combined vortex: a forced vortex as a central core and a free


vortex outside the core.

v = r r r0
K
v =
r

r > r0

where K and r are constant and r0 corresponds to the radius of


central core.

Circulation
z

A mathematical concept commonly associated with vortex


motion is that of circulation.
r r
= V ds
(6.89)
C
The integral is taken around curve, C, in the counterclockwise
direction.
Note: Greens rtheorem in the rplane dictates

r
(

V
)

k
dxdy
=
V

ds

C
R

For an irrotational flow

r
r r
r
V = V ds = ds = d

therefore,

d = 0
C

For an irrotational flow, the circulation will generally be zero.


However, if there are singularities enclosed within the curve,
the circulation may not be zero.

Circulation for free vortex


z

K
For example, the free vortex with v = r

K
( rd ) = 2 K
r

K=
2

Note: However along any path which does not include the
singular point at the origin will be zero.
z

The velocity potential and stream function for the free vortex
are commonly expressed in terms of circulation as,

= ln r
2

(6.90)
(6.91)

Example 6.6
Determine an expression relating the surface shape to the
strength of the vortex as specified by circulation .

=
2
z For irrotational flow, the Bernoulli equation
p1

V12
p2 V2 2
+
+ z1 =
+
+ z2
2g
2g

V12
V22
= zs +
2g
2g
1

v =
=
r 2 r
2
zs = 2 2
8 r g

p1 = p2 = 0
z1 = 0

V1 0

6.5.4 Doublet
z

Consider potential flow that is


formed by combining a source
and a sink in a special way.
Consider a source-sink pair

m
= (1 2 )
2

tan 1 tan 2
2
tan
= tan(1 2 ) =
1 + tan 1 tan 2
m

r sin
Since tan 1 =
r cos a

2
Thus tan
m

r sin
and tan 2 =
r cos + a

2ar sin
= 2
2
r a

m
1 2ar sin
tan 2
=
2
2
r a

Doublet
For small values of a

m 2ar sin
mar sin
=
=
2
2
2 r a
(r 2 a 2 )

(6.94)

Doublet is formed by letting the source and sink approach one


another ( a 0 ) while increasing the strength m ( m ) so
that the product ma/ remains constant.
As a 0, r /( r 2 a 2 ) 1 / r

K sin
=
r
where K = ma/ is called the strength of the doublet.
The corresponding velocity potential is
K cos
=
r
Eq. 6.94 reduces to:

(6.95)

(6.96)

Doublet-streamlines

1 K cos
Vr =
=
=
r r
r2
1
K sin

V =
=
=
2
r
r
r

Streamlines for a doublet

Summary of basic, plane potential flows

6.6 Superposition of Basic, Plane


Potential Flows
Method of superposition
z

Any streamline in an inviscid flow field can be


considered as a solid boundary, since the conditions
along a solid boundary and a streamline are the sameno flow through the boundary or the streamline.
Therefore, some basic velocity potential or stream
function can be combined to yield a streamline that
corresponds to a particular body shape of interest.
This method is called the method of superposition.

6.6.1 Source in a Uniform Stream- Half-Body


z
z

Consider a superposition of a source and a uniform flow.


The resulting stream function is
= uniform flow + source
m

= Ur sin +
2

and the corresponding velocity potential is


m
ln r
= Ur cos +
V6.5 Half-body
2

(6.97)

For the source alone


m
vr =
2r
Let the stagnation point occur at x=b, where U = m
2b
m
so
b=
2U
The value of the stream function at the stagnation point can be
obtained by evaluating x at r=b and =, which yields from
Eq. 6.97
m
stagnation = = bU
2
Thus the equation of the streamline passing through the
stagnation point is,
b( )
r=
bU = Ur sin + bU
or
(6.100)
sin

The width of the half-body asymptotically approaches 2b.


This follows from Eq. 6.100, which can be written as
y = b( )
so that as 0 or 2, the half-width approaches b.

