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CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL

Design a cantilever retaining wall to retain earth embankment 4m high above


ground level. The density of earth is 18kN/m3and its angle of repose is
30degree.The embankment is horizontal at its top. The safe bearing capacity of
the soil is taken as 200kN/m2.and the co-efficient of friction between soil and
concrete is 0.5.Adopt M20 grade of concrete and Fe 415 HYSD bars.
Soln:
Height above ground level = 4m
Density of soil () = 18kN/m3
Safe bearing capacity of soil (p) = 200kN/m2
Angle of repose ( )

= 30

Characteristic strength of concrete (f ck) = 20 N/mm2


Characteristic strength of steel (f y) = 415 N/mm2
Co-efficient of friction

= 0.5

(i) Dimension of retaining wall


(a) Minimum depth of foundation =
=
(b) Overall height of the wall
(c) Thickness of base slab =

= 1.2m

(H) = 4 +1.2 = 5.2 m

= 433mm say 450 mm

(d) Height of stem (h) = 5.2 0.45 = 4.75 m


(e) Width of the base slab (b) =0.5 H to 0.6 H
= 0.5 H = (0.5 x 5.2) = 2.6 m
= 0.6 H = (0.6x 5.2) = 3.12 m
Provide base width (b) = 3m
(f) Toe projection = (b/3) = (3000/3) = 1000mm=1m

(ii) Design of stem


Height of stem (h) = 4.75 m
Moment (M) = Cp
Cp =

M = (1/3)

= (1/3)

(.)

= 107.17 kN.m

Factored moment = 1.5 x 107.17 = 161 kN.m


Limiting thickness of stem at base is
d=

. .

d = 242 mm
Assumed thickness is more than the limiting value.Hence section is under
reinforced.Adopt effective depth d=400mm at the bottom gradually tapering to
200 mm at top.
d = D Clear cover x 2 d = 450 20 x 2 -

= 400mm

Computing the parameter:

From SP -16 = 0.3 %


=

= 1.00

0.3 x 1000 x 400


100

= 1200 mm2

Provide 16mm @ 150mm c/c


Distribution rod
= 0.12% b D =

x 1000 x 450 = 540mm

Provide 10mm @ 200mm c/c


STABILITY CALCULATION (Pressure distribution at base)
Loads

Magnitude
(kN)
23.75

lar W1 = 0.2x4.75x25

Distance from a
(m)
(0.55+1.1)=1.65
(1.55+0.2+

lar W1 = 0.5x 0.25x 4.75x25

14.84

0.25 ) =1.83

W2 = 0.45 x 3 x 25

33.75

W3 = 1.55x4.75x18

132.51

= 1.5

=0.78

Moment
(kN.m)
39.19

x
27.16
50.62
103.35

Moment due to earth pressure


=Cp

(1/3)

107.06

w 204.87

Distance of point of application of resultant from end a is


Z=

= . = 1.6m

M 326.84

Eccentricity = e = [Z- (b/2) ]=[1.6 (3/2)]=0.1m


(b/6) = (3/6) = 0.5
Therefore e < (b/6)

Maximum and minimum pressure at base are computed as


204.87
(6x0.1)
1 + 3
3

Pmax &min =
Pmax

= 81.95 kN/m2

Pmin

= 54.6

kN/m

(iii)Design of Heel slab


Moments computations are shown in table below
Loads

Magnitude Distance from a Moment


(kN)
(m)
(kN.m)

W3 = 4.75 x 1.55 x 18

132.5

= 0.775

102.7

Self weight of heel slab

17.40

=0.775

13.5

= 0.45x1.55x25

116.2
Deduction
Upward pressure abjh = (54.6x1.55)

Upward pressure jgh= x 1.55x14.13

84.63

10.95

-65.59

= 0.775

(h) =

= 0.52

-5.66

M 44.95

Working moment M= 44.95kN.m


Factored B.M = 1.5x44.95 = 67.42 kN.m

= 0.42

From SP -16 = 0.114% 1< 0.12%


=(

) =(

) = 480 mm2

Main bar- Provide 10mm @ 150mm c/c


Distribution bar- Provide 10mm @ 150mm c/c

(iv)Design of Toe slab

Loads

Magnitude Distance from a Moment


(kN)
(m)
(kN.m)

Upward Pressure cdif = 1x72.83

72.83

= 0.5

36.42

Upward pressure ief

4.56

h = x1 = 0.67

3.06

= x1x9.12

39.48
Deduction
Weight of soil above toe slab =
(0.75x1x18)

13.5

= 0.5

-6.79

Self weight of toe slab= 1x 0.45x25

11.25

= 0.5

-5.6

M 27.13

Working moment M= 27.13kN.m


Factored B.M = 1.5x27.13 = 40.7 kN.m

= 0.25

From SP -16 = 0.114% 1< 0.12%


=(

) =(

) = 480 mm2

Main bar- Provide 10mm @ 150mm c/c


Distribution bar- Provide 10mm @ 150mm c/c
(v) Checking for sliding
Total horizontal pressure ( P) = KA

P=

=81.12kN

Co-efficient of friction () = 0.5


Maximum possible friction force W = x w = 0.5 x 204.87 = 102.43kN

Factor of against sliding =

.
.

= 1.26 <1.5

Shear key is must


If Pp intensity of passive earth pressure developed just infront shear developed
by the value of passive earth pressure is computed as,
If Pp = Kp p
Kp =

= 1

=3
( )

p = 72.83
2

Pp = 3 x 72.83 = 218.49 kN/m

If a is the depth of shear key & assume a=450mm


Total passive force = Pp x a = 218.48x 0.45 = 98.32kN
(vi) Factor of safety against sliding
this W is multiplied by

Pp

FOS =

. .
.

2.47 >1.5

Hence the retaining wall is safe against failure due to sliding. The reinforcement
in stem is extended up to shear key.
(vii) Check for shear stress
Check for shear stresses at junction of stem and base slab
Net working shear force (V) = (1.5 P -w)
P = Horizontal pressure
= Co-efficient of friction
w = Max. Possible frictional force

V = 1.5x 81.12 102.43 = 19.25 kN


Factored shear force Vu = (1.5x19.25) = 28.87kN
Nominal shear stress v =

v = 0.072 N/mm

= = 0.35

From IS 456 -2002 table 19

c = 0.4 > v

Hence shear stress is within the permissible limit.


Hence the design is safe.