With the stream function (or velocity potential) known, the


velocity components at any point can be obtained.
1
m
vr =
= U cos +
r
2r

v =
= U sin
r

Thus the square of the magnitude of the velocity V at any


point is,
Um cos
m 2
2
2
2
2
V = vr + v = U +
)
+(
2 r
r
m
since b =
2 U
2

b
b
2
2
V = U 1 + 2 cos + 2
(6.101)
r
r

With the velocity known, the pressure distribution can be


determined from the Bernoulli equation,
1
1
2
p0 + U = p + V 2
2
2

(6.102)

Note: the velocity tangent to the surface of the body is not zero;
that is, the fluid slips by the boundary.

Example 6.7
2

b
b
V 2 = U 2 1 + 2 cos + 2
r
r

on the surface = / 2

b ( ) b
=
r=
sin
2

Thus V = U 1 + 2

b
y2 =
2
2

p1

V12
p2 V2 2
+
+ y1 =
+
+ y2
2g
2g

p1 p2 =

2
2

V
V
( 2 1 ) + ( y2 y1 )

6.6.2 Rankine Ovals


z

Consider a source and a sink of equal strength combined


with a uniform flow to form the flow around a closed body.
The stream function and velocity potential for this
combination are,
m
= Ur sin
(1 2 )
2

= Ur cos

m
(ln r1 ln r2 )
2

As in Section 6.5.4
m
2ar sin
tan 1 2
2
2
r a

m
2ay
1

tan 2
= Uy
2
2
2
x + y a

= Ur sin
or

The stream line =0 forms a closed body.


Since the body is closed, all of the flow emanating from the source
flows into the sink.
These bodies have an oval shape and are termed Rankine ovals.
The stagnation points correspond to the points where the uniform
velocity, the source velocity, and the sink velocity all combine to
give a zero velocity.
The location of the stagnation points depend on the value of a, m ,
and U.

The body half length:


ma

l =
+ a2
U

source:

l m

or
=
+ 1
a Ua

m
vr =
2 r

Therefore
m
m
U
+
=0
2 ( r a ) 2 ( r + a )
m 2a
U
=0
2
2
2 r a
m
1
m
2
2
1
= 0 or r a =
2
2
U r a
U
m

+ a2
l =r =
U

The body half width, h, can be obtained by determining


the value of y where the y axis intersects the =0
streamline. Thus, from Eq. 6.105 with =0, x=0, and y=h,
It follows that

2ay
m
m
1
1 2ah

= Uy
tan
tan 2
0
Uh
2
2
2
2
2
2
h a
x + y a
2ah Uh 2
tan 2
=
2
m
h a
2ah
2 Uh
= tan
2
2
h a
m
2 Uh
h2 a 2
tan
h=
2a
m
2
2

Ua h
2 Uh 1 h
h 1 h
= 1 tan
= 1 tan 2

2
a 2 a
m
a
m
a

z
z

z
z

Both l/a and h/a are functions of the dimensionless


parameter Ua/m.
As l/h becomes large, flow around a long slender body is
described, whereas for small value of parameter, flow
around a more blunt shape is obtained.
Downstream from the point of maximum body width the
surface pressure increase with distance along the surface.
In actual viscous flow, an adverse pressure gradient will
lead to separation of the flow from the surface and result
in a large low pressure wake on the downstream side of
the body.
However, separation is not predicted by potential theory.
Rankine ovals will give a reasonable approximation of
the velocity outside the thin, viscous boundary layer and
the pressure distribution on the front part of the body.

V6.6 Circular cylinder


V6.8 Circular cylinder with separation
V6.9 Potential and viscous flow

6.6.3 Flow around a circular cylinder


z

When the distance between the source-sink pair approaches


zero, the shape of the Rankine oval becomes more blunt and
approach a circular shape.
A combination of doublet and uniform flow will represent
flow around a circular cylinder.
K sin
K
= U 2 r sin
r
r

K cos
velocity potential : = Ur cos +
r

stream function : = Ur sin

to determine K with =0 for r=a,


U

K
2
=

=
0
K
Ua
a2

Thus the stream function and velocity potential for flow


around a circular cylinder are
a2
= Ur 1 2 sin
r
a2
= Ur 1 + 2 cos
r

The velocity components are


a2
1
=
= U 1 2 sin
vr =
r r
r
a2
1

=
= U 1 + 2 sin
v =
r
r
r

On the cylinder surface (r=a):


vr = 0 and v = 2U sin

Potential flow around


a circular cylinder

Therefore the maximum velocity occurs at the top


and bottom of the cylinder = /2 and has a
magnitude of twice the upstream velocity U.
The pressure distribution on the cylinder surface is
obtained from the Bernoulli equation,
1
1
2
p0 + U = ps + v s 2
2
2
1
ps = p0 + U 2 1 4sin 2
2

where p0 and U are pressure and


velocity for point far from the
cylinder.

The figure reveals that


only on the upstream part
of the cylinder is there
approximate agreement
between the potential
flow and the
experimental results.

The resulting force (per unit length) developed on the


cylinder can be determined by integrating the pressure over
the surface.
2

Fx = ps cos ad = 0
0

Fy = ps sin ad = 0
0

Both the drag and lift as predicted by potential theory for a


fixed cylinder in a uniform stream are zero. since the pressure
distribution is symmetrical around the cylinder.
In reality, there is a significant drag developed on a cylinder
when it is placed in a moving fluid. (dAlembert paradox)

Ex 6.8 Potential flow--cylinder

By adding a free vortex to the stream function or velocity


potential for the flow around a cylinder, then
a2

= Ur 1 2 sin
ln r
2
r
a2

= Ur 1 + 2 cos +
2
r

where is the circulation


Tangential velocity on the surface (r=a):

vs =
r

r =a

= 2U sin +
2a

(6.119)
(6.120)

(6.121)

This type of flow could be approximately created by placing a


rotating cylinder in a uniform stream. Because the presence of
viscosity in any real fluid, the fluid in contact with the rotating
cylinder would rotate with the same velocity as the cylinder, and
the resulting flow field would resemble that developed by the
combination of a uniform flow past a cylinder and a free vortex.

Location of the stagnation point

sin stag =
2a
4Ua
= 0 or

vs = 0 = 2U sin +
if = 0 stag

if 1 / 4Ua 1 stag is at some other location on the surface


if / 4Ua > 1 stag is located away from the cylinder

Force per unit length developed on the cylinder


1
1

p0 + U 2 = ps + 2U sin +

2
2
2 a

1
2 sin
2
2
2
ps = p0 + U 1 4sin +
2 2 2
2
4 a U
aU

Fx = ps cos ad = 0
0

U 2 2
sin d = U
Fy = ps sin ad =

0
0
z

For a cylinder with circulation, lift is developed equal to the


product of the fluid density, the upstream velocity, and the
circulation.
Fy = U
U (+) ( +, counterclockwise ) the Fy is downward

The development of this lift on rotating bodies is called the


Magnus effect.

6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow


Analysis
z
z

Exact solutions based in potential theory will usually provide at


best approximate solutions to real fluid problems.
Potential theory will usually provide a reasonable approximation
in those circumstances when we are dealing with a low viscosity
fluid moving at a relatively high velocity, in regions of the flow
field in which the flow is accelerating.
Outside the boundary layer the velocity distribution and the
pressure distribution are closely approximated by the potential
flow solution.
In situation when the flow is decelerating (in the rearward
portion of the bluff body expanding region of a conduit), and
adverse pressure gradient is reduced leading to flow separation,
a phenomenon that are not accounted for by potential theory.

V6.10 Potential flow

PART C
Viscous Flow:
Navier-Stokes Equation
(Sections 6.8-6.10)

6.8 Viscous Flow


Equation of Motion
F x = ma x F
m = x y z

= ma y

F z = ma z

Thus

u
xx yx zx
u
u
u
gx +
+
+
=
+u
+v
+w
x
y
z
x
y
z
t
xy yy zy
v
v
v
v
gy +
+
+
=
+u
+v
+w

t
x
y
z
x
y
z

w
xz yz zz
w
w
w
gz +
+
+
=
+u
+v
+w
x
y
z
x
y
z
t

6.8.1 Stress-Deformation Relationships


When a shear stress is applied on a fluid:
Fluids continuously deform (stress ~ rate of strain)
Solids deform or bend (stress ~ strain)

strain rate ~ velocity gradient


d = du
dt dy
from Fox, McDonald and Pritchard, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.

6.8.1 Stress-Deformation Relationships


z

For incompressible Newtonian fluids it is known that


the stresses are linearly related to the rate of
deformation.

V1.6 Non-Newtonian behavior

For incompressible, Newtonian fluids, the viscous stresses are:

visc,ij

xx,visc xy

yx yy,visc
zx
zy

vx vy
vx
vz vx
+ +
2
x
x z
y x

xz
vy
vy vz
vx vy
2
yz +

y
y x
z y
zz,visc

vz

vz + vx vy + vz
2

x z

z
y
z

6.8.1 Stress-Deformation Relationships


But in normal stresses, there is additional
contribution of pressure p, where
p =

1
xx + yy + zz )
(
3

Consequently,
for normal stresses
u
x

yy = p + 2
y
w
zz = p + 2
z

xx = p + 2

for shearing stresses


u
xy = yx = +
y x
w
yz = zy = +
z y
w u
zx = xz = +
x z

Can you figure out why the normal viscous stress xx,visc can be
expressed as 2 u x ?

6.8.1 Stress-Deformation Relationships


z

For viscous fluids in motion the normal stresses are


not necessarily the same in different directions, thus,
the need to define the pressure as the average of the
three normal stresses.
Stress-strain relationship in cylindrical coordinate

1 r
r
=
=

rr = p + 2
r
r
r +

r
r
r
r

1 r
= p + 2
+ z = z = + 1 z
r
r
z r
z
r z
zz = p + 2

=
=
+
rz
zr

z
z
r

Note: Notation xy

x: plane perpendicular to x coordinate


y: direction

6.8.2 The Navier-Stokes Equations


z

The Navier-Stokes equations are considered to be


the governing differential equations of motion for
incompressible Newtonian fluids
2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
+ u + + w = + gx + 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
x
y
z
t
x
2 2 2


p
+u
+
+w
= + gy + 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
y
y
z
t
x
2w 2w 2w
w
w
w
w
p
+u
+
+w
= + gz + 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
z
y
z
t
x

The Navier-Stokes Equations


z

In terms of cylindrical coordinate


r
r r 2

+ r
+
+ z r

r
z
r r
t
1 r r 1 2r 2 2r
p
= + gr +
2
+ 2
r
2 + 2
2
r
r z
r r r r r



+ r + + r + z
r
z
r
r
t
1
1 p
=
+ g +
r

r
r r r
z z

z
+ r
+
+ z z

r
z
r
t

2
2
1 2 r
2 + 2 2 2 + 2
r
z
r r

1 z 1 2z 2z
p
= + gz +
+ 2
r
+ 2
2
z
z
r r r r

6.9 Some Simple Solutions for


Viscous, Incompressible Fluids
z

There are no general analytical schemes for solving


nonlinear partial differential equations, and each
problem must be considered individually.
2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
+ u + + w = + gx + 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
x
y
z
t
x
2 2 2


p
+u
+
+w

= + gy + 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
y
y
z
t
x
2w 2w 2w
w
w
w
w
p
+u
+
+w

= + gz + 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
z
y
z
t
x

Nonlinear terms

6.9.1 Steady Laminar Flow Between


Fixed Parallel plates

umax

= 0, w = 0
Thus continuity indicates that
u
=0
x

for steady flow, u = u ( y )


g x = 0 , g y = g and g z = o

2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
+ u + + w = + gx + 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
x
y
z
t
x
2 2 2


p
+u
+
+ w = + gy + 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
y
y
z
t
x

2w 2w 2w
w
w
w
w
p
+u
+
+ w = + gz + 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
z
y
z
t
x

Steady Laminar Flow Between Fixed


Parallel plates
Thus
p
2u
0= + 2
x
y
p
0 = g p = gy + f1 ( x )
y
p
0=
2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
+ u + + w = + gx + 2 + 2 + 2
z
x
y
z
x
y
z
t
x
2
d u 1 p
2 2 2


p
=
+
+w
+u
= + gy + 2 + 2 + 2
dy 2 x

y
y
z
t
x
y
z

x
du 1 p
= y + C1
dy x
1 p 2
u=
y + C1 y + C2
2 x

2w 2w 2w
w
w
w
w
p
+
+w
+u
= + gz + 2 + 2 + 2

z
y
z
t
x
y
z

x is treated as a constant since it is not a function of y)

Steady Laminar Flow Between Fixed


Parallel plates
the constants are determined from the boundary
conditions. V6.11 No-slip boundary conditions

BCs : u = 0 for y = h
Thus C1 = 0
1 p 2
C2 =
h
2 x
Thus the velocity distribution becomes,

1 p 2
2
y
h
u=


2 x

which indicates that the velocity profile between


the two fixed plates is parabolic.
V6.13 Laminar flow

Steady Laminar Flow Between Fixed


Parallel plates
z

The volume rate of flow


h

1
h 2

q = u dy =
h

p 2
2
y

h
dy

x

1 p y 3
2

q=
h y
2 x 3
h

3
h
1 p y 3
3
3
=
h + h
2 x 3
3

2 h3 p
=
3 x

The pressure gradient is negative, since the pressure


decreases in the direction of the flow.

Steady Laminar Flow Between Fixed


Parallel plates
If p represents the pressure drop between two
points a distance l apart, then

p
p
=
x
l
2 h 3 p 2h 3p
q=
=
,
3 x
3 l

q h 2 p
V=
=
2h 3 l

The maximum velocity umax , occurs midway y=0 between


the two plates, thus
h2 p
umax =
2 x

or

3
umax = V
2

Steady Laminar Flow Between Fixed


Parallel plates
z

The pressure field


p = gy + f ( x )
p
f1 ( x ) = x + p0
x
where p0 is a reference pressure at x=y=0

Thus the pressure variation throughout


the fluid can be obtained from
p
p = gy + x + p0
x
z

V 2h

The above analysis is valid for Re =

remains below about 1400

Problem 6.88: 10 tons on 8psi

6.9.2 Couette Flow


z

Therefore
1 p 2
u=
y + C1 y + C2
2 x

boundary conditions
u=o at y=0, u=U at y=b
u =U

b 1 p 2
+
y by
y 2 x

or in dimensionless form
u y
b 2 p y y
=
1
U b 2U x b b

The actual velocity profile will depend on the


dimensionless parameter
b 2 p
P=

2U x

This type of flow is called Couette flow.

Couette flow
z

The simplest type of Couette flow is one for which the


pressure gradient is zero i.e. the fluid motion is caused
by the fluid being dragged along by the moving
p
boundary.
x

=0

y
b
which indicates that the velocity varies linearly
between the two plates.

Thus

u =U

e.g. Journal bearing


ro-ri << ri
The flow in an unloaded
journal bearing might be
approximated by this simple
Couette flow.

Example 6.9

u=w=0

=0
y

= ( x)

p p
=
=0
x z
x = h p = atmospheric pressure

dp
=0
dx

dp
=0
dz

Therefore
d 2
0 = g + 2
dx

d 2
=
2
dx

d
= x + C1
dx

on the film surface x=h, we assume that the shearing stress is


zero
d
xy = xy = 0 at x = h
dx

C1 =

2nd integration
2 h
x
x + C2

2
x = 0 = V0 C2 = V0
2 h
=
x
x + V0

2
=

2 h

q = dx =
x
x + V0 dx
0
0

h3
q = V0 h
3
h

The average film velocity


h2
q
V = = V0
h
3

Only if

h2
V0 >
3

, will there be a net upward flow of liquid.

Q: Do you find anything weird in this problem?

6.9.3 Steady, Laminar flow in


Circular Tubes
z

HagenPoiseuille flow or Poiseuille flow


steady, laminar flow through a straight circular tube
of constant cross section
Consider the flow through a horizontal circular tube
of radius R
Assume the flow is parallel

vr = v = 0
vz
=0
z
vz = vz ( r )

Steady, Laminar flow in Circular Tubes


Thus

1 p
r
p
0 = g sin
r
0 = g cos

0=

1 v z
p
+
r
z
r r r

g r = g sin
g = g cos

Integration of equations in the r and directions


p = gr sin + f1 ( z )
= gy + f1 ( z )

which indicate that the pressure is hydrostatically


distributed at any particular cross section and the z
component of the pressure gradient, p / z , is not a
function of r or .

Steady, Laminar flow in Circular Tubes


z

the equation of motion in the z direction


1 vz
r
r r r

1 p
=
z
v
1 p 2
r z =
r + C1
r 2 z
vz =
z

1 p 2
r + C1 ln r + C2
4 z

Boundary conditions

At r=0, vz is finite at the center of the tube, thus C1=0


1 p 2
At r=R, vz =0, then
C2 = R
4 z
Thus the velocity distribution becomes,

1 p 2
2
r R
4 z
That is, at any cross section, the velocity distribution is parabolic.
vz =

Steady, Laminar flow in Circular Tubes


z

Volume flow rate


dQ = v z (2r )dr
Q = 2

v rdr = 2
0

1 p 2
R 4 p
2
(r R )rdr =
4 z
8 z

Let p = p , then
l
z
z

Poiseuilles law

mean velocity
Q
R 2 P
V =
=
2
8l
R

maximum velocity
vmax

R 4 p
Q=
8l

R 2 p R 2 p
=
=
4 z 4 l

so

the velocity distribution in terms of vmax


vz
r
= 1
v max
R

vmax = 2V

6.9.4 Steady, Axial, Laminar Flow in


an Annulus
vz =
z

1 p 2
r + C1 ln r + C 2
4 z

B.Csvz=0 at r=ro and r=ri

thus

ri2 r02
1 p 2 2
vz =
ln ( r0 / ri )
r r0 +
4 z
ln ( r0 / ri )

volume rate of flow

2
2
2

r
r
p 4 4
o
i

Q = vz 2 rdr =
r
r
o i
8 z
ln ( r0 / ri )
ri

2
2
2

p 4 4 ro ri
ro ri
=

8 l
ln ( r0 / ri )

r0

The maximum velocity occur at the r = rm , vz r = 0

ro2 ri2
rm =

2 ln ( r0 / ri )

The maximum velocity does not occur at the mid point of the
annulus space, but rather it occurs nearer the inner cylinder.
z

To determine Reynolds number, it is common practice to use an


effective diameter hydraulic diameter for on circular tubes.

4 cross - sctional area


Dh =
wetted perimeter
Thus the flow will remain laminar if Re =

DhV
remains below 2100.

6.10 Other Aspects of Differential


Analysis
V = 0

+ V V = p + g + 2 V

The solutions of the equations and not readily available.

6.10.1 Numerical Methods


z
z
z

Finite difference method


Finite element ( or finite volume ) method
Boundary element method

V6.15 CFD example